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IDEO and Design Thinking as an Agile Innovation Practice

May 4, 2013

Shawn Cicoria John Sherlock Lauren Clarke Manoj Muniswamaiah


Pace University Pace University Pace University Pace University
Doctor of Professional Doctor of Professional Doctor of Professional Doctor of Professional
Studies (DPS) Studies (DPS) Studies (DPS) Studies (DPS)
Expected 2015 Expected 2015 Expected 2015 Expected 2015
shawn@cicoria.com js20454w@pace.edu lc18948w@pace.edu mm42526w@pace.edu

Abstract

Agile principles have mostly been aligned with software construction and delivery. While there are
examples of organizations applying agile principles and methodologies, like SCRUM, to non-software
applications, most of these organizations self-identify themselves as agile, or, specifcially indicate what
framework, like SCRUM, they apply to their process.

IDEO is a firm that never identifies itself as agile; however, the authors position is that they are agile in
their methods, applications, and approach for their process – known as Design Thinking.

This paper provides a background on the core principles of Agile, how IDEO aligns with agile principles,
and a brief review of several customers of IDEO: Apple, Microsoft, BBVA Group, and Helix.
IDEO and Design Thinking as an Agile Innovation Practice May 4, 2013

feedback. That project lead role is generally


1 INTRODUCTION someone closely aligned with the customer;
consequently, the lead may ultimately decide
The focus of this paper is on IDEO’s design what the product is to become[23].
process, and, while IDEO never specifically
The studios themselves are mostly self-
identify themselves as Agile, they do follow
managed, with strong emphasis on distributed
many agile practices and principles. IDEO has
management, and minimal core central
been successful in product innovation and
enterprise management structure. Studio
development producing product designs for
leads, however, do convene on a regular basis
over 53 companies[9]. Many IDEO customers
for corporate planning, and other functions, but
are well-known brands, such as 3M, Coca-Cola,
it is ultimately the studios that drive business
GE, Microsoft, Apple, Toyota, among others.
and ultimately their destiny[23].
This paper provides a background on the core
A core aspect of IDEO’s design philosophy is
principles of Agile, how IDEO correlates to agile
gaining empathy of the end user of the product
principles, and a brief review of several
or service that “customer” may desire or
customers of IDEO: Apple, Microsoft, and Helix.
require. They do not rely solely on their client’s
perspective – whom are generally leaders
2 IDEO INTRODUCTION within these large organizations – potentially
out-of-touch with their real customers and lack
IDEO is a design firm – and an innovation customer empathy.
consultancy – located primarily in Palo Alto,
There are examples where executives from
California. Formed initially in 1991 from
Procter & Gamble, AT&T, Kraft, and others, are
existing design firms – one run by David Kelley,
forced to endure their real customer’s
and the other was ID Two (designer of the first
experiences with their products in order to
laptop)[21]. Office furniture maker Steelcase
enforce true empathy and understanding of the
had a majority interest, of which they started
challenges or problems that their end-users are
divesting in 2007[23].
subject to with their goods and services[21].
Much of how IDEO is run caters to the core
Part of their engagement with their clients, is
principles of agility within an enterprise. They
ultimately teaching them to be self-sufficient in
have a flat hierarchy, instill individual
driving innovation within their own companies.
autonomy, and provide team orientation
A major component of their process is
through what they call “studios” [23]. While
conveying the core aspects of what they term
they have studio heads, they act as servant
Design Thinking[8,22]. David Kelley’s book,
leaders[18] to their project teams within their
Change by Design, he articulates the need to
studios. It is the teams that drive success with
combine empathy, gain context, allow for
designs they do on behalf of their clients.
creativity and learning through trial and error,
Teams are made up of multi-disciplined and rationalize approaches that fit the problem
members, with cross functional responsibilities. within the context[8,22].
While the team does elect a project lead, and
that is a coveted position within the
organization, that role provides a proxy to the
product owner for near term decisions and

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3.1.5 Communication
3 AGILE PRINCIPLES AND GOALS Agile primary focus is to bring about effective
A significant portion of research in application communication between team and customers.
of agile principles and goals is within the Quite often poor communication results in
context of Software development. While the delay of the projects.
Agile software development community is
3.1.6 Control on project
based upon iterative and incremental
The team needs to be proactive in monitoring
approaches, the concepts around Agility aren’t
the progress of the project making sure that the
necessarily tightly coupled to software
project progress is in alignment with the plans.
development.

