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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1.1. Introduction:

In the history of many races and castes got great regard for their
remarkable services rendered services in education, religion, literature and fine
arts. One among such castes is ‘Reddy’. No other word in India has got such a
detailed and convincing history as the word ‘Reddy’. Reddy’s are farmers, they
are Kings, they are Journalists, they are Poets, they are Patriots who stood in
front row in the freedom fight, and they are Writers, Politicians.

The term ‘Reddy’ means ‘King’ and the terms Raja (King), Rathi, Kapu,
Velama were also used to denote Reddy people (Hanakuni, 2009). Majority of
the Reddy people are farmers and earlier a few of them were rulers. As the
reddy people were used to sit in the ancient Cars (Rathas), they were called as
‘Rathis’. The term ‘Maharathi’ is also used to identify Reddy people as they
were Maharajas (Chief Rulers or Kings) or farmers by their occupation. As
such, they were also called as ‘Kapu’. The author of 14th Century, Ananth in his
telugu work entitled ‘Bhojarajaveeyam’ stated that Reddy and Velama are
similar terms used to denote ‘Reddy people’. As stated by many of the thinkers,
the term ‘Reddy’ is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Ratt’, which means ‘Raja’ or
‘King’. The term ‘Rathi’ is also identical to the term ‘Raja’ or ‘King’.

Likewise, the term ‘Ratt’ become ‘Rathi’ and ‘Raja’ and later now become
‘Reddy’. It is also witnessed as the Rastrakuta kings, who ruled south India in
7th century were belonged to Reddy community. The Rastrakutas were used the
term ‘Rattadu’ for the first time in the inscription of Renati in 7th century.


 
Hence, it can be concluded that the term ‘Rattadu’ was become popular since 7th
century. According to the linguistic experts, the term was used as ‘Rattagudi’,
‘Rattakudi’ and by the time it become ‘Rattadu’ or ‘Rattu’ and now it is used as
‘Reddy’. The term ‘Ratt’ means ‘owner’, ‘leader’ or even ‘owner of agriculture’,
which were used synonymously.

Then ‘Kapu’ means ‘farmers’ or the people engaged in agriculture. The


great poet of Telugu and brother-in-law of Hemareddy Mallamma, Vemana
called themselves as ‘Kapu’. The great Reddy ruler, Prolaya Vemareddy
described themselves as ‘Pantakapu’ in the stone inscription. In this way, as

stated by linguistic experts, the term ‘Reddy’ was derived. According to Puranic
sources, Reddy people are successors of Kusha, second son of Sri Rama and
they belonged to ‘Sooryavamsha’.

Ananth Krishnaiah (1973) stated the community is called as Reddy and


Gouda, which is used to denote same communities in Telugu and Kannada
speaking people.

H.A. Stuart stated that ‘Kapu’ means “Kavalu Kayuvavaru” in Kannada


means ‘Watching the Administration’. ‘Reddy’ means ‘Raja’ which means
Kings in Kannada. The Reddy people were belonged to Dravidian race. In the
first century, they were ruled different villages and areas under Chalukya,
Pallava and Ballala rulers.

Revt. Foulkes described that Reddy community were first identified in


Kongu country and it was assumed that they ruled the country up to the end of
9th century.


 
Dr. Barnall (1973) writes that the Reddy communities were originated
from Dravidian races and ‘Rastra’ in Telugu and ‘Reddy’ in Kannada is derived
from Sanskrit language.

Nanjundaradhya (1974) writes that Reddy people were came from


Rajasthan. Reddy means ‘Rata’ or ‘Raja’ and it may have become ‘Reddy’ later.
The author stated that the Reddy communities living in Andhra Pradesh are from
Rajasthan and they were migrated to Andhra Pradesh.

According to Sharma, the Reddy Lingayats were came from North India
such as ‘Shakya Kapus’ from Nepal and Bihar, ‘Jhat Kapus’ from Uttar Pradesh,
Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, the people engaged in
Agriculture from Andhra Pradesh become ‘Kapus’ and after Veerashaivism, they
have become ‘Reddy Kapus’ or ‘Reddy Lingayats’. There are language
differences such as ‘Raddy’, ‘Reddy’ and ‘Raddi’ and a few of them are also
non-vegetarians according to their living environments.

The Shiva and Parvati, who are believed to be living in Srishail (in
Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh) was devotional place for Reddy people. As
such, the Reddy people accepted Srishail Mallikarjuna and Bhramaramba as
their deities and they are following Shakti Vishistadwaita theory. As such, they
used to wear Shivalinga on their body. Still, the Reddy people accepted
Jagadguru Panditaradhya of Suryasimhasana of Srishaila as their Guru.

As discussed above, Reddy is an elite social group or caste of India,


predominantly inhabiting Andhra Pradesh. They are enlisted as a forward caste
by the government (Kimberly, 1997). Traditionally, they are a high-caste
community of nobility, warriors and cultivators (Burton, 1989). According to
academics, they were a warrior caste in the remote past and later became feudal


 
overlords and peasant proprietors (Frykenberg, 1965). Historically they have
been the land-owning aristocracy of the villages (Karen, 2007). Their prowess
as rulers and warriors is well documented in Telugu history (Sanjay, 2001). The
Reddy dynasty (1325–1448) ruled coastal and central Andhra for over a hundred
years (Ludden, 1999). The origin of the social group of Reddy’s has been linked
to the Rastrakutas (Chopra, 2003).

Initially, the rising kingdoms of Vijayanagara and the Reddy kingdom


were locked up in a territorial struggle for supremacy in the coastal region of
Andhra. Later, they united and became allies against their common archrivals –
the Bahmani sultans and the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda who had formed
an alliance. This political alliance between Vijayanagara and the Reddy kingdom
was cemented further by a matrimonial alliance. Harihara II of Vijayanagara
gave his daughter in marriage to Kataya Vema Reddy’s son Kataya. The Reddy
rulers of Rajahmundry exercised a policy of annexation and invasion of Kalinga
(modern day Orissa). However, the suzerainty of Kalinga rulers was to be
recognized. In 1443 CE, determined to put an end to the aggressions of the
Reddy kingdom, the Gajapati ruler Kapilendra of Kalinga formed an alliance
with the Velamas and launched an attack on the Reddy kingdom of
Rajahmundry. Veerabhadra Reddy allied himself with Vijayanagara ruler
Devaraya II and defeated Kapilendra. After the death of Devaraya II in 1446 CE,
he was succeeded by his son, Mallikarjuna Raya. Overwhelmed by difficulties at
home, Mallikarjuna Raya recalled the Vijayanagara forces from Rajahmundry.
Veerabhadra Reddy died in 1448 CE. Seizing this opportunity, the Gajapati ruler
Kapilendra sent an army under the leadership of his son Hamvira into the Reddy
kingdom, took Rajahmundry and gained control of the Reddy kingdom. The
Gajapatis eventually lost control of coastal Andhra after the death of Kapilendra.


