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Colonialism and Postcolonialism

Luegenbiehl, Heinz C. 1983. “Codes of Ethics and the Moral


SEE ALSO Accountability, Data Auditing; Cicero's Creed; Education of Engineers.” Business and Professional Ethics
Engineering Ethics: Overview; Profession and Profes- Journal 2 (4): 41–61, 63–66.
sionalism; Sociological Ethics. An important work on the educational uses of codes of ethics, as well as the
classic statement of the distinction between rules and guidelines.

BIBLIOGRAPHY National Society of Professional Engineers. 2007. “Code of Ethics


for Engineers.” Available from http://www.nspe.org/resources/
Anderson, Ronald E. 1994. “The ACM Code of Ethics: History, pdfs/Ethics/CodeofEthics/Code-2007-July.pdf
Process, and Implications.” In Social Issues in Computing:
Putting Computing in Its Place, edited by Chuck Huff and
Thomas Finholt, 48–71. New York: McGraw-Hill. Michael Davis
An excellent (and rare) description of the writing of a code of ethics in a Revised by Davis
major technological organization (with lots of details about the give-and-
take involved).
Baker, Robert B., Arthur L. Caplan, Linda L. Emanuel, and
Stephen R. Latham, eds. 1999. The American Medical Ethics
Revolution: How the AMA’s Code of Ethics Has Transformed COLONIALISM AND
Physicians’ Relationship to Patients, Professionals, and Society.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. POSTCOLONIALISM
An excellent resource for understanding the writing of what is (arguably) Colonialism, understood provisionally as the European
the first code of ethics governing a technological profession. annexation and administration of lands and populations
Berleur, Jacques, and Marie d’Udekem-Gevers. 2001. “Codes of in the Americas, Africa, and Asia, has been intertwined
Ethics: Conduct for Computer Societies: The Experience of with science, technology, and ethics since the Renaissance.
IFIP.” In Technology and Ethics: A European Quest for Certainly one prelude to colonial expansion was the
Responsible Engineering, edited by Philippe Goujon and European acquisition of military and navigational tech-
Bertrand Hériard Dubreuil, 327–350. Leuven, Belgium: nologies superior to those found on other continents. But
Peeters. the colonial experience also had a formative impact on the
Describes the failure of a major international organization to adopt a code
nascent European science, because it permitted the
of ethics, apparently because of worries about enforceability (a good
example of how theoretical misunderstanding of ethics can undermine
region’s scholars to come into contact with new
attempts to improve a profession’s ethics). environments and data and provided access to alternative
systems of knowledge developed by other cultures. In fact,
Coady, Margaret, and Sidney Bloch, eds. 1996. Codes of Ethics and
the Professions. Victoria, Australia: Melbourne University Press. the requirement of controlling and cataloging colonial
A good collection of essays providing a benchmark for current philosophical
populations and resources led to the creation of new
understanding of codes of ethics in professions. disciplines in the social sciences, such as ethnography,
linguistics, and archaeology. Moreover, this impact has
Davis, Michael. 2002. Profession, Code, and Ethics. Aldershot, UK:
Ashgate. continued into the early twenty-first century, as a new
A major challenge to the current philosophical (and sociological)
scientific discipline, ecology, has found inspiration in the
understanding of professions, with engineering (along with law and police) practices of non-Western precolonial cultures and in the
as one of the three major professions studied. nineteenth-century British and French “colonial conser-
Davis, Michael. 2007. “Eighteen Rules for Writing a Code of vationism” that attempted to deal with the degradation
Professional Ethics.” Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2): caused by the exploitation of recently acquired environ-
171–189. ments and was “able to foresee, with remarkable precision,
A practical guide for writing a code of ethics. the apparently unmanageable environmental problems of
Illinois Institute of Technology. Center for the Study of Ethics in today” (Grove 1995, 12).
the Professions. 2013. “Codes of Ethics Collections.” Accessed Indeed, colonialism had an indirect, though pro-
July 10, 2013. Available from http://ethics.iit.edu/research/ found, impact on European culture. In reaction to the
codes-ethics-collection
frequently genocidal military tactics used by Europeans
An enormous collection of codes of ethics, by far the largest available online.
and the exploitation of indigenous populations that
All codes cited in this entry can be found at this site.
characterized the administration of colonies, few, if any,
Ladd, John. 1980. “The Quest for a Code of Professional other historical events did more to promote the extension
Ethics: An Intellectual and Moral Confusion.” In AAAS
of ethics into the political, social, and legal spheres. In
Professional Ethics Project: Professional Ethics Activities in the
Scientific and Engineering Societies, edited by Rosemary Chalk, politics, such central contemporary concepts as human
Mark S. Frankel, and Sallie Birket Chafer, 154–159. rights, representative democracy, and socialism developed,
Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement at least in part, as reactions to the brutality of the process
of Science. of colonization and to the contact with non-European
A classic challenge to the very idea of a code of ethics. cultures and their political systems. Moreover,

