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WATER SUPPLY

1. General Design Concept of External Water Reticulation System


1.1 Reference
The water reticulation system shall be design in compliance with:
 Uniform technical guideline Water Reticulation & Plumbing by SuruhanJaya
Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN)
 Lembaga Air Perak (LAP)
 Standard Specifications for Building Works 2005 – By Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR)

1.2 Source of Water Supply

Rivers are the main source of raw water for Lembaga Air Perak. Of this, main supply comes
from Perak River. It supplies more than 40% of the total needs without the extraction of
ground water. For this project, the main water source shall be from the elevated water tank
from Kampung Senggang as depicted in the figure 2 below and water supply for our
building will be tapped, from an incoming main pipe laid along A164 Jalan Manong to the
internal suction reservoir provided; pumped to the roof tank with a centrifugal pump and
distributed to each unit by gravity flow.

Figure 1 : Red Mark represents the proposed building spot by MAURER


Figure 2 : Elevated Water Tank in Kampung Senggang (Extracted from Google Maps)

1.3 Water Demand

1.3.1 Water Demand Estimation


Based on Malaysia JKR Standard, the water demand formula for typical housing estate is as
follows:

W = ∑ (N x C) x F + Da
Where:
W = Average daily water demand
N = Number of type of houses(units)
C = Cost per unit consumption
Da= Additional water demand

The total water demand for the proposed development, is estimated according to the type
of development, the number of units of area allocated:

Student Total
Average
Type of per Unit Number
Student Warden Daily Water Total
Premises/ (pax) of
Room(s) Room(s) Demand (Litre/day)
Building Assume Residents
(Litres)
: (pax)
Fully Ground
23
residential Floor
school/ First
26
institution Floor
2 2 204 250/Person 51,000
of higher Second
26
learning Floor
with hostels Third
26
facilities Floor
Total Water Demand without Additional Water Demand 51,000
1.3.2 Service Factor

The service factor is the potential percentage of population served. For instance, the
water distribution system cover 90% of the area will give a service factor equals to 0.90,
but it does not necessarily mean that 90% of the populations in the area have service
connection. Service factor vary from state to state and also district to district. For the
project, service factor of 1.0 is used means that water is supplied to all the
house/buildings.

1.3.3 Provisional for Additional Water Demand

Fire flow requirement must be considered for the design purpose. Referring to Table
2.1 which is outlined in the JKR Standards as Table 14.18, the recommended risk
category of fire flow requirement is Class D with average required flow of 1140
litre/min and the maximum number of hydrant outlets used simultaneously in one unit.

1.3.4 Total Water Demand with Additional Water Demand


The total water demand that shall be supplied is as follow:

Total Water Demand = Water demand for hostel + Fire Flow requirement

1140𝑙 60𝑚𝑖𝑛 24ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟


= 51,000 +( × × )
𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑑𝑎𝑦

= 1,692,600 litres/day

1.3.5 Dominant Flow


Dominant flow should be implemented in the water reticulation analysis. The peak
flow shall be 2.5 (SPAN : Part B, Section C : Hydraulic Requirements (i)).
Case 1 (Fire Flow) = Water demand for hostel + Fire flow
Case 2 (Peak Flow) = Water demand for hostel x Peak Factor
Thus,
Case 1 = 1,692,600 litres/day
1
= 1,692,600 litres/day x( 24 x 3600 )

= 19.59 litres/sec
Case 2 = 51,000 litres/day x 2.5
1
= 127,500 litres/day x( 24 x 3600 )

= 1.47 litres/sec
1.4 Land Reserves for Suction Tank and Pump House

Land reserves with minimum dimension of 18 x 23 (referring to Minimum site dimension


for construction of suction cistern and pumping station (SPAN: Part B, Table B.3) is
required to accommodate pumping stations and suction cisterns shall be adequately sized
to provide for vehicular access, building setbacks and to allow for inspection and
maintenance of the facilities. However, these dimensions exclude areas of offices,
storeroom, toilet or quarters as it would a site for mostly maintenance.

