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# Microelectronic

Circuits
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p Anu Gupta
p
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Feedback Amplifier
Quest for ideal amplifier

 High gain
 Large bandwidth
 Low Rout
 High Rin
 Low nonlinearity
 Low noise

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An operational amplifier is most
often
ft usedd in
i
feedback mode
why?
F db k opamp
Feedback
 Th popularity
The l i off the
h op-amp as a building
b ildi bl k
block
in analog circuits is due to its versatility.

##  By using negative feedback, the characteristics of an op-

amp
p circuit,, its gain,,
g input
p and output
p
impedance, bandwidth etc. are determined by external
components and have little dependence on temperature
coefficients or manufacturing variations in the op-amp
i lf
itself.

Design
D i a common source amplifier
lifi with
ith gain
i
insensitive to

 Temperature variation
 process variation
 Frequency
Not
ot possible
poss b e
gm, Vt, μ, w/l, tox –
allll h
have PVT variations
i i
Concept

 Improvement
p in behaviour-----

## Sense output voltage and make corrections

in input . Repeat the process

## If output increases, dec. the input or vice-versa for

stable gain
 Use negative feedback
feedback---

 Example CSA

A = -gm RD = 10
 A varies
i with
ith PVT variations
i ti
D
Desensitization
iti ti off Af
D
Desensitization
iti ti off Af

Choose R2=10k
R2=10k, R1=90k

R1 + R2
So Af ≈
So, ≈ 10
R2

## Indep of freq., PVT variations

Feedback CSA

-A(s) v1

Vout = - A(s)
( ) v1
v1 = vin - vf

Af = vout/vin

1/β = R 1 + R2
R2
-
wz

Dependent on freq

R 1 + R2 indep of freq
1/β =
R2

## Aβ changes with freq., same as A.

Drawback of resistor divider

-A(s) v1

replace with

## Loads the amplifier

Rout = Rd || (R1+R2)

## A gets reduced too

S Aβ reduces
So d
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Types of Amplifiers in FB
Types of Amplifiers-FB topologies

##  Voltage Amplifier  Series-Shunt

Feedback
 Current Amplifier  Shunt-Series
Feedback
 Transconductance  Series - Series
Amplifier Feedback
 Transresistance  Shunt – Shunt
Amplifier Feedback
Fig. 8.4 The four basic feedback topologies: (a) voltage-sampling series-mixing (series-shunt) topology; (b) current-
sampling shunt-mixing (shunt-series) topology; (c) current-sampling series-mixing (series-series) topology; (d) voltage-
sampling shunt-mixing (shunt-shunt) topology.

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V lt
Voltage Amplifier
A lifi
 Series Shunt Feedback Type
 Input signal is a voltage source and the
output
t t is
i also
l a voltage.
lt
 This implies voltage sampling, shunt-mixing
 The requirements are high input resistance
and low output resistance
C
Current
tAAmplifier
lifi
 Shunt Series Feedback Type
 Input signal is a current source and the
output
t t is
i also
l a current. t
 This implies current sampling, shunt-mixing
 The requirements are low input resistance
and high output resistance
T
Transconductance
d t Amplifier
A lifi
 Series-Series Feedback Type
 Input signal is voltage and output signal is
current
 It is current-sampling series-mixing
 The requirements are high input
impedance and high output impedance
T
Transresistance
i t Amplifier
A lifi
 Shunt-shunt Feedback Type
 Input signal is current and output signal is
voltage
 It is voltage-sampling shunt-mixing
 The requirements are low input impedance
and low output impedance
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## Impedance control with feedback

VOLTAGE SAMPLING - VOLTAGE MIXING

SERIES - SHUNT
In/ out Impedances in feedback
D
Dependsd on ddesired
i d Rout,
R t Rin
Ri
 Current sampling----Rout
sampling Rout (1+A)
 Voltage sampling---Rout /(1+A)

##  Voltage mixing---Rin (1+A)

 Current mixing ----Rin / (1+A)
Voltage Amplifiers
Series Shunt Feedback
 They amplify an input voltage signal and
provide an output voltage signal.
 It is essentially a voltage controlled voltage
source.
 Feedback is a voltage sampling series mixing
type.
 The requirements are high input impedance
and low output impedance.
 Example: Non inverting opamp

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Feedback topologies
topologies— series-shunt
series shunt

 Voltage- voltage
O t t impedance
Output i d

vM
Input impedance

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 Vf0 when
h V Voutt iis shorted
h t d
 Using formula
 Voltage sensing

 Voltage mixing
Trans resistance amplifier– shunt-
series

Output impedance

Input impedance

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Current amplifier– shunt-series

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Bandwidth Extension
Af--Is it really freq. independent?