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Colonialism and Postcolonialism

colonialism, by transferring enormous amounts of gold cultural change was often a prerequisite for the economic
and silver from the Americas to Europe during the exploitation of the acquired territories, because traditional
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, thereby permitting labor patterns and economic structures had to be
the development of a money economy, may be seen as a transformed according to the economic requirements of
factor that contributed to the development of both European industries and settlers. Colonialism’s practical
capitalism and the science that studies it, economics. The emphasis on the modification of the cultures of the
European colonization of Africa, the Americas, and Asia is conquered populations and the concomitant resistance of
thus one of the founding experiences of modernity, its the latter, as well as the unavoidable hybrid identities
impact felt on every aspect of contemporary life, even in generated by this encounter, have become key objects of
countries that did not embark on colonial adventures. study for contemporary theorists.
But the difficulties to be found in conceptually
CONCEPTUAL ISSUES delimiting colonialism remain implicit in such a descrip-
Despite its importance, however, any attempt to define tion. The most obvious problem is that processes of
colonialism in a manner that goes beyond the mere colonization and decolonization are not discrete and
recounting of a set of historical facts runs into a series chronological. In fact, the first postcolonial societies in the
of conceptual problems. The difficulty in defining Americas arose before the second wave of European
colonialism and related concepts—such as imperialism, imperialist expansion crested in the nineteenth century.
anticolonialism, neocolonialism, or even postcolonialism— Furthermore, as José Carlos Mariátegui (1894–1930)
is that they can be interpreted as linked to social noted in the 1920s, colonial practices, institutions, and
phenomena existing since antiquity throughout the ideologies did not disappear with formal independence
world. Yet it is customary to see colonialism as bounded, but frequently constituted the bases on which the new
on the one hand, by a European expansion that began in nations were built. Thus, it becomes possible to talk of an
the fifteenth century with the Portuguese and Spanish internal colonialism present in politically independent
forays into Africa and the Americas and, on the other, by nations in which cultural, racial, ethnic, religious,
the decolonization of Asia and Africa, a process that linguistic, or caste differences form the basis for the
concluded in 1975 with the independence of the last institutionalized economic exploitation of one group by
Portuguese dominions, Mozambique and Angola. Al- another. Then, moreover, there is the unique case of the
though the United Nations reported that, as of 2012, United States: a postcolonial society that itself became a
there were still sixteen “non-self-governing territories,” full-fledged colonial power in the second half of the
colonialism, as customarily defined, is no longer at the nineteenth century through the annexation of Puerto
core of the world economy, and the impetus for self- Rico, the Philippines, and Hawaii and that in the
governance, while not fully realized, concerns smaller twentieth century helped establish new patterns of
populations and areas. international domination and unequal resource flows.
Given this inequality, it is possible to argue that current
These temporal boundaries are justified by a central
international economic structures and relationships
difference between classical and modern empires. In the
among different national and regional economies consti-
latter, colonization was characterized not only by the
tute a continuation and development of colonialism rather
conquest of a territory and its population, or by the
than its abolition.
extraction of monetary, human, or material resources, as
was the case in antiquity, but also by a thorough
restructuring of the colonial economy for the benefit of IMPERIAL DIFFERENCES
the economic interests of the metropolis. The securing of Critics have questioned the validity of the chronology
raw materials to be used exclusively by imperial industries proposed above by distinguishing Spanish and Portuguese
or the restrictions placed on the production of goods in colonialism, on one side, and the later French and British
the colonies in order to transform them into exclusive empires, on another. Unlike the more fully capitalist
markets for metropolitan products are examples of such British or French colonial regimes, the earlier Iberian
restructuring. empires were frequently mercantilist and precapitalist,
In addition to reshaping economic structures, even medieval. While the former restructured the new
modern colonialism also attempted to change the cultures colonies’ economies so as to propel metropolitan capitalist
of the populations conquered. The successful catechiza- growth, the latter colonial enterprises were based mainly
tion of Latin America in the sixteenth century, despite the on the acquisition or extraction of directly marketable
frequently syncretic character of the resulting religion resources, such as gold or spices, and on the taxation of
(that is, its being a combination of originally Amerindian native and settler populations as direct sources of income.
and European beliefs), is a case in point. In fact, this From this perspective, colonialism as a fully modern

