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Indian Highways
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published on 26 October, 2018 November, 2018
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Edited and Published by Shri S.K. Nirmal, Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress, IRC HQ, Sector-6, R.K. Puram,
Kama Koti Marg, New Delhi - 110 022. Printed by Shri S.K. Nirmal on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress
at M/s. India Offset Press, New Delhi-110 064
https://www.irc.nic.in
Indian Highways
Volume : 46 Number : 11 ● November, 2018 ● ISSN 0376-7256
Indian Roads Congress
Founded : On 10th December, 1934

Contents
 From the Editor's Desk 4-5
 Advertisements 2, 6-10, 66-68
 IRC Technical Committee Meeting Schedule November, 2018 18
 Call for Technical Papers 28

Technical Papers
 Use of New Design & Construction Methodology in Road Construction and Maintenance in the
State of Uttar Pradesh 11
By Vijay Kumar Singh
 Policy of Standardisation & Type Plans of Bridges Under Revised Strategy of Bridge Practice in Maharashtra Pwd19
By C. P. Joshi, S. S. Bhonge and P. M. Baviskar
 Bridge Health Monitoring 29
By U.C. Mehta and R.K. Dhiman, VSM
 Impact of Road Safety Audit Implementation on Expressway 35
By Dr. A Mohan Rao, Dr. S. Velmurugan and Dr. Satish Chandra
 Perpetual Pavement Design over Conventional Proposed Ring Road for Pune City 43
By Saurabh Kulkarni and Mahadeo Ranadive
 Influence of Design Parameters on Earth Pressures Behind Retaining Walls 49
By Rajendra Chalisgaonkar
 News/Announcement 56
 Tender Notices 57
 th
Announcement for 79 Annual Session of the IRC 58-62
 Announcement for International Seminar, January 2019 63-64
 New/Revised IRC Publication 65

Publisher & Editor: S.K. Nirmal, Secretary General, IRC


E-mail: secygen.irc@gov.in
Headquarter: IRC Bhawan, Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110 022.
Phone No.: +91-11-26171548 (Admn.), 23387140 & 23384543 (Membership), 23387759 (Sale),
26185273 (Tech. Papers, Indian Highways and Tech. Committees)

No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the Secretary General, IRC.
The responsibility of the contents and the opinions expressed in Indian Highways is exclusively of the author(s) concerned. IRC and the Editor
disclaim responsibility and liability for any statements or opinion, originality of contents and of any copyright violations by the authors. The opinion
expressed in the papers and contents published in the Indian Highways do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor or IRC.

Printed at: M/s India Offset Press, New Delhi-110 064 `20
INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 3
From the Editor's Desk

Accelerated Construction of
Infrastructure Projects

During the project planning, design and construction stage, investments are made and the return on such
investments starts only when the completed project is opened to traffic. The employer wishes faster
implementation of the projects. There are many issues involved in accelerated construction of road and
bridge projects which are discussed.

In the contracts the time period for completion of projects is based on completion of similar projects
which is in the knowledge of the client engineers. Time period for completion is specified in the contracts
and there is provision for grant of extension of time. In the first place there is hardly any scientific basis
to calculate the time for completing the project and then extensions are given for completion. In case time
is essence for completion of projects then provision for grant of extension of time should not be there in
the contract.

For major bridge and flyovers projects, introduction of Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques
involving use of new material, design process, construction procedure, high strength materials and new
management methods is the need of the hour. These projects can be completed in much shorter duration.
ABC technology uses innovative planning with designs, materials and construction methods in safer
and cost effective manner to reduce on site construction time. Use of high-performance concrete (both
reinforced and prestressed), high strength steel and innovative joints can be used to accelerate the speed
of construction. This technology should be considered for all bridges, flyovers or viaduct construction
projects at locations with traffic congestion.

Precast components for Culverts and Bridges are used world over for speedier execution of culvert and
bridge works. Bridge components are produced in factory-controlled environment and then transported
to site. IRC has published IRC-122 “Guidelines for Construction of Precast Concrete Segmental Box
Culverts” and IRC:SP:71 “Guidelines for Design and Construction of Precast Pretension Girders for
Bridges”. There is a need to prepare good for construction drawings for precast culverts and bridge
components for different span lengths and width. These drawing needs to be approved by competent
authority so these can be made use of in projects. Machinery required for transportation of precast box
culverts/bridge components are now available in India.

When all such advanced modern equipment for road and bridge construction are available, the old
tendering system, geotechnical investigation methods, foundation execution and testing methods, pavers
for laying pavements in a single pass, transport of precast bridge components need an urgent and immediate
modernization with respect to present days requirements of ultrahigh speed completion of projects.

Bengaluru Mahanagar Palika completed a RCC bridge behind old airport in 7 days including work of
piling. Karnataka Government intended to construct an underpass connecting two areas of Air force
Station across busy National Highways for an Aero-Show without disturbing NH traffic. Time available
for construction of under pass was 5 months so work order was issued to complete the work in 5 months

4 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


From the Editor's Desk

with fixed time and cost. The under pass with box-push technology was executed with time based approach
and handed over to IAF in 148 days, without disturbing National Highway traffic.

By adopting Accelerated Bridge Construction technology, we can substantially overcome to a large extent
the problems of heavy traffic congestion specially in urban situations or where roads are narrow as this
reduces total project delivery time and improves product quality and durability.

In EPC projects the contractors have their own design with the project to be completed within the given
time period. Provision of bonus clause in these projects provides an incentive for early completion of the
projects.

The cost of using Accelerated Bridge Construction is higher as compared to conventional bridge construction
if only initial cost of construction is considered. ABC technology offers many other advantages of early
completion, to avoid longer period of traffic jams and thereby less inconvenience to public and reduction
in loss of working hours for public, better quality due to construction in factory-controlled environment
etc. Thus decision should be taken by clients considering overall life cycle cost rather than initial cost of
construction alone to adopt such technology.

For accelerating pace of construction of works there is a need to encourage contractors to buy new higher
capacity machinery and to encourage private sector to set up construction equipment banks from where
contractors can hire such modern construction equipment. The use of latest and modern methods as
against the conventional methods should be made to accelerate the speed of construction in our road and
bridge projects.

(Sanjay Kumar Nirmal)


Secretary General

“Alert Today - Alive Tomorrow”


“Fast Driving is not Safe, Follow the Limit to Avoid Chafe”
“Normal Speed Meets Every Need”
“Don't be Fool, Respect Road Safety Rules”
“You Can't Get Home, Unless you are Safe”

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 5


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10 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

Use of New Design & Construction Methodology in Road


Construction and Maintenance in the State of Uttar Pradesh

Vijay Kumar Singh

1. Introduction 1.4 Following technologies were adopted for the


1.1 It is undeniable that the road construction construction and up gradation of roads.
industry every day is looking for a greater effectiveness ● Cold Recycling Technology (CRT)
and efficiency in its techniques and methods. ● Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)
However, change in the construction environment is ● Full Depth Reclamation (FDR)
not willingly embraced by the construction industry ● Cement Treated Base (CTB) and Sub-Base (CTSB)
and this conflict to change compromises innovation in Road Construction
performance, and unenthusiastically impacts
Few case studies of the works executed by UP PWD by
customer and industry goals. In other words, with
adopting above technologies are given below:
rising globalization, roads have become a very vital
infrastructure in enabling the transfer of freight as 2. Case Study-1
well as people, making the better and sustainable A stretch of Ch. 71.00 to 85.00 of Bilgram-Unnao-
development of roads very important. Allahabad (SH-38) in district Unnao of Uttar Pradesh
1.2 Innovation in road construction offers important was in very bad condition. Widespread cracks were
industry and community benefit. There is high visible on the pavement. This project was selected for
government spending in road construction as well rehabilitation with Cold in Place Recycling (CIPR).
as maintenance, so there is also a need for the use of Existing bituminous crust of pavement was 40 mm.
innovation to find methods that will be cost effective. Total 75 mm depth of pavement was recycled. Some
Conventional construction material like aggregate stretch of road was reclaimed with bitumen emulsion
is becoming progressively scarce on account of and some stretch was reclaimed with Foamed bitumen.
environment concerns as well as legal restrictions on 2.1 Design
quarrying, while the construction activity has expanded
CBR = 6%
phenomenally. This has shifted focus from large-scale
msa = 20
use of conventional aggregate to use of local, recycled
and engineered marginal aggregates in construction. Existing Granular Crust = 395 mm
Existing Bituminous Crust = 40 mm
1.3 UP PWD understood the importance of above
Treated RAP = 75 mm
aspects and started executing projects using innovative
and new technologies with the use of new materials BC = 40 mm
instead of conventional aggregate. This resulted not 2.2 Construction
only in saving of cost but also saved huge quantity The top bituminous layer was replaced by 75 mm in situ
of aggregate. Initially It was a uphill task to convince cold mix recycled layer. The cold recycle mix consists
technical staff to adopt the new material but as time of RAP material with addition of 1% cement, 15-20%
goes by Departmental Engineers executed a number fresh aggregate and 3.5% emulsion. The cold recycled
of projects adopting different modes in widening and mix was then compacted using heavy compactor to
strengthening projects, maintenance of roads and achieve required density. Finally wearing coat of 40
special repairs. mm BC was laid on top of cold recycled layer.

Engineer-in-Chief & Head of Department, UP PWD, Lucknow, E-mail: pwdeinc@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 11


Technical Paper

Fig. 1(i) Distressed Pavement before Rehabilitation Fig. 1(ii) Distressed Pavement before Rehabilitation

Fig. 1(iii) Construction Work in Progress Fig. 1(iv) Road after Completion of Work

A comparative study based on this project shows a 2.3 Conclusion


significant savings of 15% & 25% respectively, in The modulus of fresh WMM is 250 MPa, whereas
material and cost, in comparison to conventional method of WMM RAP stabilized with 3.50% emulsion &
of rehabilitation. 1% cement ranges from 600 to 1200 MPa. Thus RAP
Construction of road work was completed in Nov, provides a higher strength parameter in terms of modulus
2015. Inspections of road were carried out frequently of resilience & in turn it leads to saving in aggregate
to evaluate the condition and after construction & saving of 15% to 25% in cost. This technique is
performance. Road was found in good condition. No environment friendly also as it consumes less aggregate,
cracks were appeared in the pavement. During the less energy & saves the natural resources.
last inspection of road in October 2017, Deflections It was observed that even after passage of 2 years,
were calculated using Falling Weight Deflectometer. pavement was in good condition with no cracks
Layer moduli were calculated using KGPBACK anywhere and fatigue & rutting life were 242 msa &
programme. Using these, moduli strains were 28.4 msa respectively for 90% reliability against the
calculated at the bottom of bituminous layer and at designed traffic of 20 msa, which implies that against
the top of sub grade using IIT Pave. The results are the remaining period of 13 years of original design, the
as follows. life of pavement even now since Oct 17 is 19 years.
Strain as per IIT Pave
3. Case Study-2
CBR = 6 Et = 128.8 x 10-6 Fatigue = 161.4 msa Unnao bypass (Commonly referred as Dostinagar Unnao
Life Bypass) connecting NH-25 (Lucknow –Kanpur road) to
State Highway- 40 (Bilgram –Unnao- Allahabad Road)
msa = 20 EV = 421.0 x 10-6 Rutting = 28.4 msa
was in very bad and dilapidated condition as CBR of
Life
sub grade was very low ranging from 3% to 4%. The

12 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

strengthening of road was taken up more than 3 times 6. Carriageway width = 7.0 mtrs
within a short span of 10 years from 2002 to 2011, but 7. Existing crust = 250 mm
each time it failed because of poor soil of subgrade. Crust 8. Surfacing = SDBC (Damaged)
thickness of existing road was 25 cm including damaged 9. Design crust
bituminous layer. This 4.30 kms long road was selected - Full Depth Reclamation with = 250 mm
for rehabilitation by Full Depth Reclamation. 2% OPC
- Cement Treated Base (WMM = 90 mm
A pavement rehabilitation technique in which the full + 4% OPC)
flexible pavement section and a predetermined portion - Crack Relief Layer (WMM) = 100 mm
of the underlying materials are uniformly crushed, -B C = 50 mm
pulverized or blended, resulting in a stabilized base
course. In its simplest form, FDR consists of in-situ The existing sub grade to the depth of 30 cm was
pulverization of existing pavement and underlying stabilized with 2% lime after removing existing granular
layers, uniform blending of pulverized material, grading, base and sub base. After soil stabilization material of
and compaction. Cement, emulsion or foamed asphalt or existing road was re-laid and mixed in addition of 10%
combinations of these materials are added to produce a fresh aggregate to improve the gradation of aggregates.
strong durable base. FDR with 2% cement was executed and compacted at
3.1 Design Parameters: optimum moisture content. 90 mm fresh base layer of
1. Length (Ch. 0.000 – 4.300) = 3.80 km
aggregate with 4% cement was placed over cemented
2. CBR of existing sub grade = 3.4% sub base as per design carried out by IIT Pave. 100 mm
3. Effective CBR of sub grade after = 10% inter layer of WMM and 50 mm of Bituminous Concrete
soil stabilization with lime were also placed as per design. The photographs showing
4. CVPD = 1589 the existing pavement before rehabilitation and after
5. msa = 18 construction is placed below:

Fig. 2(i) Damaged Road Pavement Fig. 2(ii) Distressed Pavement

Fig. 2(iii) Stabilised Subbase During Construction Fig. 2(iv) Road after Rehabilitation Work

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 13


Technical Paper

3.2 Significant Cost and material savings material, for example 5 to 10 percent of cement added
A comparative study based on Unnao Bypass shows to clean gravel will cause it to behave like concrete &
a significant savings of 49% & 39% respectively, in the pavement layer will be subjected to large shrinkage
material and cost, in comparison to conventional method cracks. Not all materials can be successfully stabilized,
of rehabilitation as depicted in graph. for example if cement is used as the stabilizer with sandy
soil, it is more likely to yield satisfactory results as
compared to soft clays.
IRC:37-2012, Tentative Guidelines for the Design of
Flexible Pavement usually suggests stabilization of
granular layer with small quantity of cement ranging
from 2% to 4%. IRC:37 also suggests usage of reclaimed
asphalt pavements with the use of emulsion or foamed
bitumen.
With these guidelines, a project was selected in Uttar
Pradesh named as Lucknow Bangarmau Bilhaur Road
ch. 86.450 to 87.350 (old portion of State Highway-40)
based on traffic census. The spectrum msa for the design
was taken as 19 msa and CBR of sub grade 6%. Width
of existing pavement was 5 m which has been widened
3.3 Evaluation of Constructed Pavement to 10 meters. Design of flexible pavement based on
Construction of road work was completed in May, 2014. conventional method vis-a-vis with the use of stabilized
Inspections of road were carried out in June 2014, January layer is as follows :
2015, June 2015, August 2015 & October 2015 to valuate
the condition and after construction performance. Road Bituminous 130 mm Bituminous 40 mm
was found in good condition. No cracks were appeared Stabilized WMM 150
in the pavement. During the last inspection of road in mm
Granular 510 mm
October 2017, Deflections were calculated using Falling CT sub base 200 mm
Weight Deflectometer. Layer moduli were calculated Granular 150 mm
using KGPBACK programme. Using these, moduli Conventional With stabilised
strains were calculated at the bottom of bituminous layer 640 mm layer 540 mm
and at the top of sub grade using IIT Pave. The results
are as follows. Total thickness of existing granular layer was 250 mm.
Upper 100 mm part of existing layer and 100 mm fresh
Strain as per IIT Pave
granular layer mixed with 2% cement was provided
CBR = 3 Et = 10.2 x 10-6 as sub base. Over cement treated sub base 150 mm
msa = 18 EV = 160.0 x 10-6 stabilized WMM (fresh aggregate treated with 3.5 %
3.4 Conclusion bitumen emulsion & 1% cement) was placed. Over
stabilized WMM base layer 40 mm bituminous concrete
Horizontal Tensile Strain at the bottom of bituminous was placed. Design of pavement was carried out using IIT
layer is 10.2x10-6 which is less than 70 micron. Similarly PAVE software. As seen from the above bars nearly 100
Vertical Compressive Strain on subgrade is 160.0 x mm saving in crust of granular along with bituminous
10-6, which is less than 200 micron, thereby making this layer and approximately 16% cost saving was achieved
pavement as Perpetual Pavement. using stabilized base and cement treated sub base.
4. Case Study-3 As described in IRC:37-2012 cold mix recycling is
The main objective of stabilization is to improve the a method of recycling where RAP, new aggregate (if
performance of material by increasing its strength, needed), and emulsified bitumen or foamed bitumen
stiffness and durability. The addition of even small without the need for heat are mixed in a centrally
amount of stabilizer, for example upto 2 percent cement located cold mix plant. In the similar manner fresh
can modify the properties of a material. Large amount of WMM grading conforming to grading of WMM as per
stabilizer will cause a large change in properties of that MORT&H was mixed with 3.5% bitumen emulsion (SS)

