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Chapter 1

Introduction

Rationale

Reading is a basic tool of education and one of the most important skills in everyday life. Trough
reading, a child develop her young mind in speaking as well as entertain, inform and influence others.
Reading through is a skills which requires time and enough practice to perfect.

Success in reading is success in school, but in the field of education, non-readers are perennial
problems of teachers in the elementary schools. This prompted the Department of Education to come
up with a new policy not to promote to the higher level children who cannot read. ( Dept.Ed. Order No.
45 s-2005). This is known as “ No Read, No Move Policy”.

It is an accepted fact that in our country today, we find both teachers and pupils faced with the
problems of English language incompetence. Pupils have not developed their ability to speak, listen,
read and write with a considerable degree of fluency, appropriateness, accuracy and acceptability.
Hence it can be said that generally, Filipino learners do not have an excellent command of the English
language. Neither do their teachers , as revealed by a language proficiency test which was conducted
several years ago. And apparently, the deterioration of the quality of English language teaching
continues. ( Razote. M., 2006 )

The Philippine Formal Reading Inventory ( Phil-IRI ), Is an assessment tool that evaluates the
reading proficiency level and reading comprehension of elementary pupils. T he pupils recognition as
well as his/her word recognition are informally assessed through stories and passages. The results
presents the reading profile of public elementary school nation wide . It can give the teachers
information on the level of the pupils performance on reading. The teacher may then use the
information in planning their reading program instruction to improve the reading level of their pupils.
Statement of the problem

There is a need to conduct oral reading to look into the weaknesses of the pupils for remedial
measure purposes.

Specifically, this research will answer the fallowing questions

1. What is the profile of the Grade 1 pupils in Villamor Elementary school, of Cabarroguis, District
for SY 2011-2012 In terms of;
1.1 Age
1.2 Gender
1.3 School
2. What is the profile of the teachers of these Grade 1 pupils in terms of:
2.1. Age
2.2. Gender
3.3. Civil Status
3.4. Highest educational attainment

3. What is the performance of Grade 1 pupils of oral test in the pre and post along the different miscues
when the pupils are group by their profile?

3.1. Mispronunciation

3.2. Substitution

3.3. Insertion

3.4. Omission

3.5. Reversal

3.6. Repetition

3.7. Refusal to pronounce

4. What is the performance of the Grade 1 pupils in comprehension test in the pre and post along the
different reading levels when pupils are group by their profile?

4.1. Literal
4.2. Interpretative

4.3. Applied

5. What is the percent distribution of the Grade 1 pupils in the fallowing reading levels in pre and post
test?

5.1. Frustration

5.2. Instructional

5.3. Independent

5.4. Non-Reader

6. What is the reading performance of Grade 1 pupils in the different miscues when they are group by
their teachers ‘ profile as follows:

6.1. Age

6.2. Gender

6.3. Civil Status

6.4. Highest Educational Attainment

6.5. Teaching Strategies use

7. What is the performance of the Grade 1 pupils in the reading comprehension when they are group by
their profile of their teachers?

8. Are their significant differences on the reading performance of Grade 1 pupils in the pre test in the
different miscues when they are group by their profile?

9. Are their significant differences on the reading performance of Grade 1 pupils in the post-test in the
different miscues when they are group by their profile?

10. Are their significant differences on the reading comprehension of the Grade 1 pupils in the pre-test
in the different miscues when they are group by their teacher profile?
11. Are their significant differences on the reading performance of the Grade 1 pupils in the post-test in
the different miscues when they are group by their profile?

12. Are their significant differences on the reading performance of the Grade 1 pupils in the different
miscues when they are group by the profile of their teachers?

13. Are their significant differences on the reading comprehension of the Grade 1 pupils along the
different reading levels when they are group by teaching strategies use by their teachers.

Objectives of the Study

Generally, this research envision to assess the oral reading and reading comprehension of the
Grade 1 pupils along the PHIL-IRI program.

Specifically, this research will shed lights to the following objectives;

1. Determine the profile of the Grade 1 pupils in Villamor Elementary School, Cabarroguis District
In terms of;
1.1. Age
1.2. Gender
1.3. School
2. Determine the profile of the teachers of these Grade 1 pupils in terms of:
2.1. Age
2.2. Gender
2.3. Civil Status
2.4. Highest Educational Attainment

3. Assess the performance of the Grade 1 pupils in Oral Reading test in the pre and post along the
different miscues when the pupils are group by their profile;

3.1. Mispronunciation

3.2. Substitution

3.3. Insertion
3.4. Omission

3.5. Reversal

3.6. Repetition

3.7. Refusal t0 pronounce

4. Assess the performance of the Grade 1 pupils in comprehension test in the pre and post along the
different reading levels when pupils are group by their profile.

4.1. Literal

4.2. Interpretative

4.3. Applied

5. Determine the percent distribution of the Grade I pupils in the following reading levels in the pre and
post test.

5.1. Frustration

5.2. Instructional

5.3. Independent

5.4. Non-Reader

6. Evaluate the Oral reading performance of Grade 1 pupils in the different miscues when they are
group by teachers’ as follows;

6.1. Age

6.2. Gender

6.3. Civil Status

6.4. Highest Educational Attainment

6.5. Teaching Strategies Use


7. Evaluate the performance of the Grade 1 pupils in the reading comprehension when they are group
by the profile of their teachers.

