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Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35

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Materials Characterization

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matchar

Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super

duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by super duplex
filler metal
Abbas Eghlimi a,⁎, Morteza Shamanian a, Masoomeh Eskandarian b, Azam Zabolian c, Jerzy A. Szpunar d
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154, Iran
Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5A9, Canada

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the present paper, microstructural changes across an as-welded dissimilar austenitic/duplex stainless steel
Received 13 January 2015 couple welded by a super duplex stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process is character-
Received in revised form 16 April 2015 ized with optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction techniques. Accordingly, variations of micro-
Accepted 12 May 2015
structure, texture, and grain boundary character distribution of base metals, heat affected zones, and weld metal
Available online 14 May 2015
were investigated. The results showed that the weld metal, which was composed of Widmanstätten austenite
side-plates and allotriomorphic grain boundary austenite morphologies, had the weakest texture and was dom-
Super duplex stainless steel inated by low angle boundaries. The welding process increased the ferrite content but decreased the texture in-
Austenitic stainless steel tensity at the heat affected zone of the super duplex stainless steel base metal. In addition, through partial
Dissimilar welding ferritization, it changed the morphology of elongated grains of the rolled microstructure to twinned partially
Microstructure transformed austenite plateaus scattered between ferrite textured colonies. However, the texture of the austen-
Texture itic stainless steel heat affected zone was strengthened via encouraging recrystallization and formation of anneal-
Grain boundary character distribution ing twins. At both interfaces, an increase in the special character coincident site lattice boundaries of the primary
phase as well as a strong texture with b100N orientation, mainly of Goss component, was observed.
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction many applications. Thus, in-depth understanding on fusion welding of

such a dissimilar couple is a prerequisite in predicting the properties
Without a doubt, the 300 series Fe–Cr–Ni austenitic stainless steels of weldments in modern engineering applications. Generally, obtaining
(ASSs) have been the most widely produced member of stainless steels a sound weld, free of cracks and other discontinuities is considered the
used, accounting for more than half of the stainless steel used in the main goal in such a joint; but since dissimilar joining of stainless steels is
world [1]. These steels are extensively used in nuclear power, petro- well studied and documented [3], the current trend of studies focuses
chemical, marine, and fertilizer industries, particularly in cryogenic ap- on the investigation of structural properties of dissimilar joints. For in-
plications. However, in recent years, the newer members of stainless stance, some authors [4–7] have recently investigated the evolution of
steels, including duplex stainless steels (DSSs) and super duplex stain- texture across the weldments using electron backscatter diffraction
less steels (SDSSs), are replacing ASSs and super ASSs because they pos- (EBSD) to understand the influence of grain orientation on joint micro-
sess superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance while structure and properties. Among these studies, there are few reports on
maintaining weldability and toughness at an affordable price [2]. the absence of a specific texture in welded DSSs due to the complex so-
Considering the foregoing widespread use of ASSs and growing ac- lidification and grain growth processes [6,7]. Nevertheless, in previous
ceptance of SDSSs as economical high strength corrosion resistant mate- studies, successful characterization of the texture across SDSS claddings
rials, the dissimilar welding of duplex and austenitic grades, due to was attained and the conclusion reached that the cladding process can
economic and technical considerations, has become a necessity in induce competitive growth with a strong texture aligned in the b100N
direction across the clad metal and encourage the recrystallization of
the prior deposited clad metal during overlaying of the second layer
⁎ Corresponding author.
E-mail address: a.eghlimi@ma.iut.ac.ir (A. Eghlimi). [4,5]. Thus, the current study was designed to discuss the microstructur-
URL: https://aeghlimi.materials.iut.ac.ir (A. Eghlimi). al and textural changes across a more complicated system, i.e. a

1044-5803/© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
28 A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35

dissimilar joints. It should be noted that the investigation of the micro- Table 2
structure features and mechanical properties of a SDSS/ASS couple has Welding process parameters.