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Colonialism and Postcolonialism

capitalist undertaking must be differentiated from earlier the United States has acquired unparalleled economic,
Iberian empire building. In fact, critics have argued that military, and technological superiority and has claimed the
terms such as colonialism, imperialism, or postcolonialism right to use military force to achieve its goals, exercising
“evince the history of British colonial/imperial involve- this “right” first in Afghanistan (2001) and then in Iraq
ment with Ireland, India, and South Africa” and that their (2003). Indeed, critics as well as supporters of contempo-
use leads to the “(mis)understanding and (mis)labeling of rary US foreign policy frequently describe it as imperial.
the so-called colonial American situation” (Klor de Alva Thus, current discussions of imperialism and empire
1995, 264). Thus, mainstream analyses of colonialism frequently attempt to elucidate the role played by the
would be applicable only to the European empires built in United States in international economic inequalities. For
Asia and Africa during the eighteenth and particularly the instance, Aijaz Ahmad (2000) argues “what we actually
nineteenth centuries. have is, finally, for the first time in history, a globalised
A concept frequently used to separate earlier Iberian empire of capital itself, in all its nakedness, in which the
and later colonialisms is that of imperialism. In 1917 United States imperium plays the dominant role,
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870–1924), arguably the most financially, militarily, institutionally, ideologically.”
influential critic of imperialism, claimed that it constitut- Whether this new globalized capitalism is a dramatically
ed “the monopoly stage of capitalism.” For him, colonial new stage in capitalism that invalidates earlier analyses
expansion responded to the needs of monopolistic finance whether Marxist or not, as Hardt and Negri argue, or
capital, which he believed to be the hegemonic sector in a simply an intensification and elaboration of the basic traits
modern economy, to find a “guarantee against all of capitalism and imperialism—as analyzed by Karl Marx
contingencies in the struggle against competitors” by (1818–1883) and Lenin—as Ahmad and others propose,
ensuring access to markets and resources (Lenin 1974, is a matter of disagreement.
260). Because Lenin saw finance capital as firmly The standard chronology of colonialism has also been
national, imperialism necessarily led to war as the colonial put into question by arguments that in order to
powers attempted to acquire “precapitalist” areas, to understand European colonization it is necessary to
forcibly take over each other’s colonies or even to try to analyze its underlying discursive and ideological under-
gain access to the natural resources located in Europe. pinnings. Thus, in his 1978 book Orientalism, arguably
(World War I [1914–1918] was Lenin’s prime example the foundational text of postcolonial studies, Edward W.
of how the hegemony of financial monopoly capital Said (1935–2003) traces the construction of the “Orient”
invariably led to war.) back to early modern and even Greek sources, analyzes its
Critics have noted, however, that one can free Lenin’s influence on the self-construction of the “West,” and
notes how this European production of knowledge
arguments from his national, political, and military
affected colonialist practice in the region. From a related
framework. In this way it becomes possible to speak of
perspective, Nelson Manrique (1993) has emphasized the
a US imperialism that is no longer based on the formal
manner in which the mind-set formed by seven hundred
possession of colonies, as Harry Magdoff (1969) first
years of contradictory interaction among Christians,
argued; or of a neocolonialism in which first world nations
Muslims, and Jews was transplanted by the Spanish
use international economic, political, and cultural struc-
conquistadores to very different American realities.
tures and institutions to maintain their political and
According to these and related studies, the conventional
economic control over nominally independent nations, as
chronology of European colonialism leads only to the
the Ghanaian independence leader Kwame Nkrumah distortion, even the mutilation, of history.
(1909–1972) proposed in 1965. In their 2000 book
Empire, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri have taken this Given these difficulties in establishing a clearly
loosening of the ties between economic relations and the bounded definition of colonialism and related terms,
national sphere to its ultimate conclusion. For them, these must be seen as constituting a semantic field in
globalization has led to the creation of a true empire of which conceptual boundaries blur into one another and in
capital in which unequal flows of resources are organized which historical frameworks, though necessary, necessarily
by means of a “decentered and deterritorializing apparatus break down. But underlying the semantic field there exists
of rule” that no longer has a geographically defined a continuum of unequal and exploitative economic, social,
direction (Hardt and Negri 2000, xii). While inequality is and political phenomena that directly affects the relation-
seen as probably growing, the concept of imperialism, ships among science and technology and has ethical
based on notions of metropolises and colonies, as well as consequences that have yet to be fully explored.
its dependency-theory derivation of center and periphery,
is, therefore, obsolete. COLONIALISM AS TURNING POINT
Paradoxically, this postmodern interpretation of Iberian colonialism nevertheless signaled a turning point
empire has been proposed at precisely the moment when in world history. Not only did European power and