Figure 3 : Minimum Site Dimensions for construction of suction cistern, pumping station and service reservoir
(SPAN : Part B, Table B.3)
2. Design Concept of Suction Tank, Pumping Station and Rooftop Water Tank.
2.1 Design Criteria of Suction Tank
Criteria Justification Reference

 One third of the total water demand will


be stored at the suction tank to make sure
Size of Suction Tank: there is sufficient pressure to transport
Diameter, D = 3m water on the rooftop. JKR
Height of Suction Tank, H =  Freeboard of 1m is provided to prevent
3m tank overflow.

 Suction tank is preferably be constructed


from reinforced concrete which conform
to materials registered with the
Material of Suction Tank: Commission. SPAN
Reinforced Concrete (RC)  RC provides adequate and the most
strength compare to other materials such
as steel.

2.1.1 Estimated Suction Tank Size

The diameter of suction tank is assumed to be around 3 meter and the height is around 3 meter
including 1 metre freeboard. The water tank will be in circular shape.

Checking the proposed size:

 Total average daily demand: 51000 litre/day


 As per requirement, the storage capacity for suction tank shall be 1/3 of the total average
daily demand
 Minimum volume of water needed to be store in suction tank:
= 1/3(51000) = 17000 litre/day
17000 x (1/1000) = 17 𝑚³
 Capacity of suction tank size proposed:
𝜋𝑟²ℎ = 𝜋(1.5²)(3) = 21.2𝑚³ > 17 𝑚³ hence satisfied.
2.2 Design Criteria of Pump Station
Type of pump used in this project is centrifugal/kinetic pump that is designed to convert
mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.

Figure: Cross section of pump house and suction tank

Water is supplied from delivery line, into utility space and then the internal plumbing system.
For water to reach roof tank require a separate pumping system in order to create sufficient
pressure. The static pressure there is too low due to the insufficient geometric height to the roof
tank. This solution requires pressure reduction valves on each floor to avoid undesired high
static pressures at the tap, which creates unacceptable noise while tapping. Water is supplied
to shared bathroom for each floor through gravity flow through the grid iron distribution system
from storage tank on the building. Internal plumbing shall be submitted under M& E services.

2.2.1 Pump Design

The steps and procedure to follow to select a centrifugal pump:

Determine the flow rate

Determine the static head

Determine the friction head

Calculate the total head

Select the pump


Parameter Unit Value
Density of Water, p kg/m3 1000
Gravity, g m/s2 9.81
Moody’s diagram, f - 0.28
Head Loss, h m 29.50
Length of the Pipe metre 120m
Flow, q m3/s Normal: 0.002
Peak: 0.0028
Velocity m/s Normal = 2.5
Peak Velocity = 1.0
Efficiency % 60

Head Loss,h
𝐿 𝑉2
HL = 𝐹 𝑥 (𝐷) 𝑥 (2𝑔)

135𝑚 (1.75)2
= (0.28 𝑥 ( ) 𝑥 ( 2𝑥9,81 )
0.2

= 29.50

HL = Total Head Loss


F = Friction factor related to the roughness inside the pipe
L = Length of the pipe
D = Diameter of the pipe
V = Average liquid velocity in the pipe
2g = Two times the Universal Gravitation Constant

Hydraulic Power
𝑞𝑥ρ𝑥𝑔𝑥ℎ
Ph(kW) = ( )
1000
0.0028 𝑥 1000 𝑥 9.81 𝑥 29.5
=( )
1000
≈ 0.81

Shaft Power

Ph
Ps(kW) = ( η )
0.81
= ( 0.6 )
≈ 1.35
Pressure needed to pump up to 18m (building height):

P = ρ𝑔ℎ
= 1000 x 9.81 x 18
= 176,580 N/m2

In this project, the value of hydraulic power and hydraulic shaft is small because an elevated
water tank have been built nearby Kampung Senggang. By considering the design calculations
and condition, a pump needs to be proposed so that the water distribution can be done smoothly.
Since the hydraulic and shaft power is manageable, so a single centrifugal water pump with a
total head of 34m can be applied. A pump shall we installed at ground level at the suction tank
resulting in enough pressure to distribute water to each floor.

2.3 Design Criteria of Rooftop Water Storage Tank

According to JKR Standard Specification for Building Works 2005, storage tanks of fibre glass
(FRP) shall be of approved type and shall comply with MS 1241.

