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Infancy & Toddlerhood

Infancy Toddlerhood
- Physical - Physical
- Born with adaptive reflexes for survival and gratification, including - 12-36 months: Unsteady walking
rooting, blinking, and stepping. - Rapid progression of gross and fine motor
- 3-4 months: emergence and strength in Palmer Grasp and Tonic Neck skills
- 6 months: ability to swim and morrow using preventative methods for - Annual increase in height and weight
survival including grasp and cling (Berk, 2013, 4.1) - Cognitive
- Cognitive - Trial and Error experiments
- 2-3 months: Habitation to familiar objects - They try new activities to gain knowledge of cause and effect
- Response to visual and audio stimuli (Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick, 2005, p. 53).
- Social - Social
- 2-6 months: Imitation of facial expressions - According to Berk (2013), "Toddlers who have a warm parental
- 6 months: Babbling relationship or who attend high-quality child care with a small group size
- Language and a generous caregiver–child ratio—features that promote warm,
- Primary communication through crying stimulating caregiving and gentle support for engaging with
- Attend to word regularities and sentence structure peers—display more positive and extended peer exchanges" (15.1).
- Develop turn taking by sentence structure and pauses between words - Sharing, cooperative play with peers, mutual imitated behaviors
- Moral Reasoning/Self-Regulation - Language
- Aggressive behaviors decrease as verbal responses increase (Berk, 2013, - Sensorimotor actions promote language development such as waving
12.5) 'bye'
- Parental influences (e.g. Corporal punishment vs. Positive scaffolding) - 13-18 months: 1-3 words/month
- Atypical - 18-24 months: 10-20 words/week
- Slow reflexes due to birth trauma - Moral Reasoning/Self-Regulation
- Parental exposure to harmful substances - Conceincelike verbalizations (e.g. "No" or "can't touch")
- Difficulty making eye contact, picking up on nonverbal and verbal social - Think of themselves as separate autonomous beings from their caregivers
cues, and imitation - Atypical
- Social & Cultural Influences - In accordance with Hattier et a;. (2013), "The core symptoms include
- To soothe infant cries, Berk (2013) explains, "parents vary widely in marked and pervasive impairment in communication, social interaction
responsiveness. Parents who are high in empathy (ability to take the and ritualistic or stereotyped behaviours" (p. 291).
perspective of others in distress) and who hold “child-centered” attitudes - Signs of children with Autistic behaviors, typically, have difficulties
toward infant care (for example, believe that babies cannot be spoiled by making eye contact, demonstrate repetitive movements, deciphering
being picked up)are more likely to respond quickly and sensitively to a emotional responses, and are unable to self-regulate.
crying baby (Leerkes, 2010; Zeifman, 2003)" (4.1). - Social & Cultural Influences
- Wester families, typically create a separate space for a child to sleep, - Physical direction rather than verbal is a prevalent attachment method in
primarily due to the SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) epidemic hispanic societies (Berk, 2013, 10.5).
- 90% of the world encourages 'co-sleeping' - Western cultures, view physical control intrusive and predict insecurity
- Play Based Strategies (Berk, 2013, 10.5).
- Talk to your baby about their actions and allow time for your baby to talk - Play Based Strategies
back to you with gurgles and imitating sounds (ncca, n.d., p. 2) - Play games like: hide and seek, musical chairs, Ispy, and Simon Says to
- At the park, bring toys that roll (cars/trucks) and roll them in the grass promote body and spatial awareness and cognitive development (ncca,
or over mud, while talking about the actions and giving your baby a n.d., p.2).
chance to roll the toys (ncca, n.d., p. 2). - Match sounds to pictures of card for language development, such as cow
- Once baby is sitting independently, flip pots and pans on the ground, says moo, clock says 'tick tock' (ncca, n.d., p. 2).
letting them bang on them with plastic and wooden utensils aiding in - Play games teaching opposites to develop cognitive skills (e.g. hot/cold,
their cause and effect understanding happy/sad, mean/nice) using familiar words, emotions, and items

Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development. (9th ed.). ​Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson​. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/

Hattier, M. A., Matson, J. L., Macmillan, K., & Williams, L. (2013). Stereotyped behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorders and atypical

development as measured by the BPI-01. ​Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 16​(5), 291–300.


NCCA (n.d.). Supporting your child's play 0-18 months: Information for parents. ​National Council for Curriculum and Assessment.​ Retrieved from


NCCA (n.d.). Supporting your child's play 12 months to 3 years: Information for parents. ​National Council for Curriculum and Assessment.​ Retrieved from


Scannapieco, M. author, & Connell-Carrick, K. (2005). Infancy and Toddlerhood: Child Development and Maltreatment. ​New York: Oxford University Press.