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Colonialism and Postcolonialism

culture begin its process of expansion and imposition There never was a civilized nation of any other
throughout lands and populations unknown by the West, complexion than white, nor even any individual eminent
but also new unequal flows of resources favoring colonial either in action or speculation” (Hume 1994 [1752], 86).
powers were for the first time established on a planetary Writing about “[John] Locke, Hume, and empiricism,”
scale. British and French colonialism, even contemporary Said has argued “that there is an explicit connection in
international trade relations, are subsequent capitalist these classic writers between their philosophic doctrines
developments within this unequal planetary framework. [and] racial theory, justifications of slavery [and] argu-
Furthermore, the pivotal role played by the Iberian ments for colonial exploitation” (Said 1978, 13). Other
empires is evidenced by the way they developed two of the canonic names are easily added to that of Hume, and
central institutions characteristic of eighteenth- and many other disciplines to that of philosophy, from
nineteenth-century colonialism and beyond—slavery and evolutionary biology—which, despite the misgivings of
the plantation system—as well as the ultimate ideological Charles Darwin (1809–1882), ended up applying its
basis on which colonialism would be built: racism. As the notions of competition to humanity—to historical
Spanish philosopher Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (1490?– linguistics, which helped provide a pseudoscientific basis
1572 or 1573) argued, the colonization of the Americas for the racist celebration of the so-called Aryan race.
and the exploitation of the Amerindians was justified
because these were “as inferior to Spaniards as children are
ANTICOLONIALISM
to adults and women to men … and there being between
them [Amerindians and Spaniards] as much difference as Yet just as colonialism found occasional supporters among
there is between … monkeys and men” (Sepúlveda 1951 its subjects in the Americas, Africa, and Asia, the
[1547], 33). Although the mixing of races was more European reaction to colonialism was not homogeneous.
frequent in Iberian colonies than in those of France or There was an important streak of anticolonial thought and
England, it was the product of necessity, given the limited action in Europe as long as colonies existed, and this too
number of women who traveled with the conquistadores, left an imprint on Western thought. Indeed, colonialism
and was not incompatible with the development of not only permeated Western culture, it also established
intricate racial hierarchies that became legacies of the the framework within which anticolonialist thought and
Spanish and Portuguese empires. Indeed, the scientific action frequently developed. Because of the central role
racialism of the nineteenth century would ground a played by Catholicism in the justification of Spanish
similar discourse, not on philosophical and religious expansion, the anticolonialist reaction in sixteenth-century
reasons, as Sepúlveda did, but on (pseudo)scientific ones. Spain used the intellectual tools provided by the church.
Colonialism is thus more than a set of institutions or Thus, Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474–1566), the greatest
practices that permit the establishment and maintenance critic of the Spanish conquest, used biblical exegesis,
of unequal economic exchanges among regions or scholastic philosophy, canonic law, historiography, and
countries. Underlying colonial economic relations and his own and others’ eyewitness accounts to convince the
institutions are evolving beliefs or ideologies that make Spanish court and the church of the humanity of the
possible the permanence and reproduction of colonialism. Native American populations and to achieve partial
For instance, the Spanish conquistadores saw even their recognition of their rights. In fact, the arguments of Las
most brutal actions justified by their role in spreading the Casas and other like-minded contemporary critics of
Catholic religion. It is reported that Hernán Cortés colonialism, such as Francisco de Vitoria (c. 1486–1546),
(1485–1547), the conqueror of Mexico, claimed that “the are the seeds from which contemporary notions of human
main reason why we came … is to praise and preach the rights and international law have sprung. But Las Casas
faith of Christ, even if together with this we can achieve did not deny the need to evangelize Native Americans or
honor and profit” (quoted in Zavala 1972, 25). In a fail to acknowledge the sovereignty of the Spanish
similar vein, the British and French empires found their monarchy over them, even as he vindicated their right
justification in supposedly bringing civilization to “primi- to self-government and to be treated as human beings.
tive” regions of the world. Even texts produced in the Americas that are
Western culture is thus permeated by pseudorational generally taken to be expressions of indigenous cultures,
justifications of racial hierarchies, which would seem to such as the Popol Vuh, an anonymous seventeenth-
ground colonialism on nature. Even the usually skeptical century compilation of Meso-American myths, or the
David Hume (1711–1776) accepted colonial racial Andean chronicler Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala’s El
hierarchies when he states in his 1752 essay “On National primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno (The first new
Characteristics” that he considered “the Negroes and in chronicle and good government), also finished in the early
general all other species of men (for there are four or five seventeenth century, were intellectually framed by
different kinds) to be naturally inferior to the whites. Catholicism. While the Popol Vuh uses Latin script to