14 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

and 1% cement at WMM Plant and was subsequently were visible. Deflections were measured using Falling
laid at site. Bituminous concrete was laid over stabilized Weight Deflectometer
layer after gap of 10 days. 4.2 Conclusion
Normally modulus of fresh WMM over a granular base
is 250 MPa, whereas modulus of WMM stabilized with
3.5% emulsion or 2.5% foamed bitumen ranges from
600 to 1200 MPa. IRC:37-2012 suggests modulus of
aggregates treated with bitumen emulsion/ foamed
bitumen as 600 MPa. The cost of road in this project
as per conventional method was 3.11 Cr/km while
using stabilization of granular layer cost was 2.56
Cr/km, there by cost saving of approximately 16%
was achieved, in addition to 10 cm reduction in crust
thickness&a saving of 700 cum/km. This technique is
environment friendly also. It was also observed that
after 1 1/2 year after construction, pavement was in
Fig. 3 8 Days after the Stabilized WMM good condition and fatigue/rutting life were 102.10
msa and 178.30 msa respectively, against the designed
19 msa. Stabilization of aggregate with emulsion
(confirming to MoRTH WMM grading) is much easier
as compared to stabilization of aggregate with cement
because proper stabilization of aggregate with cement
requires cement spreaders and recycler. Normal to
medium traffic can be easily allowed directly over
emulsion stabilized layer after few hours, whereas in
case of cement stabilized layer only after 7 days, light
traffic can be allowed. Execution and quality control
of emulsion stabilization is easier than aggregate
stabilized with cement.
4.3 Projects Completed/in Construction with
Fig. 4 Finished work After BC Cemented base and Sub-base
Use of cemented base and sub-base is described in
4.1 Evaluation of constructed pavement details in IRC:37-2012. Being named as tentative guide
Construction of road was completed in March 2016. First lines, most of the field Engineers were not very confident
visual inspection of road was carried out in the month to adopt these guidelines. Public Works Department
of April 2016 & the road was in very good condition. took the initiative and started many projects with this
Second inspection was carried out in the month of New Technology. Few projects are detailed below in
October 2017. Road was in good condition and no cracks Table-1:
Table-1 Projects of U.P. PWD
Road Road Length Cost of Project
Sl. Name of Work
Category (in km ) (in cr.)
Widening and Strengthening of OLD Lucknow-Bangermau-Bilhour Road
1 SH 1.100 3.77
ch. 86.250 to 87.350 (SH-40)
2 Dostinagar Bypass Road. ODR 4.3 4.97
Construction of Two Lane to Four Lane of Paliya-Shahjahanpur-Hardoi-
3 SH 41.50 277.63
Lucknow Road (SH-25) km 118 to 159 (500m) District Hardoi
W/S of BilrayanPanwari Road (SH-21 Sitapur-Kheri) from ch. 56.300 to
4 ch. 98.000 &NepalapurBijwar Road (ODR) from ch. 0.000 to 3.000 (2 SH 44.700 342.40
Lane to 4 Lane) District Sitapur&Kheri

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 15


Technical Paper

Road Road Length Cost of Project


Sl. Name of Work
Category (in km ) (in cr.)
Construction work of Two Lane with Paved Shoulder of Paliya-
5 Shahjahanpur-Hardoi- Lucknow Road in km 159 (500) to 224 District SH 65.50 177.50
Hardoi
Construction work of Four lane widening of PaliyaShahjahanpurHardoi
6 Lucknow, State Highway No. 25 from km 225 to 260(400) in Distt SH 35.400 202.05
Lucknow
Widening & Strengthening of Sandila- Rasoolabad-Chakalvanshi Link
7 MDR 12.00 18.86
Road from km 9 to 20,District Unnao
Four Laning Widening of Unnao Kanpur road SH-58 (Ch. 3.100 to 15.800)
8 SH 12.700 102.69
(Length 12.70 km) District Unnao
Widening & Strengthening of Bijnor-Sisendi-MaurawanRoad,District
9 ODR 17.05 31.42
Lucknow
10 Strengthening of Lucknow-Kursi-MahmoodabadRoad,DistrictSitapur MDR 3.19 4.27
Widening & Strengthening of Lucknow Varanasi Road (Telibagh) District City
11 2.70 33.34
Lucknow Road
Widening & Strengthening of Pickup Tiraha to Shahid path (Gomtinagar) City
12 1.735 21.07
District Lucknow Road
Widening & Strengthening of Butler Road (VaikundDham Road) District City
13 1.175 2.13
Lucknow Road
15 Widening & Strengthening of Gola-Aliganj Road, District Kheri ODR 10.50 15.99
Construction of Sharda Cannel Road (Sultanpur Road to Faizabad Road)
16 ODR 12.06 248.79
District Lucknow
17 Widening & Strengthening of Indira Cannel patri Road, District Lucknow ODR 2.15 5.00
Widening & Strengthening of Bacharawa-Maurawan Road, District
18 ODR 12.00 14.58
Raebareli
Widening & Strengthening ofBijnor-Sisendi-Maurawan-Baksar-Bihar
19 MDR 22.90 38.89
Road, District Unnao
Total 302.66 1545.35
Widening & Strengthening of Bacharawa-Maurawan Road, District
18 ODR 12.00 14.58
Raebareli
Widening & Strengthening ofBijnor-Sisendi-Maurawan-Baksar-Bihar
19 MDR 22.90 38.89
Road, District Unnao
Total 302.66 1545.35

Fig. 5 Bilrayan Panwari Road (SH-21) (Nepalapur Bijwar Fig. 6 Four Laning Widening of PSHL (SH-25)
Road, ODR)

16 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

5. Initiative by UP PWD for New attended by Hon'ble Minister, MORTH, Shri Nitin
Technologies in Road Construction: Gadkari; Hon'ble Chief Minister UP; Deputy Chief
UP PWD has pioneered in implementation of new Minister UP; Hon'ble Ministers of UP Government,
designs and construction methodologies in a large scale PWD Ministers of various other States, Principal
across the state and the success story speaks loud and Secretaries of many States, distinguished Professors,
clear about it. To share the experience and exchange Scientists, Research Scholars of IIT, CRRI, MoRTH,
views on new technology. UP PWD organized a State PWD, IRC, Scientists from Germany and
“National Conference on use of New Technology in Netherlands, Engineers of PWD, NHAI, MORTH,
Road Construction” on 8th and 9th December, 2017 Contractors and representatives of engineering
at Lucknow. The conference was a huge success and consultants and firms.

Photo 1 Lucknow Conference on "New Technology in Road Construction"

Photo 2 View of Technical Exhibition

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 17


Technical Paper

Photo 3 View of Technical Exhibition

UP PWD showcased the success story of new designs construction/rehabilitation will be constructed using
and construction methodologies implemented on the the new technologies by harnessing the experience
state roads to the participants and several brain storming gained through implementation on the roads covered
sessions were held with them to exchange views and
under the case study. The author is upbeat about the
enhance learning. The participants also presented
several success stories of the innovative ideas being success so far achieved and hopes that this will open a
implemented elsewhere and enriched the practicing new chapter in the history of road construction, which
engineers considerably. will not only increase the life span of the roads, but will
This success story will be carried forward at large scale augment the resources of the state by reducing the cost
and decision has been taken that all the road under of construction.

IRC TECHNICAL COMMITTEE MEETING SCHEDULE FOR November, 2018

Date Day Time Name of the Committee


Concrete (Plain, Reinforced and Pre-Stressed) Struc-
03-11-18 Sat 11.00 AM
tures Committee(B-4)
16-11-18 Fri 11.00 AM Maintenance and Rehabilitation Committee (B-8)
17-11-18 Sat 10.30 AM Loads and Stresses Committee (B-2)
30-11-18 Fri 11.00 AM Steel and Composite Structures Committee (B-5)

18 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

POLICY OF STANDARDISATION & TYPE PLANS OF BRIDGES UNDER


REVISED STRATEGY OF BRIDGE PRACTICE IN MAHARASHTRA PWD

C. P. Joshi1 S. S. Bhonge2 P. M. Baviskar3

Abstract:
The major bridges constructed in the Maharashtra are based on either the Contractors own Design or the Departmental
Design and as such no uniformity is followed in the bridge practice. The bridge practices followed so far, aimed at
minimization of the cost of the construction without due reference to its life cycle cost, ease in construction and ease in
maintenance. Many bridges constructed are now facing many problems like excessive maintenance and repair cost, delay
in the repairs, non feasible repairs leading to the abandonment of the bridge etc. The Govt. of Maharashtra, therefore,
framed a new policy for the bridges in Maharashtra aimed at uniformity and standardisation in the bridge practices,
minimization of the life cycle cost of the bridge, speedy construction of bridge, minimum and feasible repairs etc. To
achieve these goals, the Designs Circle of P.W.D of Maharashtra has prepared comprehensive Type Plans (Standard
Drawings) of the bridges. The paper presents the features of the new Type Plans (Standard Drawings) and also describes
the various decisions of the new policy of bridge practices along with the reasoning. The new Type Plans (Standard
Drawings) under the new policy will help the speedy planning, estimating and construction of the bridges requiring
minimum repairs.

1. INTRODUCTION appropriate modules, i.e. standard drawings, makes the


1.1 Bridges are an integral component of the roads planning process simple and amenable to field officers
and highway sectors, which achieve all weather rendering expediting of further sanction of works. It will
connectivity. With every succeeding road development give benefit of not only ease in construction but also ease
plan, increasingly larger number of bridges of all types, in doing business for contractors who will execute the
including major, medium as well as minor bridges works.
are being constructed in the state of Maharashtra on 2. NEED OF NEW STRATEGY FOR BRIDGE
all categories of roads. PWD Maharashtra has about PRACTISES:
16085 bridges on the road network of 95695 km in
its jurisdiction. Out of these, around 256 bridges are 2.1 No of bridges have been constructed in the state
from British era and balance 15829 are post British of Maharashtra, based on either the Contractors Own
period. In addition to this there are bridges/flyovers/ Design or the Departmental Design. The bridge practice,
ROBs constructed by various State Govt Agencies like therefore, varied from region to region, contractor
MSRDC, MMRDA, MIDC, Municipal Corporations, to contractor, and, there was as such no uniformity
Zilla Parishads. Considering their quantum of bridges, followed in the bridge practice throughout the State. Due
total no of bridge likes structure in State of Maharashtra to system of lump sum or ‘C’ form tenders contractor
is around 23000 in numbers. The planning and design of provide his own design based on availability of staging
major bridges is entrusted to the Designs Circle, while and shuttering material with him. For the same location
planning, design and construction of minor bridges is of river different contractors may for launching of RCC
dealt with at the field level only. The Designs Circle precast girder or cast in situ PSC box girder depending on
prepares the Type Plans (Standard Drawings) which his comfort of execution. More ever, the bridge practices
help the field officers to plan the minor bridges. Use of adopted so far, were solely aimed at the minimization

1
Secretary (Roads), P.W.D., Govt of Maharashtra and Vice President, Indian Roads Congress
2
Superintending Engineer, Designs Circle (Bridges), P.W.D., Govt of Maharashtra, Email : ssbhonge@gmail.com
3
Executive Engineer, Designs Division (Bridges), Nasik, P.W.D., Govt of Maharashtra

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 19


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of the cost of construction without due reference to its k. Bridge instrumentation


maintenance and repair cost. However, it has been noticed l. Manuals and guidelines for field Engineers
over the years that such approach has resulted into many
The various aspects of the new policy are described in
and varied problems like excessive maintenance and
details as follows.
repair cost of the bridge, delay in the repairs, sometimes
repair not feasible leading to the abandonment of the 3.1 Budget Provisions
bridge etc. The Govt. of Maharashtra, therefore, framed (i) The cost of bridge shown in the budget, as
a policy for the bridge practices in Maharashtra to adopt per present practice, is based on proforma
a uniform practices in the State. Estimates, ad-hoc or per running meter cost
2.2 Maintenances free structure or zero maintenance or sqm cost of plan area basis. After the
bridge structure is a need of an hour. Present practice inclusion of work in the budget, detailed
in bridge designing is to mainly focus on cost of survey is done and GAD is prepared and
construction, rather than the life cycle cost. Maintenance work is taken up in hand. However, in many
of bridge is an expensive activity, which can be controlled cases, the cost of actual construction of
if standardization of bridge components is given due bridge exceeds over budgeted cost during
weightage. the planning/execution stage mainly due to
"inadequate geo-technical exploration" along
2.3 Accordingly, a need was felt to standardize bridge with other reasons like change in site, change
planning and designs in the Maharashtra State, which will over anticipated length or level of the bridge,
be well achieved by the standardisation of type plans. extra items etc. Such excess in the cost of
2.4 Main objective of the new policy the bridge attracts Revised AA. Variation
(a) Defining the revised practices for bridges in in the cost of work after inclusion in the
Maharashtra. budget is considered as serious issue in the
Govt. and obtaining revised AA is lengthy
(b) Economy in life cycle cost.
and time consuming process. Not only that,
(c) Uniformity in planning, design and any proposal for Revised AA also puts PWD
construction practices. in doubt, in addition to it, inadequate geo-
(d) Standardize bridge planning and design in technical exploration also creates contractual
the State of Maharashtra. controversies resulting into claim and dispute
(e) Revision of existing Type plans as per new cases.
IRC codes requirements and changed traffic Considering the above mentioned objectives,
load patterns and increased axle loads. following procedure is to be followed.
(f) Ease in planning and construction. (ii) Pre-budget provision:
(g) Ease in Maintenance and doing business. The work of construction of major bridge
3. MAIN FEATURES OF THE NEW POLICY OF shall be included in the budget first with pre-
BRIDGE PRACTISES budget provision. For every new proposed
bridge there should be special pre-budget
(a) Budget Provision
provision for Topography survey, Hydraulics,
(b) Fixed span length ( viz. in multiple of 5 m Geotechnical investigation and boring, GAD
like 5 m, 10 m 15 m, etc) only to be adopted. preparation and estimation, Appointment of
(c) Superstructure consultants etc,
(d) Type and width of bridge . (iii) Budget provision:
(e) Bridges cum Bandhara to be widely used. Once this phase is completed, and detailed
(f) Fixed grade of concrete as per region GAD with detailed estimates is ready, the
(g) Provisions for substructure work of construction of major bridge will
be again included in the budget for the cost
(h) Revised guidelines for Geo Tech Explorations
arrived by the detailed estimate. This cost
(i) Provision of Inspection gallery will fairly resemble the actual probable cost
(j) Misc Items (Anti Crash barrier, Bearings, of bridge avoiding many contractual issues
Expansion joints and audit objections.

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3.2 Fixed Span Length varied span lengths. The bridges which are
3.2.1 Need of fixed spans or standard spans: constructed on “B” type tender are designed
departmentally, which also have varied
(i) Avoids Variation/Error in the location of
span lengths according to site situations.
trial bores:
It is observed that there is no uniformity
For ascertaining the founding strata seen in bridges constructed in the state of
conditions, trial bores are taken along with Maharashtra.
the survey at bridge site. When the proposal
For the minor bridges, i.e. having span
is received in the Designs Circle from the
length of less than 60 m, the construction is
field level, it is experienced that, the major
carried out as per design at field level only.
variation is found in the locations of trial Accordingly, the uniformity in structural
bores and the locations of foundations/ arrangement of bridges is also not observed
substructures. This can be avoided if the in this case.
standard span lengths like 10 m/15 m/20 m/
25 m etc are adopted for the bridges, so It seems that, the spanning arrangements
that the trial bores can be taken at specific vary from bridge to bridge, which involves
locations of substructures. considerable time for structural design,
stagin and shuttering design etc separately
It is observed that, the cost of actual for each case. If the standard span lengths
construction of bridge in many cases exceeds in its multiple are adopted, then the time
over budgeted cost during the planning/ required for Design can be minimized and
execution stage, mainly due to "inadequate the uniformity in bridges can be achieved by
geo-technical exploration" along with other adopting Type plans for fixed/standard spans.
minor reasons like change in site, change This will help not only in simplification of
over anticipated length or level of the bridge, design of bridges, shuttering etc but also in
extra items etc. Insufficient soil and geo- execution for contractors who in general
logical investigations leads to contractual know that the standard lengths of bridges
controversies resulting into claim and adopted by the Department.
dispute cases. It the standard span lengths are
(iii) Economy in the cost of project :
adopted, the fair precise administrative cost
can be estimated and revised administrative If standard spanning arrangement is adopted
approvals along with the delay in project for the bridges, then the standard type plans
can be avoided. This simplifies planning and for shuttering and staging design can be
estimation part of proposed bridge to some adopted, which can be used for the number
extent. of cases. This will add to economy in the cost
of construction of bridges and ease of doing
(ii) Avoids Delay in completion of project :
business for the contractors..
As per general practice, spanning arrangement
(iv) Avoiding variation during execution
of the major bridge i.e. the length above of
60 m is decided by the Designs Circle of Normally survey of bridge site is done for
PWD. Accordingly, General Arrangement ascertaining strata conditions. It is known
Drawing along with the Technical Note fact that the locations of trial bores and pier
(Design Basis report) is prepared at Designs locations never match, due to which there
Circle. On the basis of General Arrangement are many times major variation in contract.
Drawing, detailed estimate is prepared to If we decide spanning 15 m/20 m/25 m, then
obtain the technical sanction at field level. we can take trial bores at specific locations
After that, the tenders are called at field of piers and there will be no variation
level on "C" type (Contractors own design) subsequent contractual complications.
basis wherein the tenderer have freedom to (v) Avoiding delay in design:
change the spanning arrangement as per his Normally spanning arrangements vary from
own cost considerations, keeping RTL/soffit bridge to bridge, which involves considerable
and length of bridge unchanged. Therefore, time for structural design. If fixed spanning
the bridges constructed on "C" tender have arrangement is considered, then time required