Agile, simply stated using the Oxford Dictionary 3.2 AGILE MANIFESTO
is[17]: The Agile Manifesto provides for 12 principles
Adjective that should be followed[3]. For the purposes of
able to move quickly and easily: this paper, we generalized these principles, in
Ruth was as agile as a monkey order to remove the “software development”
able to think and understand quickly: only applications.
His vague manner concealed an agile Traditionally agile principles, and
mind methodologies have been applied in software
development as noted by principles 1, 3, and 7
from the below table. However, the use of
3.1 GOALS OF AGILE PRACTICES[6] these principles are being successfully applied
The following goals are provided by the in other industries and practices, and
Dynamic Systems Development Method individually.
(DSDM) consortium.
Throughout our literature search we found
3.1.1 Timely delivery several areas where the agile methodology has
Delivery of the product on time is an important been adopted including education, supply
phase in a project. It determines the progress of chain, manufacturing, sales, healthcare,
the project. industrial design, and product development.

We will use the generalized agility attributes


3.1.2 Collaborate
below, which the authors have created, in
Teams which work in right spirit will have better
conjunction with the IDEO case studies, their
outcome than the individual brilliance.
design principles, and contrast it, in order to
3.1.3 Quality identify if they are indeed agile.
The quality of the product delivered during each # Agile Manifesto[3] Generalized Agility
sprint should be of high quality and it should (authors)
never be compromised. 1 Our highest priority is Customer satisfaction and
to satisfy the customer continuous delivery of
3.1.4 Develop iteratively through early and results
continuous delivery of
Agile projects are built iteratively which valuable software.
converges to meet the accurate business 2 Welcome changing Expect and accept change
solution and invoke confidence in the customer. requirements, even late when it occurs for the
in development. Agile customer’s need

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# Agile Manifesto[3] Generalized Agility # Agile Manifesto[3] Generalized Agility


(authors) (authors)
processes harness then tunes and adjusts outside the team
change for the its behavior
customer's competitive accordingly.
advantage.
3 Deliver working Delivery frequently, with
software frequently, preference for shorter
from a couple of weeks iterations 3.3 AGILE INDIVIDUALS
to a couple of months,
with a preference to The concept of being Agile can apply to both
the shorter timescale. organizations and individuals. In J.D. Meir’s
4 Business people and Collaborate – the delivery book, Getting Results the Agile Way[15], he
developers must work and business people work
together daily together daily provides a system and approach for application
throughout the project. of Agile practices for everyday life. Some of the
5 Build projects around Provided for an principles J.D. Meir indicates as key to personal
motivated individuals. unencumbered team of
Give them the motivated people agility are[15]:
environment and
support they need, and  Respond to change
trust them to get the  Incremental delivery / value over time
job done.
 Continuous Learning
6 The most efficient and Communication is direct
effective method of with team, customers,  Less is more (lean)
conveying information and stakeholders  Utilize feedback
to and within a
development team is
 Fix time box – flexible scope
face-to-face  Cadence and rhythm
conversation.  Incremental improvements – delivered
7 Working software is the Delivered value through
primary measure of product is the measure of
value over time
progress. progress

8 Agile processes Work at a sustainable 3.4 AGILE PROJECT MANAGEMENT


promote sustainable pace In addition to individuals, and software
development. The
development, agile principles can also be
sponsors, developers,
and users should be applied to generalized project management.
able to maintain a Alistair Cockburn published his “Declaration of
constant pace
interdependencies” for modern (agile/adaptive)
indefinitely.
9 Continuous attention to Attention to excellence product and project management in 2005[25].
technical excellence and quality is paramount; That declaration states:
and good design good design enhances
enhances agility. agility  Increase return on investment by — making
continuous flow of value our focus.
10 Simplicity--the art of Simplicity is essential
maximizing the amount  Deliver reliable results by — engaging
of work not done--is customers in frequent interactions and
essential. shared ownership.
11 The best architectures, Design, and requirements,
requirements, and come from self-organizing  Expect uncertainty and manage for it
designs emerge from teams through — iterations, anticipation and
self-organizing teams. adaptation.
12 At regular intervals, the Teams adjust at regular
team reflects on how to intervals based upon  Unleash creativity and innovation by —
become more effective, feedback from within and recognizing that individuals are the ultimate