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Colonialism and Postcolonialism

reconstruct the Mayan hieroglyphic books destroyed prominent positive roles in the works of classic European
during the Spanish catechization, and can, therefore, be revolutionary authors, such as Marx, Friedrich Engels
considered an act of absolute resistance to the Spanish (1820–1895), and even Lenin. The subsequent preoccu-
conquest, its anonymous author describes the text as pation with culture is a link between anticolonial Marxism
written “in Christendom.” Although Guaman Poma de and postcolonialism, understood as a cultural and political
Ayala’s very title implies criticism of Spanish rule, it is a critique of the surviving colonial and developing neocolo-
hybrid text in which traditional Andean structures, such as nial structures and discourses.
the hanan/hurin (upper/masculine–lower/feminine) bina-
ry, are maintained while acknowledging Catholicism and
POSTCOLONIALISM
incorporating into its narrative idiosyncratic versions of
biblical stories. But questions remain regarding postcolonialism. Is the
post in postcolonialism merely a temporal marker? If so, all
This dependence on European thought, even on
postindependence literary and critical production in all
some of the basic presuppositions of colonialism itself, will
former colonies, regardless of whether they deal with or
be continued by most oppositional movements and texts
promote cultural and structural decolonization, would be
produced after the first moment of resistance to European
postcolonial. Or is it a reference to those writings that
invasion. For instance, while for Lenin imperialism is
attempt to deal with the aftermath of colonialism, with
rooted in the nation and in national capital, anti-imperial
the social and cultural restructuring and healing necessary
movements will likewise be national movements strug-
gling to achieve independence. If the spread of “civiliza- after the expulsion of the European colonists? In this case
tion” is seen in the nineteenth century as validating the novels of James Fenimore Cooper (1789–1851) and
colonial expansion, the Cuban anticolonial activist, even those of Henry James (1843–1916), all of which, in
revolutionary, and scholar José Martí (1853–1895), in one way or another, deal with the problem of establishing
his classic essay “Our America,” proposed the establish- a US identity distinct from those of England and Europe,
ment of the “American University,” in which a could be classified as “postcolonial.” In Latin America,
decolonized curriculum would, for example, privilege several figures would qualify as postcolonial thinkers,
the Incas and not the Greeks as the foundation of culture. including the nineteenth-century polymath Andrés Bello
Even the appeal of Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) to (1781–1865), with his didactic poetry praising and,
nonviolence as the basis of the struggle against colonial therefore, promoting “tropical agriculture,” and his
oppression, while rooted in his reading of the Bhagavad attempt at modifying Spanish orthography so as to reflect
Gita, is also a reinterpretation of principles first proposed Spanish American pronunciation; the Cuban scholar
by Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862) and developed by Fernando Ortiz (1881–1969), producer of pioneering
Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), with whom the great Indian studies of the cultural hybridity characteristic of the
leader corresponded. colonial and postcolonial experiences for which he coined
A similar appropriation and modification of Western the term transculturation; and, as well, the aforementioned
discourse can be found in twentieth-century anticoloni- Martí and Mariátegui, who among others, initiated in the
alism’s relationship with Marxism, even if in this case, as region the systematic criticism of neocolonialism, internal
in that of nonviolence, it is an oppositional rather than a colonialism, racism, and cultural dependence.
hegemonic one that is being used. Thus, Mariátegui Or is the post in the term a not-so-implicit alignment
(2011, 130) argued that “[socialism] must be a heroic with poststructuralism and postmodernism—that is, with
creation. We have to give life to an Indo-American the anti-foundational philosophies developed by, among
socialism reflecting our own reality and in our own others, Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), Gilles Deleuze
language.” And this attempt at translating Marxism into (1925–1995) and Félix Guatari (1930–1992), and Michel
local cultural traditions was replicated throughout most of Foucault (1926–1984)? If so, despite the existence of
the colonial and neocolonial world, as authors as diverse as transitional figures such as Frantz Fanon, whose writings
Ernesto “Che” Guevara (1928–1967), Amilcar Cabral combine anticolonial agitation, Marxism, French philoso-
(1921–1973), and Mao Zedong (1893–1976) attempted phy, and psychoanalysis, postcolonialism could be seen as
to create “socialisms” not only compatible with the social opposed to Marxist and non-Marxist anticolonialism and
and cultural conditions of Latin America, Lusophone to mainstream attempts at understanding and under-
(Portuguese-speaking) Africa, and China, respectively, but mining neocolonialism. From this anti-foundational
also rooted in them. Precisely because of the importance perspective, if the stress on cultural topics characteristic
given to local conditions, this anticolonial and nationalist of anticolonial and postindependence fictional and
Marxism was characterized by an emphasis on the cultural theoretical texts establishes a connection with postcoloni-
effects of political actions, and vice versa. Although not alism, their frequent essentialism, occasional blindness
completely ignored, culture and nation did not play toward gender hierarchies, and emphasis on politics and

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Colonialism and Postcolonialism

economics over constructions of subjectivity make them at countries set aside 2 percent to 5 percent for the same
best flawed precursors. And from the point of view of purpose (Castro Díaz-Balart and Pérez Rojas 2002)—it is
scholars who claim to be developing the perspectives also a consequence of the unequal manner in which the
proposed by anticolonial theorists—Marxist or other- contemporary global economy is structured, which trans-
wise—postcolonialism can be interpreted as the direct forms scientific and technological research into a luxury.
application of theories developed in Europe and the Moreover, this low investment in science and technology
United States that disregard earlier local theorizations and constitutes a contributing factor to the perpetuation of
mediations. this international inequality (Castro Díaz-Balart and Pérez
Regardless of how one understands its relationship Rojas 2002). Furthermore, colonialism and the continu-
with anticolonial thought, this postcolonialism as exem- ing global inequality it created can be seen as determining
plified by the works of Said, Homi K. Bhabha, and the patterns of consumption of natural resources that have
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, among others, has generated played a central role in past and current exploitation and
challenging analyses of the role of gender within colonial the destruction of colonial and postcolonial environments.
and postcolonial institutions, of the political implications For instance, Richard P. Tucker (2000, 2) has noted that
of hybridity and diaspora, of racism, and of the the United States, as a neocolonial power, has come “to be
importance of constructions of identity within colonial, inseparably linked to the worldwide degradation of the
neocolonial, and postcolonial situations. Moreover, it has biosphere.” Thus, the inheritance of colonialism, de-
permitted the extension of its analyses of subjectivity and scribed by the constellation of the heterogeneous terms
of heterogeneous social groupings to the colonial archive, postcolonialism, neocolonialism, or imperialism—in both
permitting the elaboration of innovative historical recon- its territorialized and deterritorialized conceptualiza-
structions that go beyond the obsession with facts and tions—not only constitutes a central problematic in the
events of conventional historiography or the frequently fields of science and technology but also is at the core of
exclusive preoccupation with classes and economic the major ethical dilemmas faced by humanity in the early
structures characteristic of Marxism. twenty-first century.
SEE ALSO Development Ethics; Globalization; Industrial
ASSESSMENT Revolution; Scientific Revolution.
The study of colonial and postcolonial structures and
ideologies is important because contemporary international BIBLIOGRAPHY
economic and cultural relations and realities, rather than Adas, Michael. 1989. Machines as the Measure of Men: Science,
being their negation, can be read as their continuation. In Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance. Ithaca, NY:
fact, contemporary American, African, and Asian national Cornell University Press.
boundaries are part of the colonial inheritance. These A broad, comparative study of the history of European responses to the
cultures of sub-Saharan Africa, India, and China that emphasizes the role
borders, drawn according to purely administrative and
played by Western evaluations of technological differences.
political criteria by the imperial powers without taking into
account cultural, ethnic, linguistic, or historical differences Ahmad, Aijaz. 1992. In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures.
London: Verso.
among the diverse populations thus brought together, have
Ahmad, an Indian poet and literary critic, provides a stringent critique of
been a contributing factor to the ethnic and national postcolonial theory and a defense of the continuing relevance of Marxist
violence that have plagued postcolonial areas. analysis to the understanding of colonial and neocolonial literatures,
But international economic inequality is the most cultures, and politics.
egregious legacy of empire. The depth of this continuing Ahmad, Aijaz. 2000. “Globalisation: A Society of Aliens?”
disparity is such that, according to the Food and Frontline 17 (20). http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl1720/
Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, 17200490.htm
In this article, Ahmad provides a Marxist analysis of globalization.
of the 850 million people classified as undernourished
between 2006 and 2008, 839.4 million lived in Bello, Andrés. 1997. Selected Writings of Andrés Bello. Translated
postcolonial areas (FAO 2011). A similar inequality, by Frances M. López-Morillas. Edited by Iván Jaksić. New
York: Oxford University Press.
although undeniably less dramatic in its immediate
This is a selection of essays and didactic poetry by the most influential
consequences, is present in the field of science and nineteenth-century Spanish American intellectual of the independence and
technology. For instance, Latin America holds only 0.2 postindependence periods.
percent of all patents (Castro Díaz-Balart and Pérez Rojas
Bhabha, Homi K. 1994. The Location of Culture. London:
2002). While this is the direct result of the countries of Routledge. One of the key sources for the concept of hybridity
the so-called developing world investing only 0.3 percent in the humanities and social sciences.
to 0.5 percent of their gross domestic product in the Bhabha analyzes the manner in which cultural mixture undermines
fields of science and technology—in contrast, first world colonial and postcolonial projects.

388 ETHICS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENGINEERING, 2ND EDITION

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Colonialism and Postcolonialism