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for Design will be minimized. In due course (iii) The restrictions of above span lengths shall
0 time large data bank of design related not be applied to widening of bridges and
issues will be generated which help further for bridges to be constructed adjacent to
in simplification of planning and design. the existing bridges, wherein existing span
(vi) Avoiding Revise Estimates: arrangement is to be followed to avoid
shadow effect.
Normally cost of bridges are taken on unit
rate per meter Length of Bridge or sqm of (iv) There are cases where requirements of
plan area of bridge & after finalization of obligatory spans of odd length may be
spanning this cost generally vary. If fixed needed. e.g. for spans of flyover on the
spanning arrangement is considered, then we junction of main roads. Obligatory spans for
can ascertain precise cost and avoid Revised navigational purpose which are of 50 m length
Administrative Approval. or more, shall have composite Superstructure
of Plate girder. Only In this case deviation
(vii) Avoid cost variation in Steel Quantities:
from standard spans will be permitted.
Normally steel Quantities are considered
(v) In case of submersible bridges, spans up to
on ad-hoc basis per cubic meter of concrete
20 m will be preferred as Spans longer than
volume and there is variation during
20 m will attract heavy current pressure on it
execution & reason is mentioned as "as per
and liable to be washed away.
design. If fixed spanning arrangement is
considered then, the quantity of steel will 3.3 Superstructure
not vary due to availability of detailed bar i Usually all foot-paths are designed for 500 kg
bending schedule and excess cost due to per sq.m. live load, which has limitations while
wastage can be avoided. widening of bridge. Hence it is recommended to
(viii) Avoid Accidents: check for the vehicular live load in foot path portion
Staging and shuttering design varies due also, so that the footpaths can be extended in future
to variety spanning. We have experiences just by dismantling curb or divider.
of accidents during concreting due to ii For span up to 15 m, solid slab, portal frame,
inadequacies in staging and centering. If fixed arch portal, box cell, spine slab, voided slab and
spanning arrangement is considered then, composite construction will be allowed.
the contractors will have uniform centering, iii In case of submersible bridges, solid slab, spine
which will avoid chances of accidents. slab will be provided for spans of 5 m, 10 m, 15
(ix) Form finish Concrete Surface: m and 20 m. In case of high-level bridges, RCC
girder, portal frame, arch bridges will be provided
Many times contractors avoid preparation
iv For spans from 20 m to 25 m, RCC girder ( precast/
of special centering/shuttering as per spans.
cast-in-situ) , for spans from 30 m to 40 m, ( precast/
He uses wooden plank or plywood at edges,
cast-in-situ) and for spans of more than 40 m, PSC box
joints etc resulting in leakage of cement
girder will be provided. Steel girders with concrete
slurry, honeycombing, loss of strength,
deck slab will be preferred for spans from 30 to 45 m.
chances of erosion etc. To avoid above
losses if fixed spanning arrangement is v Superstructure with articulation joint, Balanced
considered then, the contractors will prepare cantilever in service and with central hinge will
uniform shuttering which can be use number be banned completely except, superstructure
of times. constructed by balanced cantilever method may be
allowed owing to difficult site conditions like deep
3.2.2 Guidelines for the adoption of standard spans: back water, deep valley etc. However such cases
(i) It is finalised to adopt standard spans for will be limited to sites where launching/lifting of
bridges ranging from 5 m to 40 m in multiple precast girders is not possible.
of 5 m only. e.g. 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, 20 m, 25 m, vi Continuous superstructure will not be allowed
30 m, 35 m, 40 m, 45 m and so on. except for two span continuous case. For ease in
(ii) For high-level bridges having span longer execution and uniformity, the transverse spacing of
than 10 m, the span length will be multiple of girders will generally be fixed to 2.5 m irrespective
5 m only. of width of bridge, footpath etc.

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vii Specific arrangements will be provided in the end 3.4.3 Width of bridge, minimum two lane
portion of the slab to carry the OFC or water pipe The practice of planning and construction of Single Lane
lines. (Otherwise they carry it on top of curb creating bridge is almost stopped since 2006. Minimum two Lane
many problems). Services as far as possible will be Bridge with carriageway of 7.5 m width will be provided.
taken over pier cap in suitable pipe arrangement.
In case of PSC superstructure, services will not be 3.5 Bridges Cum Bandhara to be Widely Used.
allowed by drilling hooks or J bolts from girders. (a) It is observed that, in most parts of the
viii In case of submersible bridges, spans up to 20m will Maharashtra state, the streams/ small rivers
be preferred as Spans longer than 20 m will attract run dry after a short period, at the end of
heavy current pressure on it and liable to be washed monsoon. It is also observed that, there is
away. Type of superstructure preferred in case of persistent demand of Bridge cum Bandhara
submersible bridges are Solid slab, spine slab, T type works from the people’s representatives.
girder type etc. (b) The work of Bridge-cum-Bandhara will be
ix Design considerations for Superstructure: undertaken with the availability of following
(a) The bridge shall be additionally checked in conditions :
specific areas for the IRC class special class (i) Exposed rock or rock upto depth of
vehicle (SV) loading as proposed under clause 3.00 m below ground level.
201 of IRC:6-2017. The special vehicle (SV) (ii) Velocity of river is less than 5.0 m/sec.
IRC class SV loading special multi axel (iii) Water scarce area.
hydraulic trailer vehicle (Prime Mover with
20 Axel Trailer-GVW=385 Tonnes) shall be (iv) River Gorge preferably up-to 90 m.
considered. The direction of competent field (v) Non perennial flow in river
authority ie Chief Engineer of region is final (c) The work of Bridge-cum-Bandhara will not
in this regard. be preferred with the availability of following
(b) The effect of crowding of vehicle (i.e placed conditions :
nose to tail) shall be considered in specific (i) For National Highways, Railway
areas like Urban & Industrial Traffic Zone, affected area.
etc. IRC:18 R load (4 wheelers & 6 wheelers) (ii) For Forest area or area in proximity.
be considered for working out the effect due
(iii) For Very High level bridge. ( Bridge
to this clause. This shall however be without
height above G.L. more than 7.0 m)
impact.
(iv) River in her meandering stretches.
(c) Congestion factor shall be considered
as per IRC:6-2017 with impact without (v) Rock not available at reasonable depth.
any reduction as per codal provision in (vi) Perennial flow in river
longitudinal moment. 3.6 Fixed Grade of Concrete and Steel as Per Region
3.4 Type and Width of Bridge 3.6.1 Grades of concrete
3.4.1 No submersibel bridges It is recommended to use same/ Uniform grade of
As far as possible PWD of Maharashtra will go for high concrete for all components of bridge, except leveling
level bridges only. Submersible bridges will be preferred course and annular filling. It is suggested to use M-40
only in exceptional cases only where there are issues of grade of concrete for bridges in Konkan region (severe,
land acquisition or topography constraints very severe and extreme conditions) and M-30 for bridges
in rest of Maharashtra. (Moderate condition) irrespective
3.4.2 High level bridges with more vertical clearance
of PCC, RCC, except for Pre-stressed concrete, it will be
From the records of last 15 years, it is seen that there is M-35 as a minimum grade.
exceptional rainfall after average 6 to 9 years gap, i.e.
crossed the limits of expected flood due to cloud burst. 3.6.2 Grades of Steel
It is decided that, in case of major rivers in Maharashtra, For bridges in Konkan region (severe, very severe and
the vertical clearance will be increased by 50 cm in extreme conditions), corrosion resistant rebars ie CRS or
addition to nominal clearance given by IRC to account HCR steel bars of TATA/ SAIL/Jindal etc make only are
for cloud burst phenomenon. be used. It is area of 30 km from coast line and areas of

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heavy pollution. In rest of Maharashtra Standard TMT 3.7.2 Type of foundation


bars are to be used. Open foundation is most reliable and shall be resorted
3.6.3 Anticorrosive treatment to concrete and steel to in all possible cases, even if in some of the cases, the
(i) Present practice of use of CPCC and FBEC cost of open foundation due to cofferdam, sheet piling
treatments for anti corrosive layer over etc will be high.
reinforcement showed many limitations. In Well foundation shall be generally avoided and pile
case of CPCC material, lot of substandard foundation shall be preferred.
material/poor quality material has came in 3.7.3 Raft foundation
market and it is difficult to assess authorized
(a) To be avoided for major wide streams like
suppliers or applicator. Such materials instead Godavari, Tapi, Krishna, Penganga etc. It is
of providing anti corrosion protection, harms suitable for low height bridges with soft or
the reinforcement. sandy strata.
(ii) Similarly in case of FBEC layers, it is (b) Not to be provided where sand mining and
found that it can not withstand sunlight consequent lowering of bed is anticipated.
and weathering action as it is mainly made
(c) The top of raft shall be placed 0.60 meter
out of epoxy base. If material is brought 3
below the LBL
months in advance before placing in to the
concrete, it is found that the epoxy layer (d) Provision shall be made to tie the cutoff walls
gets spilled of from reinforcing bar and its in current direction if they are exposed in due
corrosion resistant properties are lost. Even course due to sand lifting. Cross cutoff wall
during cutting , bending , hooking this layer shall invariable be provided in each/alternate
spans.
gets removed. It has no hardness and gets
removed with even small scratch. 3.7.4 In case of ROBs/Flyovers, the height of
(iii) Use of bipolar concrete penetrating corrosion embankment of approach to flyover will not be more
than 6 m in urban areas. The height of RE-Wall
admixture like Polyalk-CP 293 at a dose of
abutment will be restricted to 6.50 m only. Structure
3kg per cum of concrete has got excellent
with RE wall in C shape behind abutment pier will be
property to provide corrosion protection both
avoided.
anodic and cathodic sites on steel surfaces.
(iv) For concrete provision of high performance 3.7 Revised Guidelines for Geo Tech Explorations
anti carbonation elastomeric protective (i) The bores shall be taken by triple tube, at-
coating to new concrete surface has proved least by double tube. Single tube shall not
very effective in prevention of carbonation be used as it gives erroneous results of core
which is major cause of concrete weathering recovery and RQD.
action. (ii) The bores shall be taken to a depth of 6 meter
(v) Every 5 year bridges shall be painted into the rock. i.e. 6 m below likely founding
with anti carbonation elastomeric paint or level
polymer paint . Especially Bridges under (iii) Bores shall be taken for exposed rock also
Heritage or historical background shall be (iv) The geo-technical investigations will
given due importance while maintaining be done on trial/sample basis first. After
their structure. the finalization of spanning arrangement
3.7 Provisions for Substructure based on trial/sample bores, confirmatory
bores will be taken to ascertain the strata
3.7.1 No PCC substructure along-with the laboratory test results,
PCC piers will be avoided except for bridges located report and recommendations of Geo-tech
in remote areas and having span less than 10 m. expert regarding Safe Bearing Capacity
Instead RCC piers/abutments will be extensively used. and founding level etc. Based on these
Preferably the piers will be of wall type with Cut and confirmatory investigations, the foundation
ease, except in case of skew bridges we will go for levels will be fixed and shown on the General
circular pier. Arrangement Drawing.

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(v) After completion of initial investigation, girders and also transfer of load to substructure and
detailed GAD with detailed estimates shall foundation. Conventionally PWD is using steel sliding
be prepared. Provision for appropriate Bridge bearing and roller rocker bearings. Subsequently started
instrumentation & Water sensor system shall using Neoprene and POT-PTFE bearing.
be considered. (i) Bearings are elements transferring vertical
3.8 Provision of Inspection Gallery loads from Superstructure to Substructure,
For Inspection of bearings and soffit of deck slab, but allowing unrestrained rotation &
inspection gallery will be proposed for all types of bridges displacement of superstructure, thus avoiding
(High level/Low level), which will be incorporated in large forces to be transferred to substructure
Design Criteria of tender. Every pier cap with a height & foundation.
of more than 4 m from GL will have inspection gallery. (ii) Bearings are critical elements within overall
The gallery will be min 1.2 m wide, with preferably bridge systems. They can potentially cause
stainless steel railing. Permanent ladder will be provided significant problems, if they do not function
from Superstructure top to inspection platform. “[“ C properly. Malfunction in bearing can cause
type stainless steel hook will be provided to piers on distress/failure of the bridge.
downstream side to reach inspection gallery. (iii) Bearings are to be designed such that their
3.9 Misch Items (Anti Crash Barrier, Bearings, components can be inspected, maintained
Expansion Joints ) and replaced if necessary. Lifting of the
superstructure for maintenance/replacement
3.9.1 Anti Crash Barrier of Bearings shall be foreseen in design.
(i) The present practice in Maharashtra is to (iv) Over the period of time it was realized that
use RCC Sanchi Type parapet for high- for superstructures having a disproportionate
level bridges. It seems that the average ratio of dead load and design load, Pot
speed of vehicles and volume of traffic has bearing is not the ideal. Bearings in such
increased over the years and so the damages bridges experience large accumulated
to railings/parapet. It is observed that the movements, rotation and dynamic loading,
restoration and maintenance of the damaged which might cause wearing of the weaker
RCC railings/parapets is difficult. Hence it is components viz. sliding element and sealing
recommended that, RCC Sanchi type railings element of the elastomeric pressure pads.
will not be provided henceforth , instead The above concerns have led to restrict the
RCC crash barriers will be provided, which use of Pot bearings. The next generation
will also be safe for the vehicular traffic. The bearings are spherical bearings which
height of crash barrier will be 1.5 m and will provide better movement and load transfer
be designed for high containment. ability to bridge structure. They can also be
(ii) In case of submersible bridges, the present a good solution where large size forces are
practice for the type of railings is to provide to be efficiently transferred to substructure.
MS angle and GI pipe railings are. It is Use of these bearings is quite common in
observed that, the GI pipes of railing are advance countries. The Spherical Bearing is
not removed regularly before the onset a structural bearing which consists of a set
of monsoon as anticipated in the Design of concave & convex mating steel backing
of bridge. Non removal of pipes, causes plate with a low friction sliding interface
additional obstruction to the flow and increases in between thereby permitting required
the current pressure on superstructure movements.
endangering its safety. Hence, angle and pipe • Henceforth use of MSM bearing,
railings for submersible bridges will not be spherical bearings shall be encouraged.
provided henceforth. Instead, “W” beam • Cut roller, concrete/steel rollers,
metal barrier will be provided. rocker bearings shall be banned.
3.9.2 Bearings • Through inspection of bearing twice a
Bearings are provided on bridges for permitting year must be carried out and record to
longitudinal, lateral and rotational movements of bridge that effect shall be maintained.

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• Replacement cycle of bearing must be Baseline model development of a civil infrastructure


strictly observed and it shall be clearly is essential for structural health monitoring which can
mentioned in bearing design drawings. play an important role in securing system integrity,
3.9.3 Expansion joint minimizing maintenance cost, and maintaining
longevity of highway bridge. Global structural health
(i) To minimize the number of expansion joints,
monitoring technology consists of two aspects: (1)
deck continuity will be extensively used for
instrumentation of bridges with sensors such as
span of length more than 10 m. For spans of
accelerometers and strain gauges (2) methodologies
30 m length, MS cover plate resting on MS
for obtaining meaningful information concerning the
angles with or without joint filler will be
structural health conditions.
used. For spans having span of more than
30 m, expansion joints will be provided as Each major bridge needs to be evaluated as an individual
per IRC:SP-69. entity regarding safety vis-à-vis its physical condition.
(ii) During the maintenance of BT wearing course (i) Thorough physical inspection as per proforma in
or while laying of new BT layer, appropriate bridge inspection register shall be done for each
care will be taken by placing thermocol pads bridge.
while laying of wearing course. In certain (ii) Any Bridges if found distressed, shall be sanctioned
cases expansion joint may need to close by for rehabilitation immediately and execution to be
temporarily welding the MS flat taken up.
3.10 Bridge Instrumentation (iii) Bridges shall be analyzed for the expected loading
and wherever required, rehabilitation/strengthening
Appropriate Bridge instrumentation will be provided for
be got sanctioned and taken up.
the bridges having length more than 100 m (cost more
(iv) The speed restrictions as required from safety
than 25 Cr) to monitor the corrosion in steel, creep,
consideration shall be imposed.
deflection and other distress parameters. Digital water
sensor system will be installed for all bridges on the Bridge Instrumentation would broadly cover:-
major rivers to detect and give warning signal to the (i) Stresses at critical locations.
authority. (ii) Deflections at critical locations.
The condition assessment of a bridge is traditionally (iii) Dynamic augment.
carried out using visual inspections and load testing using (iv) Longitudinal loads coming on bearings/ and
guidelines set forth by the IRC and in house circulars substructures and proportion transferred to
drawn by PWD of Maharashtra state . Field officers rely approaches.
on the information obtained from visual inspections and (v) Tilting of abutments/ piers and stresses in the sub-
load ratings for their decision-making purposes, both for structure.
repair or rehabilitation, as well as complete replacement. (vi) Fatigue analysis.
Visual inspections currently serve as the primary means to
3.11 Manuals
evaluate the condition of virtually all highway bridges in
the Maharashtra. Furthermore, visual inspections are, by Three type of manuals to be prepared by the Contractor
definition, limited to what can be seen. Hidden structural for every bridge work they execute. They are,
members, or conditions that are difficult to directly view, Construction manual, Inspection manual and Repair
may not receive the same level of inspection treatment. manual. These manuals will be available digitally as well
as in hard copy form with the PRB register or Masonry
Advances in sensing, digitizing, recording, and data
register, along with at the website of Government of
communications have lead to current monitoring systems
Maharashtra.
capable of sensing, recording, and remotely analyzing/
displaying dynamic input and response information for For the use of field officers following manuals are under
bridges and other structures. preparation.
A state-of-the-art structural monitoring system would (i) Standard Type plan Manuals for superstructures.
consist of smart sensors distributed in the structure, high- (ii) Manual on Bridge cum Bandhara.
resolution data recording, wireless communication, real- (iii) Bridge Repair manual
time monitoring, and a remote central recording station (iv) Manual on bridge Instrumentation and structural
with analysis and display capability. health Monitoring.