Af =

## Thus Af is constant for greater

freq range , not indep. of freq
Noise Reduction

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## Reduced non linearity

Frequency/ harmonic
distortion
Frequency distortion—due to harmonics generated in
output due to nonlinear behavior of device or inter-
modulation frequencies

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Reduction of Nonlinear Distortion due to varying
G
Gm. How?
H ?
Af=A/(1+Aβ)
Af1=1000/(1+1000*0.099)
1000/(1+1000*0 099) =10
10
Af2=500/(1+500*0.099)=9.9

OP GAIN
Af3=250/(1+250*.099)=9.7
AIN
N LOOP GA

OSED LOO
250
500 9.7
A=1000 9.9

CLO
OPEN

10

Here β=0.099. It can be seen that the variations in the open loop gain which is
An undesirable property can be overcome by using a feedback element.
The corresponding values of open loop gain and closed loop gain are plotted in the
graph above.
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What shd.
shd be learnt in Negative
Feedback?
 Identify
y type
yp of feedback

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Feedback amplifier

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4 elements of feedback system

##  Feed forward amplifier

Feed-forward
 Feedback network
 A means of sensing the output
 A means of generating the error voltage
Sense mechanism Voltage sensing

##  Output Voltage sensing

 O t t Current
Output C t sensing
i Pmos Common source
nmosCommon source

vout

vout

Current sensing
Voltage sensing
Return mechanism
Voltage mixing

+
Mixing
g with vin source directly
y
vin

-
-
vf

+ Mi i
Mixing with
ith vin
i source through
th h another
th node
d

Return mechanism
Current mixing

+
vin
If
-

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Identification of feedback
To identify the type of feedback
 Short the output
 If Vf reduces to zero voltage sampling
 If Vf is still present current sampling

 To find mixing,
mixing look at the connection
 If series voltage mixing--(—(if Vf and Vin send current to different node)
 If shunt current mixing—( if both Vf and Vin send current to same node)
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Examples
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## Series Shunt FB Amplifier

Example 1—FB (series shunt )
Example2—(series shunt FB )
Ex-3 Voltage sensing voltage mixing
Series-shunt

## Voltage mixing determines the voltage to amplifier

Ideal opamp assumption for
analysis-

series shunt FB
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## Shunt Shunt FB Amplifier

Some examples---Shunt
shunt

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voltage sampling current mixing-----
shunt shunt
shunt-shunt

(-ve)

## Current mixing determines the voltage to amplifier

(shunt-shunt ) FB
2i
vx

## Using superposition th.

-
Short
S o vin---
|vout| vx = R1 [vout/ (R1+ R2)]
vx
short vout source---
+ vx = [ R2/ (R1+R2)] vin

So,,
Vx= [ R2/ (R1+R2)] vin+ [ R1/ (R1+R2)] (|vout|)
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## Shunt Series FB Amplifier

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Series series FB
Ex 1
Ex-2 current sampling voltage mixing
feedback series-series
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## Analysis using Two port network

models
Using Two port network models of FB network
4 possible
4- ibl models--
d l
Voltage-voltage FB
Reverse transmission
negligible

Razavi uses
G parameters
Why?

Series Shunt
connection connection

Signal propagation from inut to output through FB, usually taken small
Vf

## H parameter two port model

Summary of loading effect calculation for 4
amplifier types

## Remove feedback No forward signal

signal transmission from
to consider only feedback circuit
A0
voltage –voltage FB—A, β computation
effect

H11

H12 H22

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Open loop gain calculation

H22

H11

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Then do Rinf,
Rinf Routf calculation

## Rout= Zout+ H22

Ri Zi
Rin= Zin+
+ H11
Routf= Rout/ (1+Aβ )

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Summary of loading effect calculation for 4
amplifier types

## Remove feedback No forward signal

signal transmission from
to consider only feedback circuit
A0
Using G-parameter model