Figure: Fibre Glass (FRP) Water Tank

2.3.1 Estimated storage tank size


The storage tank designed is providing sufficient storage of water to safeguard against
disruption of water supplies over a 24 hours period. Free board of 1m is provided to prevent
tank overflow. The material to be used for the rectangular water tank is Fibre Reinforced Plastic
(FRP) with proposed size 3m x 3m x 6m.
 Total average daily demand: 51000 litre/day
 Minimum volume of water needed to be store in storage tank:
=51000 litre/day x (1/1000) = 51 𝑚³/day
 Capacity of suction tank size proposed:
3m x 3m x 6m = 54𝑚³ > 51 𝑚³ hence satisfy.

Characteristics

Fiberglass Storage Tanks are an excellent for fire hydrant and water storage option. Fiberglass
storage tanks are a popular choice in construction building industry due to:

 Resistance to corrosive
 Resistance to algae and microbiological growth
 Low in production, installation and maintenance cost
 Low density and give good strength to weight ration
 Truly hygienic even for many years
 Excellent surface finishing on both side of the panel
 Additional internal and external tank bracing and reinforcement is provided to prevent
leaking and bursting

Tank Components and Accessories

Unless otherwise shown or stated in the drawings, the installation of storage tanks shall include
the provision and installation of the following accessories and fittings to the tanks according to
JKR Standard Specification for Building Works 2005:

 Water tank of two meters or more shall provide with internal and external ladders. The
internal ladder shall be made of aluminium or stainless steel grade 304 polymeric coated
(cold-applied epoxy AWWA C210:1994 or equivalent) or hot dipped galvanized mild
steel. The external ladder shall be made of hot dipped galvanized mold steel in
accordance with MS 740. The ladder width shall not be less than 300 mm and the length
shall be suitable for the tank specified.
 Suitable type water level indicators and scales graduated in meters to suit the depth of
the panel tank.
 All internals cleats and bracing to tank plates, bolts, nuts, washers in contact with water
shall be of stainless steel grade 304 or polymeric coated (cold applied epoxy AWWA
C210 or equivalent) hot-dipped galvanized mild steel. All external bolts, nuts and
washers shall be of hot dipped galvanized steel. The diameter of all bolts in accordance
with BS 4190, shall not be less than 10 mm.
 Sealing materials shall be nontoxic and chemically resistant to the water stored. The
sealants shall also be able to withstand the prevailing environmental conditions during
service.
 The sealants shall also be able to withstand the prevailing environmental conditions
during services.
 The internal supports and reinforcement members for the panels shall be chemically
resistant to the water stored. They shall be made of stainless steel. The exterior
reinforcement metal parts shall be fabricated from hot dipped galvanized mild steel.

3.0 Pipeline Routing

The pipes connecting the pump are classified under TWO categories:

 Communication Line: Suction tank to Centrifugal pump


 Delivery Line: Centrifugal pump to Rooftop water storage tank

Considerations Justification Reference

Most of the pipes are  Provide easy access for maintenance


laid adjacent to roads  Avoid laying pipes directly under the
roads, minimize the traffic loading acting
on the pipes, hence reduce materials to SPAN
bury the pipes.
 Reduce cost of bedding the pipe
 Pipelines shall not be laid beneath a road
pavement unless so permitted by the
Commission / Certifying Agency.
Water pipes shall not  Minimize the risk of contaminating water
be laid below sewers supply.
and away from any  A minimum vertical clearance of 1.0m
other utilities and shall be provided between the crown of a SPAN
also from drains. sewer pipe and the bottom of a water pipe.
 The horizontal clearance between sewer
and water pipelines shall be 3.0m where
applicable.