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4 NEW TYPE PLANS 2018 (STANDARD DRAWINGS) : Designs Circles has finalised following type drawings
based on provisions of IRC:112-2011.

Sl. No. Description of super structure Span (m) Width of Remark


carriageway

1 RCC solid slab 5 m,10 m, and 15 m 7.5 m


9.55 m Submersible
11.55 m

5 m,10 m, and 15 m 7.50 m


9.00 m High level
11.00 m

2 RCC spine slab 15 m, 20 m 7.50 m


Submersible
11.55 m

3 RCC box cell 3 m, 5 m 7 m, 8 m 7.5 m Submersible and High level


11.55 m Single, double and multiple cell box

4 RCC T beam & Slab. Cast- in-situ 15 m, 20 m, 25 m 7.5 m Submersible and


11.00 m High level

5 Precast girder and slab 10 m, 15 m, 20 m 7.5 m


High level
11.55 m

6 Composite girder and slab. 30 m, 35 m and 40 m 7.50 m RCC slab and steel plate girder
11.00 m High level

7 Bridge cum Bandhara 5 m, 10 m 7.5 m


With steel or polymer fibre gates
11.55 m

8 Arch Bridges, RCC 5 m, 10 m, 7.5 m


Submersible and High level
11.55 m

9 Arch Bridges, PCC precast blocks 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 7.5 m


Submersible and High level
11.55 m

5. Conclusion (ii) Economy in life cycle cost.


To achieve the uniformity and standardization in (iii) Uniformity in planning, design and construction
bridge planning, design and construction in the State practices.
of Maharashtra, the revised strategy as detailed above (iv) Standardize bridge planning and design in the State
is framed along with the preparation of standard type of Maharashtra.
drawings. It is mostly based on gathered knowledge
(v) Revision of existing Type plans as per new IRC
and experience over the period of time. Assessment of
objectives of this revised strategy will need certain time code requirements and changed traffic load patterns
period after its implementation on actual projects. and increased axle loads.
(i) Defining the revised practices for bridges in (vi) Ease in planning and construction.
Maharashtra. (vii) Ease in Maintenance and doing business.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 27


Announcement

Call for Technical Papers

1. The Indian Roads Congress (IRC) invites Technical Papers for publication in its periodicals
i.e. Indian Highways (monthly), IRC Journal (quarterly), HR Journal (half yearly) and
Highway Research Record (yearly).

2. The contents of papers should cover the additional knowledge, information and ideas so that
highway fraternity gets benefitted from them. The papers should be properly structured and
should avoid dwellings at lengths on facts broadly known to highway engineers. The papers
may deal with important case studies, new design concepts/principles, new construction
techniques, modern quality control, modern maintenance techniques applied in highway
projects, besides traffic engineering, transport planning etc including a paragraph on
application of Paper to Highway Profession and updation of IRC Codes.

3. Authors and Co-authors should be members of IRC and their Roll Numbers should be
mentioned in the forwarding letter. Even non-members, who are Experts in any relevant
field or who have specialized knowledge on any subject related to highway engineering are
also welcome to contribute Technical Papers.

4. The length of the Paper should be upto 5000 words including Tables, Figures, Photographs,
etc. on A4 size paper with 12 pt. font size of Times New Roman, typed in 1.5 line space.

5. The Authors are requested to send 4 hard copies of the complete paper consisting manuscript,
drawing, tables, figures, photos, etc. and a soft copy in computer CD in Windows MS
software for printing.

6. The papers so received from Authors are sent to a panel of experts and are considered for
publication after obtaining their views about acceptability of the paper.

7. IRC reserves the right to publish any paper in the form of an abstract. When a paper is
published in an abstract form, the manuscript of the paper as sent by the author will be
added to the IRC library and made available for inspection by interested members.

For more details and rules for contribution of Technical Paper please visit
IRC Website: www.irc.nic.in

For further Contact E-mail: papers.irc@gmail.com & papers.irc-morth@gov.in Tel. 011-26185273

28 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

BRIDGE HEALTH MONITORING

U.C. Mehta1 R.K. Dhiman, VSM2


ABSTRACT
Bridge health management is necessary to keep all bridges traffic worthy. On completion of a bridge there is a need to
keep observation on behaviour under various conditions, distress if any observed need to be attended. There are cases
where lack of maintenance may require large amount for rehabilitation at a later date. Lack of regular maintenance of
bridges not only affects the traffic flow over a particular road but also reflects the image of the organization involved in its
maintenance. Regular and timely maintenance of bridges enhance its serviceability whereas poor maintenance may leads
to sudden collapse of bridge in few cases. Need for regular Bridge Health monitoring has been discussed in this paper.

1. INTRODUCTION taken up timely to handle the same. In many cases the


Bridges are very important structures on any highway delay in attending the same has led to aggravation of the
system. Once a permanent bridge is constructed, it cannot situation and emerged as a major job due to running of
be considered as maintenance free. There are many traffic on a distress state. There is a need to keep this
bridges which are in distress, in early service life. There point in view and any delay in handling maintenance
is a need to keep a reliable and latest technology based should be avoided. Apart from this engineers engaged
system to ensure better health of a bridge in order to ensure in maintenance of bridges should keep themselves
reliable connectivity to the area. Inspection of bridges updated through training and courses on the subject
and regular data observations are useful for upkeeping and every department should evolve a system wherein
and monitoring. Bridge Health monitoring covering minor type of distress should be handled with trained
important aspects based on practical considerations has manpower of department. In case of any major problems
been discussed in this Paper. found, it should be got handled by expert agencies. Each
department should also develop a team of experts on this
2. NEED OF BRIDGE HEALTH MONITORING
aspect. Apart from this, the maintenance management
Bridges comprise of different structural arrangements team should ensure that the aesthetic look of a major
to transfer the load from superstructure to foundation. bridge is maintained irrespective of weathering affect.
This is based on the type of structural arrangement being Maintenance should not be overlooked. Well maintained
adopted and type of bridges being made viz simply bridge serve as a source of inspiration to an engineer.
supported, cantilever bridges, balance cantilever, steel
bridges of similar span arrangement & cable stayed Regular data collection will be helpful for effective
bridges. Their parts are foundation, substructure, bearing, management system to take a decision for better
superstructure, expansion joints and other appurtenances maintenance. Data can be hydraulic behaviour of river,
to provide smooth functional behaviour of the bridges. structural behaviour and functional ability of bridge
Maintenance of each part of the bridge have an important bearing and expansion joints and other structural
role in the overall safety and serviceability. Overall members. Also with the advent of latest technological
behaviour of the bridge, and individual items of a bridge developments, the sensor can be placed at various
need to be monitored and maintained on a designed locations and same can be monitored. Technology will
format. Preventive and curative measures for safety and greatly enhance ability to make these assessments during
durability of a bridge can be finalized on observations of inspection. With these information, bridge organisation
distress. Maintenance of bridges is not a very difficult will be able to take correct decision regarding repairs of
job if attended to regularly and necessary steps are bridges. Repair method can be immediately decided and
1. Addl. DGBR, Border Roads Organisation, New Delhi, Email: dro-ds@nic.in
2. Chief Engineer, Border Roads Organisation, Email: d_himan12@yahoo.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 29


Technical Paper

implemented at such location. Apart from the structural stones also attack the pier, affects the cover and exposes
behaviour and data collection, there is an urgent the reinforcement. Also the pier foundations get affected
requirement to keep a data on river training works and due to this type of attack. Generally, the bridges have been
scour around the pier if any. designed based on maximum depth of scour anticipated
There is a need to keep monitoring the system in such a and for stability
way that each member and system as a whole functions
in harmony to transfer the load from superstructure
to foundation, finally to soil underneath without any
distress. Keeping this in view, importance of maintenance
and observation of various parts to be closely monitored
as per following details: (Fig. 1)
(i) Scouring around bridge pier and silt deposition,
river training works condition subsequent to floods.
(ii) Bridge bearing condition with functionality point
of view. Special observation need to be taken after
earthquake if any in the area.
(iii) Structural Members Distress, foundation,
substructure, abutment, girder, gap slab, expansion Fig. 2 Excessive Scour Around all Piers
joints etc monitored closely.

Fig. 3 Excessive Scour Around all Piers

Fig. 1 Major Bridge on Well Foundation with Balanced


Cantilever Superstructure

2.1 Scour and Deposition Around Bridge Pier


Scouring around foundation is the most common cause
of bridge failures and most expensive kind of damage to
repair. Method of repair depends on the extent of damages
occurred. All the bridges are designed either on scour or
non-scour criteria at initial stage. During the maintenance
period, the extent and reason of scouring around the pier
in the river needs to be observed and same needs to be
analyzed. Curative, and preventive measures needs to
be taken to arrest the same. Scour observation needs to Fig. 4 Excessive silt Deposit in Cross Section
be recorded. The cross section of `rivers having number
of foundation is taken before and after the monsoon for consideration There are very few bridges in plain area
observations. There are cases where bouldery bed gets affected by scouring in our India, however, in case
heavy debris in the form of wooden logs and some times of bouldery bed in hilly area there had been serious

30 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

damages at various locations. There are bridges where


excessive scouring has been observed, measures to
control excessive scouring need to be implemented on
priority (Figs. 2 to 6).

Fig. 7 Excessive Movement of Roller


They should however, also be inspected for unusual
occurrences like earthquake passage of excessive traffic
loads. (Figs. 8 to 12)
Fig. 5 Excessive Debris Flow Below the Bridge Subsequent
to Flash Flood

Fig. 8 Poor Maintenance of Bearing

Fig. 6 Steel Plate Lining on Upstream of Pier upto HFL to


Arrest Abrasion

2.2 Bridge Bearing


Bridge bearing is an essential part of a bridge and is an
interface between the substructure and superstructure.
The various types of bearing had been used in the past and
there is a need to keep the bearing functional always and
every time. Different types of bearings are now available
in the market based on basic research and development.
However, in the past most of the bridges were having
Rocker/Roller bearings. All the bearing shall normally
be inspected during extreme temperatures and after the Fig. 9 Debris Deposit Around Roller Bearing
floods are over.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 31


Technical Paper

Fig. 10 Debris Deposit Around Rocker Bearing Fig. 12 Excessive Movement of Roller

The metallic bearing shall be inspected to ascertain:- 2.3 Expansion Joints


(i) The general condition like cleanliness, rusting,. Maintenance of expansion joints is also very important
Greasing of plates etc. as the movement of bearing has to be interactive with
expansion joints. Following points are inspected
(ii) The proper functioning of bearing by observing carefully during inspection.
excessive movements if any, unusual fitting of
(i) Whether the joints are functioning properly and
rollers, rollers jumping off the grid etc
expansion of gap is adequate for thermal movement.
(iii) The condition of grease/oil, when last greased and (ii) Cracks if any in the deck in the neighborhood of the
whether it needs to be replaced or not. expansion joints.
(iv) Whether any structural cracks in supporting (iii) Condition of sealing material searness of joints, the
members like abutment cap, pier cap, pedestal etc condition of top sliding plate and whether these are
noticed. corroded or not.
(v) Whether the anchor bolts are in position and (iv) Locking of joints especially for finger type
tightened. expansion joints.
(vi) Greasing shall be done after every 3 years confirming (v) Debris in open type joints, resulting in locking of
to IS 1002 in case of rocker/roller bearing. expansion gap.
(vi) Rattling of joints if any
Elastomeric bearing is very simple to place and inspect.
The physical condition of the pads like oxidation, creep 2.4 Structural Distress
flattening, bulging, splitting to be inspected. Cleanliness Structural behaviour of the bridges depends upon a
of the bearing and its surroundings particularly to avoid number of factors. Infact in case of super structure there
contact with grease oil, petrol etc. is a need to ensure that bearing function completely. In
case the bearing is not functional the behaviour of the
bridge will change and will lead to unnecessary structural
distress. In a number of cases bridges have faced distress
due to earthquakes and other disturbances in the area on
such structures. (Fig. 13)
There should be a proper inspection system to have an
access to each part of bridge. It should be ensured that
each part of the bridge is examined under flow of traffic.
In case any distress is observed the same should be
attended expeditiously. There are a few cases where the
behaviour of the bridges got affected due to inter related
Fig. 11 Excessive Movement of Roller distress are appended below: (Figs. 14 to 15)

32 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

2.5 Maintenance of Data and Working Drawing


On completion of a bridge, there is a need to keep
data indicating the salient features of the bridge and
it’s construction history. Working drawings are to be
maintained on the actual work done at particular bridge.
During the regular maintenance, certain observations if
any are made need to be attended on priority to avoid
further distresses. However, all the observations made
during the regular maintenance need to be documented
and remedial measures to be initiated on priority.
3. RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 All the approved working drawings of newly
Fig. 13 Damage to Bridge Due to Earthquake constructed bridges to be kept in the maintenance office
(a) The cracks developed in superstructure due to and it should be thoroughly studied by all Engineers/
excessive movement of roller. Junior Engineers involved in bridge maintenance task.
Keeping in view a particular bridge system, failure, if
any, with passage of time due to excessive traffic and due
to excessive scouring around the pier should be recorded
along with the actions taken for the same.
3.2 Bridge bearing functioning should be carefully
understood by all the Engineers involved in the process
of inspection. If possible, the staff on duty should be
given training on these aspects and new bearing should
be shown to staff as a model for better understanding.
3.3 There are exhaustive guidelines published
by Indian Roads Congress (IRC) and Ministry of
Road Transport and Highways in this connection for
maintenance of bridges More important is the sense of
belongingness among all Engineers. Well maintained
Fig. 14 Shearing of Holding Down Bolt structure reflect the sincerity of the personnel involved
Dirt wall broken due to movement of roller and cracks in design and maintenance of bridges.
on face of abutment also developed. 3.4 All the policy guideline issued from time to time
(b) Due to local disturbance in the soil. Cracks should be disseminated among all the Engineers for their
developed in superstructure and shearing of holding updation and implementation of the same on ground.
down bolt. 3.5 There are a few special types of bridges, which are
having typical structural system, and there are problems
to reach at each part of those during inspection. To
handle this situation, there is a need to plan a systematic
arrangement that at least bearing of all the bridges be
inspected periodically . If possible department can
procure bridge inspection unit for inspection of important
and long span bridges if it is financially viable. (Fig. 16)
3.6 In case of multispan bridges, efforts should be
made so that each span gets approximately equal amount
of water, other wise in case there is an unequal flow, it
will lead to excessive scouring around piers of the bridge.
In India, there had not been large number of failures of
bridges due to excessive scouring, but data of scour
Fig. 15 Damage to Superstructure
observation will be useful for future guidance