P t2
Port
Port 1
H (G) parameter
t computations
t ti

1/H11=

1/H22=
Applying this technique to example
|A| = gm (ro2 || ro4 || R1+R2 )

R2
H12= |β| = ----------
vf R1+R2

R2

## , shouldbe small as main is path to be

from basic amplifier. Feedback netwk
vf
should have small contribution
, To make it small choose---
R1>> R2
H21—transmission from 1 port to 2 port

##  Here H12= H21

H21. to have H21 less
less, we need
to have β less. So β is constrained here.
R2
H12= |β| = ---------- = H21
R1+R2

##  Alternatively, a new feedback network can

Alternatively
be configured where H12 ≠ H21
A
Af = ----------
1+ |Aβ|

= -gm (r
( o2 || ro4 || R1+R2 )
R2
1 + gm (ro2 || ro4 || R1+R2 ) ----------
R1+R2
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## How to configure feedback?

How to configure feedback?
D
Depends
d on ddesired
i d Rout,
R t Rin
Ri
 Current sampling----Rout
sampling Rout (1+A)
 Voltage sampling---Rout /(1+A)

##  Voltage mixing---Rin (1+A)

 Current mixing ----Rin / (1+A)
Example---I technique
Design an amplifier with gain 10 and Rin=very
high Rout
high, o t=10
10 ohms
ohms. CL=0 0.1uF
1uF
gm1 Rd= 10,
Take
a e Rd=5K,
5 , des
design
g gm

Rout= 1/gm2= 10

Rin= infinite
Two poles response
response,
w-3db= 1MHz, no oscillations,
gain variations due to PVT
fluctuations
II Technique
q
 Voltage sampling –
 Rout=10 ohms= 5k/(1+A) → (1+A)
= 500
 Voltage mixing---
Rin= Large x (1+A)

##  Af= [A/ (1+A)] = 10 →

A= 5000, = 1/10 High gain opamp is required

##  One/ two pole response,

 w 3db (1+A) = 1MHz x 500 , very large change
w-3db
 Compensation required----------??
 gain desensitized
g
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Drawback of feedback
•Gain reduction
•instability
i t bilit
Unstable feedback amplifier
p

w1 if

## • loop gain is enough to allow signal buildup

Drawback---Unstable feedback amplifier

##  Additional Phase change with w can make Aβ-1.

or additional phase change of 180o in A(s)
A(s).
 β is freq. independent.
 1+ Aβ 0 Af∞

##  Physically , this means vf adding to vin instead of

subtraction. This means positive feedback. Even noise
gets amplified.
lifi d No
N needd to give
i input.
i
 Remedy— keep a check on phase shift.
Second order system

## The simplest second order system satisfies a

differential equation of this form. where:

## x(t) = Response of the System,

u(t) = Input to the System,
ξ = Damping Ratio
Ratio,
ωn=Undamped Natural Frequency,
Gdc= The DC Gain of the System.

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 The parameters in a second order system determine
aspects off various kinds off responses. Whether we are
talking about impulse response, step response or
response to other inputs,
inputs we will still find the following
relations.
 ξ, the damping ratio, will determine how much the
system oscillates as the response decays toward steady
state.
 ωn, the undamped natural frequency will determine how
fast the system oscillates during any transient response.
 Gdc, the DC gain of the system, will determine the size
of steady state response when the input settles out to a
constant
t t value.
l
2 pole FB amplifier
A0
A(s) A( s ) 
A f (s)  s s
1  A(s) (1  )(1  )
| w p1 | | wp 2 |

A0
1  A0 
A f (s) 
s  1 1   s 2 
[1     ]
(1  A 0  )  | w p 1 | | w p 2 |   1  A 0   | w p 1 |  | w p 2 | 
A 0 [| w p 1 |  | w p 2 |]
A f (s) 
 
[ 1  A 0   | w p 1 |  | w p 2 |  s | w p 1 |  | w p 2 |  s 2 ]

## 2 negative poles, damping factor decreases due to (1+A0B)

So instability, ringing step response
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## Understanding stability in terms of

roots of second order system
• Negative real roots------Overdamped system

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U d d
Underdamped,
d overdamped.
d d
 Overdamped—no
Overdamped no oscillations but output
settling time is very slow.

settling
ttli time
ti is
i ffastt
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## Understanding stability in terms of