been previously performed [8]. Therefore, the emphasis of this study Parameter Value
is on the evolvement of microstructure and texture based on the results Shielding/purging gas 99.99% pure argon
of EBSD analysis. Shielding gas flow rate 10 L·min−1
Purging gas flow rate 8 L·min−1
2. Experimental Filler rod diameter 2.4 mm
Welding electrode AWS A5.12 EWTH-2 (98% W + 2% ThO2)
Electrode diameter 2.4 mm
2.1. Materials and welding process Polarity DCEN
Average heat input 0.75 kJ·mm−1
In this study, AWS A5.9 ER2594 SDSS filler metal was employed to
join the dissimilar base metals (BMs), i.e. UNS S30403 ASS and UNS
S32750 SDSS. The as-received ASS and SDSS plates were cold and hot orientation are the typical plane strain rolling textures in FCC poly-
rolled, respectively. The chemical composition of these BMs and applied crystals [10,11]. The presence of these components along with the
welding parameters are summarized in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. To equiaxed austenite grains and the low texture intensity observed
simulate the actual field welding scenarios, the welding was carried out suggest that the as-received base plate had undergone severe re-
perpendicular to the rolling direction of the base plates (see Fig. 1). crystallization before welding.

2.2. EBSD analysis SDSS BM. At the SDSS BM, the interfaces between austenite and
ferrite were characterized by serrated boundaries which corroborate
After the welding process, numerous transverse cross section (RD-TD that the as-received parent metal has experienced intense deformation
plane) samples (see Fig. 1) were prepared to be studied by EBSD analysis during hot rolling [12]. Due to the presence of almost equal amounts of
using Hitachi SU6600 field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy austenite and ferrite microconstituents, a severe pinning effect was
(FEG-SEM). For this purpose, the samples were loaded in the SEM cham- dominant and thus, none of the phases showed as coarse grains as
ber at an angle of 70° from the incident beam toward a phosphor detector the ASS BM (ECDSDSS BM = 3.38 μm ≪ ECDASS BM = 12.17 μm). How-
to maximize the amount of backscatter electrons and raise the probability ever, due to this restriction, the grains of SDSS BM had higher aspect
of diffraction events in the specimen. The employed EBSD step sizes for ratio (AR) and hence were more elongated than those of the ASS BM
recording the microstructure were in the range 1 to 1.5 μm. (ARSDSS BM = 2.01 N ARASS BM = 1.62).
Considering the texture, as demonstrated in Fig. 4, the ferrite phase
3. Results and discussion showed RC component as well as {114} b110N and {113} b110N orienta-
tions which confirm the existence of a partial α-BCC fiber, b011N║RD,
The EBSD maps and microstructures in Fig. 2 and the related statis- which is typical in hot rolled single phase BCC metals such as ferritic
tics presented in Fig. 3 suggest significant differences in the content, stainless steels. However, pronounced α-BCC fiber with a major RC
morphology, texture, and grain boundary character distribution of the component was also reported in the literature for ferrite phase of hot
austenite and ferrite microconstituents across the weldment which are rolled DSSs [6,12]. Thus, it can be inferred that the measured texture,
summarized in Table 3. As a reference, several important texture compo- was typical of hot rolling during which a strong RC component and α-
nents and fibers of body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic BCC fiber are usually being developed. It is well-known that the pres-
(FCC) phases and their locations in Euler space are enumerated in ence of α-BCC fiber favors a plane strain deformation of ferrite on the
Tables 4 and 5, respectively. grain level.
On the other hand, the austenite phase had strong C and CRD orien-
3.1. Microstructure and texture tations as well as weak G, Bs, CT1, Cu, and S components. The set of
cube components, including C, CRD and CT1, are well known as recrys-
3.1.1. Base metals tallization texture components in FCC materials [6]. Thus, the existence
of a weak β-FCC fiber in the presence of stronger C and CRD components ASS BM. The amount of ferrite in the ASS BM was insignificant confirms that an extensive recrystallization had occurred during hot
and the microstructure was composed of relatively coarse equiaxed rolling of the SDSS BM [10,12].
austenite grains with the average equivalent circle diameter (ECD)
of 12 μm. As presented in Fig. 4, the texture of the ASS BM was 3.1.2. Heat affected zones
weak and it was mainly of strong α-FCC, b011N║ND, as well as In general, the heat cycles and the probable resultant solid-state
brass or alloy type texture composed of Bs orientation along with transformations within the heat affected zone (HAZ) can alter several
scatters toward the S and G orientations. Weak evidence of Cu com- features such as grain size, phase fraction, texture, and precipitate distri-
ponent was also observed. As a result, the texture of the ASS BM was bution. These will be discussed in the following paragraphs.
composed of strong α-FCC, partial γ, and weak β-FCC skeleton fi-
bers. Such a texture is typical in cold rolled austenitic structures [9]; ASS HAZ. On the basis of Fig. 3a, the most important phenomenon
the β-FCC skeleton fiber which runs from the Cu through the S to the which occurred in the ASS HAZ was grain growth; while the AR of grains
Bs orientation and α-FCC fiber which runs from the G to the Bs remained nearly unchanged (ARASS HAZ = 1.78 vs. ARASS BM = 1.62), the

Table 1
Nominal chemical composition of BMs and the applied filler metal (wt.%).