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 33


Technical Paper
iii. Dhiman RK, “Caisson Launching A- Case Study” Civil
Engineering And Construction Review (CE&CR) - 1996.
iv. Dhiman RK, “Foundation Level for Bridges–A
Programmatic Approach” 1996 New Building Material
and Construction World (NBM & CW)
v. Dhiman RK, “Essence of Silt Factor for Scour Around
Bridge Pier”, International Conference on Scour
of foundation (ICSF-I) held at Texas USA (17-20
Nov., 2002).
vi. Dhiman RK, “Construction Problem of Bridges in Hilly
Region – A Review”-1997 International Association of
Bridges and Structural Engineers (IABSE).
vii. Dhiman RK, “Dimwe Bridge Foundation –A Case Study”
4th International Seminar on Bridge and Aqueduct, 1998.
viii. Dhiman RK, “Well Foundation Construction in Bouldery
Bed-A Case Study” International Association of Bridges
and Structural Engineers (IABSE) Colloquium Feb.,
1999.
ix. Dhiman RK, “Affects of Flash Flood- A Case Study”,
Disaster Management NERIST, Itanagar, 1999.
x. Dhiman RK, “Caisson Sickness During Pneumatic
Sinking”, International Symposium at University of
Dundee Scotland (UK), Sep., 2003.
xi. Dhiman RK, “Bridge Construction Problems and
Solutions – A Review” 17th National Convention of
Fig. 16 Bridge Inspection Unit for Detail Inspection Civil Engineering at Bhubneshwar, 2001.
xii. Dhiman RK, “Extension of Span Ranga II Bridge
for planning bridge foundation for better scour – A Case Study” ‘17th National Convention of
consideration. Data collected during monitoring should Civil Engineering & Seminar on Modern Trend in
be compiled and exiting bridges should be considered Construction and Maintenance of Roads, Flyover and
as live model for observation of distress. Infact a online Bridges, Bhubaneshwar, Nov., 2001.’
data collection from all PWDs of country be launched xiii. Dhiman RK, “Tilt Rectification of Well Foundation –
and data on this be fed as and when problem is observed A Case Study” Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Indian
for central monitoring. Highways, May, 2002.
xiv. Dhiman R.K, “Essence of Training of Manpower for
4. CONCLUSION
Concrete Technology”, Sixth International Conference
Bridge health monitoring is very significant for overall on Concrete Technology (6ICCT) at Aman (JORDAN)
safety and durability of a bridges. Inspection of all parts Oct., 2003.
of the bridge should be attended on priority. In case xv. Dhiman R.K., “Construction Challenges for Bridges in
any defect is noticed it should be rectified immediately. Hilly Area – An Over View”, Indian Roads Congress
All Engineers of department involved in maintenance (IRC) Indian Highways Jan., 2004.
of bridges should be trained about all parts of bridges xvi. Dhiman R.K, “Damages to Bridges due to Flash Flood
and their functional behaviour. Regular maintenance can – A Case Study”, Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Indian
enhance the life of a bridge structure in totality and can Highways Oct., 2004.
reduce overall cost of maintenance of the bridge. xvii. Dhiman R.K, “Bouldery Bed Scour – Proposed
Formula”, Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Journal 65 Vol-
REFERENCE 3 Paper No. 508. Nov., 2004.
i. Dhiman RK, “Effective Construction Management xviii. Special issue on “Round Table Conference on Scour
for Bridges” International Association of Bridges and Around Bridge Pier”, 1993 Indian Institute of Bridge
Structural Engineers (IABSE) Dec., 1996.
Engineering (IIBE), New Delhi.
ii. Dhiman RK, “Pneumatic Sinking - A Case Study” xix. Model Study Report of Pasighat Bridge by UPIRI,
Indian Roads Congress (IRC) –Indian Highway -
Roorkee-1984.
Feb., 1996.
xx. IRC-78:2000, Indian Road Congress (IRC), New Delhi.

34 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

IMPACT OF ROAD SAFETY AUDIT IMPLEMENTATION ON EXPRESSWAY

Dr. A Mohan Rao1 Dr. S. Velmurugan2 Dr. Satish Chandra3

Abstract
Road Safety Audit (RSA) is formal and independent safety performance review of a road transportation projects by an
experienced team of safety specialists, addressing the safety of all road users. RSA helps in reducing the number and
severity of crashes. It also helps reduce costs by identifying safety issues and correcting them before projects are built.
Noida - Greater Noida (NGN) Expressway is an eight lane divided carriageway connecting Noida and Greater Noida, the
two major residential cum industrial / commercial township developments located in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Since both these cities have grown rapidly over the years due to their proximity to New Delhi, the above expressway
way was constructed in 2002 to provide fast track road connectivity between them and also an additional connectivity
to Delhi. This expressway also connects to Yamuna Expressway, which is now extended to Lucknow, the state capital.
This Expressway has witnessed high crash rate and therefore, a comprehensive RSA was conducted and suggestions for
improving safety on this expressway were recommended.
These included replacement of concrete guard post on median by double row metal beam crash barrier, redevelopment of
entry and exit points as per Indian Standards, marking and road studs on each of the traffic lanes and particularly near
exit/entry points of auxiliary lanes. The Speed Enforcement Cameras and Close Circuit TV with Variable Message Signs
were also implemented at every 2 km.
This Paper discusses the effect of these measures on rate on the Expressway, the total crashes after RSA has exhibited 84
percent reduction. At the same time, the fatal crashes exhibited a significant reduction 91 percent. The average speed of
all types of vehicle in general, has improved after implementation of RSA recommendations; even wish annual increase
in traffic.

1. INTRODUCTION Road Safety Audit (RSA) is a formal examination of


Road crash scenario on the Indian roads continues to proposed or existing roads and road related areas from
account for the highest fatalities in the world. More the perspective of all road users with the intention of
than 150000 persons died in road accidents during the identifying road safety deficiencies and areas of risk that
year 2016. This phenomenon is going unabated since could lead to road crashes.
2011 with the number of road deaths rising 3-5% per Noida-Greater-Noida (NGN) Expressway (shown in
annum despite the fact that India is a signatory in the Fig. 1) is a eight lane divided carriageway connecting
present Decade (2011-2020) of Action for Road Safety Noida and Greater Noida, the two major residential cum
of the United Nations Convention to bring down the industrial/commercial township developments located in
road crashes every year. According to data published by the state of Uttar Pradesh. Since both these cities have
Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRT&H) grown rapidly over the years due to their proximity to
Government of India, the state of Uttar Pradesh recorded New Delhi and also due to the fact that they are falling
the maximum number of road deaths (17,666) and it under the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, the
continues to occupy the dubious distinction of being in above expressway was constructed in 2002 to provide
top 3 road crash prone states in the country (MoRT&H fast track road connectivity between the above two
Statistics 2016). The situation is well recognized by all major townships and an additional connectivity to Delhi.
state governments and individual states are embarking This expressway also connects to Yamuna Expressway,
upon road safety audit of their road network. The which now extends up to Lucknow, the state capital. The
1. Principal Scientist, Email: amrao_crri@yahoo.co.in
CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
2. Senior Principal Scientist
Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi -110 025
3. Director

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 35


Technical Paper

expressway witnessing increasing rate of road crashes (refer Fig.2). As may be seen, the number of crashes on
from 11 crashes for year in 2010 to 16 crashes for year the project corridor has reduced after 2013 which shows
in 2013. Therefore the State of Uttar Pradesh in northern the effectiveness of RSA. Further analysis of these data
part of India decided to get the RSA of NOIDA–Greater to arrive at crash reduction factor is presented in later
NOIDA Expressway to identify the block spots on part of this paper.
the road and subsequently to remove them through
engineering interventions.
The road safety audit of NGN expressway was conducted
in the year 2013. The RSA recommendations were
implemented by the Authority during the year 2013. This
Paper presents the outcome of the study implementation
on change in traffic accident scenario on the expressway.

Fig. 1 Study Stretch (Mahamaya Flyover to Pari Chowk)

2. DATA COLLECTION
Traffic studies such as Classified Volume Counts (TVC),
Spot speed survey and travel time assessment studies
Fig. 2 Trend of Year-wise Road Crash Statistics in the State
were conducted during the year 2013 to understand the
of Uttar Pradesh and Project Corridor
traffic characteristics on the study corridor. 24-hour TVC
studies were carried out at strategically two locations 3. PROFILE OF ROAD SAFETY AUDIT (RSA)
namely near Mahamaya Flyover (Bus Stop No. 1) and IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIO
near the end of the expressway (Bus Stop No. 8 and 9)
Several safety associated recommendations were
to cover both directions of travel. As part of RSA, road
implemented on the study corridor conforming to
crash statistics for the Project Corridor were compiled
the RSA recommendations. Some of the typical
from First Information Records (FIRs) of the police
scenarios depicting 'before' and 'after' scenarios of RSA
records from 2008 onwards. At the same time, road crash
implementation are briefed here.
data for the state of Uttar Pradesh were collected from
Ministry of Road Transport and Highway (MoRT&H) 3.1 Implementations of Safety Recommendations
for the same period. 3.2 RSA was conducted as per the procedure given
As the RSA recommendations were implemented in IRC:88-2010. Some of the observations made to the
in the year 2013 by the concerned stakeholders, an agency are given below;
analysis has been carried out to understand whether (i) The central verge (median) was having concrete
the measures have contributed towards the reduction in guard post fenced with barbed wire fencing before
road crashes or not during the years 2014, 2015 and RSA which was identified to be hazardous for
2016, the above crash data have been compared with the errant vehicles in case of road crash. Further,
those collected for the period from 2008-2012 which is intermittent openings provided on the above
period prior to the implementation of RSA action plan fencing system prompt various road users including

36 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

motorized two wheelers as well as pedestrians to use to remove the guard rails and install the double row
the same for illegal crossing. It was recommended metal beam crash barrier as shown in Fig. 3.

Before After

Fig. 3 Before and After Condition of Central Verge

(ii) Three entry/exit points were located on the The entry/exit points were redeveloped conforming
Project Corridor without proper entrance angle to IRC:SP:87-2013 leaving no space for confusion
as well as absence of acceleration or deceleration
lanes. As a result many road crashes were taking and thus improving the safety. Typical treatment is
place due to haphazard movement of vehicles. shown in Fig. 4.

Before After

Redesign of access points

After After

Acceleration Lane Deceleration Lane

Fig. 4 Redesign of Entry and Exit Points

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 37


Technical Paper

(iii) There were no road markings, lane markings, most lane as well as lanes for Heavy vehicles,
mixing zone area markings at entry/exit points Two Wheelers and cars), installation of road
of the auxiliary lanes. The audit recommended studs on each of the traffic lanes for enhanced
for the placement of all types of relevant visibility during night time as per IRC:35-
markings (including lane demarcation as 2015. These provisions were also implemented
emergency lane at every 2 km on the Left (Fig. 5).

Lane Markings and Road Studs as per


IRC:35-2015

Emergency Lane of
3.5m.

Mixing Zone along with installation of Road Emergency

Fig. 5 Road Markings and Road Studs for Better Nigh Visibility
(iv) The audit team observed improper placement of road irrelevant signs were replaced by proper signs as per
signs. The locations and size of the signs were not IRC:67-2012. Some of the traffic signs before and
meeting the operating speed requirements. All the after the implementation are presented in Fig.6.

Object Hazard Markers as per IRC:37-2012

Fig. 6 Traffic Signs as per IRC:67-2012

38 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

(v) There were no form of Intelligent Transportation Enforcement Cameras and Close Circuit TV with
System (ITS) for managing the high speed Variable Message Signs were implemented at every
traffic before RSA. Subsequent to RSA Speed 2 km as shown in Fig. 7.

Implementation of ITS

Fig. 7 Intelligent Transportation Systems Application on Expressway

4. COST INCURRED FOR THE PROJECT 5. IMPACT OF SAFETY IMPLEMENTATION


IMPLEMENTATION The parameters evaluating the impact of RSA
Almost all recommendations of the RSA were implementation included the quantum of traffic flow,
implemented by the Expressway owning agency. The speed characteristics, number of road crashes, and the
details of cost incurred for safety implementations severity of road crashes before and after RSA scenarios.
including the overlay and service road augmentation are In this regard, duration of 5 years is taken as the time
presented in Table 1. period for before RSA and 3 years of duration after RSA
implementation.
Table 1: Road Safety Project Cost Details for 20 km of
NOIDA Greater NOIDA Expressway 5.1 Number of Road Crashes
The road crash data (FIRs) were collected from various
S. NO. Description of work Amount
(in Rs crore) police stations along the study corridor. The data was
collected for before and after RSA implementation
1 Cost of Overlay and Traffic Control 120
Devices such as Road Signs, Road
period as explained earlier. The summary of road crashes
Marking, Studs, Removal of Redundant on the study corridor is presented in Table 2. The crash
Signs, Km Stones, OHMs, for the Entire Rate after implementation of RSA reduced but the injury
Road Stretch rate has drastically increased because of a bus to bus
2 Cost of Service Road Strengthening/ 28 collision in 2014 leaded to increase in the injury rate,
Augmentation whereas the fatal crashes have decreased considerably
3 Provision of Auxiliary Lanes for 13.8 after implementation of RSA.
facilitating Entry and Exit movements Table 2: Road Crash Scenario on the Study Corridor
(including geometric design
Improvements) Year Total Road Persons Persons
4 Foot over Bridge 2.5 Crashes Killed Injured
2008 10 15 10
5 Improvement of Central Verge 31
2009 24 24 23
6 Cross Drainage Works 2 2010 11 14 13
7 Provision of Intelligent Transport 28 2011 13 16 10
System 2012 14 15 12
8 Others (Junction Improvements, Watering 7.5 2013 16 7 10
of Plants, Road Maintenance, and Gantry 2014 10 11 27
Boards Cost etc.)
2015 8 6 9
Total Project Cost 232.8 2016 7 5 8

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 39


Technical Paper

5.2 Traffic Volume 5.3 Traffic Speeds


Traffic volume data collected on study corridor Spot speed surveys were conducted for 24 hours at two
during road safety audit and after implementing the locations before RSA implementations. The survey was
road safety recommendations indicated that traffic on repeated at same locations after RSA recommendations
the road has increased at the rate of 5 percent per were implemented. The speeds observed for different
annum. types of vehicles are compared in Table 3.
Table 3 Speed Percentile data Before and After
Direction of Mode April 2013, kmph August 2016, kmph % increase or decrease
flow
Mahamaya Percentiles 15 50 85 15 50 85 15 50 85
to Pari Car 52 73 88 61 75 88 17 3 0
Chowk Bus 45 55 70 52 65 78 16 18 11
LCV 40 50 70 45 55 65 13 9 -8
Two wheeler 40 55 80 45 56 69 13 2 -13
Pari Car 68 85 105 66 79 91 -2 -7 -13
Chowk to Bus 50 65 80 70 59 79 40 -10 -1
Mahamaya LCV 45 55 70 48 58 68 8 5 -3
Two wheeler 45 55 75 43 57 74 -4 4 -1

As may be seen, the average speed of all types of vehicles stretch before and after implementations using CRF. The
in general, has improved after implementation of RSA methods of estimation of CRF are discussed in detail in
recommendations. The posted speed limit on the study the subsequent sections.
corridor is 100 kmph for light vehicles (car and two 6.1 Method-1: CRF by Number of Crashes
wheelers) and 60 kmph for bus and Light Commercial
This method is simple for calculating the crash reduction
Vehicles (LCV). The 85th percentile speed of all
factor for the safety improvements of a study area. The
vehicles (except for bus in direction from Mahamaya to
formula used for calculating the crash reduction factor is
Parichowk) has reduced after RSA.
as follows:
5.4 Travel Time  ... (1)
The journey time of a vehicle to travel from starting
point to ending point was determined using floating Na = Number of road crashes after implementation
car method. Many runs were conducted on the study Nb = Number of road crashes before implementation
corridor to acquire the average travel time. With the
6.2 Method-2: CRF by Exposure of Crashes
comparison of before and after data, it was observed that
the travel time reduced by about 29.73% in the direction It is based on the assumption that if nothing has
Mahamaya to Pari Chowk and 22.28% in the direction changed, the crash experience before improvement is
Pari Chowk to Mahamaya. a good estimate of what would have happened during
the after period without improvement (Albert Gan,
6. EVALUATION OF CRASH REDUCTION 2005). The basic formula for deriving a CRF in actual
FACTOR (CRF)AND CRASH MODIFICATION application, exposure to crashes is often considered in
FACTOR (CMF) order to account for any changes in crash exposure that
Crash Reduction Factors (CRFs) are used in road safety may have occurred between the before and after period.
studies to predict safety benefits due to reduced number Accordingly, the CRF is calculated based on crash rates
of crashes. NCHRP Report 162 emphasises the necessity as follows:
of the CRF studies. A Crash Reduction Factor (CRF) is
 ... (2)
the percent crash reduction that might be expected after
implementing a given countermeasure at a specific site. Where CRa and CRb are the crash rates at a treated site
Before-and-after method is used for calculating the CRF. before and after improvement.
In this method; the effects of interventions on safety are
determined by number of crashes occurred on the study  ... (3)

40 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

A CRF is said to be significant when it is equal or higher


(4)
than R. When a positive CRF is greater than R, it is said
(5) to be “significantly better” on the other hand, when the
absolute magnitude of a negative CRF is greater than R,
where, AADT = Annual Average Daily Traffic it is said to be “significantly worse”. A CRF is said to
6.3 Test of Significance result in “no significant change” if its absolute value is
Statistical test is necessary to determine whether crash less than R.
reduction is significant or negligible. The Poisson 6.4 Impact of RSA on Crash Reduction
comparison of Mean Test is used to determine if the crash
reduction is statistically significant (i.e. significantly The crash reduction factors calculated by two
better, significantly worse, or no significant change). The methods are given in Table 4. The CRF values using
formula for the Poisson Test based on a 95% confidence method-1 are constantly lower than those calculated
level is given by Eq-(6). by method-2. It is due to the number of parameters
considered in two methods while calculating the
(6) CRF. Method-1 relies on number of road crashes in
Where, before and after scenario, while method-2 considers
R = Minimum significant percent reduction, and parameters like traffic volume and exposure.
Therefore method-2 provides more realistic and
b = Total number of crashes before project
implementation. higher values of CRF.