Damping constant
Why Study Second Order Systems?
Second order systems are important for a number of reasons.
 They are the simplest systems that exhibit oscillations and overshoot.
 Many important real life systems exhibit second order system
behavior.
 Second order behavior is part of the behavior of higher order systems
and understandingg second order systems
y helps
p yyou to understand
higher order systems.
 Ex---A
Ex A pilot suddenly changes the controls so that the altitude of the
plane changes. The new steady state attitude is higher than the
pprevious
ev ous altitude.
a t tude. Thiss syste
system shows
s ows second
seco d oorder
de syste
system behavior
be av o as
the airplane changes altitude.
Characteristic equation
q

## The roots (natural frequencies of circuit) of the equation in s

are

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Roots of second order system
f ζ <1 iin tterms off ζ and
for d wn
Response
 underdamped (ζ < 1); ( α<ωo,n) , complex roots

roots

roots

##  undamped (ζ = 0); ( α=ωo,n) , imaginary roots

 positive roots
roots, growing output
Pole locations of second order system
depending on damping ζ

ζ =0
ζ<1

## ζ>1 positive roots

p
2 pole FB amplifier
A0
A(s) A( s ) 
A f (s)  s s
1  A(s) (1  )(1  )
| w p1 | | wp 2 |

A0
1  A0 
A f (s) 
s  1 1   s 2 
[1     ]
(1  A 0  )  | w p 1 | | w p 2 |   1  A 0   | w p 1 |  | w p 2 | 
A 0 [| w p 1 |  | w p 2 |]
A f (s) 
 
[ 1  A 0   | w p 1 |  | w p 2 |  s | w p 1 |  | w p 2 |  s 2 ]

## 2 negative poles, damping factor decreases due to (1+A0B)

So poles become complex, unstable system, ringing step response
For equal roots

wn  w 1  A0  
1

1  A0  

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Closed loop poles
Root locus plot
Comparison-open loop/ closed
l
loop gain
i
2
wn
A( s )  2
wn  2 wn s  s 2

n 2

A f (s)  ; 
nf  2nf s  s
2 2
n
here _ nf  n _ open _ loop (1  Ao  ); so _ less _ 
Step Response --- Important for stability
y
analysis

## From a practical standpoint, knowing how the system

responds to a sudden input step is important because large
and possibly fast deviations from the long term steady state
have extreme effects on the component itself and on other
portions of the overall system dependent on this component.

dditi th overallll system
the t cannott actt until
til the
th component's
t'
output settles down to some vicinity of its final state, delaying
the overall system response.

## Knowing the step response of a dynamical system gives

information on the stability of such a system,
system and on its ability
to reach one stationary state when starting from another.
Why Worry About Time
Response Behavior?
Time behavior of a system is the most important aspect of its
b h i
behavior.
Important Points to worry about are following.-----
How quickly
H i kl a system respondsd is
i important.
i If you're
' tryingi to
control speed of an automobile at 55mph and the speed keeps
varying between 50mph and 60mph,
60mph your design isnisn'tt very good.
good
Oscillations in a system are not usually desirable. It should be
controlled accurately,
y,
so we need to be able to predict the steady state in a system.
Control systems designers worry about overshoot and how close a
system comes to instability.
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Decaying oscillations

Decaying
y g oscillations - in second order systems.
y

## Those characteristic decaying oscillations are not to be

seen in
i first
fi t order
d systems.
t If you see decaying
d i
oscillations, means we don't have a first order system.

## On the other hand, not every second order system will

exhibit those decaying oscillations. Second order
systems are more complex than that.
that

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A typical step response for a second order system,
illustrating overshoot
overshoot, followed by ringing
ringing, all subsiding
within a settling time.
• The
Th phenomena
h off oscillation
b t final
fi l value
l i
is
called ringing.

## • The overshoot is the maximum swing above final

value, and clearly increases with ζ.

## • Likewise, the undershoot is the minimum swing

below final value, again increasing with ζ.