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source of value, and creating an 3.5 AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT


environment where they can make a
BACKGROUND[4]
difference.
Development of software projects was
 Boost performance through — group
transformed with the adoption of agile
accountability for results and shared
methodologies. Agile methodologies are based
responsibility for team effectiveness.
on iterative and incremental development of
 Improve effectiveness and reliability
the project which adds value based solutions to
through — situationally specific strategies,
the clients in contrast to traditional waterfall
processes and practices.
model where project is been implemented in a
In addition to this declaration, there are the 12- serial development life cycle with fixed start
steps (or recommendations) for DOI[25]: and end dates and a short term goal. It brings
about continuous improvement and involves
1. Focus on the value that is being created and customers. Non-software projects share many
watch the flow of increase in value. similarities related to the software projects like
2. Make the unit of value in the flow small, in multiyear development with changing
some ideal world a single unit, what the requirements. Software projects were
manufacturing people call continuous flow. benefitted by the adoption of agile methods
3. Engage the customers in frequent hence its process can be applied to non-
interaction. software projects.
4. Strive to get shared ownership.
5. Recognize that individuals are the ultimate Traditionally non-software projects rely on
source of value. increasing team sizes and increment
6. Create an environment where they can development life cycle in order to meet the
make a difference. growing requirements. Larger the team more
7. Build / design / work incrementally (our communications and interactions are needed
industry now calls these time periods and with serial development of the project
iterations and I can’t do anything about rework of the earlier cycle, costs and deadlines
that) are often an issue[4]. Agile processes can be
8. Anticipate what you can, meaning use the adopted to address the scalability and bring
information you have, silly! changes in the management level.
9. Use feedback close-in and across levels,
The following are several examples from of
reflect after each iteration, and adapt to
adoption of Agile in non-software setting[4].
what you discover.
10. Use situationally specific strategies (or 3.5.1 John Hopkins CubeSat
whatever [sp] you call them) and follow-up CubeSat program was introduced in universities
actions. to build satellites which are of standard mass
11. Give the group single accountability for and size. John Hopkins University Applied
results (meaning that there is no value in Physics Laboratory adopted agile practices to
passing blame; everyone is in it together). develop their CubeSat. They built the CubeSat
12. Help everyone to feel shared responsibility for 3% of the cost and in 14 months of a typical
for team effectiveness satellite. University divided the development
process in to two levels with leads from
Electrical, Mechanical, Avionics and Payloads
reporting to one manager. Since the team was

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co-located it brought in nonlinear process of Through sprints the progress and feedbacks
development[4]. were assessed to adjust to the changing
requirements. The work was divided in to work
John Hopkins CubeSat case study is an example
streams as follows[14]:
of how co-location of resources helps in
knowledge sharing and transformations which  Product validation – gather and validate
enabled in design flexibility. Incremental tests product information
were conducted at the component level which  Supply Chain – set up supply chain network
helped in identifying the issues at the early for vendor
stages and rectifying them and also increased  Contract – contract negotiation
the pace of the life cycle. The project managers  Fulfillment – Enable replenishment of the
were also allowed to make changes as long as process
the cost and budget of the project were in
scope[4].

3.5.2 PoochPals
PoochPals is a corporation that provides various
products for pets. They buy these products
from various vendors and redistribute it to
businesses related to the pets. Introducing a
new warehouse is a part of supply chain growth
for PoochPals[14].

Introducing a new warehouse involves following


Figure 1 - PoochPals Iteration and flow
tasks[14]:
Teams members were assigned to streams
 Selecting vendors and products based upon their expertise. Checklist identifies
 Validating product information the tasks which must be completed before the
 Designing the supply chain for every vendor downstream can begin their work. Supply chain
 Contract negotiations team also provides it’s prerequisites to the
Following the traditional method involves product validation team’s checklist. If the work
defining tasks and scheduling them for each of listed in the checklist is completed for a
the above process with all the vendors. Every particular vendor then the volume for that
vendor’s willingness to cooperate is different vendor was counted as “Done” for that
which implies that vendor has more control particular sprint. The Product backlog is the list
over the scheduled plan. Sometimes vendor will of vendors who were ready to enter the
make it through the process with reduced stream[14].
product selection or may even not make it. By the following agile practices, PoochPals
Invariably in the end the project is slowed changed the way vendors were selected and
down[14]. pulled through the process, planning was done
With the adoption of scrum PoochPals defined continuously and impact of decisions on
the new business end goal of setting up a new business goal was visible[14].
warehouse by the desired date with product
volume moving through it[14].