 
The territories of the Reddy kingdom eventually came under the control of the
Vijayanagara Empire.

Historical Records and References:

When the historical developments are analyzed, the history of Reddy


community was recorded two hundred years Before Christ (BC). It is also
observed that Reddy or Rathis were ruled different parts of south India before
Satavahanas and Mauryas. The coins excavated in Kurnool of Andhra Pradesh
and Pune in Maharashtra were revealed that during those times, the Reddy
community was existed in that region. It is also highlighted that the term
‘Rattadu’ was for the first time used in stone inscription of Renati during 7th
century.

Rastrakutas were the early Reddy rulers, who were employed at higher
posts in Chalukyan Army. After the end of Badami Chalukya dynasty,
Dantidurga of Rastrakuta established his empire. Later, Nrupatunga was
extended Rastrakuta empire and made Malkhed (historically Manyakheta) of
present Gulbarga District as his capital. It is emphasized that first Kannada
work ‘Kaviraja Marga’ was written by Nrupatunga of Rastrakuta. In his work,
he stated that his kingdom was extended from Kaveri to Godavari in one of his
poetry. From this work, the scope of the Reddy Empire may be generalized.
The Rastrakutas were nominated and recruited the leaders of villages and towns
from their own community, that is ‘Reddy’ community.

Rastrakuta emperor Krishna-I was ruled from 756 to 775 and during his
rule the world famous Ellora Caves in Single rock was carved in Ellora. A stone
inscription in Ellora described as the Krishna-I was got popular name
‘Krishnaraja Parama Maheshwara’ and he ruled for 18 years. Even the stone


 
inscriptions of Kalyana Chalukyas described about the Reddy community in 900
A.D. References are also made that Chalukyas of Kalyan were recruited Reddy
people as rulers for villages and towns during their rule. There are records that
Katireddy and Minireddy communities were there during the time.

With the end of Kalyan Chalukyan dynasty, Prola Reddy was declared as
an independent ruler and found Kakatiya dynasty at Warrangal in 1110. Many
of the stone inscriptions were described that the Kakatiya dynasty was donated
to the temples and Agraharas.

The Reddy rulers were ruled Kondaveedu (hilly area) in Andhra Pradesh,
which is located in Srishailam region from 1324 to 1424. In Telugu, Konda
means hilly areas and veedu means ‘leaders’ and in this way, Reddy rulers were
popularly known as ‘rulers of hilly areas of Andhra Pradesh’. Reddy
community was began active rule with Prolayavema. The Kondaveedu area
included Kurnool, Kadapa, Medak, Nandyal, Anantpur, Bellary, Hospet and
many areas surrounded by Srishailam in Andhra Pradesh.

Kakatiya rulers were ruled Telugu areas for 325 years. During their rule,
the people were living comfortably and these rulers were developed their
kingdoms. In 14th century, the Sultans of Delhi were attacked the Kakatiya
rulers few times. Mallik Kafur, leader of Army of Allauddin Khilji defeated
Kakatiya king Pratapa Rudra. Later, an agreement was made between the two
with exchange of gifts and donations. Later in 1322, Tughlak along with his
large army was attacked Warrangal and imprisoned Pratap Rudra of Kakatiya
dynasty and during his journey to Delhi, Pratap Rudra was passed away. During
this time, Kakatiya kingdom was become anarchic. The followers of Pratap
Rudra and total 72 army leaders of Pratap Rudra were united and attacked the


 
Mohammedan army. Of these army leaders, Padma Nayaka, Sardar Prolaya
Nayaka and Prolaya Vemareddy were attacked the Mohammedan army and later
shared the areas of Kakatiya dynasty. In 1324, Prolaya Vemareddy was
established his own kingdom and his capital was ‘Addanki’. He protected the
people from anarchy and frequent attacks. Many of the names and fames such
as Palavaditya, Pallava, Trinetra, etc were given to Prolaya Vemareddy and his
successors. Hence, it can be said that the origin of Prolaya Vemareddy is from
Veerashaiva and Lingayats and they are successors of Pallava kings. These
rulers were belonged to Pakanadu or Pantaredlu communities and devote Shiva.
In his work entitled ‘Bheema Khanda’, poet of Andhra Pradesh Srinath referred
about Desati Vemareddy, son of Prolaya Vemareddy was popular with name
‘Basava Shankara’.

Even though there are frequent attacks from Delhi Sultanates, Prolaya
Vemareddy with the help 75 of his army leaders under the leadership of
Kapayya Nayaka, Kakatiya areas were regained from Muslims by Prolaya
Vemareddy. In this way, he re-established Hindu kingdom in south India.

During the rule of Prolaya Vemareddy, the Kondaveedu area was with
peace and progress. There was encouragement to art, architecture and literature.
These rulers encouraged Iranna poet, who translated Ramayana into Telugu.
They built strong fortresses at Kondappali and Kondaveedu. Prolaya
Vemareddy was strongest and brave ruler and administrator from Reddy
community. During his rule, Reddy kingdom was extended from Srishailam of
West to Karavali of East, Kalinga of Orissa to Bahamani kingdom border of
North and Karkata of Tamil Nadu in south. He built few of temples at Srishailam
and built steps to Patal Ganga in Srishailam. The Prolaya Vemareddy (1324-
1353), Ane Vootu Reddy (1353-1364), Anavemareddy (1364-1386), Kumaragiri


 
Reddy (1386-1402), Pewa Komati Reddy Vema Reddy (1402-1420) and Rasa
Vemareddy (142-1424) were rulers of Kondaveedu area and successors of
Prolaya Vemareddy. As the Rasa Vemareddy was unable to administer the
Kondaveedu region, it was occupied by Vijayanagar rulers.