## • The settling time is the time for departures from final

value to sink below some specified level,
level say 10% of
final value.
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How much ringing will come?
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## Understanding stability in terms of

phase margin
Single pole FB amplifier, zero not
considered

A(s) A0
A f (s)  A( s ) 
1  A(s) s
(1  )
A0 | wp |
Af (s) 
s
[(1  )  A0  ]
| wp |
A0
Af (s) 
s
[(1  A0   )] First order system
| wp |
No ringing
A0 1
Af (s)  
[1  A0  ] (1  s
)
| wp | [1  A0  ]
Step response of first order sytem

Frequencies—
High To Low

No ringing
Two pole system

## • Phase margin < 65 degree

degree,

• complex poles

• ζ <1

• Underdamped response

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Stability and compensation

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Condition---Aβ loop gain

## Aβ must be very large

But βmax = 1

Thus A(s)
Th A( ) has
h to be
b llarge value
l else
l error would
ld creep iin
So high gain OPAMP is reqd.

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Transfer function—2 pole lin.
S t
System in
i FB

A0
A f (s) 
f

s  1 1   s2 
[1       ]
 
(1  A 0  )  | w p 1 | | w p 2 |   (1  A 0  ) | w p 1 |  | w p 2 | 
A0 f

s  1 1   s2 
[1       ]
 
(1  A 0  )  | w p 1 | | w p 2 |   (1  A 0  ) | w p 1 |  | w p 2 | 

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A0
1  A0 
A f (s) 
s  1 1   s 2 
[1      ]
(1  A 0  )  | w p 1 | | w p 2 |   1  A 0   | w p 1 |  | w p 2 | 
A 0 [| w p 1 |  | w p 2 |]
A f (s) 
 
[ 1  A 0   | w p 1 |  | w p 2 |  s | w p 1 |  | w p 2 |  s 2 ]

##  When wp1=wp2------closely spaced poles

 ξ <1
 ξξ≈ 0.75
0 75 will give min.
min ringing
ringing----------~PM 60o
PM =60

##  (1+A0β)  increasing, two poles spacing increase, --overdamped-

--PM increases,
increases stability increases

##  (1+A0β)  decreasing, two poles spacing decreases, poles then

become complex,-----underdamped-- PM decreases - stability
decreases
Roots of second order system
f ζ <1 iin tterms off ζ and
for d wn
Closed loop poles
Negative feedback closely
spaced pole,
pole  complex poles

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Linear settling time
Effect of increasing frequency on feedback
amplifier
p
 Increasing frequency causes poles to appear, so additional
phase change takes place.

##  Feedback system has real roots only till Θ= additional 75o

phase change above 180 (total 255o) i.e
i e ς>=1

 Beyond
y additional 75o pphase change
g , feedback system
y has
complex roots. As freq increases, feedback signal starts
adding to input signal.

##  Mathematically, damping reduces in relation to growing

magnitude of Oscillations. So ringing increases in the output
input

-ve feedback
in- fb
Feedback (fb)signal

## in- fb Θ= 360o, PM= 0o

+ve feedback
How much phase drift is allowed?
Θ= 300o, PM= 60o ideal value
+ve feedback

## +ve feedback but

Damped oscillations

## Θ= 270o PM= 90o

+ve feedback
 Denom-----1+ Aβ
 Min g
gain A=1,, max feedback β –1

##  Conditions for stability—

-ve feb----Aβ≥1--- stable, 0<Aβ < 1---stable

+ ve fb-----
-Aβ < 1----- stable

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Aβ > 1, W<180o Aβ ≥ 1, W>180o
-ve FB +ve FB
Stable UnStable
GM>0 GM<0
PM>0 PM<0

Aβ = 1

## Aβ < 1, W<180o Aβ < 1, W>180o

-ve FB +ve FB
Stable Stable
GM>0 +ve
ve GM>0
PM>0
FB

W=180o
Px Gx
│Aβ
│80 dB │Aβ 140,dB

## +ve feedback +ve feedback

-ve feedback
A β=1
W , log scale W= -80 A β=1
W , log scale
w1 w2 w1 w2

W , log scale
w180 W= -80
W , log
g scale
w180
-90 deg
-90 deg
-180
deg -180
Φ, deg Gx deg
Φ deg
Φ,
Px