Table 4 Comparison of CRF Methods

Parameter Total Number of Road Crashes Persons Killed Persons Injured


Method-1 Method - 2 Method - 1 Method - 2 Method - 1 Method - 2
CRF 0.58 0.84 0.62 0.91 -0.03 -0.55
CMF 0.42 0.16 0.38 0.09 1.03 1.55
Values of R 0.346 0.346 0.338 0.338 0.382 0.382

Crash Reduction Factor (CRF) for total road crashes is after implementing a given countermeasure at a specific
computed as 0.84 which indicates that the total crashes site. The main difference between CRF and CMF is that
have exhibited 84 percent reduction subsequent to CRF provides an estimate of the percentage reduction
implementation of RSA recommendations. At the same in crashes, while CMF is a multiplicative factor used
time, CRF values for fatal road crashes or persons killed to compute the expected number of crashes after
was found to be 0.91, which implies that the fatal crashes implementing a given improvement. It is important to
exhibited a significant reduction trend of 91 percent. The note that the CMF represents the long-term expected
CRF value for persons injured has registered a negative reduction in crashes.
sign which indicates the increase in number of persons CMFs are used by several groups of transportation
injured. This is attributed to the one major crash occurred professionals for various reasons. The primary user
in 2014 involving rear end collision of a Truck and a groups include highway safety engineers, traffic
Bus, resulting in injuring to 12 persons. Table 4 also engineers, highway designers, transportation planners,
shows values of R, the R values for the total number of transportation researchers, and managers and
road crashes is 0.346 and persons killed is 0.338 which administrators. CMFs can be used to:
are lower than the CRF values of respective crash types.  Capture the greatest safety gain with limited
The R value reinforces the fact that the reduction of road funds
crashes as compared to the trend of road crashes before  Compare safety consequences among various
RSA is significant implying the fact that the total and alternatives and locations
fatal crashes have declined after RSA on the project
 Identify cost-effective strategies and locations
corridor.
 Check reasonableness of evaluations (i.e., compare
6.5 Crash Modification Factor new analyses with existing CMFs)
A Crash Modification Factor (CMF) is a multiplicative  Check validity of assumptions in cost-benefit
factor used to compute the expected number of crashes analyses

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 41


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Crash Modification Factor is used to calculate the fatal road crashes or persons killed was found to be
number of accidents occurred after implementation of 0.91, which again implies a reduction in fatal crashes.
safety measures at specified length of road. The CMF However, CRF value for persons injured has registered a
is calculated according to the reduction of the accidents negative sign which indicates the increase in the number
before-and-after the implementation. The CMF’s are of persons injured. This is attributed to one major crash
calculated as follows: which occurred in 2014 injuring 12 persons involved
CMF = 1 – CRF (7) rear end collision of truck with bus, resulting in about
12 persons. The Crash Modification Factor (CMF) was
Here, CRF = Crash Reduction Factor
observed to vary between 9 and 16 percent. Statistical
If the CMF is greater than “1.0” then it is considered test was conducted to understand whether the reduction
as crashes have increased, while CMF less than “1.0” in CRF values is significant or not. The R values for the
indicates that crashes have increased. The values of CMF total number of road crashes is 34.59 % and for persons
for three cases are given in Table 4. As may be seen, the killed is 33.83% which are lower than the CRF values
CMF for the persons injured is morethan one indicating of respective crash types. It supports the fact that the
the increase in this type of crashes. However CMF for reduction in road crashes as compared to the trend of
total number of accidents and total persons killed 9s a road crashes before RSA is not significant implying that
0.16 and 0.09 respectively. the total and fatal crashes have declined after RSA on the
7. CONCLUSIONS project corridor.

NOIDA-Greater NOIDA Expressway is an important REFERENCES


connection between twin cities of NOIDA and
i. Albert Gan, Joan Shen and Adriana Rodriguez (2005)
Greater NOIDA in the state of Uttar Pradesh. It also
“Update of Florida Crash Reduction Factors and
provides connectivity to New Delhi. Road crashes Countermeasures to Improve the Development of District
on this expressway had been on raise and therefore Safety Improvement Projects” Florida Department of
Authority to take-up the work of road safety audit. Transportation Report April 2005.
The recommendations of RSA were implemented in ii. David L. Harkey (2008) National Cooperative Highway
2013. These recommendations included replacement Research Program (NCHRP) Report 617 (2008):
of concrete guard post on median by double row metal Accident Modification Factors for Traffic Engineering
beam crash barrier, redevelopment of entry and exit and ITS Improvements
points as per Indian Standards, marking and road studs iii. IRC:35-2015 “Code of Practice for Road Markings
on each of the traffic lanes and particularly near exit/ (Second Revision)”, Indian Roads Congress (IRC), New
entry points of auxiliary lanes. The Speed Enforcement Delhi
Cameras and Close Circuit TV with Variable Message iv. IRC:67-2012 “Code of Practice for Road Signs" (Third
Signs were also implemented at every 2 km. It is Revision)” Indian Roads Congress (IRC), New Delhi
observed that total number of road crashes and persons v. IRC:SP:88-2010 “Road Safety Audit Manual” Indian
killed are steadily reducing after implementation of these Roads Congress (IRC), New Delhi
recommendations.
vi. IRC:SP 87-2013 “Manual of Specifications & Standards
Crash Reduction Factor (CRF) for total road crashes is for Six Laning of Highways through Public Private
computed as 0.84 which indicates that the total crashes Partnership” Indian Roads Congress (IRC), New Delhi
have reduced 84 percent subsequent to implementation vii. MoRT&H, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
of RSA recommendations. At the same time, CRF for Statistics of Road Accidents in India–2016.

42 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

Perpetual Pavement Design over conventional Proposed


Ring Road for Pune City

Saurabh Kulkarni1 Mahadeo Ranadive2


ABSTRACT
Pune is one of the most populous city in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra. Vehicular traffic around
Pune city has been increasing at high rate due to industrial and economical development, thus necessitating capacity
expansion of the existing radial routes emanating from the city. Also traffic exiting Pune is passing through central part of
the city thus overloading the inter city network and creating traffic congestion. Considering necessity of decongestion of
traffic, government has proposed a new circular outer six lane rigid road with a design life of 30 years for Pune. This paper
focuses on suggesting alternative perpetual flexible pavement design using Indian Road Congress guidelines and software
like IITPAVE and its analysis with KENPAVE and PerRoad software. After repeated iterations the pavement is designed
for the calculated cumulative million standard axles and with the calculated values of the strain, it is then checked for
the fatigue and rutting type of failure for a desired design life. It is found that the perpetual flexible pavement becomes a
better choice for developing countries considering the factors like design of pavement, expected design life and economy.

1. INTRODUCTION consisting of 320 mm thick pavement quality concrete


The traffic in and around Pune is increasing at high (PQC) resting over 150 mm thick dry lean concrete
rate due to industrial development in and around Pune (DLC).Below DLC layer, a properly designed drainage
city. National Highway No. 4, 9 and 50 and some other layer of 200 mm thickness is proposed to be provided
important State Highways crossing Pune city. As a result throughout the road width to tackle heavy monsoons.
road radiating from city in all directions needs to be Total proposed road length is 62.81 km.
widened to 4 to 6 lanes. However vehicles which are
coming from one direction and going to other direction 320 mm Thick PQC
are passing through Pune City, thereby creating traffic
problems. Such passing traffic, if diverted through 150 mm Thick DLC
road network outside the city limits, it will solve
200 mm Thick Drainage layer
traffic problem in city. In absence of these peripheral
connections, the load of external floating traffic is ever
increasing on the city road network. To overcome this Fig.1 Proposed Rigid Pavement Layers
problem, an idea of Pune ring road is suggested by 2. ALTERNATIVE FLEXIBLE PERPETUAL
government of Maharashtra. PAVEMENT
1.1 Proposed Project Summary A perpetual pavement is a flexible modern long lasting
The project road is planned mostly with the provisions of strong asphalt pavement which caters to high traffic flows
Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORT&H) over long period of time. They are made up of multiple
Expressway Guidelines 2010, published by Indian Road layers of asphalt and the bottom layer is designed to be
Congress (IRC 37:2012) . The California bearing ratio strong and flexible to resist strains that could cause cracks
(CBR) of subgrade soil is 10% in the area. This project to form. The mechanistic empirical approach is generally
is expected to serve almost 1 million vehicles per month. observed for analysis and design of perpetual pavements.
The proposed rigid pavement as shown in Fig. 1 is Various limiting values of strain for different layers of
1. Ph.D. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering Pune, Email: sskul28@gmail.com
2. Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering Pune, Email: msr.civil@coep.ac.in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 43


Technical Paper

pavement are considered while designing or analysing 3. DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT USING
the performance of perpetual pavements. Now in Indian IRC
scenario the Indian Roads Congress (IRC:37-2012), has In IRC:37-2012, five different combinations of traffic
proposed the strain values of 70 and 200 microstrain and material properties have been considered for which
(μs) respectively for the fatigue and rutting endurance pavement composition has been suggested in the form
limit from the studies done elsewhere. However, there of design charts presented in Plates 1 to 24. The five
seems to be a disparity in these values among different combinations proposed are
researchers, particularly in the Fatigue Endurance
1. Granular Base and Granular Subbase
Limit (FEL) below which fatigue cracking does not
2. Cementitious Base and Cementitious Subbase of
occur. Yang et al (2006) considered 120μs by arguing
aggregate interlayer for crack relief. Upper 100 mm
that 70μs is too conservative for China’s heavier traffic
of the cementitious subbase is the drainage layer.
loads. Hence a complete pavement monitoring system
using pavement sensors and instrumentation to predict 3. Cementitious base and subbase with Stress
pavement distresses can be designed to verify the models absorbing membrane interlayer (SAMI) at the
proposed for Indian conditions. The data generated can interface of base and the bituminous layer.
be processed not only to simulate the strain in pavement 4. Foamed bitumen/bitumen emulsion selected-
layer but also to derive co-relation in generalised form Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) or fresh
of the parameters like temperature, speed, noise, wheel aggregates over 250 mm cementitious subbase.
load etc. 5. Cementitious base and granular subbase with crack
relief layer.
2.1 Methodology
The proposed pavement was designed using guidelines
given in IRC:37-2012. After trying number of iterations
with IIT PAVE software, the design was finalised and then
it was subjected to analysis with the help of KENPAVE and
Per Road software. The results are discussed in conclusion.
2.1.1 Traffic Data
As per IRC:37-2012, the cumulative number of standard
axles (msa) to be carried during the design life is given
by following equation with values provided in IRC code.
Fig. 2 Plate 19 from IRC:37
 …Eq.(1) From above combinations, number 4 is selected for this
Where, N = Cumulative number of standard axles in paper because of its failure criteria i.e. fatigue failure of
terms of million standard axle (msa), r = Growth rate the bituminous layer is the end of pavement life. If we
according to IRC (SP:84-2009) is considered as 5%; n = design the pavement considering the plate as shown in
Design life according to MSRDC report is considered as Fig. 2, the proposed design will be as following.
30 years, A = Commercial vehicle per day in the year of Subgrade CBR of local soil = 10 percent,
completion of construction; D = Lane distribution factor
(0.60), F = Vehicle damage factor (4.5). All the values According to IRC:37-2012
are considered from IRC:37-2012. Esubgrade = 17.6×CBR0.64 = 75MPa,
The traffic data of the roads selected was taken from E of cemented subbase = 600 MPa,
the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation’s MR of bituminous layer (VG40 i.e. Viscosity Grade
(MSRDC) feasibility report of this project. MSRDC Bitumen) = 3000MPa, MR of RAP = 600MPa,
report suggests that almost 1 million vehicles per month
with almost half traffic is expected to be of commercial Pavement thicknesses for CBR 10 per cent, Bituminous
vehicles i.e. about 9863 vehicles per day are expected to Concrete (BC) + DBM (Dense Bituminous macadam) =
be served in this project. 100 mm, RAP = 160 mm, cemented subbase = 250 mm.
The values of vertical and horizontal strain are then

obtained from IIT PAVE which are used to calculate
N= 645.78 msa ≈646 msa hence pavement is designed the values of msa for rutting and fatigue criteria using
for 646 msa. following formula as depicted in equation (2) and (3). IIT

44 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


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PAVE is a multilayer elastic layer analysis programme Where Nf is the cumulative number of repetitions
developed in India at Indian Institute of Technology, for fatigue failure, Nr is the cumulative number of
Kharagpur. The designer can try any combination repetitions for rutting failure, εt is the tangential strain,
of traffic and pavement layer composition using IIT εv is the vertical strain, Mr is the resilient modulus for
PAVE. The designer will have full freedom in the bituminous layer.
choice of pavement materials and layer thickness. The From IIT PAVE Software the computed strains are
traffic volume, number of layers, the layer thickness of
1. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is
individual layers and the layer properties are the required
114 x 10–6 μs.
inputs in the Program, which gives strains at critical
locations as outputs. The adequacy of design is checked 2. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 292 x
by the program by comparing these strains with the 10–6 μs.
allowable strains as predicted by the fatigue and rutting And for design traffic of 646 msa, using equation (2)
models in Indian standard code. A satisfactory pavement Table 1. Notation in IIT PAVE
design is achieved through iterative process by varying
layer thicknesses or, if necessary, by changing the Parameters Symbol
pavement layer materials [1]. Table 1 shows notations Poisson’s Ratio μ
used in IITAVE. Fatigue model has been calibrated in Depth in mm Z
the studies sponsored by MORTH using the pavement
Radial Distance in mm R
performance data.
Vertical Stress(MPa) σz
For fatigue criteria, 90% reliability criteria has been
considered for estimating allowable tensile strain for the Tangential Stress(MPa) σt
design traffic (IRC:37-2012), Radial Stress(MPa) σr

 …Eq.(2) Shear Stress(MPa) τ


Surface Deflection in mm z
Allowable vertical compressive strain for the design
traffic on the subgrade may be computed by rutting Vertical Strain εz
criteria is given below; Tangential Strain εt
Radial Strain εr
 …Eq.(3)

Fig. 3 Results Obtained for Vertical Strain and Horizontal Strain from IIT PAVE
Nf = 516 msa < 646 msa. After number of such iterations with IIT PAVE, following
Hence proposed pavement will fail to satisfy fatigue criteria. design is proposed
Using equation (3), Bituminous layer (VG40 Bitumen) = 240 mm
Nr =149.31 msa < 646 msa. (BC+DBM), RAP (Mix design from IRC:37-2012) =95
Hence proposed pavement will fail to satisfy rutting mm, Cemented subbase = 270 mm. E values and poisons
criteria also. ratio values used are shown in Table 3.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 45


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From IIT PAVE Software, as shown in Fig. 3, the single, dual, dual-tandem, or dual-tridem wheels with
computed strains are each layer behaving differently as linear elastic, nonlinear
1. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is elastic, or viscoelastic. Damage analysis can be made by
69.31 x 10–6μs < 70 μs. dividing each year into a maximum of 12 periods, each
2. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 188.40 with a different set of material properties (Ratnaswamy et
x 10–6 μs < 200 μs. al, 2013), for this study only single period is considered.
The damage caused by fatigue cracking and permanent
Hence Above design satisfies the endurance limits for
deformation in each period over all load groups is
perpetual pavements.
summed up to evaluate the design life [4]. Table 2 shows
For fatigue criteria, using equation (2) data used for analysis.
Nf =3582.73 > 646 msa Table 2 Data for Analysis
And For rutting criteria, using equation (3) No. Specification Values
Nr = 1088.64 msa > 646 msa 1 Contact radius (cm ) 15.5
Hence above design satisfies fatigue and rutting criteria. 2 Contact tyre pressure (MPa) 0.56
4. ANALYSIS WITH KENPAVE SOFTWARE 3
No. of points at which results
2
AND PERROAD SOFTWARE are desired
KenPave software was developed by Huang in 1993. It is Wheel spacing along
4 31.01
a Microsoft-Windows based version that combines the old y-axis (cm)
Kenlayer flexible pavement software and Kenslabs rigid 5
Expected load repetitions with
646e06
pavement software. It accepts the use of linear elastic, standard axle of 80 KN
nonlinear, and viscoelastic properties of the materials for K1= 0.711
the different layers. The software can handle up to 19 layers 6 Coefficients for layer 1
K2=3.89,K3=0.854
and performs damage analysis. The interface between the
different layers can be specified as either unbonded or K1=1.410 e-08
7 Coefficients for layer 4
fully bonded. For this study layers are considered to be K2=4.5337
fully bonded. It can be applied to layer systems under 8 Temperature 35º

Table 3 Strain Values from KenPave Analysis

Specification Layer-1 Layer2- Layer3- Layer 4 At bottom of At top of layer


(VG40) base Sub base (Subgrade) layer 1 Tensile 4 i.e. subgrade
Wea-ring strain (μs) Compressive
Course strain (μs)
E values in (MPa) 3000 600 600 75 - -
Poisons ratio 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 - -
Thickness (mm) 240 95 270 - 47.07 166.10

As shown in Table 3, 4.1 Per Road Software Analysis


1. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is Per Road is a mechanistic based pavement design and
47.07 x 10–6. μs < 70 μs analysis program. The program couples layered elastic
2. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 166.10 analysis with a statistical analysis procedure (Monte
x 10–6 μs< 200 μs Carlo simulation) to estimate stresses and strains within
For fatigue analysis, using equation (2). a pavement. Per Road can design up to five layers and it
Nf= 5194.5 msa > 641 msa considers up to five seasons. Seasonal air temperatures
and performance grade (PG) of top layer can be entered.
For rutting analysis, using equation (3).
The variations of each layer thickness and stiffness can
Nr =1927 msa > 641 msa be incorporated in design. It allows the designer to use
Hence Above design satisfies the endurance limits for coefficient of variation values recommended locally or
perpetual pavements. default within the software.

