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CHAPTER 3

METHOLOGY

This chapter presents the preparation of the sample materials and equipment, testing

procedures, details and equations that are used in investigating the physical, mechanical, and

chemical properties of silica sand and epoxy resin as polymer concrete.

3.1 Materials and Equipment

The to be used in this research are silica sand, epoxy resin, and fine aggregates. These

materials will be used to make a deterioration resistant polymer concrete. The materials will be

applied according to the methods as stated in 3.3 Use of the Materials and Procedures of

Application. The equipment and apparatus to be used will involve the basic and standard tools as

specified from ASTM standards.

3.2 Preparation and Production of Materials

3.2.1 Epoxy Resin

3.4 Method of Testing

3.4.1 Physical Properties

3.4.1.1 Water Absorption by Total Immersion

The measurement of the water absorption by total immersion is a useful


test method to characterize porous materials to non-porous materials. This test

presents a simple method for such measurement which gives a basis for selection

of a chemical-resistant material for a certain application. The necessary

equipment and materials for this test are glass flask, cold water, ceramic plate,

oven, cloth, and weighing scale.

Procedures:

1. Samples should be of standard form such as cubes, cylinders, or

parallelepiped. When using cubes, the sides should not be more than 2 in. (50

mm). The number of samples required depends on the heterogeneity of the

material being tested. In general, a series of at least 6 specimens shall be

prepared. These should be as similar as possible in terms of physical

properties, dimensions and condition.

2. Wash the samples using cold water before beginning the test to eliminate

dusty material from the surface. Weigh the specimens to the nearest 1 mg (D)

3. Place the weighed specimens in the flask and add water until the specimens

are completely submerged. Leave the specimens submerged for at least 1 day.

4. After getting the specimens, wipe it with cloth. Then put the specimens in the

oven to dry. Leave the specimens to dry in the oven for at least 1 day.

5. After oven drying, weigh the oven dried specimens to get its saturated weight

(W). Then compute its absorption in percent (A).

𝑊−𝐷
𝐴=( ) 𝑥100%
𝑊
3.4.2 Mechanical Properties

3.4.2.1 Compressive Strength

As per specified in ASTM C579-1, the compressive strength of chemical-

resistant polymer concrete can be determined using a 2-inch (50 mm) specimens.

Caution must be practiced in using the results of this test method to anticipate the

strength of the samples.

Procedures:

1. Place the bearing block, with its hardened face up, on the table or platen of the

testing machine directly under the bearing block. Wipe clean the bearing faces

of the upper and lower bearing blocks and of the test specimen and place the

test on the lower bearing block.

2. Apply the load continuously and without shock. Test at a rate of 41 MPa/min

(6000 psi/min). make no adjustment in the control of the testing machine

while a specimen is rapidly yielding, immediately before failure.

3. Compute its compressive strength using the formula below.

𝑊
𝑆=
(𝐿1 )(𝐿2 )

Where:

S = compressive strength in MPa (psi)

W = maximum load in N (lb)


L1 and L2 = cross-section dimensions of cube measured in mm (inch)

3.4.2.2 Flexural Strength and Modulus of Elasticity

According to C580-02, the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of

chemical-resistant polymer concrete can be determined using a 25 mm by 25 mm

by 305 to 406 mm long parallelepiped specimens.

Procedures:

1. Measure the depth and width of all specimens using a micrometer. Make two

measurements for each dimension in the middle of the beam’s length and

average them.

2. The testing machine shall be set up to test the specimens in simple bending

with two supports and the load being applied by means of a loading nose

midway between the supports.

3. To achieve a strain rate per minute at the top and bottom of the beam, set the

testing machine to produce a cross head speed as determined by the formula

below.

(0.00167)(𝐿2 )
𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 =
𝑑

Where:

Speed = the cross-head speed in mm/min (inch/min)

L = span in mm (inch)

d = depth of specimen tested in mm (inch)

4. Calculate the flexural strength that is equal to the stress calculated at

maximum load. Use the formula below.