The Reddy rulers ruled coastal and central Andhra for over a hundred
years from 1325 to 1448 CE. At its maximum extent, the Reddy kingdom
stretched from Simhachalam to the north, Kanchi to the south and Srishailam to
the west. The initial capital of the kingdom was Addanki. Later it was moved to
Kondavidu and subsequently to Rajahmundry. The Reddys were known for
their fortifications. There are Reddy hill forts at Kondapalli, north west of
Vijayawada and at Kondavidu, near Guntur. The forts of Bellamkonda,
Vinukonda and Nagarjunakonda in the Palnadu region were also part of the
Reddy kingdom. The dynasty remained in power till the middle of the 15th
century and was supplanted by the Gajapatis of Orissa, who gained control of
coastal Andhra. The Gajapatis eventually lost control of coastal Andhra after the
death of Gajapati ruler Kapilendra. The territories of the Reddy kingdom
eventually came under the control of the Vijayanagara Empire.

It is noted that there were many leaders in army and administrators from
Reddy Community in Vijayanagar Empire. The Reddy people were strong and
brave and even ambitious as they were interested to extend Hindu kingdom at
south India under Vijayanagar Empire.

Initially, the rising kingdoms of Vijayanagara and the Reddy kingdom


were locked up in a territorial struggle for supremacy in the coastal region of
Andhra Pradesh. Later, they united and became allies against their common
archrivals—the Bahamani Sultans and the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda


 
who had formed an alliance. This political alliance between Vijayanagara and
the Reddy kingdom was cemented further by a matrimonial alliance. Harihara-II
of Vijayanagara gave his daughter in marriage to Kataya Vema Reddy’s son
Kataya. The Reddy rulers of Rajahmundry exercised a policy of annexation and
invasion of Kalinga (present Orissa). However, the suzerainty of Kalinga rulers
was to be recognized. In 1443 CE, determined to put an end to the aggressions of
the Reddy kingdom, the Gajapati ruler Kapilendra of Kalinga formed an
alliance with the Velamas and launched an attack on the Reddy kingdom of
Rajahmundry. Veerabhadra Reddy allied himself with Vijayanagara ruler
Devaraya-II and defeated Kapilendra. After the death of Devaraya II in 1446 CE,
he was succeeded by his son, Mallikarjuna Raya. Overwhelmed by difficulties at
home, Mallikarjuna Raya recalled the Vijayanagara forces from Rajahmundry.
Veerabhadra Reddy died in 1448 CE. Seizing this opportunity, the Gajapati ruler
Kapilendra sent an army under the leadership of his son Hamvira into the Reddy
kingdom, took Rajahmundry and gained control of the Reddy kingdom. The
Gajapatis eventually lost control of coastal Andhra after the death of Kapilendra.
The territories of the Reddy kingdom eventually came under the control of the
Vijayanagara Empire.

Later, Reddys became the military chieftains of the Vijayanagara rulers.


They along with their private armies accompanied and supported the
Vijayanagara army in the conquest of new territories. These chieftains were
known by the title of Paleyagars. The Reddy Paleyagars were appointed to
render military services in times of war, collect revenue from the populace and
pay to the royal treasury. The chieftains exercised considerable autonomy in
their respective provinces. The ancestors of the legendary Uyyalawada
Narasimha Reddy- who led an armed rebellion against the British East India


 
Company, were Paleyagars. The famous Vellore Fort was built in the 16th
century by Bommi Reddi who was a chieftain of the Vijayanagara ruler
Sadashiva Raya. Reddys were historically dominant in the province of
Rayalaseema, part of modern day Andhra Pradesh. By the end of the 16th
century, during the regime of the Vijayanagara King Aliya Ramaraju, when the
Vijayanagara empire was declining, several poligar chieftains from Rayalaseema
declared their independence and continued to rule over their territories.

During the Nizam’s rule also, Reddy leaders were continued to lead
villages and towns and they were popularly known as landlords, Desai and
Doora. Even from 1940 to 1948, many Reddy leaders were began movement
against the administration of the Nizam and liberated the Hyderabad State from
Nizam. In this way, they were protected and developed Hinduism in South
India.

The Reddys continued to be Chieftains, village policemen, tax collectors


and farmers in the Telangana region, throughout Turkish rule and under the
Nizams. The Reddy landlords styled themselves as Desais , Doras and Patel.
Several Reddys were noblemen in the court of Nizam Nawabs. During the
communist led Telangana people’s movement against the Nizam state in the
1940s many Reddys actively took part in the struggle.

Reddys were the landed gentry known as the Deshmukhs and part of the
Nizam’s administration. The Reddy landlords styled themselves as Desais,
Doras and Patel. Several Reddys were noblemen in the court of Nizam Nawabs
and held many high positions in the Nizam’s administrative set up. Raja Bahadur
Venkatarama Reddy was made Kotwal of Hyderabad in 1920 during the reign of
the seventh Nizam Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jaha VII. Raja Bahadur

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Venkatarama Reddy was the first Hindu to be made Kotwal of Hyderabad as in
the late 19th and early 20th century, during the Islamic rule of the Nizams, the
powerful position of Kotwal of Hyderabad was held only by Muslims. His
tenure lasted almost 14 years and he commanded great respect among the public
for his outstanding police administration. He was conferred the title of Order of
the British Empire by King George-V.

Several Reddys were at the forefront of the anti-Nizam movement. In


1941, communist leaders Ravi Narayana Reddy and Baddam Yella Reddy
transformed the Andhra Mahasabha into an anti-Nizam united mass militant
organisation and led an armed struggle against the Nizam's regime. A. Lakshmi
Narasimha Reddy and Kodanda Rami Reddy were also part of this movement.

During the British period, Reddys ruled many local dominions


(samsthanams) until the British seized their power. The British appointed
Reddys as Zamindars or landlords and tax collectors. They were also enlisted in
the British army. One of most prominent figures from the community during the
British period is Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy. He challenged the British and
led an armed rebellion against the British East India Company in 1846. He was
finally captured and hanged in 1847. His uprising was one of the earlier
rebellions against the British rule in India as it was 10 years before the famous
Indian Rebellion of 1857.