46 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

This helps designers to rationally consider the impact of 5. RATE ANALYSIS


improved construction practices and specifications on The cost comparison for a 1 km stretch of Pune Ring
required pavement thickness. Road highway for a perpetual pavement was done
After the above steps the designer proceeds to analysis using the standard rates in Indian rupees as per the state
and design. The designer can change the pavement cross- government’s public works department schedule of rates
section and evaluate the results of the M-E analysis of 2017-18. The material cost for each of the design
[Timm and Newcomb, 2006]. For probable axle type mixes is as shown below in Table 6 and Table 7.
distribution of commercial vehicles, as shown in Table Table 4 Axle Type Distribution on Pune-Mumbai
4, traffic data of nearby Pune-Mumbai expressway toll Expressway
booths is considered.
Axle Type Single Tandem Tridem Total
The primary outputs, as shown in Table 5, are the percent
No. of 1071536 715271 23435 1810242
below the threshold criteria, the damage accumulation Vehicles
per million axle and life estimate in years until damage
Percentage 59.18 39.51 1.31 100
occurs.
Table 5 Per Road Analysis
(with data used for IITPAVE and KenPave)

% Below Life Estimate,


Layer Location Criteria Threshold Damage/ MESAL
Threshold in Years
Horizontal
1 Bottom 70 μs 93.22 4.00848E-08
Strain 38.58
4 Top Vertical Strain 200 μs 87.16 0.000760981

Table 6 Cost Analysis of Proposed Perpetual Pavement

Material Thickness 6 lane Width Length Cost /m3 (INR)


Bituminous layer 0.24 m 22.5 m 1000 m 5940
RAP 0.095 m 22.5 m 1000 m 3850
Cemented Subbase 0.27 m 22.5 m 1000 m 1429

Table 7 Cost Analysis of Proposed Rigid Pavement

Material Thickness 6 lane Width Length Cost/m3 (INR)


PQC 0.32 m 22.5 m 1000 m 5726
DLC 0.150 m 22.5 m 1000 m 4169
Subbase 0.200 m 22.5 m 1000 m 1162

Table 8 Expected Service Life Comparison of Perpetual Pavement

Analysis Expected Service Period (in years) Expected Service period (in years)
Sr. Nf (msa) Nr (msa)
method Considering Nf Considering Nr
Top Layer Bottom Layer
1 IIT PAVE 3582.73 60.80* 1088.64 38.67*
2 KenPave 5194.5 68.09* 1927 48.98*
3 Per Road - - - 38.58 (from software)

*Expected service period in Table 8 is calculated from equation [1] using corresponding msa values.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 47


Technical Paper
Table 9 Cost Comparison Another critical issue with perpetual pavement
adaptation in India is that some of the most important
Sr. Pavement Design Approximate Cost
factors related to pavement design suitable to local
No. per KM in INR
conditions are not satisfactorily addressed by existing
1 Proposed Rigid Road 60.52 million Indian mechanistic design approaches. Some of the
2 Perpetual Pavement 48.98 million data in the code is derived from studies done elsewhere.
Design Detail study with digitally instrumented pavement
6. CONCLUSION section under live traffic is necessary to overcome that
issue. In today’s scenario, the general practice in India
With the aim of showing superiority of perpetual is to accommodate increased traffic by correspondingly
pavement over conventional pavements, perpetual increasing the pavement thickness which results in
pavement design is advocated in this paper over proposed uneconomical and environmentally unsustainable
rigid pavement near Pune city. The following are the overdesigned pavements. The superiority of perpetual
major conclusions based on the results of this study. pavement must be endorsed in a country like India and
• Results obtained from IIT PAVE and Kenpave efforts must be made towards making data available
software even though shows the difference in the for local conditions which would make adaptation of
strain values, it indicates that proposed design mechanistic empirical approach easy.
satisfies endurance limit criteria for perpetual
pavements 6. REFERENCES
i. Indian Road Congress (IRC:37-2012). “Guidelines
• Expected life span comparison done in Table 8
for Design of Flexible Pavement” Third revision,
shows that perpetual pavements are the best option July 2012.
considering minimum expected service period is 30
ii. Yang, Y., Gao, G. and Linn, W., Timms, D.H., Priest, A.,
years.
Huber, G.A. and Andrewski, D.A. “Perpetual Pavement
• Table 8 also shows that perpetual pavements top Design in China” International Conference on Perpetual
layers expected service period is much larger Pavement, Ohio Research Institute for Transportation
which will protect the rest of the structure. This and the Environment, Stocker Center, Athens, Ohio,
demonstrates the basic premise of designing a 2006.
perpetual pavement of placing asphalt on a stable iii. Mahadeo S Ranadive, Saurabh S Kulkarni “Perpetual
foundation which results in relocating the distresses Pavement for Rural Roads: a Concept" A National
that originate at the bottom of the pavement to the Conference on Fifteen Years of Pmgsy (Fypmgsy),
upper layers. The top layer acts as a protective Transportation Engineering Group, Civil Engineering
barrier. Since the distresses are confined to the Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,
India, pp. 23, August 6-7, 2016.
wearing course which can be replaced when and if
functional requirements such as skid resistance and iv Huang, Y. H. (2004) ”Pavement Analysis and Design”
Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc.
riding quality are not being met. Thus the potential
of fatigue cracking and structural rutting, the two v Ratnasamy Muniandy, Eltaher Aburkaba, Noor Thamer.
“Comparison of Flexible Pavement Performance Using
most devastating pavement distresses, is reduced in
Kenlayer and Chev PC Software Program" Australian
Perpetual Pavements Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Volume 7 (9),
• Similarly cost comparison done in Table 9 pp.112-119, 2013.
shows that cost of perpetual pavement will be vi Timm, D.H. and D.E. Newcomb. “Perpetual Pavement
less compared to rigid pavement. Considering Design for Flexible Pavements” U.S. International
its longetivity, perpetual pavement is cost saving Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 111-
option. 119, June 2006.

48 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

INFLUENCE OF DESIGN PARAMETERS ON EARTH PRESSURES


BEHIND RETAINING WALLS

Rajendra Chalisgaonkar
ABSTRACT
Retaining walls of many types such as gravity wall, cantilever wall, counter fort wall and buttress wall etc. are
structures that are generally used to retain earth in a position and to resist the lateral pressure of the soil against
the wall. Though retaining walls are simple structures and commonly built in every nook and corner of the country
for various earth retaining purposes, yet many problems are encountered in the field as a result of either improper
or conservative design. These problems arise mainly due to the fact that engineers in the field are bogged down with
numerous responsibilities and often do not find time to carry out proper design. In the present paper, the influence
and importance of various parameters on lateral earth pressure has been studied using the Coulomb’s Theory. The
study reveals that angle of repose of backfill φ, angle of friction between wall and backfill δ and vertical angle of earth
face of wall α does influence on estimating the active earth pressures, which ultimately govern the design of retaining
walls, to an extent that if there actual values are not taken in to consideration, it will result in improper or conservative
design. The study will give an insight to the field engineers working in Highways sector and facilitate them in providing
techno-economic sections of the wall.

1. RETAINING WALLS are the lateral earth pressures induced by the retained
In the year one-million BC, or thereabouts, an anonymous soil. Under normal conditions, the lateral earth pressure
man, or woman, laid a row of stones atop another row is at rest condition. But, if the wall deflects slightly,
to keep soil from sliding into their camp. Thus was stresses are exerted in the soil, these are; a passive earth
constructed an early retaining wall, and we’ve been pressure, PP in front of the wall, and an active earth
keeping soil in place ever since…… with increasingly pressure, Pa behind the wall. For design purposes, the
better methods and understanding. The early engineers passive earth pressure in front of the wall PP, is neglected
also discovered that by battering a wall so that it leaned to avoid any problem resulting from removing the soil in
slightly backward, the lateral pressure was relieved and front of the wall.
the height could be extended – an intuitive understanding The active and passive pressures are assumed to increase
of the soil wedge theory. linearly with depth as a function of the weight of soil.
Retaining walls are structures that are used to retain soil The magnitude and direction of these pressures as well
and to resist the lateral pressure of the soil against the as their distribution depend upon many variables; such
wall. The retaining walls are normally not intended to as height of the wall, type of backfill used, draining of
stabilize slope failures. They are mainly meant to support the backfill, the slope of the ground surface, level of
the active or passive earth pressure from the assumed the water table, surcharge loads applied on the backfill,
failure wedge above the base of the wall. Gravity degree of soil compaction, and movement of the wall
retaining walls are routinely built of plain concrete or caused by the action of the backfill.
stone, and the wall depends primarily on its massive In the present paper, the influence and importance of
weight to resist failure from overturning and sliding. various parameters on lateral earth pressure has been
The design of a retaining wall must account for all studied and the results have been presented, which
applied loads but the loads that are of primary concern will give an insight to the field engineers working in

Retd. Engineer-in-Chief, Irrigation Department, Uttarakhand and Water Resources & Hydropower Consultant
E mail: chalisgaonkar@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 49


Technical Paper

Highways sector and facilitate them in providing techno- i) The backfill is cohesionless, dry, homogenous,
economic sections of the wall. isotropic and ideally plastic material.
2. EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES ii) The slip surface is a plane surface which passes
through the heel of wall.
The main force acting on the retaining wall is constituted
iii) The sliding wedge behaves like a rigid body and
by lateral earth pressure which tends to bend, slide and
the magnitude of the earth pressure is obtained by
overturn it. The classical earth pressure theories, which
considering the equilibrium of the wedge as a whole.
are followed in estimating the earth pressures were
iv) The back of the wall is rough.
published by Coulomb in 1776 and Rankine in 1857.
Developments since 1920, largely due to the influence v) The position and direction of the resultant earth
of Dr. Karl Terzaghi have led to a better understanding pressure are known. It acts at a distance one-third the
how retaining walls work and how soil generates forces height of the wall above base and is inclined at an
against walls. Most lateral pressure theories are based angle δ to the normal to the back of wall, where δ is
upon the sliding soil wedge theory. This, in simple terms, the angle of friction between the wall and the backfill.
is based upon the assumption that if the wall is suddenly The general conditions for development of active and
removed, a triangular wedge of soil will slide down along passive earth pressure encountered in the design of
a rupture plane, and it is this wedge of soil that the wall retaining walls are illustrated in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
must retain. The basis for determining the magnitude
and direction of the earth pressure are the principles of
soil mechanics. The behaviour of lateral earth pressure
is similar to that of a fluid, with its magnitude pressure
increasing nearly linearly with increasing depth h for
moderate depths below the surface.
p= K.γ.h ..1
Where
γ - Unit weight of the backfill
Coefficient that depends on its physical
K - 
properties, and on whether the pressure is active
Fig. 1 Active Earth Pressure
or passive.
 ctive Earth Pressure Coefficient Ka, in case of
A
active pressure, and
 assive Earth Pressure Coefficient Kp, in case of
P
passive pressure
h - Height of wall/backfill
2.1 Coulomb’s Theory
Coulomb (1776) developed a method for the
determination of the earth pressure considering the
equilibrium of the sliding wedge formed due to
movement of the retaining wall. In the Active Earth
Pressure case, the sliding wedge moves downwards and Fig. 2 Passive Earth Pressure
outwards on a slip surface relative to the intact backfill
2.1.1 Active Pressure Due to Backfill
and in the case of Passive Earth pressure, the sliding
wedge moves upward and inwards. The pressure on the The active pressure exerted against the wall shall be:
wall is, in fact, a force of reaction which it has to exert Pa = ½ γ H2 Ka
to keep the sliding wedge in equilibrium. The lateral Where
pressure on the wall is equal and opposite to the reactive
Pa - Active Earth Pressure along the length of Wall
force exerted by the wall in order to keep the sliding
wedge in equilibrium. Assumptions made in Coulomb’s γ - Unit weight of the backfill
theory include: H - Height of wall/backfill

50 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

Ka - Coefficient of active pressure, which takes into the soil and wall, then the Coulomb equation reduces to
account backfill slope, friction angle at wall face, the familiar Rankine’s equation:
angle of repose of backfill and angle of wall face 1  Sin
with vertical: Kp  …5
1  Sin
cos 2 (   )
Ka  2
 sin(   ) sin(   )  …2
cos   cos(   ) 1 
2
 2.2 Rankine’s Theory
 cos(    ) cos(   ) 
Rankine(1857) considered the equilibrium of a soil
where, element at any depth in the backfill behind a retaining wall
φ = Angle of internal friction of the soil; and determined the active earth pressure. The Rankine
δ = Angle of friction between wall and backfill, where equation is a simplified version of the Coulomb equation
value of δ is not determined by actual tests, the that does not take into account wall batter or friction
following values may be assumed. at the wall-soil interface. As such, it is a conservative
approach to the design of retaining walls. For the case
(i) δ = 1/3 φ for concrete structures.
for vertical walls with a levelled backfill and zero wall
(ii) δ = 2/3 φ for masonry structures. friction, the lateral pressure factor Ka will be the same by
ι = Angle, which the earth surface makes with the either approach. Following assumptions were made in
horizontal behind the earth retaining structure. the originally proposed Rankine’s theory:
α = Angle, which earth face of Wall makes with Vertical i) The soil mass is homogenous and semi-infinite.
If the backfill is levelled, the earth face of wall is vertical, ii) The soil mass is cohesionless and dry.
and if zero friction is assumed between the soil and iii) The surface of soil is a plane which may be
wall, then the Coulomb equation reduces to the familiar horizontal or inclined.
Rankine’s equation: iv) The back of the wall is vertical.
1  Sin …3 v) The back of the wall is smooth, so that there
Ka  will be no shearing stresses between the wall
1  Sin
and soil. Because of this assumption the stress
IRC:6-2017 specifies that Coulomb’s theory shall be relationship for any element adjacent to the wall
acceptable, subject to the modification that the centre of is the same as that for any other element far away
pressure exerted by the backfill, when considered dry, is from the wall.
located at an elevation of 0.42 of the height of the wall vi) The wall yields about the base and thus satisfies the
above the base instead of 0.33 of that height, mentioned deformation condition for plastic equilibrium.
in IS:1893. 2.2.1 Active Pressure Due to Backfill
2.1.2 Passive Pressure Due to Earthfill The active pressure exerted against the wall shall be:
The passive pressure exerted against the wall shall be: Pa = ½ γ H2 Ka
Pp = ½ γ’ H’2.Kp Where
Where Ka – Coefficient of active pressure as per Rankine’s
Pp – Passive Earth Pressure along the length of Wall Theory;
γ’ - Unit weight of the earthfill √
H’ - Height of earthfill in front of Wall …6

Kp - Coefficient of passive pressure, which takes into
account earthfill slope in front of wall, friction Where
angle at wall face, angle of repose of earthfill and
φ = Angle of Repose of the backfill
angle of wall face with vertical:
ι = Surcharge Angle of backfill slope
cos 2 (   )
Kp  2 If the backfill is levelled, the Rankine equation can be
 Sin (   ) Sin (   )  …4
cos 2   cos(   ) 1   written as:
 Cos (   ) cos(   ) 
1  Sin …7
If the earthfill in front of wall is levelled, the outer face of Ka 
1  Sin
wall is vertical, and if zero friction is assumed between

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 51


Technical Paper

2.2.2 Passive Pressure Due to Earthfill It is obvious that the assumptions made in Rankine’s
The passive pressure exerted against the wall shall be: theory are not realistic. The wall will never be perfectly
smooth and will have some degree of roughness. Hence
Pp = ½ γ’ H’2 Kp there will invariably be friction/adhesion developed
Where between the wall and the soil. Hence the assumption that
Kp – Coefficient of passive pressure as per Rankine’s no shear forces develop on the back of the wall is not
Theory; true.
√ Coulomb’s earth pressure theory is a practical method
…8 because it takes into consideration friction between the

wall and the soil, the inclination of the wall face and
If the earthfill in front of wall is levelled, the Rankine the inclination of the ground surface behind the wall.
equation can be written as: It is generally known that earth pressure values derived
by Coulomb’s method agree with the values derived by
1  Sin
Kp  …9 Rankine’s method when these parameters take certain
1  Sin values. Experience has shown that, if conventional
procedures are followed with a full understanding
3. RELIABILITY OF LATERAL EARTH of the assumptions on which they are based, the
PRESSURES resulting designs will be safe and as economical as
Several sets of wall tests were performed to check the present knowledge permits. Now-a-days, it is a general
validity of the Coulomb and Rankine active and passive consensus amongst soil engineers that for the solution
earth pressure methods by Terzaghi (1934), Peck and of most earth pressure problems, the Coulomb theory
Ireland (1961), Rowe and Peaker (1965), Mackey and should be used.
Kirk (1967), James and Bransby (1970), Rehnman and
4. PARAMETERS CONSIDERED IN THE
Broms (1972), Coyle et al. (1972), etc.
STUDY
Rankine’s theory assumes the back of wall to be smooth. The magnitude and direction of active and passive
No frictional forces are assumed to exist between the soil pressures as well as their distribution depend upon
and the wall. Hence the lateral pressure is assumed to many variables; such as Angle of Repose of Backfill;
act parallel to the surface of the backfill. But in practice, Angle of Friction between Wall and Backfill; Slope
considerable friction will be developed between the of the Backfill, Angle of Face of Wall, Level of
soil and the wall due to the movement of the wall. As a Water Table, Surcharge Loads, Degree of Soil
consequence earth pressure will be inclined at a certain Compaction etc. Following design parameters have
angle to the normal to the wall. The assumption of a been considered to study the influence on active and
smooth wall surface results in an overestimation of passive earth pressures using Coulomb’s equations 2
active earth pressure and an underestimation of passive and 4:
earth pressure.