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4.1.1 Design Thinking


4 IDEO AND AGILE At the heart of IDEO’s success, is their design
One of the questions that came up with regards process Design Thinking. From their website[1]:
to IDEO and Agile is – are they agile at all? Design thinking is a human-centered approach
Reviewing their existing case studies, web site, to innovation that draws from the designer's
their Design Thinking toolkits, videos on toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the
YouTube – nowhere do we see or hear the word possibilities of technology, and the
Agile mentioned. requirements for business success. —Tim
Some would argue that ALL product innovation Brown, president and CEO
and design is agile. That discussion and The following are key principles identified by
research is not a part of this paper. However, IDEO in their materials. Within their Toolkit
there are examples of product design that are documentation, as you deconstruct each of
not agile. Commercial aircraft design at Airbus these areas, you can begin to identify agile
follows a waterfall approach with key phases of principles within. The authors align each of
“Feasibility”, “Concept”, “Design”, “Definition”, these characteristics of IDEO’s process with the
and “Development”[7]. Recent research in the generalized principles of the Agile Manifesto.
area of Agile product innovation suggests that
success for firms may be circumstantial 4.1.1.1 Human Centered
(environmental, employees, economics, This is the focus on the user stories, scenarios of
markets) and unintentional, but not proven to the end-user, and stakeholders of the overall
be agile principal based[20]. project. The personas that become the main
focus of the value proposition are identified
here. During their process they use interviews
4.1 IDEO PROCESS AND AGILITY
that obtain empathetic viewpoints, and become
Much of the following material is taken from
core to the project.
their IDEO Toolkit for educators and
organizations. These toolkits are available for This aligns with the following: 1, 4, 5, and 6.
non-commercial uses from their website.
4.1.1.2 Collaborative
IDEO doesn’t product any products of their own Working with multi-disciplinary teams, and their
(other than their IDEO Toolkit); they work with customer, the Design Thinking approach follows
other companies helping them with the the agile principle of Customer Collaboration.
following generic needs[1,10]: Additionally team size is expressly identified in
their process. Similar to SCRUM (which is an
 Innovate
agile framework), the target team size is no
 Build Businesses
more than 8 members (current SCRUM is 7 +/-
 Develop Capabilities
2) [SCRUM-DOCS].
 Grow
This aligns with the following: 4, 5, 6, 11, and
In order to achieve that for their customers,
12.
they utilized their Design Thinking[8] process.
Which, as the authors hope to demonstrate, is 4.1.1.3 Optimistic
an agile approach for Product Design and Motivation of a team is an important part of
Innovation. agile orientation. Providing a design challenge
that may seem unachievable at first to an

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ordinary team could be an initial sign of failure. 4.2 IDEO TOOLKIT


However, IDEO fosters team dynamics and The IDEO Toolkit provided the following best
motivation by allowing them the autonomy, practices, which align with agile principles as
environment, and feedback loops that is stated in the agile manifesto. Specifically
needed to be creative. around team structure, the environment needs,
This aligns with the following: 2, 5, and 12. and concepts of regular intervals and time box
of incremental delivery.
4.1.1.4 Experimental
Teams work iteratively over several periods, 4.2.1 Best Practices for Innovation[10]
providing demonstration and obtaining
4.2.1.1 Multi-Disciplinary Teams
feedback over the project lifetime. Within
The challenges you face are very complex and
these iterations teams apply creativity towards
are likely to have been explored by
possible solutions, some might be considered
predecessors. You will have a higher likelihood
outlandish, but in many instances, an approach
of success at solving such complex, difficult, and
that is bizarre might trigger other creative
already-examined problems by intentionally
thoughts. This is the learning process for the
assembling the right team of people. This team
team, which is a key aspect of agility.
will work best if it consists of a core group of 3-
This aligns with the following: 2, 5, 11, and 12 8 individuals, one of whom is the facilitator. By
mixing different disciplinary and educational
4.1.2 Other backgrounds, you will have a better chance of
Other agile principles are contained within their coming up with unexpected solutions when
documentation. Concepts and principles not these people approach problems from different
specifically identified in bullets, are present that points of view.
align well with agile.
4.2.1.2 Dedicated Spaces
For example, from the IDEO Toolkits: Having a separate project space allows the
 Finite timeframes – this aligns with fixed team to be constantly inspired by imagery from
time box[10] the field, immersed in their post-it notes, and
 Cycles – creating a cadence and rhythm able to track the progress of the project. If
(deep dives – are time boxed)[10] possible, find a dedicated space for your design
 Incremental – not Revolutionary ideas[10] – team to focus on the challenge.
the simple, incremental ones that can be 4.2.2 Finite Timeframes
evolutionary Many people notice that they work best with
 Value chain integration – prefer to execute deadlines and concrete timelines. Likewise, an
and ensure value chain analysis is done[10] innovation project with a beginning, middle,
In addition to their marketing materials on their and end is more likely to keep the team
website, they also publish toolkits for public motivated and focused on moving forward
consumption and an Educators toolkit, for use
in the classroom. Both are published under the 4.3 IDEO TOOLKIT FOR EDUCATORS
Creative Commons Attribution license, for non- The toolkit for Educators provides methods and
commercial purposes, for public consumption approaches for innovation in the classroom,
and use. with Design Thinking at the heart of the
process. Within that guide, many principles for