│Aβ
│Aβ │,dB
│,dB
│,

W= -80
W= -80 W , log scale
W , log scale
w1 w2 w1 w2
GM GM

W= -80
W , log scale W , log scale
w180 w180

## -90 deg -90 deg

-180 -180
deg deg
Φ, deg Φ, deg
How to prevent oscillations?
Analysis using A plot for scalar feedback
0<Aβ
Stable system-bounded output
Phase margin , Gain margin
Effect of increasing frequency
on feedback
• Increasing frequency causes poles to appear, so additional
phase change takes place.
• Feedback system has real roots only till Θ= additional ±90o
phase change above ±180 (total 270o) i.e
i e ζ<=1
• Beyond additional nearly ±90o phase change , feedback
system has complex roots (growing output—underdamped
response)
• So as freq. increases, feedback signal starts adding to input
signal.
signal
• Mathematically, damping reduces in relation to growing
magnitude of Oscillations
• So ringing increases in the output
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Poles of feedback amplifier
│A│ 100,dB

ped
Crritically damp
Over damped

ed
O

Under dampe
U

UGB

Wp1 Wp2
Wp1f Wp2f Wp1f= Wp2f
Wp1f= Wp2f
input

in- fb
Feedback (fb)signal

## in- fb Θ= 360o, PM= 0o

How much phase drift is allowed?
Θ= 300o, PM= 60o ideal value

## Θ= 270o PM= 90o ζ <1

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Frequency Compensation
Stable system----no signal buildup
Ph
Phase crossover , G
Gain
i crossover

Gain crossover

phase crossover
Stable system
y

Gx <  Px
 Decrease Gx---
Gx
easy– time constant to be increased
or
 increase Px
Px---
 Difficult– circuit modification is reqd.
What can be controlled easily?
y

 Gain margin---
margin difficult to control
 ---reduce A, reduce 

##  Phase margin— easy to control,

 A reduction not required,
q ,
 time constants need to be adjusted
One-pole system
always stable
Two pole system- theoretically
stable
PM----6 deg, too less
A analysis using A plot
 Why?
 Convenience

##  Plot of A is familiar to us.

 Phase of A is similar to p 
phase of A
 No need to draw another A plot.
 Locate frequency where |A|=1
|A| 1
 Find phase at the frequency.
 Estimate phase margin
Method
20 logA plot

|A|=1

1/  line
For  =1

## Figure 8.37 Stability analysis using Bode plot of |A|.

How to achieve desired phase
margin?
 Usually Gx<
Gx Px . So Phase margin ~90
90 deg.
 We estimate dominant poles, non dominant
poles,, zeroes
p

 If non dominat p
poles are close---- less p
phase
margin
 move Gx towards origin by increasing CL
 Drawback---- UGB reduces
How to increase
PM?

 Reduce A
A---
A reduces---gain error increases,
Af increases,
w-3dB reduces

 Remove a pole---
p
requires topology modification.
Loop gain analysis
unstable/ stable system
 technique
Reduce A--- q

 Weaker feedback
feedback,
A reduction

 Graph translated
vertically
ti ll
 Phase plot does
nott change
h
Stability of OPAMP
Topology modification
technique I
technique-I---- decrease Gx

To decrease Gx
 Change first
polel , zero
locations
 Or
O reduce
d gain
i
 Phase plot
changes
h
topology modification
technique II
technique-II---- increase Px

 Change second
pole , zero
locations to
increase Px

 Gain plot
changes
Compensation
p to improve
p PM
3pole response

## Shift first pole to move Gx

G’x < Gx’’<G
’’ Gx
Figure 8.38 Frequency compensation for  = 102. The response labeled A is obtained by introducing an additional pole at fD. The A response is
obtained by moving the original low-frequency pole to f D.
Topology modification

##  Shift first pole towards origin by increasing

Capacitive load of first stage

##  Add a external capacitor Cc at node E and

F
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Pilani Campus

Frequency compensation in
amplifiers in open loop
Fully differential

 No mirror pole
2 stage CMOS OP AMP
fully differential

2 dominant poles
2 stage CMOS OP AMP --single
ended
d d o/p
/

2 dominant poles
Freq.
q response
p

 2 dominant poles
poles, ----trouble
trouble
 Non dominant poles
 Non dominant zero
How to increase phase margin?
(Compensation)

 Reduce A
 Topology modification
Total C= Cf+ Cc
Drawback of miller compensation

 Large cap
cap. Required
Required– large silicon area
consumed
 H
How tto save silicon?
ili ?