During the freedom movement against the British, there were also
freedom fighters from Reddy community, notably, Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy,
Ponaka Kanakamma, Dodla Rukmanamma, Ravi Narayan Reddy, Tikkavarapu
Rami Reddy, Tikkavarapu Venkata Reddy, Rebala Laxmi Narasa Reddy, Enuga

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Pattabhirama Reddy, Devarapalli Venkata Krishna Reddy, Suri Eshwara Reddy,
and such others were significant.

In Andhra Pradesh, there are two divisions among Kapus, Panta Kapu and
Panta Reddy. In Panta Reddy, there are 14 divisions. In this way, even though
Reddy community is a single community, there are many divisions among the
Reddy community. Now Reddy people are spread all over Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, Maharashtra and Kerala. In Andhra Pradesh, they are rich farmers and
engaged in trade. In all the above stated States, they are continued to be rich
merchants and farmers.

It can be summarized from the above discussion that the Reddys were
rulers since Rastrakutas period. Later, during the British rule, many of the
Reddys were played a significant role in freedom movement over Andhra
Pradesh and Karnataka.

It is emphasized that after independence, first Chief Ministers of Tamil


Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were belonged to Reddy Community.
Neelam Sanjeev Reddy become first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, K.C.
Reddy was first Chief Minister of Karnataka and O.P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar
was become first Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.

Reddy Community in Karnataka:

Majority of the Reddys in Karnataka are purely vegetarians and devotees


of Shiva. On the other hand, Reddys of Andhra Pradesh are devotees of Sri
Venkatesh of Tirupati and they are also non-vegetarians. Hence, there is clear
division between the Reddy community in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

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Table 1.1
Total population of Reddy community

Name of the City Urban Rural Total


Kalburgi 22000 16500 38500
Afzalpur 100 500 600
Aland 1300 2500 3800
Chincholi 8000 12000 20000
Chitapur 500 4500 5000
Jevargi 100 2000 2100
Sedam 14500 15500 30000
48700 51000 100000

Source : Field Survey

Types of Reddy Committee


There are 39 types of Reddy’s community. They are as follows :
Panta, Pedaganti, Pakanati, Mutati, Velanati, Nereti, Pongalnati,
Gandikota, Bhumanchi, Munnuti, Desati, Oraganti, Namadhari, Kodati, Sajjana,
Morasu, Kuribeti, Kammapuri, Ayodya, Gona, Chittepu, Kunchadagu, Gajula,
Konedela, Gudati, Gonagunta, Desuri, Nanugonda, Neravatu, Palle, Bhusa,
Togarchedu, Yedlanu, Renati, Laligunda, Munnuru, Sadara, Aritapu, Vibhuti
and in Bangaluru Reddy’s are known as Balija.

From the diagram 1.1 we understand that in 11 sub division communities


Pakanaka’s population (40%), and Munnuru Population (20%) they are
dominated in Kalaburgi district. Remaining subdivisions Mutati (10%),
Chitmitt(5%), Yellamma (8%), Hema (8%), Namadhari (1%), Kammapuri(1%),
Vibhuti (1%), Sajjana(1%) respectively. Other Subdivision are Panta, Pedagandi,
Nereti, Gandikota, Ayodya, Pongalanati, Bhumanchi, Munnoti, Desuri,
Orugandi, Kodati, Morasu, Kuricheti, Konidele, Aritaku, Togarchedu, Yadlanu,

13 
 
G
Gajula Gonna, Gonaguunta, Kuncchadagu, Nanugonda
N a, Palle, B
Bhusa, Lalligunda,
N
Nerevatu, R
Renati com
mes under 8%.
8 Thesee populatioon found inn Andha Pradesh,
P
T
Tamil Naduu, Kerala.

Sajjjana, sadara, 1
Vibhuti, 1
Kam
mmapuri, 1
Nam
madhari, 1 Other Sub 
division, 8
Chipmitt, 5
Hema, 5 Pakan
nati, 40

Yellamma, 8

Mutati,gurach
M hi, 10

Munnuraa, 20

Diagraam 1.1 Sub


bdivisionss of Reddyy communiity

Majorrity of thhe Reddy community living in Karnaataka belo


ongs to
L
Lingayats c
called Hem
mareddy annd a few off sub-divisions of Reeddy comm
munities
suuch as Motati Reddyy, Chitta Mitta
M Reddy
y and Vellaamma Redddy are also
o living
inn Karnatakka. The Reddy
R peoople are liv
ving in boorders of K
Karnataka,, Bidar,
G
Gulbarga, R
Raichur, B
Bellary, T
Tumkur, Dharwad,
D B
Bijapur, B
Bagalkot, Haveri,
G
Gadag, Chiikkamagaluur and Kollar districtss. Accordding J.H. H
Hutton, thee Reddy
coommunity is biggestt communiity after Brahmins.
B In Tamil Nadu, thee Reddy
people are called as ‘Reddiyaar’. Amon
ng the Reeddy comm
munity, th
here are
V
Veerashaiva
a and Vaisshnava Grooups. Among the Veerashaivaa Reddy, th
here are

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subdivisions such as Motati Reddy, Kamma Reddy, Peddankati Reddy,
Pasubandi Reddy, Velamma Kapu, Pakanaka Reddy and Parinadi Reddy.
Among Vaishnava Reddy group, there are sub-divisions such as Petinata Reddy,
Pakinata Reddy, Pedakanta Reddy, Kudati Reddy and Panta Reddy. Even
though, there are many subdivisions, these are just surnames rather than
subcastes or castes, but commonly all these groups are united under Reddy
Community.

These communities are entirely different from the Reddy community of


Andhra Pradesh. Majority of the Lingayat Reddys are devotees of Hemareddy
Mallamma, Shivasharane (devotee of Srishail Mallikarjun in 15th Century) and
Srishail Mallikarjun. Reddys in Karnataka are also followers of Shivasharanas
such as Basavanna, Akkamahadevi, etc.

Following is a list of elites and leaders in Karnataka and belonged to


Reddy community.

1. K.C. Reddy, first Chief Minister of Karnataka, Member of Constitution


Drafting Committee and Governor of Madhya Pradesh.

2. H. Seetha Ramareddy, Member of Parliament and Member of


Constitution Drafting Committee.