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agile are also present. In addition, some key present within the IDEO process. This along
aspects of agile delivery approaches are also with a focus on some of the other key principles
demonstrated. if IDEO process align nicely with agile principles:

Teams are coached on gaining empathy with  Common Room / Environment / Space
their customer base. Teams capture stories  Continuous Feedback
about their customers. Stories are then  Frequent Meetings
presented, for the team in a common area or  Prototyping to gain feedback, course
environment upon information radiators[5]. correction, validation
Below is an example from the IDEO Toolkit of an  Evolution and acceptance of change
information radiator:
5 IDEO EXAMPLES
The following examples of projects where IDEO
applied their agile innovation techniques
towards commercial needs. In these examples,
much of the effort was about significant change
that provided an inflection point within that
corporation or an industry[21]. Apple for
example, was able to parlay the idea of a cheap
mouse into a significant change in how
computer users would interact with
computers[21].

5.1 APPLE COMPUTER


The founder of IDEO had a close relationship
with Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple –
Steve Jobs introduced David Kelley to David’s
wife[21].

5.1.1 Design Goal


Existing mice (Xerox PARC and others) were
expensive and fragile; the Apple mouse had to
Figure 2 - IDEO Information Radiator
be reliable, but less than 10% of the cost or
earlier versions[11].

4.3.1 User scenarios and stories 5.1.2 Agility


Core to IDEO’s process is obtaining stories, This case study of IDEO's Apple mouse reveals
scenarios, challenges faced by the stakeholders, how user needs, behavior and feedback may
backed by research and first hand experiences. lead to narrowing of the design space[16].

4.3.2 Environment 5.1.3 Design Approach


The common room, quality environment or When IDEO designed a mouse for Apple in
space – again, a key principle of agile teams is 1980, the key requirement was to make the

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mouse more reliable and which would cost less 5.2 MICROSOFT MOUSE[12]
than the earlier version of it. IDEO design team Microsoft, not to be outdone by Apple, also
used two slotted wheels as encoders. LEDS and employed IDEO in development of one of their
phototransistors read the rotating wheels and first hardware devices – a mouse.
the ball was held in its place by the third roller.
The team redefined other parts of the mouse 5.2.1 Design Goal
button to the rubber coating of the ball. The The primary goal of the design for ergonomics.
mouse designed was both mechanical and Prior to this design, mice for computers were
economical. This basic design is used in most of boxy, very mechanical devices. Through simple
the mice built to date. IDEO's human computer modifications, such as moving the ball forward
interaction factors brought in changes by in the device allowed better control for the
movement of the mouse ball from under the user.
palm and clicks of the button. This resulted in
precision control and better performance[11]. 5.2.2 Agility
The IDEO design team went through several
Apple mouse case study was example of how iterations of prototypes, ultimately centering on
designs emerge and they are defined up front. what was known as the “Dove Bar” design.
The overall design of the mouse has evolved From this design they obtain the final design,
since its base model and has also taken the adding thinks like a glossy finish for durability
advantage of the technologies over the period and ease of cleaning.
of time. Design models need to be just good
enough. They don't have to be perfect and In addition, they worked with fabrication teams
complete. It is important to think through how in modification of the manufacturing methods.
to build something by designing it, before they The manufacturing organizations would be
are built[2]. considered “customers” of the design, and
stakeholders.
Quality control was followed to ensure that the
product meets the customer requirements. The
steel ball in the mouse had been replaced by
the rubber ball. This implies that moving testing
upfront would improve quality of the
product[19].