C Cr Ni Mo Mn Si N P S Creqa Nieqb Creq/Nieq

UNS S30403 0.03 19.1 10.8 – 2 0.75 – 0.08 0.26 19.1 11.85 1.61
UNS S32750 0.025 25.9 6.54 3.78 1.2 1 0.25 0.035 0.015 29.68 12.42 2.39
AWS ER2594 0.02 25 10 4 0.4 0.3 0.25 0.02 0.015 29 15.7 1.85
Creq = Cr + Mo + 0.7 Nb (wt.%).
Nieq = Ni + 35C + 20 N + 0.25 Cu (wt. %).
A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35 29

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the welding process and examined surface area.

size of the grains almost doubled after welding (ECDASS HAZ ≈ 21 μm vs. unidirectional solidifications comprising columnar growth. This is be-
ECDASS BM ≈ 12 μm). This event had two more probable reasons: (1) the cause the appropriate orientation of this component which is aligned
lower thermal conductivity of the ASSs compared to the SDSSs which in the b100N maximum temperature gradient direction. Therefore, it
caused the ASS HAZ grains to be exposed to high temperatures for lon- can be concluded that the cold rolled texture of the substrate adjust-
ger times and (2) lack of a second pinning phase which in addition to ed slightly to enable better heat transfer in the presence of high tem-
grain coarsening facilitated the recrystallization, as will be discussed. peratures reached adjoining the weld metal (WM) during the
Considering the texture, it is evident that all the fiber texture compo- welding process.
nents were used up by G and C orientations after welding. Accordingly,
the texture was composed of a stronger G and weaker C orientations as SDSS HAZ. In general, the welding process weakened the sharp
well as traces of Bs and S components (see Fig. 5a). The consumption of texture of the SDSS BM and caused scattering of the texture compo-
the Cu orientation in favor of the G component is reported to be caused nents, especially in the austenite phase. Through the welding process,
by twinning [13]. Based on Fig. 3c and d, these twins are mainly consti- the RC component of the ferrite phase was consumed by a sole weak
tuted of high angle 60° twin boundaries with special character, especial- G orientation (see Fig. 5b). Since this component is orientated in the
ly ∑ 3 with 60° rotation around the b111N axis. The twinning b100N maximum temperature gradient direction, it can be concluded
phenomenon is further confirmed by the presence of the C component that as a result of high temperatures reached during the welding pro-
which is usually considered a recrystallization orientation in FCC cess, the hot rolled texture of the ferrite phase in the as-received sub-
materials. In addition, G component usually prevails in cubic materials strate was reoriented toward the maximum temperature gradient to
that undergo steep thermal gradients, especially in competitive facilitate the heat transfer.

Fig. 2. EBSD maps across the joint: (a) phase color map, (b) IPF of ferrite, and (c) IPF of austenite. In each pair of IPFs, the upper triangle belongs to the ferrite and the lower to the austenite
30 A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35

Fig. 3. The distribution of (a) grain size in terms of ECD and aspect ratio, (b) misorientation angles, (c) misorientation angle histograms between neighboring grains, and (d) CSL boundaries
across the weldment.