3𝑃𝐿
𝑆= (𝑏𝑑 2 )
2

Where:

S = stress in the specimen at midspan in MPa (psi)

P = maximum load at/or prior to the moment of crack or break in N (lbf)

L = span in mm (inch)

b = width of specimen tested in mm (inch)

d = depth of specimen tested in mm (inch)

5. The tangent modulus of elasticity is the ratio, within the elastic limit, of stress

to corresponding strain, and shall be expressed in MPa (psi). It is calculated

by drawing a tangent line to the steepest initial portion of the load-

deformation curve and using the formula below.

𝑀1
𝐸𝑇 = 𝐿3 ( ) 𝑏𝑑 3
4

Where:

ET = tangent modulus of elasticity in bending in GPa (psi)

L = span in mm (inch)

b = width of specimen tested in mm (inch)

d = depth of specimen tested in mm (inch)

M1 = slope of tangent to the initial straight-line portion of the

load-deflection curve in N/mm (lbf/in)

6. The secant modulus of elasticity is the ratio of stress to corresponding strain at

any specified point of the stress strain curve in GPa. The secant modulus of
elasticity shall be calculated at the point at which deflection is 50% of the

maximum deflection. It shall be calculated using the formula below.

𝑀2
𝐸𝑇 = 𝐿3 ( ) 𝑏𝑑 3
4

Where:

ET = secant modulus of elasticity in bending in GPa (psi)

L = span in mm (inch)

b = width of specimen tested in mm (inch)

d = depth of specimen tested in mm (inch)

M2 = slope of a line drawn from the origin through the point on the load

deflection curve where the deflection is equal to 50% of the

maximum deflection in N/mm (lbf/in)

3.4.3 Chemical Properties

3.4.3.1 Chemical Resistance

This test method is intended to evaluate the chemical resistance of

polymer concrete under anticipated service conditions. The number of specimens

required is dependent upon the number of different temperatures at which testing

is performed and the frequency of test intervals.

Procedure:

1. Measure the cross-sectional dimensions of all test specimens using a

micrometer.
2. Prior to immersion, record a brief description of the color and surface

appearance of the specimens and the color and clarity of the test medium. Add

sufficient quantity of the test medium to completely immerse each specimen,

And place the closed container in a constant-temperature oven adjusted to the

required temperature or in a suitably adjusted liquid bath.

3. Clean the specimens by rinsing it in cold water and quick dry by blotting with

a cloth between each rinse. After the final blotting, allow the specimen to dry

for one and a half hour resting on its curved surface before weighing.

4. Determine the compressive strength of specimens that have been submerged

in a test medium and compare its compressive strength of specimens that are

not submerged in a test medium.

5. Calculate the percentage decrease or increase in compressive strength of the

specimen during immersion for each test period, taking the compressive

strength after conditioning as 100% using the formula below.

𝑆2 − 𝑆1
𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ, % = ( ) 𝑥100%
𝑆1

Where:

S1 = average compressive strength of a set of specimens following the

curing period in MPa (psi)

S2 = average compressive strength of a set of specimens following the test

period in MPa (psi)

6. Construct a graph employing the percentage of change in average compressive

strength of the specimens broken at a given examination period after


immersion in a particular test medium at a given temperature, plotting the

percentage of change in compressive as the y-axis and the test period, in days,

as the x-axis.

7. Calculate the percentage loss or gain in weight of the specimens during

immersion for each examination period by using the formula below.

𝑊−𝐶
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒, % = ( ) 𝑥100%
𝐶

Where:

C = conditioned weight of the specimen in g

W = weight of specimen after immersion in g

8. Construct a graph employing the percentage of weight change of all the

specimens at a given examination period after immersion in a particular test

medium at a given temperature, plotting the percentage of weight change as

the y-axis and the test period, in days, as the x-axis.