Angle of Repose of Backfill, φ : 20º, 25º, 30º, 35º, 40º, 45º

Angle of Friction between Wall and Backfill, δ : 0º, 1/3 φ, 2/3 φ

Angle of Surcharge of Backfill, l : -1/4 φ, 0º, 1/4 φ, 1/2 φ, 3/4 φ, φ

Angle, which earth face of Wall makes with Vertical, α : 14.03º, 11.31º, 5.71º, 0º, -5.71º, -11.31º, -14.03º

Angle, which Outer face of Wall makes with Vertical, αp : 0º, 5.71º, 11.31º, 21.79º, 26.55º, 30.95º

The results of the analysis have been presented in the Fig. 3a and 3b shows the variation of coefficient of
succeeding paragraphs. active earth pressure Ka and passive earth pressure Kp
for angle of repose of backfill φ varying from 20º to 45º
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
when angle of wall friction between wall and backfill is
5.1 Influence of Angle of Repose of Backfill φ and zero, 1/3 φ and 2/3 φ and angle of surcharge of backfill
Angle of Friction between Wall and Backfill δ ι and angles of face of walls with vertical α, αp are zero.

52 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

between wall and backfill δ is neglected and earth face


of wall is vertical.

a) Passive Earth Pressure

Fig. 4 Influence of Angle of Surcharge ι

It can be seen from Fig. 4 that the coefficient of active


earth pressure Ka increases with the angle of surcharge
of backfill ι and the coefficient of active earth pressure
Ka is very high when the angle of surcharge of backfill ι
is equal to angle of repose of backfill φ.
5.3 Influence of Vertical Angle of Earth Face of Wall α
Fig. 5a shows the variation of coefficient of passive earth
pressure Kp for angle of repose of backfill φ varying from
b) Active Earth Pressure 20º to 45º when vertical angle of outer face of wall αp is
varied from 0º to 30.95º and angle of friction between
Fig. 3 Influence of Angle of Repose φ and Angle of Friction
between Wall and Backfill δ wall and backfill δ is neglected and angle of surcharge of
earthfill ι’ is zero.
The perusal of Fig. 3a indicates that the coefficient of
passive earth pressure Kp increases substantially with
angle of repose of earthfill φ. It is also observed that
when the angle of friction between wall and earthfill δ
is also considered the increase in coefficient of passive
earth pressure Kp is phenomenal when the angle of repose
of earthfill φ is more than 30º.
The perusal of Fig. 3b indicates that the coefficient of
active earth pressure Ka decreases substantially with
the increase in angle of repose of backfill φ. It is also
observed that the coefficient of active earth pressure Ka
decreases, when the angle of friction between wall and a) Passive Earth Pressure
backfill δ is also considered.
Fig. 5b shows the variation of coefficient of active earth
5.2 Influence of the Angle of Surcharge ι pressure Ka for angle of repose of backfill φ varying from
Fig. 4 shows the variation of coefficient of active earth 20º to 45º when vertical angle of earth face of wall α is
pressure Ka for angle of repose of backfill φ varying from -14.03º, -11.31º, -5.71º, 0º, 5.71º, 11.31º and 14.03º and
20º to 45º when angle of surcharge of backfill ι is -1/4 φ, angle of friction between wall and backfill δ is neglected
0º, 1/4 φ, 1/2 φ, 3/4 φ and φ and the angle of wall friction and angle of surcharge of backfill ι is zero.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 53


Technical Paper

towards backfill leans by angle of repose of backfill φ, no


active earth pressures are exerted on the wall. However,
construction of retaining walls with negative batter in the
field will depend on the purpose and loading on retaining
walls.
6. CONCLUSION
Retaining walls are simple structures and commonly
built in highway projects for various earth retaining
purposes. The engineers in the field are bogged down
with numerous responsibilities and often do not find
b) Active Earth Pressure time to carry out proper design and also do not pay
Fig. 5c shows the variation of coefficient of active earth much attention while designing these simple structures,
pressure Ka for angle of repose of backfill φ varying from resulting in improper or conservative design. In this
20º to 45º when vertical angle of earth face of wall α is study, influence of various design parameters on the
either 0º or φ-90º and angle of friction between wall and active and passive earth pressures behind the retaining
backfill δ is neglected and angle of surcharge of backfill walls have been presented and it can be clearly seen
ι is zero. that angle of repose of backfill φ, angle of surcharge
ι, angle of friction between wall and backfill δ and
vertical angle of earth face of wall α does influence on
estimating the active earth pressures, which ultimately
govern the design of retaining walls, to an extent that if
there actual values are not taken in to consideration, it
will result in improper or conservative design. Besides,
these parameters, the safe bearing capacity of soil also
influence the design of retaining walls and therefore
proper geotechnical investigations for backfill material
and safe bearing capacity be carried out before designing
a retaining wall. Following conclusions can be drawn
from the study:
c) Active Earth Pressure when Vertical Angle α is 90º/φ i) The coefficient of active earth pressure Ka decreases
Fig. 5 Influence of Vertical Angle of Face of Wall α with the angle of repose of backfill φ and the
Perusal of Fig. 5a indicates that the coefficient of passive coefficient of active earth pressure Ka is very less
earth pressure Kp decreases with increase of vertical for backfills having higher value of φ. Therefore,
angle of outer face of wall αp. Thus it can be said that it the angle of repose of backfill φ be estimated at site
is better to keep the outer face of wall as vertical to the for cost effective design of retaining wall.
extent possible. ii) The angle of friction between wall and backfill
Perusal of Fig. 5b indicates that the coefficient of active δ be considered for estimating the coefficient of
earth pressure Ka decreases when the vertical angle of active earth pressure Ka because Ka is maximum
earth face of wall α is given a negative batter and it for smooth wall(i.e. δ=0) and it decreases with δ.
substantially reduces the active earth pressure Ka. Study Guidelines issued by Indian Railway Standard Code
conducted on Inclined Retaining Walls by Chalisgaonkar of Practice for the Design of Sub Structure and
(1988) has also indicated that when a wall leans towards Foundation of Bridges be followed for adopting the
the backfill, the reduction in active pressure coefficient value of angle of friction between wall and backfill
is considerable. δ if its value is not known.
Perusal of Fig. 5c indicates that when the vertical angle iii) Vertical angle of earth face of wall α greatly
of earth face of wall α is kept as φ-90º, the coefficient influence the coefficient of active earth pressure Ka
of active earth pressure Ka becomes zero. In other and even a small tilt towards the backfill can reduce
words, theoretically when the horizontal angle of wall the active earth pressure on wall substantially.

54 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Technical Paper

iv) Coefficient of passive earth pressure also depends 6. Peck, R. B. and H. O. Ireland(1961) Full-Scale Lateral
on φ, δ, ι and δp but passive pressure is generally Load Test of a Retaining Wall Foundation, 5th ICSMFE,
used in checking the stability of walls against Vol. 2.
sliding, therefore it is the active earth pressure 7. Rankine, W. J. M.(1857) On the Stability of Loose Earth,
which governs the design of the wall. Phi. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, Vol. 147.
The study presented will be fruitful and shall give an 8. Rehnman, S. E., and B. B. Broms(1972) Lateral Pressures
insight to the field engineers working in Highways on Basement Wall: Results from Full-Scale Tests, Proc.
5th European Conf. SMFE, Vol. 1.
sector and facilitate them in providing techno-economic
sections of the wall. 9. Rowe, P. W. and K. Peaker(1965) Passive Earth Pressure
Measurements, Geotechnique, Vol. 15, No. 1, March.
7. References 10. Terzaghi, Karl(1934) Large Retaining Wall Tests,
1. Chalisgaonkar, Rajendra (1988), Inclined Retaining Engineering-News Record, Feb.
Walls, Indian Concrete Journal, August.
11. Terzaghi, Karl(1941) General Wedge Theory of Earth
2. Coulomb, C. A.(1776) Essai sur une application des Pressure, Tran. Am. Soc., Civil Engrs., Vol. 106.
regles des maximis et minimis a quelques problems de
12. IS:14458: Part 2, Indian Standard Code of Practice:
statique relatifis a Parchitecture, Mem. Acad. Roy. Pres
Retaining Wall for Hilly Area, Bureau of Indian
divers savants, Vol. 7, Paris.
Standards, New Delhi.
3. Coyle, H. M., et al.(1972) Field Measurements of Lateral
Earth Pressures on a Cantilever Retaining Wall, TTI 13. IS:1893, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of
Research Report 169-2, College Station, TX. Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
4. James, R. G., and P. L. Bransby(1970) Experimental and 14. IRC:6-2017, Standard Specifications and Code of
Theoretical Investigations of a Passive Earth Pressure Practice for Road Bridges, Section-II Loads and Stresses,
Problem, Geotechnique, vol. 20, no. 1, March. Indian Road Congress, New Delhi.
5. Mackey, R. D., and D. P. Kirk(1967) At Rest, Active 15. Indian Railway Standard Code of Practice for the Design
and Passive Earth Pressures, Proc, Southeastern Asian of Sub Structure and Foundation of Bridges, Research
Regional Conf. on Soil Engineering, Bangkok. Designs and Standards Organisation, Lucknow.

OBITUARY

The Indian Roads Congress expresses their profound sorrow on the untimely demise of
Dr. B.B. Pandey, former Professor and Head of the Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur,
West Bengal on 15th October, 2018. He was a renowned expert in the field of Flexible and Rigid
Pavements. He was an Advisor, sponsored Research and Industrial Consultancy at IIT Kharagpur.
His area of research were materials for roads and airports, Design of Flexible and Rigid Pavements,
Finite Element analysis of Pavements, Viscos elasticity, Stochastic design of Pavements Road failure
investigation and Recycling of Pavement materials . He supervised the work of 12 doctoral students.
He was awarded life time achievements by Indian Concrete Institute and IRC Medals for his Technical
Papers. He was an active member of Flexible Pavement Committee (H-2) and Rigid Pavement
Committee (H-3) of IRC in its many tenures. He was also well associated in formation of several IRC
Codes/Specifications. Dr. Pandey contributed many useful Technical Papers in the periodicals of IRC.
He was an active member of the Indian Roads Congress.

May his soul rest in peace.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 55


News/Announcement

Shri Alok Bhowmick who is the active member of many Bridges Committees of IRC and was actively
associated in forming several Bridge Codes/Specification published by the IRC is the 24th recipient of
“S.B. Joshi Memorial Award for Excellence in Bridge & Structural Engineering” This coveted
award was conferred on him at a glittering award ceremony in Pune on 12th October, 2018 at the
premises of the College of Engineering, Pune.
The S.B. Joshi award has been instituted by the Alumni Association of the College of Engineering,
Pune in 1995. It is conferred every year, since 1995, to the person who has contributed significantly
to the Indian Construction Industry.
The Indian Roads Congress convey its hearty wishes and congratulate Shri Alok Bhowmick for
receiving this prestigious award.

23rd Annual Convention & National Seminar on


“Rapid Building Construction-Emerging Technologies”
December 28-30, 2018

Indian Buildings Congress will be holding its 23rd Annual Convention & National Seminar on
December 28-30, 2018. The Annual Convention, apart from conducting business like holding of
AGM, Governing Council Meeting & appointment of office bearers for ensuing term, will also include
a National Seminar. The theme of the Seminar will be “Rapid Building Construction-Emerging
Technologies”. Members of the Indian Buildings Congress and professionals of Government
Departments, Housing Boards, Development Authorities, Town and Country Planning Organisations,
State PWDs, Teaching & Training Institutes, Technical Universities, Builders, Developers and all
others interested in building management are cordially invited to attend the Annual Session and also
contribute papers for the Seminar.
The main purpose of this seminar is to bring together researchers/academicians/industries in the
field to discuss major challenges, emerging technologies and the best practices besides case studies.
Discussions are planned to be held on sub-themes like Design Concepts & Technology for Speedy
Construction; Prefabricated Construction; Emerging Technologies for Rapid Multistorey Construction
and Case studies. Visit IBC Website www.ibc.org.in
While full text of paper can be submitted by Oct. 30, 2018, authors should communicate their intention
of submitting the Paper along with a brief abstract by Oct. 15, 2018 to Shri P.S. Chadha, Consultant,
Indian Buildings Congress, Sector VI, R.K. Puram, New Delhi – 110022. Telephone: 011-26169531,
26170197 Fax No. 26196391 Email : info@ibc.org.in, indianbldgscongress.com

56 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Tender Notice

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 57


announcement

79th Annual Session to be held AT Nagpur (Maharashtra)


from 22Nd November to 25th November 2018

On the invitation of Government of Maharashtra, the 79th Annual Session of the Indian Roads
Congress will be held at Nagpur (Maharashtra) from 22nd November to 25th November 2018.
It is expected that more than 3000 Highway Engineers from all over the country and abroad will
attend the Session. During the Annual Session of IRC, there has been a practice for various firms/
organizations to make Technical Presentations on their products/technologies & case studies (with
innovative construction methods or technologies or having special problems requiring out of the box
thinking and special solutions). The presenters will get an opportunity to address a large gathering
of highway professionals from Private Sector as well as decision makers in the Govt. Sector. These
presentation evoke lively interaction among the participants.
A time slot of about 12-15 minutes is normally allocated for each Technical Presentation. Time is
also given for floor intervention. Audio visual equipment is made available at the venue for these
presentations. During such Technical Presentation Session no other meetings will be held parallel so
as to ensure maximum attendance during the Technical Presentation Session. The stakeholders are,
therefore, requested to participate in the event and book slots at the earliest.
Interested Organizations may write to IRC conveying their willingness for participation and
send the topics of their Technical Presentation by E-mail: ad.irc-morth@gov.in or through Speed
Post alongwith a Demand Draft for Rs.60,000/- (Rupees Sixty Thousand only) drawn in favour
of Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi latest by 10th November, 2018 so that
necessary arrangements can be made by IRC.

ATTENTION INVITED
For any enquiry about the 79th Annual Session like Registration, Membership & Technical Presentation
etc. please address to Secretary General, (Kind Attn. Shri D. Sam Singh, Deputy Secretary (i/c)) Indian
Roads Congress Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110022. Phone +91 11 2610
5160/26171548
E-mail: admn.irc-morth@gov.in or contact the following officers:

Registration Membership Technical Presentation


Shri Naveen Tewari Shri S.K. Chadha Ms. Shilp Sree
Section Officer Under Secretary Assistant Director (Tech.)
Phone +91 11 2617 1548 Phone + 91 11 2338 7140 Phone +91 11 2618 5273
Mobile +91-9811099326 Mobile +91-9899299959 E-mail: ad.irc-morth@gov.in
Email: admn.irc-morth@gov.in Email:ircmembership1962@
gmail.com

58 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Registration Form 79th Annual Session

22nd To 25th

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 59


Registration Form 79th Annual Session

60 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


ACCOMMODATION FORM 79th Annual Session

OFFICIAL ACCOMMODATION FORM


79th ANNUAL SESSION - NAGPUR (MAHARASHTRA) FROM 22ND TO 25TH
NOVEMBER, 2018
(Please Return before 25th October, 2018)
Shri Ramesh Hotwani Telephone No. : 07122522986
(Local Organizing Secretary, Mobile No. : 09423515050
79th Annual Session) & Superintending Engineer Email : 79ircnagpur@gmail.com
PMGSY, Nagpur Website : www.79ircnagpur.in
IRC Cell,
Office of the Chief Engineer,
PWD, Bandhkam Sankul,
Civil Lines, Nagpur-440001
USE BLOCK LETTER ONLY Tick (√) Wherever Applicable
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__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 61


ACCOMMODATION FORM 79th Annual Session

ACCOMMODATION AS GOVT. OFFICER: SINGLE [S]/Double[D]


S.No. DESIGNATION For Self For Spouse
1. Secretaries/Engineers-in-Chief 10000 3500
2. Chief Engineers/ Addl.C. Es 9500 3500
3. Superintending Engineers 8500 3500
4. Executive Engineers 7000 3000
5. AEEs/Asst. