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# DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

LAB REPORT 8

2ZK50

(GROUP 8)

## 2. AZAHARI BIN ERANSA (2170262)

3. PKDT SYED FARIS HAZIM BIN SYED AMRIL SYARMIN TLDM (2170275)

DATE OF SUBBMISION:

5 DECEMBER 2018
OBJECTIVE

The objective for the experiments included being able to note the effect of
frequency on the impedance of a series R-C network and being able to plot the
voltages and current of a series R-C network versus frequency. Hence, learn how to
calculate and plot the phase of the input impedance versus frequency for a series R-
C network.

INTRODUCTION

## Frequency Response of an electric or electronics circuit allows us to see

exactly how the output gain (known as the magnitude response) and the phase
(known as the phase response) changes at a particular single frequency, or over a
whole range of different frequencies from 0Hz, (d.c.) to many thousands of mega-
hertz, (MHz) depending upon the design characteristics of the circuit.

## Generally, the frequency response analysis of a circuit or system is shown by

plotting its gain, that is the size of its output signal to its input signal, Output/Input
against a frequency scale over which the circuit or system is expected to operate.
Then by knowing the circuits gain, (or loss) at each frequency point helps us to
understand how well (or badly) the circuit can distinguish between signals of different
frequencies.

For series R-L network, the voltage across the coil increases with frequency
since the inductive reactance increases directly with frequency and the impedance of
the resistor is essentially independent of the applied frequency (in the audio range).
For the R-C network, the voltage across the capacitor decreases with increasing
frequency since the capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to the applied
frequency. Since the voltage and current of the resistor continue to be related by the
fixed resistance value, the shapes of their curves versus frequency will have the
same characteristics. Voltage across the elements in an AC circuit are vectorially
related. Otherwise, the voltage readings may appear to be totally incorrect and not
satisfy Kirchoff’s voltage law.
The phase angle associated with the input impedance is sensitive to the
applied frequency. At very low frequencies the capacitive reactance will be quite
large compared to the series resistive element and the network will be primarily
capacitive in nature. The result is a phase angel associated with the input impedance
that approaches -90º (v lags I by 90º). At increasing frequencies Xc will drop off in
magnitude compared to the resistive element and the network will be primarily
resistive, resulting in an input phase angle approaching 0º (v and I in phase).
PROCEDURES

## List of equipment and components:

 1 x Resistor 1kΩ
 1 x Capacitor 0.1µF
 DMM
 Oscillator
 Function generator
 Frequency counter (if available)

## Part 1: VC, VR and I versus Frequency

a) The network in Figure 1 constructed and the value of the resistor R measured
to be inserted in the diagram. R measured = 997Ω

Figure 1
b) 4V (p-p) maintained at the input to the circuit, the voltage Vc (p-p) recorded
for the frequencies appearing in Table 1. Continually checked that Es = 4V (p-
p) with each frequency change. Voltage VR did not measure at this point
during the experiment. The common ground of the supply and scope shorten
the effect of the capacitive element, which may result in damage to the
equipment.
For each frequency Vc was tried to read to the highest degree of accuracy
possible. The higher the degree of accuracy, the better the data will verify the
theory to the substantiated.

c) The supply turned off and interchange the positions of R and C in Figure 1
and VR (p-p) is measured for the same range of frequencies with E maintained
at 4V (p-p). The measurements recorded in Table 1.

d) I (p-p) calculated manually from equation I (p-p) = VR (p-p) / Rmeasured [1] and
then recorded into Table 1.

## Frequency Vc (p-p) VR (p-p) I (p-p)

0.1kHz 4.00 V 251 mV 0.25 mA
0.2kHz 3.97 V 499 mV 0.5 mA
0.5kHz 3.80 V 1.22 V 1.22 mA
1kHz 3.42 V 2.10 V 2.11 mA
2kHz 2.52 V 3.17 V 3.18 mA
4kHz 1.50 V 3.70 V 3.71 mA
6kHz 1.12 V 3.84 V 3.85 mA
8kHz 0.82 V 3.89 V 3.90 mA
10kHz 0.65 V 3.93 V 3.94 mA

Table 1
e) The curve of Vc (p-p) versus frequency plotted on Graph 1. Label the curve
and clearly indicated each plotted point.

f) The curve of VR (p-p) versus frequency on Graph 1. The curve lebelled and
clearly indicated each plotted point.

## g) As the frequency increases, describe in few sentences what happens to the

voltage across the capacitor and resistor. Explain why?

When the frequency increases the value of the voltage across the capacitor
decrease from the start reading taken. Since capacitors charge and discharge
in proportion to the rate of voltage change across them, the faster the voltage
changes the more current will flow. This means then that the reactance of a
capacitor is “inversely proportional” to the frequency.
When the frequency increase, the voltage across the resistor also increase.
This is because voltage is directly proportional to resistance.

## h) At the point where Vc = VR does Xc = R? should they be equal? Why? Record

the level of voltage and the impedance of each element below.

1
Xc = 2πfC [2]
1
=
2π(1.7kHz)(0.1µF)
= 936.2 Ω

Vc=VR=1.7kHz
Xc=936.2 Ω
R=0.987 kΩ
i) Determine Vc (p-p) and VR (p-p) at some random frequency such as 3.6 kHz
from the curves

## Are the magnitude such that Vc (p-p) + VR (p-p) = E (p-p)

If not, why not? How are they related?

## E (p-p) = 4 V, 2.89 V + 3.6 V = 6.49 V

j) The curve of I (p-p) versus frequency plotted on Graph 2. The curve labelled
and clearly indicated each plot point.

k) How does the curve of I (p-p) versus frequency compare to the curve of VR (p-
p) versus frequency? Explain why they compare as they do.

## l) At a frequency of 6kHz, calculate the reactance of the capacitor using Xc =

1/(2πfC) and the nameplate capacitance level. Compare with the value
obtained from the data of Table 1 using

Vc (p−p)
Xc = [3]
I (p−p)

1.12
=
3.85m
= 291 Ω

1
Xc =
2πfC

1
=
2π(6kHz)(0.1µF)
= 265.26 Ω
Xc(calculated) = 265.25 Ω Xc (from data) = 291 Ω

## m) Use the Pythagorean theorem to determine the voltage Vc (p-p) at a

frequency of 6 kHz and compare with the measured result of Table 1. Use the
peak-to-peak value of VR from Table 1 and Es (p-p) = 4V

## E(P − P) = √VR2 + VC2 [4]

4² = (3.84) ² + VC²
16 – 14.75 = Vc²
Vc = √1.25
= 1.12 V

## n) At low frequencies the capacitor approaches a high-impedance open-circuit

equivalent and at high frequencies a low-impedance short-circuit equivalent.
Do the data of Table 1 and Graph 2 verify the above statement? Comment
accordingly.

## Capacitor in a variable frequency circuit has being sort of frequency-controlled

resistor that has a high capacitive reactance value (open circuit condition
where between the plates and blocking any flow of current through it) at very
low frequencies and low capacitive reactance value (short circuit condition) at
very high frequencies. As the frequency applied to the capacitor increases, its
effect is to decrease its reactance. Likewise, as the frequency across the
capacitor decrease its reactance value increases. This variation is called the
capacitor’s complex impedance. Complex impedance exists because the
electrons in the form of an electrical change on the capacitor plates, appear to
pass from one plate to the others more rapidly with respect to the varying
frequency.
Part 2: ZT versus Frequency

a) The result of I (p-p) transferred from Table 1 to Table 2 for each frequency.
b) At each frequency, calculate the magnitude of the total impedance using the
equation ZT = E(p-p) / I (p-p) in Table 2.

## E (p−p) ZT =√R2 + Xc²

Frequency E (p-p) I (p-p) ZT = I (p−p)
[5]

## 0.1kHz 4V 0.25 mA 16.00 kΩ 15.95 kΩ

0.2kHz 4V 0.50 mA 8.00 kΩ 8.02 kΩ
0.5kHz 4V 1.22 mA 3.28 kΩ 3.33 kΩ
1kHz 4V 2.11 mA 1.90 kΩ 1.88 kΩ
2kHz 4V 3.18 mA 1.26 kΩ 1.28 kΩ
4kHz 4V 3.71 mA 1.08 kΩ 1.07 kΩ
6kHz 4V 3.85 mA 1.04 kΩ 1.03 kΩ
8kHz 4V 3.90 mA 1.03 kΩ 1.02 kΩ
10kHz 4V 3.94 mA 1.02 kΩ 1.01 kΩ

Table 2

c) The curve of ZT versus frequency plotted on Graph 3 except for f = 0.1 kHz,
which is off the graph. The curve labelled and clearly indicate each plotted
point.

d) For each frequency calculate the total impedance using the equation

## ZT =√R2 + Xc² [6] and insert in Table 2

e) How does the magnitude of ZT compare for the last two columns of Table 2?

## f) On Graph 3, R versus frequency plotted. Label the curve.

1
g) On Graph 3, plot Xc = 2πfC
[2] versus frequency. Label the curve and clearly
indicate each plot point.

## h) At which frequency does Xc = R? Use both the graph and a calculation

1
(f = 2πRC) [7]. How do the compare?

## f = 1.6 kHz, Graph

1
f=( ) = 1.561 kHz, Calculated
2π(1kΩ)(0.1µF)

i) For frequencies less than the frequency calculated in part 2(h), is the network
primarily resistive or capacitive? How about for frequencies greater than the
frequency calculated in part 2(h)?
Both frequencies are the same. For frequencies less than the frequency
calculated above, the network is primarily capacitive. For frequencies more
than the frequency calculated above, the network is primarily resistive.

j) The phase angle by which the applied voltage leads the current is determined
by Ø = - tan-1(XC/R) [8] (as obtained from the impedance diagram). The
negative sign is clear indication that for capacitive networks, i leads v.
Determine the phase angle for each of the frequencies in Table 3.

## Frequency R(measured) Xc Ø = -tan-1(Xc/R)

0.1kHz 0.993 kΩ 15915 Ω -86.43
0.2 kHz 0.984 kΩ 7958 Ω -82.95
0.5 kHz 0.980 kΩ 3183 Ω -72.89
1 kHz 0.989 kΩ 1592 Ω -58.15
2 kHz 1.047 kΩ 795 Ω -37.21
6 kHz 1.233 kΩ 265 Ω -12.13
10 kHz 1.284 kΩ 159 Ω -7.06
100 kHz 1.326 kΩ 16 Ω -0.69

Table 3
k) A frequency of 0.1 kHz, does the phase angle suggest a primarily resistive or
capacitive network? Explain why.
At a frequency of 0.1 kHz, the phase angle suggests a primarily capacitive
network because a purely resistive impedance will have a phase angle of
0o while a purely capacitive impedance will have a phase angle of -90o.

l) At frequencies greater than 2 kHz, does the phase angle suggest a primarily
resistive or capacitive network? Explain why.
At a frequency of 2 kHz and above, the phase angle suggests a primarily
resistive network because a purely resistive impedance will have a phase
angle of 0o while a purely capacitive impedance will have a phase angle of -
90.

m) Plot Ø versus frequency for the frequency range 0.2 kHz to 10 kHz on Graph
4. At what frequency is the phase angle equal to –45º? At –45º what is the
relationship between Xc and R? Using this relationship, calculate the
frequency at which Ø = -45º.

f (Ø = -45º) = 1.6 kHz, Xc vs. R = Both are equally capacitive and resistive.

## The two levels of frequency are the same.

PROBLEMS

1. Given the network of fig. 1, calculate f = 1 kHz, calculate the magnitude and
phase angle of the input impedance and compare the results to those
obtained experimentally in part 2(a) (ZT = E (p-p)/ I (p-p)) and calculated in
Table 3.

Calculate: Experimental:
ZT= 1591.55 Ω ZT= 1591 Ω
Ø= 57.86 o Ø= 58.15 o

## The calculated and experimental values are different.

2. Given the network of Fig. 1 with f = 1 kHz, calculate the levels of VC, VR and I
(all peak-to-peak values) and compare to the measured values of Table 1.

Calculate: Measured:
VC= 3.4 V VC= 3.42 V
VR= 2.13 V VR= 2.10 V
I= 2.13 mA I= 2.11 mA

## The calculated and experimental values are different.

ANALYSIS

In the conducted experiment, all the results obtained by referring the lab sheet given
and also from this section analyses the results of the experiment. The experiment
went as expected with no unusual events that would have introduced error.

Also included in the procedure are the equations [1] – [8] used for verifying results of
the experiment for frequency response of the series R-C network. These equations
led to the values of OUTPUTS that are shown in the experiment-based on TABLE 1,
TABLE 2, AND TABLE 3. From these results, it is concluded which no error was
occur during experiment.

For Problem;
Part 1:
1
Xc = ( ) = 1591.55 Ω
2π(1kHz)(0.1µF)

Ø = -tan-1(Xc/R) = - tan-1(1591.55/1000)
= 57.86 o

Part 2:
Vc = IXc, Vc = 1592I
VR = IR, VR = 1000I

𝐸(𝑃 − 𝑃) = √𝑉𝑅 2 + 𝑉𝐶 2

4 = √(1592𝐼)2 + (1000𝐼)2
I = 2.13 mA

## Vc = IXc, Vc = 1592I VR = IR, VR = 1000I

= 1592(2.13) = 1000(2.13)
= 3.4 V = 2.13 V
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

## In conclusion, at the end of the experiment, we able to noticed the effect of

frequency on the impedance of a series R-C network as well as, able to plot the
voltages and current of a series R-C network versus frequency correctly. Hence,
know how to calculate and plot the phase of the input impedance versus frequency
for a series R-C network. An RC circuit is a circuit with both a resistor (R) and a
capacitor (C). The capacitor store energy and the resistor connect in series with the
capacitor control the charging and discharging of a capacitor. The RC circuit is used
in camera flashes, pacemaker, and timing circuit. The RC signal filters the signals by
blocking some frequencies and allowing others to pass through it. It is also called
first order RC circuit and is used to filter the signals by passing some frequencies
and blocking others. The RC filters are mostly use for selecting signals and for
rejecting noise. Using tools such as function generator and oscilloscope can give
better idea of how the circuits work, themselves, and how a frequency response is
used.

In this experiment there are several errors that has been occurred during this
lab. One of the errors occurred because of difficulties when handling oscilloscope
due to lack of knowledge. Next, the outcome for these experiments shown
differences with the results, the differences can be handled by checking the
connectivity of each of the circuit to make sure that the breadboard is work
completely and not broken. This error occurred because the resistant of the wire and
the accuracy of the Multimeter that have been used to measure the voltage and
current in this experiment. After that, handle the capacitor carefully due to the
sensitivity of the capacitor to the long-time voltage supply, which is easy to get
damaged. Hence, make sure check the connectivity by using Multimeter to avoid
wrong wiring causing an error to the result. All these errors make the result of the
experiment are slightly different from the actual result.