3. K.H. Patil, former Minister of Government of Karnataka.

4. H.K. Patil, present Minister in Government of Karnataka.

5. Sudha Reddy, former Member of Parliament.

6. Mutha Govinda Reddy: former Home Minister, Government of


Karnataka, Dharwad.

7. R.M. Patil: former Home Minister, Government of Karnataka, Dharwad.

15 
 
8. H.C. Lingareddy: former Member of Parliament, Kolar district.

9. Leelavati Magadi, former Member of Parliament, Bellary district.

10. Basavarajeshwari, former Minister and Leader of Congress (I) party,


Bellary.

11. Sharanabasappa Darshanapur: former Minister, Govt of Karnataka,


Gulbarga district.

12. Basavarajappa Darshanapur, former Minister, Govt of Karnataka,


Gulbarga district.

13. G. Janardhan Reddy: former Minister, Govt of Karnataka, Bellary

14. G. Karunakar Reddy: former Minister, Govt of Karnataka, Bellary

15. G. Somashekhar Reddy: Member of Legislative Council, Bellary.

16. Ramalingareddy: present Minister, Government of Karnataka.

17. Rajalingareddy: former Member of Legislative Assembly.

18. Basavaraj Horatti: former Minister of Govt of Karnataka.

19. A.B. Malaka Reddy, former Medical Minister, Govt of Karnataka,


Gulbarga.

20. Vishwanath Reddy, Mudnal: former Minister

The above stated leaders were become popular in politics and still many
more leaders are in politics. There are also officers, who have become popular
in their duties, social service and administration. A few of these officers are as
under.

1. N.V. Reddy: former Inspector General of Police.

2. S.V.V. Reddy: former IAS Officer and former Chairman, Mysore Paper
Mills.

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3. N.K. Hanumantha Reddy: former Chief Engineer, PWD.

4. N.C. Muniswami Reddy: former Chief Engineer, Government of


Karnataka.

5. Manojkumar Reddy: IFS Officer.

6. Rajakumar Shankargouda Kamareddy: Chairman of Amarjyoti


Organizations, Hubli.

7. Basavaraj Karabasappanavar, Editor of Reddy Balaga.

8. H.R. Biradar: Winner of Karnataka Bhushana award, Bijapur.

9. Channappagouda Nadagouda, State Award Winner, Bagalakot.

10. Mallanagouda, Teacher won National Award for his contribution in


Education, Hungund, Dist: Bagalkot.

Even though, a considerable portion of population constitute from Reddy


community, as their names do not include the term ‘Reddy’ and hence, it is
difficult to identify many of the noted people from Reddy community. Even
there are very popular personalities in different sectors in Andhra Pradesh and
Tamil Nadu.

Hemareddy Mallamma:

Whenever there is use of the term ‘Reddy’, the one must have to know
about Hemareddy Mallamma. There is a story for the term ‘Hemareddy’. That
is, a farmer named Aliyareddy with the blessings of Srishail Mallikarjun, began
converting water and such other materials into gold and also used to give to the
poor people. In this way, he was become rich and popular and built Kondaveedu
town and become King of the Kondaveedu area.

17 
 
Long ago, there was Vemanna, a merchant living in Srishailam and he was
devotee of Lord Mallikarjuna. It was said that even though he was restricted by
lord Mallikarjun to leave Srishailam, he went from Srishailam and during his
journey, he was faced many of the difficulties. He felt tired and thirst and he
was seen a pond. He was used to drink water from pond and his finger ring of
iron was become gold ring. He remembered Srishail Mallikarjun and he was

18 
 
took two earthern pitches of water from the pond. When he was stayed in
Aliyareddy’s house on the way, he was kept two pitches of water. When plough
of Aliyareddy was touched with these pitches, it was become golden. By
knowing this, Vemanna was burnt the house of Aliya Reddy and rushed outside
with these pitches, he was died due to burns. Aliya Reddy was came out from
his burning hut and got these pitches. In this way, Aliya Reddy become rich by
converting all and giving the same to the poor to solve their problems. Later,
Aliya Reddy built a town called ‘Kondaveedu’.

Mahayogi Vemana

19 
 
The term ‘Hema’ means Gold and as Aliya reddy was developed through
Gold, his clan was become popular as ‘Hemareddy’. In this clan, Hemareddy

Mallamma, a great devotee of Srishail Mallikarjun was born. She was dedicated
devotee and made many miracles for the welfare of the people and society. In
Kondaveedu region, Mallamma was born to Vemana Nagareddy and Gouramma
couple of Somareddy clan in Ramapur probably in 1390. Her name was
Narasambe during her child hood. Later, she was become devotee of lord
Mallikarjun of Srishailam. Due to her parent’s culture, she was become well
cultured in devotion and good moral characters at her early childhood.

She was married with Bharamareddy, son of Kumaragiri Reddy of


Siddapur. She used to perform puja (devotion) of Srishail Mallikarjuna and used

to wear sacred ash (Vibhuti) and Kumkum daily. She was also performing
Dasoha (charity of food and others) to people. Like others, she was also faced
many difficulties from her mother-in-law in her husband’s house. Even though
she faced difficulties in her house, she was not left her dedicated devotion to lord
Mallikarjuna. Lord Mallikarjuna in disguise met Mallamma and blessed her in
her duties and devotion. Due to the blessings of Mallikarjuna, all of her
problems were solved and her family was become rich. Many writers were
described that Mallamma was started doing miracles so as to solve the problems
and difficulties of common people. It has said that she got boon from Srishail
Mallikarjun that the Reddy community should not suffer from any of the
economic difficulties and always lead rich life. The popular saint poet Vemana,
was brother-in-law of Mallamma and due to the blessings of Mallamma he was
popular saint and poet.

20 
 
Social Culture and Traditions of Reddy Community:

Now, Reddy community is identified many of the ceremonies with


Lingayat communities in Karnataka and Vaishnava communities in Andhra
Pradesh. Traditionally, there were following ceremonies celebrated and
performed by Reddy communities at different occasions.