Brockway, Lucile H. 1979. Science and Colonial Expansion: The Guevara, Ernesto “Che.” 1997. Che Guevara Reader: Writings by
Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens. New York: Academic Ernesto Che Guevara on Guerrilla Strategy, Politics, and
Press. Revolution. Edited by David Deutschmann. Melbourne,
Arguably the foundational text in the new literature of case studies on the Australia: Ocean Press.
relationship between Western science and colonialism. Comprehensive selection of essays and speeches by the Argentine-born leader
of the Cuban revolution who became the international symbol for anti-
Cabral, Amilcar. 1979. Unity and Struggle: Speeches and Writings.
imperialist and anticapitalist struggles.
Translated by Michael Wolfers. New York: Monthly Review
Press. Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. 2000. Empire. Cambridge,
In this collection of his writings, Cabral, the main leader of the struggle MA: Harvard University Press.
for the independence of Guinea-Bissau, provides sophisticated Marxist Influential attempt to apply poststructuralist theories to the analysis of
analyses of the roles played by culture and nationalism in anticolonial contemporary international economic reality.
revolutions. Hume, David. 1994. “On National Characteristics.” In Political
Castro Díaz-Balart, Fidel, and Hugo Pérez Rojas. 2002. Essays, edited by Knud Haakonssen, 78–92. Cambridge, UK:
“Globalization, Science, and Development.” Perspectives on Cambridge University Press.
Global Development and Technology 1 (3–4): 322–339. This essay exhibits most clearly the racist ideas held by the eminent
A study of contemporary international inequalities in scientific research empiricist philosopher.
and their impact on development. Johansen, Bruce E. 1982. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin,
Fanon, Frantz. 1963. The Wretched of the Earth. Translated by the Iroquois, and the Rationale for the American Revolution.
Constance Farrington. New York: Grove Press. Ipswich, MA: Gambit.
Fanon, at the time deeply involved in the struggle for Algerian Study of the influence of Iroquois political institutions on those of the
independence, applies insights from psychoanalysis, Sartrean existentialism, United States.
and Marxism to the colonial situation in Africa. Originally published Klor de Alva, Jorge. 1995. “The Postcolonization of the (Latin)
1961. American Experience: A Reconsideration of ‘Colonialism,’
Fanon, Frantz. 1967. Black Skin, White Masks. Translated by ‘Postcolonialism,’ and ‘Mestizaje.’” In After Colonialism:
Charles Lam Markmann. New York: Grove Press. Imperial Histories and Postcolonial Displacements, edited by
In this book, Fanon, a trained psychoanalyst, studies the influence of Gyan Prakash, 241–275. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
colonialism on black colonial subjects. Originally published 1954. Press.
Analysis of the difficulties found in the application of postcolonial theory to
Fishlock, Trevor. 2004. Conquerors of Time: Exploration and
the Latin American colonial experience.
Invention in the Age of Daring. London: John Murray.
Extended narrative stressing how technological inventiveness was often Las Casas, Bartolomé de. 1992. A Short Account of the Destruction
stimulated by problems encountered in colonial settings. of the Indies. Edited and translated by Nigel Griffin. London:
Penguin. Originally published 1552 in Spanish as Brevísima
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). relación de la destrucción de las Indias.
2011. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2011. Rome:
A devastating account of the genocide of the Amerindians by the Spanish
Author. http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2330e/i2330e.pdf
conquistadores written by the foremost sixteenth-century defender of
Gandhi, Mahatma. 1983. The Essential Gandhi: His Life, Work, indigenous rights.
and Ideas; An Anthology. Edited by Louis Fischer. New York:
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. 1974. “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of
Vintage Books.
Capitalism.” In Lenin: Collected Works, Vol. 22, edited by
Useful collection of essays, speeches, and interviews by the spiritual leader of George Hanna, translated by Yuri Sdobnikov, 185–304.
India’s independence movement. Moscow: Progress Publishers. Originally published 1917 in
Grove, Richard H. 1995. Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, German.
Tropical Island Edens, and the Origins of Environmentalism, Classic Marxist analysis of nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century
1600–1860. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. imperialism.
Argues that modern notions of ecology are heavily dependent on the colonial Loomba, Ania. 2005. Colonialism-Postcolonialism. 2nd ed. Lon-
experience, and especially professional scientists working in the Dutch, don: Routledge.
French, and British colonies.
Careful introduction to the history of colonialism and its contemporary
Guaman Poma de Ayala, Felipe. 1978. Letter to a King: A Peruvian incarnations and to the different theoretical approaches to the topic.
Chief’s Account of Life under the Incas and under Spanish Rule.
Magdoff, Harry 1969. The Age of Imperialism: The Economics of
Edited and translated by Christopher Dilke. New York:
U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Dutton. Finished circa 1615 and known in its original Spanish
language as El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno [The first Collection of essays that analyze from an economic perspective how US
new chronicle and good government]. (Spanish version is imperialism works.
available from http://www.kb.dk/elib/mss/poma/) Manrique, Nelson. 1993. Vinieron los sarracenos: El universo
Written by a regional noble, this early seventeenth-century mental de la conquista de América [The Saracens arrived: The
illustrated chronicle is not only the most thorough expression of the mental universe of the conquest of America]. Lima: Desco.
indigenous perspective on the conquest of Peru, but its 398 drawings Well-documented reconstruction of the evolution of the “mental world” of
provide an invaluable visual record of life during the first years of medieval Spain that helped determine the attitudes and actions of the
the colony. Spanish conquistadores in the New World.