However, in contrast to the ferrite phase, the texture of the austenite lower thermal conductivity of the ASS BM eventuated in an un-
was almost lost after welding (see Fig. 5c). This happened due to the checked grain growth of the ASS HAZ.
partial ferritization of this zone during heating time followed by a
rapid cooling which impeded additional reformation of austenite in 3.1.3. Weld metal
this region [8,14]. Because of this austenite dissolution, the texture The ferrite phase at the center of the WM (Fig. 2b3) formed
intensity was severely diminished and lots of texture components distinct near equal-area texture colonies which proposes a semi-
disappeared. As a result, the SDSS HAZ contained a substantial homogeneous solidification. This happened because the WM center-
amount of partially transformed austenite (PTA) morphology (see line had the least undercooling with respect to the regions closer to
Fig. 2a4). According to the literature [15,16], due to its chemical bal- the BMs. Consequently, as the texture intensifies with increasing
ance, an SDSS retains 15–20% of its austenite content when it is cooling rate [13,18], the WM centerline solidified almost randomly
reheated to solidus temperature. In the literature, that residue of pri- and showed a semi-random texture. This can also be verified referring
mary austenite, which appears as a plateau-like polygonal trapezoi- to the inverse pole figures (IPFs) of ferrite and austenite presented in
dal and orthorhombic structure, is usually referred to as PTA. Upon Fig. 2, where the IPFs of WM showed the most scattering and the least
fast cooling, the interface between these PTA plateaus and δ-ferrite texture intensity.
matrix becomes the most favorable nucleation site and thus, the sec- Regarding the austenite morphology, the WM was composed of
ondary austenite reforms preferentially on these locations. This re- Widmanstätten austenite (WA) side-plates and grain boundary austen-
sults in fattening of the PTA and blunting of the δ/γ interfaces (see ite (GBA) allotriomorphs. In general, nucleation of the second phase at
Fig. 2a4). It is noteworthy that the presence of PTA is generally con- grain boundaries is easier than in the bulk because the reduction of
sidered beneficial, because it can restrain the grain growth [17]. The grain boundary area and energy favors the precipitation phenomenon
advantage of this phase becomes clearly evident by comparing the [19]. Therefore, since composition of SDSSs imposes ferritic solidifica-
grain size of ASS (~ 21 μm) and SDSS HAZs (~ 4 μm) in Fig. 3a. As dem- tion mode, as cooling from solidus temperature commenced, the GBA
onstrated, where PTA hindered the grain growth of the SDSS HAZ, began to nucleate and grow at δ/δ boundaries. However, as cooling con-
the absence of such a second pinning phase concomitant with the tinued and the amount of GBA increased, the available nucleation sites
A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35 31

Table 3 Table 5
Variation of microstructure, texture, and ferrite content across the weldment. Important texture components and fibers of FCC phases and their locations in Euler space.

Zone Phase Microstructure/texture Ferrite Name Symbol Miller indices Bunge notation (φ1 ϕ φ2)
Copper Cu {112} b111N 90° 35° 45°
ASS BM Ferrite Morphology: N/A 0 S1 S1 {124} b211N 59° 29° 63°
Texture: N/A S2 S2 {123} b412N 47° 37° 63°
Austenite Morphology: equiaxed grains S3 (S) S {123} b634N 59° 37° 63°
Texture: γ and β-FCC fibers Brass Bs {011} b112N 35° 45° 0°/90° and 50° 90° 45°
ASS HAZ Ferrite Morphology: N/A 1.3 ± 0.6 Taylor/Dillamore D {4 4 11} b11 11 8N 90° 27° 45°
Texture: N/A Goss G {011} b001N 0° 45° 0°/90° and 90° 90° 45°
Austenite Morphology: coarse semi-equiaxed grains Cube C {001} b100N 0° 0° 0°/90° and 45° 0° 45°
Texture: stronger G and weaker C, Bs, and S CubeRD CRD {013} b100N 0° 22° 0°/90°
components CubeND CND {001} b310N 22° 0° 0°/90°
SDSS WM Ferrite Morphology: coarse equiaxed grains 49.5 ± 4.6 First generation CT1 {122} b221N 27° 48° 27° and 63° 48° 63°
Texture: γ fiber texture colonies cube twin
Austenite Morphology: GBA and WA Recrystallized brass BR {236} b853N 80° 31° 35°
Texture: weak G component P P {011} b221N 65° 45° 0°/90°
SDSS HAZ Ferrite Morphology: semi-elongated grains 59.2 ± 7.8 Q Q {013} b321N 45° 15° 10°
Texture: similarly textured colonies with R R {124} b211N 53° 36° 60°
strong G component U U {258} b211N 45° 35° 20°
Austenite Morphology: PTA α-FCC fiber {011}║ND 0° 45° 0°/90° to 90° 45° 0°/90°
Texture: weak C, S, and Bs components β-FCC skeleton fiber 90° 35° 45° to 59° 37° 63° to
SDSS BM Ferrite Morphology: elongated grains 54.5 ± 4.2 35° 45° 0°/90°
Texture: RC component and partial α-BCC γ fiber {111}║ND 60° 55° 45° to 90° 55° 45°
fiber with strong {114} b110N component τ fiber {011}║TD 90° 0° 45° to 90° 90° 45°
Austenite Morphology: elongated GBA grains Cube fiber {001}║ND 0° 0° 0° to 90° 0° 0°
Texture: C and CRD components as well as
traces of G, Bs, CT1, S, and Cu components