1. Patrika: A marriage contract is drawn up by both families

2. Nishchithartham: The engagement

3. Vara Puja: A 'puja' is performed in honour of the bridegroom

4. Pen Dlipilla or Haldipaspu: Ritual Bath and beautification of the bride

5. Vivaaham (Muhuurtham) : Commencement of the marriage ceremonies

6. KankaNa Shaastra: Invoking the blessings of all the deities

7. Kanyaadaanam: Giving away the bride

8. Saptapadi: Seven steps around the sacred fire

9. GruhapravEsham: The couple enters the marital home

10. Reception: Post wedding celebrations ( evening of wedding day)

11. KalyaNautsavam: A 'puja' in the Venkateshwara Temple in Tirupathi

The marriage rituals begin with a promise made by both families to each
other that a wedding will be solemnized. After consultations with an astrologer,
an auspicious day and time are fixed for the marriage ceremony and both the
concerned parties draw up written contracts. These contracts are then placed in
yellow cloth bundles along with Betel Leaf, turmeric, nuts and fruits and blessed
by an officiating 'pujari'. In present days marriages between Subdivisions are
allowed.

21 
 
The marriage ceremony among Reddys has changed considerably over
the past two hundred years. Originally, the process started with the examination
of the horoscopes of the bride and bridegroom to see if their respective stars
agree astrologically. This is still done today in some conservative Reddy
families. If the stars do not match, families may go so far as to cancel the
marriage and seek another prospective bride or groom. If the astrological
predictions are favourable, further examination is taken to appoint an auspicious
date and time for the ceremony. During the celebration, there would be a
presentation of danom (wealth or alms) to Brahmins, and a sadhya (feast). The
bride and bridegroom would meet in the central room of the house, 'akshathe'-
turmeric coated rice would be sprinkled on their heads. These proceedings
essentially describe a basic Reddy marriage as was the custom about two
hundred years ago. In addition to these general ceremonies, there are local
variations.

In Telangana region, there is a Podamuri or Vastradanam ceremony. In


this ceremony, the initial examination of horoscopes takes place at the house of
the bride in the presence of the bride's and bridegroom's families. The astrologer
writes his calculations and opinion on a piece of palmyra leaf and hands it over
to the bridegroom's relations. If the horoscopes match, a day is fixed for the
ceremony. This date is also written down and handed to the bride's family and to
the bridegroom’s relations. The astrologer and the bridegroom's party are then
invited to a feast in the bride's house. The astrologer also receives gifts in the
form of money or cloth.

Three to four days prior to the wedding date, the bridegroom visits his
Family and caste-elders to receive permission to leave for the wedding. The
bridegroom presents them with betel and nut and obtains formal sanction for the

22 
 
wedding. The bridegroom then proceeds, accompanied by a number of his
friends to the house of his bride. He is received at the gate of the house by the
bride's relations and is led with his friends, to seats provided in the main hall of
the house. The bridegroom distributes gifts to all the Brahmins present. After
this, the whole party is invited to take part in another sadhya. The astrologer then
appears announces the auspicious hour that has been fixed and leaves after
receiving his dues. The bridegroom is then taken by one of his friends to the
padinitta (principal/western room of the house, where religious ceremonies are
conducted). New clothes and betel leaf and nut, that the bridegroom's party has
brought are placed in this room. The room will be decorated and turned into a
bedroom for the occasion. In this room will also be placed a number of lighted
lamps as well as the ashtamangaliam (eight articles symbolizing mangaliam or
marriage). These are rice, paddy, the tender leaves of the coconut tree, an arrow,
a looking glass, a well-washed cloth, a burning fire, and a small rounded wooden
box. The bridegroom with his groomsman enters the room through the eastern
door, while the bride, dressed in beautiful clothes and decorated with jewelry
enters the room through the western door accompanied by her aunt or another
elderly lady of the family. The bride stands facing east with the ashtamangaliam
and lit-up lamps in front of her. The groomsman hands over to the bridegroom a
few pieces of the new cloth and the bridegroom puts them into the hands of the
bride. After this, the lady who accompanied the bride sprinkles rice over the lit-
up lamps and over the heads and shoulders of the bride and bridegroom. The
bridegroom then leaves the room to go to the kins to present his elders and
friends with cakes and betel leaf and nut. After the guests have left, the bride and
bridegroom retire to the bedroom. Next morning a ceremony is conducted and
the bridegroom's female relations take the bride to the husband's house, where a
feast is held in honour of the occasion. After marriage, the bride remains in her

23 
 
own home, and her husband will often visit her, while remaining a member of
his own home. The children, of course, will belong to their mother's home in
accordance with the marumakkathaayam system.

In the modern days, a number of the individual ceremonies have been


abandoned or condensed. However, one can still see elements of the older
ceremonies in the new ones. Families may observe all or part of the following
ceremonies. The first ceremony is the Vivaha Nischayam or simply Nischayam.
In this ceremony, an astrologer is consulted to set an auspicious date for the
wedding. Horoscopes may or may not be compared depending on the wish of the
individual or their families. After both families consent to the marriage, the
couple visits the bride's home. This meeting may be a simple affair, or a large
celebration. During the celebration, there may be a Nisachaitharthum (ring
exchange) ceremony. This ceremony may also be conducted later, during the
actual vivaham ceremony. If it is done at bride's house, it is usually done around
a lit nila vilakku (brass oil lamp).

On the evening before the wedding the families of both the bride and the
groom, gather in their respective homes to bless them. On the day of the
wedding, the bride and the groom will separately visit a temple near their homes.
The temple can belong to any God except Lord Ayyappa or Lord Hanuman as
they are bachelors. The bride's parents carry the Mangalyasutram or taali, a
necklace that is a symbol of eternal union, to be blessed by the priests. Upon
returning home, the bride and groom touch the feet of the elders of the family
and receive blessings. This is called Namaskaaram.