##  Remedy--- use miller effect to enhance cap.

Effect
 Put Cc across second gain stage
Miller compensation
pole
l splitting
litti capacitor
it

reducing
 UGB ---- gm1 / Cc
 First pole--
pole -g
gm11 / A0 Cc increasing
 Second pole-- - gm6 / CL
Ccpole
p splitting
p g capacitor
p
 Zero + gm6 / Cc
Zero--
Impact of Cc on second pole and zero

 Zero
Zero–
gm6 / Cgd + gm6 / Cc

 Second pole--
- [ro/2] CL  - gm6 / CL
Drawback of miller compensation
p

##  Nature of transmission zero– positive

 Phase lag= - tan -1 [w/wZ]; wZ = gm/ Cc

 Adds to p
phase lag.
g Phase margin
g reduces
How to take care of zero?

 Fact-----We
Fact We can not remove Cc
Cc.
Other options--
Can we make
 zero negative?

 Remove zero?

##  Cancel zero with pole?

p
Topology modification
R C compensation
R-C
Zero removal
End

Feedback Requested
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N i S
Noise Sensitivity
iti it – Case
C I
 2 open loop amplifiers are in cascade configuration
and the noise signal is generated between the 2
amplifiers
 Output Voltage Vout = A1A2Vi + A2Vn
= 100Vi + 10Vn
 S0/N0 = 100Vi/10Vn = 10Si/Ni
Vn

Vi V0
A1 = 10 A2 = 10
N i S
Noise Sensitivity
iti it – Case
C II
 2 open loop amplifiers are in cascade configuration
and the noise signal is a part of the input signal
 Output Voltage Vout = A1A2Vi + A1A2Vn
= 100Vi + 100Vn
 S0/N0 = 100Vi/100Vn = Si/Ni

Vn

Vi V0
A1 = 10 A2 = 10
Noise Sensitivity – Case III
 2 amplifiers are in feedback configuration and the noise signal is
generated between the 2 amplifiers
 Output Voltage Vout = A1A2Ve + A2Vn
and the feedback signal is Vfb = βV0
V0 = [A1A2/(1+βA1A2)]Vi + [A2/(1+βA1A2)]Vn
≈ 100Vi + 0.1Vn
 S0/N0 = 100Vi/0.1Vn = 1000Si/Ni
 Compare result with Case I where S0/N0 = 10Si /Ni

Vn

Vi Ve V0
A1 = 1000 A2 = 10
_

Vfb
β = 0.01
N i S
Noise Sensitivity
iti it – Case
C IV
 A basic feedback configuration and the noise is part
of the input signal
 Output voltage

Vout = [A1A2/(1+βA
/(1 βA1A2)](Vi+V
Vn) ≈ 100Vi + 100Vn
S0/N0 = 100Vi/100Vn = Si/Ni

Vn

Vi + Ve V0
A1 = 1000 A2 = 10
_

Vfb
β = 0.01
C
t
 Comparing the 4 configurations,
configurations we see that Case
III produces the largest output signal-to-noise ratio.
This configuration
g mayy occur when amplifier
p A2 is an
audio power amplifier stage in which large currents
can produce excessive noise and when amplifier A1
corresponds to a low noise amplifier which produces
most of the voltage gain
 The increased S/N ratio due to feedback occurs only
in specific situations, as is shown in previous slides
Second order system

## The simplest second order system satisfies a differential

equation of this form. where:

## x(t) = Response of the System,

u(t) = Input to the System,
ξ = Damping Ratio
Ratio,
ωn=Undamped Natural Frequency,
Gdc= The DC Gain of the System.

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

 The parameters in a second order system determine
aspects off various kinds off responses. Whether we are
talking about impulse response, step response or
response to other inputs,
inputs we will still find the following
relations.
 ξ, the damping ratio, will determine how much the
system oscillates as the response decays toward steady
state.
ωn, the undamped natural frequency will determine how
fast the system oscillates during any transient response.
Gd the
Gdc, th DC gaini off th
the system,
t will
ill d
determine
t i ththe size
i
of steady state response when the input settles out to a
constant value.
Transfer function—2 pole lin.
system
t

A0
A f ( s) 
 1 1   s 2 
[1  s  
 | w p | | w p 2 |   | w p |  | w p | 
]
 1   1 2 

 When wp1=wp2------closely
Wh 1 2 l l spaced
d poles
l
 ξ=1 or <1
Why Step Response Is
I
Important?
t t?
From a practical standpoint, knowing how the system
responds to a sudden input is important because large and
possibly fast deviations from the long term steady state may
have extreme effects on the component itself and on other
portions of the overall system dependent on this component.

dditi th overallll system
the t cannott actt until
til the
th component's
t'
output settles down to some vicinity of its final state, delaying
the overall system response.