3.1 Water Pipeline Distribution System Selection

Referring to the (SPAN: B4 Design Criteria), the design criteria for external reticulation
networks and supply mains are:

i) Water quality to not get deteriorated in the distribution pipes


ii) Supplying water at all the intended places with sufficient pressure head.
iii) Take into consideration the construction of pipelines in rocky, waterlogged or
compressible ground
iv) Supply the requisite amount of water during fire fighting
v) Repair and maintenance should be done without any disruption to the water supply
vi) Should be water -tight and laid 1 metre measured above crown of the pipe
vii) Carry out survey and site investigation to check for utilities lying adjacent to or
crossing the line of planned water pipeline trench.
The table below shows the 4 types of pipe networks:
System Advantages Disadvantages
 Suitable for old town and cities having no  Due to many dead ends,
Dead End definite pattern of road stagnation of water occurs
 Relatively cheap in pipes
 Area is divided into different zones  High cost
Radial  The water is pumped into the distribution  Stagnation of water due to
System reservoir kept in the middle of each zone dead ends
 Quick Service
 Suitable for cities with rectangular  Complex calculations for
layour, where water mains and branches pipe size due to provision
are laid in triangles of vales on all branches
Grid Iron  Water is kept in good circulation due to  Higher cost as more valves
System the absence of dead ends and pipes are required
 In case of maintenance, water will be
available from other directions
 Minimum head loss
 Water can be supplied to any point from  Cost of pipe laying is more
at east two directions due to larger amount of
piping required
Ring System  Higher cost as more valves
are required
 More complicated
calculations.
Table 1 : Pipeline distribution system

According to the table above, the best distribution system for pipes is the Grid Iron
distribution system as the pipeline specification satisfies the design criteria for external
reticulation networks.

3.2 Selection of Pipe Material Criteria


Pipe materials for supply mains and external reticulation pipelines shall be selected based on
laying conditions, whether in corrosive soils or otherwise; under different terrain conditions;
or if subjected to traffic loadings or not. The soil investigation reports show a moderate
corrosive soil. After comparing several options of piping material to apply in the hostel
buildings water system, we narrowed the options down to two different material after
consideration such as initial cost, operation/maintenance cost, expected life and most
importantly, its purpose served or compatibility to existing site conditions such as feasibility
or environmental conditions.
Referring to SPAN (Table B.6.1, Table B.6.2 and Table B.6.3), the most durable and
commonly used pipe material is HDPE with diameter 200mm and roughness of 0.00015
(Darch-Weisbach). Being widely used in piping systems worldwide, HDPE pipes will be used
for all the pipelines that shall be lad for this project. There are number of reasons why, which
are:
 Corrosion Resistance:
The HDPE Pipe does not rust, rot of corrode. It is resistance to biological growth and
has extended service life and long-term cost savings.
 Fatigue resistance:
HDPE pipe is flexible and ductile, not rigid allowing it to have outstanding resistance
to fatigue.
 Leak free joints:
Traditional infrastructure piping is joined with bell and spigot or mechanical type of
joint but HDPE can be joined with heat fusion to produce permanent leak free joint.
 Eco-friendly:
It takes less energy to manufacture HDPE than non-plastic pipes. HDPE is lightweight
and is often most cost effective to transport than metal pipes.
 Extended service life:
HDPE pipe is a safe and durable product ideal for your piping infrastructure. The
service life of HDPE is estimated to be between 50 to 100 years, depending on
application, design and installation.

3.3 Pipe Network Design Calculation

Parameter Unit Value


Density of Water kg/m3 1000
Gravity m/s2 9.81
Minor Loss Coefficient K (loss) 90deg 0.3
K (loss) Tee 0.2
K (loss) 180deg 0.2
Roughness HDPE 0.0015
Reynolds Number of water 21978 (Turbulent Flow)
Moody’s diagram, f 0.28
Diameter of Pipe M 0.2
Flow m3/h 113.12
Velocity m/s 1.0
π 3.142

 Pipe diameter are constant throughout the building


 Reynold’s number assumed to be 20000 (Turbulent flow inside pipe)
 Does not include per house fixtures (bathtub, sink, shower, etc)

Reynolds Number:

𝑝𝑣𝐿
𝑅𝑒 =
µ
1000(1.00)(0.200)
Re= 0.0091

Re = 21978 (Categorised as Turbulent Flow)

i) Laminar flow when R < 2300


ii) Transient flow when 2300 < R < 4000
iii) Turbulent flow when R > 4000

Flowrate (m3/h):
d 2
𝑄𝑤 = 3600π x v ( )
2
0.200 2
𝑄𝑤 = 3600π x 1.0 ( )
2
= 123.11m3/h

d : Pipe Inner Diameter (m)


v : Water Velocity (m/s)
Qw : Water Flow Rate (m³/h)