The actual wedding may take place in a Kalyana Mandapam (a hall rented
for the occasion), temple, or hotel. The bride’s family receives the groom's

24 
 
family at the entrance of the venue to the tune of Nadaswarams (long wind-
instruments) and the beats of the thayli (large drums beaten with curved sticks).
The groom stands on a wooden plank while the bride's younger brother washes
his feet. The bride’s aunts perform aarti for the groom with a thaali (platter), on
which are arranged wicks made of twisted cotton. The groom is then escorted to
the Mandapam (platform constructed to perform the wedding rites) by two rows
of young girls. One girl carries the Changala Vatta (sacred oil lamp), while
another carries the Ashtamangaliya. The girls following the first two, carry the
Taala Phuli (platters of rice, turmeric, and flowers on which oil lamps made of
coconut shells are placed). With his parents on either side, the groom follows the
girls around the Mandapam and seats himself on the right side of the canopy,
which is decorated by flowers, fabric, palm fronds, and banana stalks. The bride
is then escorted by her aunt to the Mandapam to the sound of the Nadaswarams
and Thaylis. All those who are present on the Mandapam stand when the bride
arrives. She stands facing to the east, with the groom facing her. At the
auspicious moment set by the astrologer for the Muhurtham (the most auspicious
time), the groom ties the thali around the bride's neck to the beating of drums.
He is assisted by the bride's uncle because on no account should the Thaali be
allowed to fall. In some Reddy communities, the traditional Thaali is a gold
pendant strung on a yellow thread. The bride has to wear this for three days after
the wedding ceremony. After the three days have passed, the thread is replaced
by a golden chain.

After the tying of the Thaali, the groom gifts the bride a sari and a blouse
on a platter. This signifies that he will now assume the responsibility of
providing for her. The groom’s mother also gifts the bride with some jewelry at
this time. The couple then exchange garlands accepting each other as life

25 
 
partners. The bride's father then places the bride's hand in the groom's, thus
handing over his daughter to the groom in holy matrimony. The couple is then
escorted to a room by their older relatives, who bless them. After the marriage
ceremony, the bride gets a send-off from her house. The couple leaves for the
groom's house escorted by a few people from the bride’s family. The groom's
mother and older female relatives perform aarti with an oil lamp (which rests on
a platter heaped with rice mixed with turmeric) and receive them at the entrance.
Both bride and groom enter the house, right foot forward. The bride is then
required to kick over a large pot containing rice, symbolizing prosperity. After
the wedding ceremony a wedding reception may be performed if the families so
wish.

Later, Seemantham or pulikudi is performed when a woman is six months


pregnant. On an auspicious day, after applying home-made Ayurvedic oil with
massage, a customary bath is carried out with the help of the elderly women in
the family and then the family deity is worshipped, by invoking all the gods and
goddesses. After that, a concoction of Herbal Medicines prepared in the
traditional way is given to the woman. The woman will be dressed up in new
clothes and ornaments used for such occasions. The family then offers a feast to
all the relatives. The woman continues with the prescribed medicines until the
child birth.

Jananam accompanies the birth of a child. The newbord is bathed. Gold


rubbed on a stone with honey with ‘Vayampu’ (a herbal medicine) is applied on
the tongue of the newborn as the first food.

The social culture of the Reddy is also slightly different from other castes
of the region such as Lingayats. The marriage rituals begin with a promise made

26 
 
by both families to each other that a wedding will be solemnized. After
consultations with an astrologer, an auspicious day and time are fixed for the
marriage ceremony and both the concerned parties draw up written contracts.
These contracts are then placed in yellow cloth bundles along with betel leaf,
turmeric, nuts and fruits and blessed by an officiating ‘pujari’. In present days
marriages between Subdivisions are allowed. The Marriage Card (Lagna
Patrika), Nischitartha, Vara Puja, Saptapadi, etc rituals performed by the Reddy
community during the marriage.

Seemantha or pulikudi is performed when a woman is six months


pregnant. On an auspicious day, after applying home-made Ayurvedic oil with
massage, a customary bath is carried out with the help of the elderly women in
the family and then the family deity is worshipped, by invoking all the gods and
goddesses. After that, a concoction of herbal medicines prepared in the
traditional way is given to the woman. The woman will be dressed up in new
clothes and ornaments used for such occasions. The family then offers a feast to
all the relatives. The woman continues with the prescribed medicines until the
child birth. Jananam accompanies the birth of a child. The new born is bathed.
Gold rubbed on a stone with honey with ‘vayampu’ (a herbal medicine) is
applied on the tongue of the newborn as the first food.

Generally the culture of the Reddy’s is impacted by locality and groups in


the Reddy community. It is noted that like other communities, the women are
having secondary status in the family. Even though, the Reddy people are rich
and males in the community are highly educated, the education of the female is
not considered as significant among the Reddy community. Now-a-days, only
the women in urban areas from Reddy communities are getting higher education.

27 
 
In Gulbarga district, almost all the Reddy community belonged to
‘Pakanaka Reddy’ and Motati Reddy, Chitta Mitta Reddy, Vellamma Reddy and
Munnuru Reddy are rare. It is noted that almost all the reddy community is
purely vegetarian and only Munnuru Reddy are non-vegetarians. The social
cultures of all these communities are like those of the Lingayats in Karnataka.

Realizing the present socio-economic and educational status of Reddy


community, in many places there are associations and organizations of the
community were formed. As such, in Gulbarga district, ‘Hemareddy Mallamma
Pattina Sahakara Sangha’ (Hemareddy Mallamma Co-operative Credit Society)
was established on 10th May 1997. The aims and functions of this society is to
promote education among the reddy community by establishing educational
institutions and hostels, economic help by establishing co-operative credit
society, to help socially, the Reddy matrimonial activities are undertaken and
there is also women’s association of the Reddy community. It is highlighted that
a ‘Samudaya Bhavan’ (Community Hall) of Reddy communities is under
progress.

In Gulbarga, another such association of ‘Munnuru Samaja’ was


established at the early 1977 to unite ‘Munnuru Reddy’ community. It is also
serving the Munnuru Reddy community in variety of ways.

Reddy community is strong and constitutes considerable majority of


population in Andhra Pradesh. It is also strong community in Karnataka and in
Tamil Nadu also there are Reddiyar community. Though it constitutes a
considerable portion of population and many of the personalities in different
fields such as social, economic, educational and political, have contributed much
towards the development of nation, still none of the studies were made on Reddy

28 
 
community in any of these states. Hence, the present study is made on social
status of women in Reddy community.

The women were not got equal status in many of the subdivisions of the
Reddy community. But due to the educational change and increase of
participation in employment, the women in Reddy are developing and getting
social status. Hence, the present study is made to identify the social status of
women in Reddy community in Gulbarga district.