3.2. Grain boundary character distribution

at δ/δ boundaries decreased and new nuclei began to form at δ/γ bound- 3.2.1. ASS HAZ
aries. On the other hand, since the available driving force in the form of Referring to Fig. 3b, the amount of high angle boundaries (HABs), i.e.
thermal activation declined by decreasing the temperature, the new N15° boundaries, in the ASS HAZ was increased after welding. It is well
austenite nuclei, which were formed at δ/γ boundaries, moved forward known that deformed ASSs have high tendency to recrystallize, either
toward the chemically supersaturated areas by constitutional statically during or dynamically after rolling, when the temperature ex-
undercooling driving force in the form of WA side-plates and laths. ceeds the recrystallization temperature. Recrystallization of deformed
Based on these morphologies and due to the unavailability of adequate metallic materials is accomplished by the nucleation and growth of
time for grain growth upon solidification, the WM represented the new undeformed grains into the neighboring deformed matrix which
smallest grain size with ECD of 2.76 μm (see Fig. 3a). is characterized by the formation and migration of high angle grain
Regarding the texture, it should be noted that as in the case of the boundaries [21]. As a result, recrystallization generally causes new,
mid-thickness of as-cast DSSs which creates very locally preferred mis- fine, and equiaxed grains to develop in the microstructure. Accordingly,
orientations [20], the WM showed local orientations and due to this phe- evidences of recrystallization, i.e. G and C components (see Fig. 5a) and
nomenon, different extracted samples showed various or even an increase in the HABs (see Fig. 3b), were found in the ASS HAZ micro-
contrasting orientation distribution functions (ODFs). Thus, although typ- structure. However, uncontrolled heating of this region and lack of
ical ODFs of this zone are presented in Fig. 6a and b, it was impossible to second pinning phase imposed grain coarsening (see Fig. 3a). Thus, it
identify preferred orientations across the WM, because the EBSD maps can be concluded that the welding process resulted in completion of re-
were not quantitatively representative of the texture of the material. In crystallization and promotion of early stages of grain growth on the ASS
other words, there was no texture in this zone. A similar conclusion was side.
previously drawn by Badji et al. [6] on 2205 DSS welds.
3.2.2. SDSS HAZ
After welding, the ferrite phase of the SDSS HAZ showed substantial
amount of subgrain boundaries, i.e. b 5° low angle boundaries (LABs),
while the austenite was dominated by HABs (see Fig. 3b). Moreover,
as can be seen in Fig. 2c4, the austenite was composed of PTA morpho-
Table 4
Important texture components and fibers of BCC phases and their locations in Euler space. logical shape dominated by high angle 60° (see Fig. 3c) annealing twins
with Σ3 special character (see Fig. 3d). As previously discussed, these
Name Symbol Indices Bunge (φ1 ϕ φ2)
confirm the occurrence of partial ferritization followed by recrystalliza-
90° rotated cube RC {001} b100N 0°/90° 0° 45° tion of the residual PTA phase.
Inverse copper ICu {112} b110N 0° 35° 45° and 51° 66° 63° This disparate behavior of austenite and ferrite phases during
Goss G {011} b100N 90° 90° 45° and 0° 45° 0°/90°
90° rotated Goss RG {011} b110N 0° 90° 45° and 90° 45° 0°/90°
welding has been previously discussed in the literature [4,5,21,22] and
{001} b110N 45° 0° 0° was attributed to the stacking fault energy difference of these phases
{111} b110N 60° 55° 45° which impose different deformation mechanisms; while the ferrite
{111} b211N 90° 55° 45° phase deforms via rearrangement of accumulating lattice dislocations
{8 11 11} b11 4 4N 90° 63° 45°
through slip systems via formation of subgrains and substructures, aus-
α-BCC fiber {011}║RD 0° 0° 45° to 0° 90° 45°
β-BCC fiber 0° 35° 45° to 90° 55° 45° tenite normally recrystallizes and forms recrystallized and/or twinned
γ fiber {111}║ND 60° 55° 45° to 90° 55° 45° grains. The driving force for both subgrain accumulation in the ferrite
ε fiber {011}║TD 90° 0° 45° to 90° 90° 45° and recrystallization of austenite in the HAZ is the residual stress. Ac-
ζ fiber {011}║ND 0° 45° 0° to 90° 45° 0° cording to Tehovnik et al. [23], reheating of residual stress containing
η fiber {001}║RD 0° 0° 0° to 0° 45° 0°
duplex structures above 1000 °C can trigger the recrystallization, and
32 A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35