## Formally, knowing the step response of a dynamical system

gives information on the stability of such a system,
system and on its
ability to reach one stationary state when starting from another.
A typical step response for a second order system,
illustrating overshoot
overshoot, followed by ringing
ringing, all subsiding
within a settling time.
 The phenomena of oscillation about final
value is called ringing.
 The overshoot is the maximum swing above
final value, and clearly increases with μ.
 Likewise the undershoot is the minimum
Likewise,
swing below final value, again increasing with
μ.
 The settling time is the time for departures
from final value to sink below some specified
level, say 10% of final value.
Two major conclusions
 The two major conclusions from this analysis are:

##  Feedback controls the amplitude of oscillation about

final value for a given open-loop
open loop amplifier and given
values of open-loop time constants, τ1 and τ2.

##  The open-loop amplifier decides settling time. It sets

the time scale of and the faster the open-loop
open loop
amplifier, the faster this time scale.
180

300
270
320

360
180

270
300

360
Current through Cgd vs freq.

wp2

wz

wp1

Wp1 region

Wp2
p region
g

wz

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BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
Diff. -Ended Output Two-Stage
Op Amp

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example 2 SERIES-SHUNT FB

No backward No forward
signal signal
t
transmission
i i t
transmission
i i
from feedback from
circuit feedback
To consider circuit
effect on A0 Vout
Bits, pilani

Norton
equivalent
as current
mixing

Open it No fforward
N d signal
i l
transmission from
to consider only feedback circuit
loading effect on A0 Bits, pilani affecting Vout

Short it
to consider onlyy
No fforward
N d signal
i l
feedback circuit
Bits, pilani affecting Vout

Open
p it
No fforward
N d signal
i l
to consider only transmission from
Bits, pilani affecting Vout
How to find Aβ?
Break the loop method
Figure 8.26 A conceptual feedback loop is broken at XXand a test voltage Vt is applied. The impedance Zt is equal to that previously seen looking to
the left of XX. The loop gain A = –Vr/Vt, where Vr is the returned voltage. As an alternative, A can be determined by finding the open-circuit transfer
function Toc, as in (c), and the short-circuit transfer function Tsc, as in (d), and combining them as indicated.
Analysis- Break the loop method
volt-volt feedback
Analysis of gain, loop gain

Break points
From where to break
the loop to find
loop gain? vt
vf

R2
Vf = ---------- vt
R1+R2
vout R2
|Aβ| = ----- = gm (ro2|| ro4) ----------
vt R1+R2
|A| = gm (ro2 || ro4 ) network on A is missing

Bits, pilani
Af
A
Af = ----------
1+ |A(s)β|
1

## = -gm (ro2 || ro4 )

R2
1 + gm (ro2 || ro4 || R1+R2 ) ----------
R1+R2
vt
vf

vf R2
|Aβ| = ----- = gm (ro2 || ro4 || R1+R2 ) ----------
R1+R2
vt

A
Af = ----------
1+ |Aβ|
| β|

## = -gm (ro2 || ro4 || R1+R2 )

R2
1 + gm (ro2 || ro4 || R1+R2 ) ----------
R1+R2
D i i
Decision off break
b k point
i t
 Where to break?

##  Need Loading effect at both input and output.

So cannot break at input or output nodes.

##  Using two port parameter model is easier

3 pole feedback amplifier.
A((ss )
Af ( s) 
1  A( s ) 
A0
A( s ) 
s s s
(1  )(1  )(1  )
| w p1 | | wp 2 | | wp3 |

A0
1
AA0
Af (s) 
s  1 1 1  s2  1 1 1  
 s3 
[1       ]
1A0 | wp1 | | wp2 | | wp3 |  1A0 | wp1 || wp2 | | wp2 || wp3 | | wp3 || wp1 | 1A0 | wp1 || wp2 || wp3 |
   
Roots of cubic equation

 1+cs+bs2+as3
 1+s[c+bs+as2]
 = 1+[s/c][1+(b/c)s+(a/c)s2]
 = 1+ [s/c] [1+b’s+a’s2]
 =1+ [s/c] [(s+w1)(s+w2)]