1.2. Statement of the Problem:

As discussed above, even though Reddy community have rich heritage in


Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and present day, majority of the people under the
Reddy community are rich, still the status of females is lower in the community.
Hence, the present study is made under the title “A Sociological Study of
Women in Reddy Community in Gulbarga district”.

1.3. Significance of the Study:

As discussed above, even though there are rulers and dynasties from the
Reddy community, so far none of the books were published on the Reddy
community and none of the studies were conducted to reveal their social culture.
Now, the Reddy community is a forward community, even though, it was
engaged in agriculture, due to the impact of modernization and education, now
there are politicians, industrialists, businessmen, professionals, NRIs, etc
developed in Reddy community. It is observed that even though there is
development of Reddy community, still the women in Reddy community are not
got status equal to men. Hence, the present study is proved as significant in

29 
 
revealing the status of women in particular and the development of the Reddy
community in general.

1.4. Objectives of the Study:

The present study is made:

1. To know about the socio-economic status of women in Reddy


community;

2. To study the education, employment and occupations, if any of the


women in Reddy community;

3. To analyze the religious and political aspects of the women in Reddy


community;

4. To look whether the status of women is equal with men;

5. To study the role of women in family in the Reddy community; and

6. To study on the overall development of women in Reddy community in


particular and among all the communities in general.

1.5. Hypotheses:

Following hypotheses are formed for the present study.

1. Though educated, majority of the women in Reddy community are not


participating in family decision making.
2. Though educated, majority of women in Reddy community support
dowry practice as they can’t go against the wishes of their elders and
society.
3. Future of Girls is depending on Education and Employment of girls rather
than married life.

30 
 
4. Status of Women is Lower in Reddy communities.
5. Employed or Self-employed Women have gained more economic and
social benefits.
6. Majority of the Women in Reddy Communities believe in religion and
caste as they feel proud about their communities.

1.6. Limitations of the Study:

As discussed in the methodology of the study in third chapter of this


report, the study is limited to the information collected from the women in
Reddy community. As discussed in methodology, the sample survey was made
to collect the primary data from the women in Reddy community and hence, the
present study is limited to 500 women in Reddy community living in different
talukas of Gulbarga district.

1.7. Chapterization:

The present research report is structured into six chapters with three
appendixes as under.

The first chapter provided brief background information to the research


topic. Here the origin of the Reddy community, its history, popular personalities,
etc of the Reddy community in different states is discussed. Further, research
problem is clearly defined. The significance of the study is discussed. The need
for this research topic is discussed briefly. The clear aims and objectives were
described. The scope and limitations are set in this chapter. Some
generalizations and assumptions are fixed as hypothesis of the study. The first
chapter will be written under the title “Introduction to the Study”.

31 
 
Before conducting the present study, it is necessary to know about the
research gap in the studies that are already conducted. Hence, the studies
already conducted and published already in the secondary literature such as
research papers, books, journals, articles, conference and seminar papers that are
published were reviewed in the second chapter under the title “Review of
Literature”.

Geographical territory plays an important role in the status and


development of the people. As such it is also applicable to the Reddy
community in Gulbarga district. Hence, there is need to study on the Gulbarga
district in particular. The fourth chapter presented the area, demography,
population, literacy, education, employment, occupation, environment, health,
hygiene, sanitation, etc of the Gulbarga district. Research methodology plays
significant role in describing step-by-step procedure in the present study. Hence,
the different stages of research, meaning and definitions used in the research
study, variables studied, etc are discussed in third chapter under title ‘Universe
and Research Methodology’.

As discussed above, primary data is collected from the women from


Reddy community. The collected primary data is analyzed, interpreted and
discussed in tables and percentages are calculated to compare the variables. The
collected primary data on socio-economic aspects is discussed in the fourth
chapter “Social and Educational Status”.

Further, the culture, occupation, employment, political aspects, religious


aspects, etc are also playing important role in the social status of women. As
such, primary data collected from the women in Reddy community is analyzed,

32 
 
interpreted and discussed in the fifth chapter under the title “Economic,
Political and Religious Status”.

After the analysis and interpretation of the primary data, certain findings
were derived from the study and summaries of the study were stated. Useful
suggestions are given for improvement and development of status of women in
Reddy community in Gulbarga district. Further, the research study is concluded.
Hence, the sixth chapter is written under the title “Findings and Conclusion”.

Apart from the above stated seven chapters, two appendixes are given at
the end covering Bibliography and Interview Schedule. The research papers,
books, Journal articles etc. that are used and relevant to the present study are
listed in appendix-1 under the title ‘Bibliography’. The Interview Schedule used
to collect primary data from the patients and general public is given in
Appendix-2.

1.8. References:

1. Ananth Krishnaiah (1973) in Prajamatha, Kannada Weekly, 1973. P. 23.

2. Barnall (1973): Prajamatha, Kannada Weekly, 1973. P. 25.

3. Burton, Stein (1989): Vijayanagar. Cambridge University Press, 1989.

4. Chopra, Pran Nath (1982): A Comprehensive History of Ancient India.


New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

5. Frykenberg, Robert Eric (1965): Guntur District, 1788-1848: A History of


Local Influence and Central Authority in South India. Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1965.

6. Hanakuni, Amruthareddy Hasareddy (2009): Reddy Jananga mattu


Hemareddy Mallamma. Bidar: Hemareddy Mallamma Prakashan, 2009.

7. Karen Isaksen Leonard (2007): Locating Home: India’s Hyderabadis


Abroad. New York: Stanford University Press, 2007.

33 
 
8. Kimberly Chung (1997): Identifying the Food Insecure: The Application
of Mixed Method Approaches in India. International Food Policy
Research Institute, 1997.

9. Ludden, David E (1999): An Agrarian History of South Asia. Cambridge


University Press, 1999.

10. Mooguti, Sri Hemareddy Mallamma, Smarana Samputa, 1974.

11. Reddy Community: http://www.reddy.com

12. Sanjay Subrahmanyam (2001): Penumbral Visions: Making Polities in


Early Modern South India.University of Michigan Press, 2001.

13. Sharma, Somashekhar (1984): The Reddy Kingdoms. Dharwad:


Karnataka University, 1984.

14. Wikipedia: The Online Encyclopedia: http://www.wikipedia.org .

34 
 

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