ETHICS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENGINEERING, 2ND EDITION 389

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Columbia Accident

Mao Zedong. 1970. Mao Papers, Anthology, and Bibliography. Tucker, Richard P. 2000. Insatiable Appetite: The United States
Edited by Jerome Ch’en. London: Oxford University Press. and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World. Berkeley:
Collection of some of the Chinese revolutionary’s most influential essays and University of California Press.
speeches. An extended analysis of the negative impact of the United States as a
neocolonial power on the world’s environment.
Mariátegui, José Carlos. 1971. Seven Interpretive Essays on
Peruvian Reality. Translated by Marjory Urquidi. Austin: United Nations. 2013. “The United Nations and Decoloniza-
University of Texas Press. Originally published 1928 in tion.” Accessed July 9, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/
Spanish. Foundational text of Latin American Marxism. decolonization/
It studies Peru’s history, social and economic structures, and cultural topics Young, Robert J. C. 2001. Postcolonialism: An Historical
from a heterodox perspective; also influenced by Georges Sorel, Friedrich Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
Nietzsche, and Sigmund Freud. Good overview that emphasizes the links between anticolonial and
Mariátegui, José Carlos. 2011. José Carlos Mariátegui: An postcolonial theories.
Anthology. Edited and translated by Harry Vanden and Marc Zavala, Silvio Arturo. 1972. La filosofía política en la conquista de
Becker. New York: Monthly Review Press. América [Political philosophy in the conquest of America].
A collection of essays on political and cultural topics written by the Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica. Originally
Peruvian Marxist in the 1920s. published 1947.
Martí, José. “Our America.” 2002. In José Martí: Selected Writings, Analysis of the philosophical and political debates in Spain and
edited and translated by Esther Allen, 288–296. New York: the Americas on the rights of Amerindians that emphasizes their links to
Penguin. the development of modern notions of democracy and human rights.
Originally published 1881 in Spanish as “Nuestra América.” Influential
anti-imperialist tract written by the great poet and martyr of Cuba’s
independence. Juan E. De Castro
Revised by De Castro
Nkrumah, Kwame. 1965. Neo-colonialism: The Last Stage of
Imperialism. London: Nelson.
Analysis of the manner in which political independence does not necessarily
lead to economic independence.
Ortiz, Fernando. 1995. Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar.
Translated by Harriet de Onís. Durham, NC: Duke
COLUMBIA ACCIDENT
University Press. Originally published 1940 in Spanish. SEE Space Shuttles Challenger and Columbia Accidents.
By means of a study of the histories of the tobacco and sugar industries in
Cuba, Ortiz provides the foundational study of cultural contact in Cuba
and the Caribbean.
Reingold, Nathan, and Marc Rothenberg, eds. 1987. Scientific
Colonialism: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Washington, DC:
Smithsonian Institution Press.
COMMON HERITAGE PRINCIPLE
The proceedings of an Australian conference that studies the role played by The common heritage principle (CHP)—also known as
colonialism in stimulating the development of Western science. the common heritage of mankind or common heritage
Said, Edward W. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon. of humanity principle—as it was presented to the
One of the foundational texts in postcolonial theory. Studies the discursive United Nations General Assembly in various declara-
formation of the notion of the Orient and its distorting effect on colonial tions and treaties, and as it is understood in the twenty-
and contemporary policies and analyses. first century, affirms that the natural resources of the
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de. 1951. Demócrates segundo; o, De las deep seabed and of outer space are held in common by
justas causas de la guerra contra los indios [The second all nations, and should be distributed equitably for
Demócrates; or, Of the just causes for the war against the the benefit of all humankind. Specifically, the CHP of
Indians]. Edited by Ángel Losada. Madrid: Instituto Francisco the 1979 Treaty Governing the Activities of States
de Vitoria. Justification of the conquest originally written in on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Moon
1547 by Las Casas’s main ideological rival and one of Spain’s
Treaty), refers to the equitable sharing of outer space
foremost Renaissance Aristotelians.
resources; the nonappropriation of in-place resources,
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1996. The Spivak Reader: Selected particularly with regard to outer space mining activities;
Works of Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Edited by Donna Landry
and Gerald MacLean. New York: Routledge.
and the institution of an international regime to
A collection of essays informed by poststructuralism and feminism on postcolonial
supervise commercial activities in space.
literature and history, as well as on other theoretical and cultural topics. The CHP was presented with the understanding that
Tedlock, Dennis, trans. 1996. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the it was crucial to plan for future exploration and uses of
Dawn of Life. Rev. ed. New York: Simon and Schuster. these important regions in order not only to ensure an
A collection of Maya creation myths written shortly after the conquest by an equitable distribution of their natural resources but to
anonymous indigenous author. prevent conflicts among nations as have occurred during

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