Figure 4 - Microsoft Ergonomic Mouse - IDEO Website

5.3 ATM MACHINE FOR BBVA (BANCO


BILBAO VIZCAYA ARGENTARIA)
BBVA Group is a financial services company
Figure 3 - Apple Mouse - IDEO Website
with 47 million customers[13]. In 2009 they
employed IDEO to help design a new ATM
experience.

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5.3.1 Design Goal 5.4 WAYNE HELIX


The goal was for BBVA to obtain a competitive
advantage with the design of their ATM. 5.4.1 Design Goal
Clearly, few of us could imagine banking While design designing the dispenser its
without this convenience. BBVA intended to manufacturing process was also considered so
create a better experience, based upon that it could be manufactured anywhere in the
customer needs and focus on user experience world. This highlights the efficiency and
during that development process[13]. scalability of the design thinking. Each
component’s material and manufacturing
IDEO and BBVA are constrained by banking
process was carefully chosen to bring about
regulations and ATM industry standards. ATMs
efficient functionality and quality of the
are primarily designed by hardware
component[24].
manufacturers which have a base catalog of
offerings[13]. Wayne Helix fuel dispensers are methodically
designed and technologically advanced
5.3.2 Agility dispensers. They are the end products of
In a multi-function team made up of IDEO and worldwide research and design of IDEO.
BBVA team members, they undertook an
approach that leveraged[13]: 5.4.2 Agility
To be effective in Agile cross-functional teams
 Cross-discipline team should work together. The progress of the
 Customer interviews project is built upon feedback from customers
 Experiences from non-ATM applications – and communications among everyone in the
gas pumps, supermarkets, train ticket kiosks team. With proper design bottlenecks can be
 Provided iterative prototype delivery avoided earlier than later in the project. User
 Work with manufacturers (customers of the Experience can also help in acceptance testing
design) to ensure original design and determine the success of the project [17].
maintained through delivery
The IDEO team spoke and gathered knowledge
about the dispensers from customers and
station owners from different countries. The
fueling process and user experience are
reflected in Helix dispensers[24].

 Customer feedbacks were transformed in to


the design of the dispenser[24]
 User Interface – Different models of Helix
dispensers were built on same type of user
interface.
 Enhanced displays – Angled price displays
allows the users to see clearly both in day
Figure 5 - BBVA ATM - IDEO Website
and night.
 Payment Security – The transaction security
at the dispenser was increased.

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 Helix dispenser’s accurate metering and know it – or, they know it and they just don’t
durable material provides high quality end care as they’ve developed a process that works.
product with attractive design.

7 REFERENCES
5.5 FORD MOTORS
IDEO has had a long standing relationship with
[1] “About IDEO,” [Online]. Available:
Ford Motor Company. In an interview with Ed http://www.ideo.com/about . [Accessed:
Pleet, Director, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Africa 01-Apr-2013].
Connected Services at Ford Motor Company, he
indicated the following: [2] S. W. Ambler, “Agile Design Practices.”
[Online]. Available:
1. The working process with IDEO is designed
http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/a
to be iterative gileDesign.htm. [Accessed: 01-Apr-
2. Each iteration had a review 2014].
3. Each iteration was 8 – 12 weeks
4. Feature owners, acted as product owners [3] K. Beck, M. Beedle, A. van Bennekum, A.
5. Use of User Stories and Scenarios for the Cockburn, W. Cunningham, M. Fowler, J.
innovation team Grenning, J. Highsmith, A. Hunt, R.
6. Constant feedback between team and Jeffries, J. Kern, B. Marick, R. C. Martin,
feature owner S. Mellor, K. Schwaber, J. Sutherland,
7. Team adjusted as needed and D. Thomas, “Principles behind the
Agile Manifesto.” [Online]. Available:
The transition to the IDEO agile approach for http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.htm
Ford was not simple nor easy. Ed Pleet l. [Accessed: 01-Apr-2013].
indicated “It is critical that you allow the teams
enough lead way to accomplish their goal while [4] R. Carlson and R. Turner, “Review of
providing protection to them from any internal Agile Case Studies for Applicability to
concerns.” Aircraft Systems Integration,” Procedia
Computer Science, vol. 16, pp. 469–474,
Ed Pleet summed up the IDEO team with “IDEO Jan. 2013.
reacts well to change as they are very flexible in
their development process.” [5] A. Cockburn, “Information radiator.”
[Online]. Available:
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