8. Determine the existence of significant differences on the reading performance in the pre-test in the
different miscues when they are group by their profile.

9. Evaluate the existence of significant differences on the reading performance of Grade 1 pupils in the
post-test in the different miscues when they are group by their profile.

10. Determine the existence of significant differences on the reading comprehension of Grade 1 pupils in
the pre-test in the different miscues when these pupils are group by their teachers’ profile.

11. Determine the existence of significant differences on the reading performance of Grade 1 pupils on
the post-test in the different miscues when they are group by their profile.

12. Evaluate the existence of significant differences on the reading performance of the Grade 1 pupils in
the different miscues when they are group by the profile of their teachers.

13. Assess the existence of significant differences on the reading comprehension of the Grade 1 pupils
along the different reading levels when they are group by teaching strategies use by their teachers.

Scope and Delimitation

This study focus primarily on the reading performance of Grade 1 pupils in Villamor Elementary
School, Cabarroguis District along the Phil IRI program. This include the oral reading performance of the
students and their reading comprehensions. The variables included along the oral reading performance
are: Mispronunciation, Substitution, Insertion, Omission, and Refusal to pronounce. Other variables ,
which are subject to study, are the profiles of the pupils and the teachers.

This research will be conducted on July 2011- Fubruary 2012.


Importance of the Study

The result of the study is believe to benefit the fallowing people.

English Teachers

The results of this study provides valuable information as to the status of oral reading and
reading comprehension proficiency of the Grade 1pupils. This serve as a guide for teachers in providing
remedial action to solve whatever weaknesses the pupils encountered as shown by the result of this
research in order to improve English instruction.

Administrators

The input from this research serves as information for them to improve the quality of reading
instruction in the school. As administrators, they are task to spearhead their teachers to establish a
functional reading program in order to eradicate non- readers among the pupils.

Parents

The parents are the partners of the teachers in teaching the pupils how to read. The results of this
study gives information to the parents on the reading status of their children. This serve as their basis in
continuing and refocusing the reading activities of their children at home.

Pupils

The end users are the pupils of whatever activities, new strategies and interventions made by
teachers as a result of the recommendations of the researcher. Any improvement of the reading
instruction directly benefits the pupils if their weaknesses along the seven miscues is address.
Conceptual Framework of the Study

This research is anchored on the concept with children could be good readers if given proper
guidance and trainings. It should be understood that each child has own limit of learning interest and
experiences. This could be considered in terms of individual needs, abilities and interest of the child. It
calls for the provision of the kind of instructional materials which helps these pupils to develop skills in
reading which contribute to their personal and social development. It should be understood that
learning and teaching of reading involves three distinct entities- the pupils, the teacher, and the
methods use.

Educators are aware of the need to consider factors affecting the learning of pupils, the problems
of teaching reading not to undermine the teaching methods but nothing has been done to help address
the increasing number of non readers in the elementary levels. It is on this premise that the DeptEd
came up with the “no read, no pass policy” which is a stringent measure to upgrade the quality of
instruction. With this policy, The PHIL-IRI was born. It is the first validated instrument that intends to
measure the pupils’ reading comprehension level. The pupils’ word recognition and comprehension
ability as well as his reading speed are informally assessed quantitatively and qualitatively through
stories and passages.

The research make use of the Input- Process –Output model. The inputs are the 60 pupils in the
Villamor Elementary School, Cabarroguis District, the reading instruction in the PHIL-IRI program and the
English teachers. This inputs are use in the assessment; however, there are variables that may affect the
teaching learning process. These are the profile of the pupils and the teachers and the reading
approaches use in school. In this research, the expected output is the reading performance of the Grade
1 pupils in Villamor Elementary School, of Cabarroguis District.
Definition of Terms

Several terms are defined in order to facilitate learning and better understanding of this study.

Assessment tool. This term refers to a set of passage given to the child to determine his/her
reading level.

Informal Oral Reading. This refers to an assessment on the child’s word recognition and
comprehension skills.

Intervention Straregy. This refers to a scheme, device or activity a teacher may provide a remedy
or overcome a reading difficulty.

Phil- IRI Oral Test. It is an informal measure that assesses the pupils’ word identification,
vocabulary and comprehension skills in oral reading.

Reading Level. This refers to the result of the reading activity which may either be frustration level,
instructional level or independent level.

Frustration. This is a term associated to a certain reading level if the percent score is 89 and below.
This means that the pupil committed six or lesser error.

Instructional Level. The pupils is under instructional level if his percent score is 90%-96%. In this
case, the pupil committed 2 to 5 errors.

Independent Level. The pupil in this level got a percent score of 97% to 100%. In this case, the
pupil committed only one error.

Regular Oral Reading. This refers to the regular reading time for all the pupils with the assistance of
the teacher.

Reading Materials. This refers to a type written story given to a pupils during reading session.

Pre-Test. This is a test conducted at the start of the school year. The results serve as the basis in
planning a school reading program.

Post-test. This is a test conducted at the end of the school year. This will reveal the progress
achieved by the pupil during the school year.