Fig. 4. Constant φ2 sections of the ODF in Euler space in multiples of random density (MRD) for (a) ASS base metal, austenite, (b) SDSS base metal, ferrite, and (c) SDSS base metal,

since such a temperature was readily available in the prior rolled SDSS the brittleness of coarse grains in the HAZs and thus, upon failure
HAZ, recrystallization was highly likely. from the HAZs, a trans-grain fracture is predictable.
It is also noteworthy that due to the higher fraction of coincident site
lattice (CSL) boundaries in both HAZs, if a crack is initiated in the BMs, it 3.2.3. WM
cannot readily propagate into the HAZs through grain boundaries [24]. As illustrated in Fig. 3b, the WM was dominated by LABs. Since this
Interestingly, this behavior of grain boundaries is in contradiction to zone experienced the highest residual stress [25] and the least cooling
A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35 33

Fig. 5. Constant φ2 sections of the ODF in Euler space in MRD for the (a) ASS HAZ, austenite, (b) SDSS HAZ, ferrite, and (c) SDSS HAZ, austenite.

rate, almost no recrystallization occurred and as a consequence, it WM of UNS S32101 DSS welded joint. It is noteworthy that the SDSS
contained the highest amount of subgrain boundaries. As a result, dislo- WM in the current study had a high Creq/Nieq ratio (see Table 1) and
cation slip should be the dominant deformation mechanism and thus, thus, it solidified in the primary ferrite mode. Therefore, this conclusion
the WM should have the least grain boundary stress and be the least is also in agreement with the literature [26] where it is stated that the
susceptible area for crack initiation. Brytan and Niagaj [24] obtained stainless steel weld metals which solidify primarily in ferrite mode
similar results and reported the highest subgrain contribution in the show low cracking susceptibility.
34 A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35

Fig. 6. Constant φ2 sections of the ODF in Euler space in MRD for the SDSS weld meal: (a) ferrite and (b) austenite.

3.3. Texture intensity developed during hot rolling of the SDSS BM, due to the partial
ferritization during heating time, caused weakening of the SDSS HAZ
Comparing the texture intensities obtained across the weldment texture.
(Fig. 7), it can be clearly observed that in the SDSS regions, the texture On both sides, the WM adjacent to the HAZ interface (delineated by
of the austenite phase was always weaker than that of the ferrite. In WM → ASS HAZ and WM → SDSS HAZ in Fig. 7) had the strongest tex-
the literature [6,20,27], this is attributed to the lower degree of lattice ture intensity. As previously confirmed in the literature [4,5] and as is
freedom during the solid state transformation of daughter austenite evident in the IPFs presented in Fig. 2, the high intensity of texture at
from the parent ferrite phase. Moreover, it can be seen that the welding the interfaces is due to the reorientation of grains toward their easy
process had different influences on the texture of BMs; it intensified the growth direction, i.e. b001N, which is aligned in the maximum thermal
texture of the ASS HAZ, but weakened that of the SDSS HAZ. Whereas a gradient direction, i.e. perpendicular to the fusion lines.
near complete recrystallization of ASS HAZ followed by reorientation It can also be observed that the weakest texture belonged to the WM
of the new grains toward the maximum temperature gradient in- where the microstructure evolved upon solidification. Because a single-
creased the semi-recrystallized texture, the loss of strong textures V joint design was used, the maximum temperature gradient directions,

Fig. 7. Distribution of texture intensity across the weldment.

A. Eghlimi et al. / Materials Characterization 106 (2015) 27–35 35

i.e. lines perpendicular to the bevels of the V-shaped groove, had oppos- duplex stainless steel and high strength low alloy steel, Surf. Coat. Technol. 264
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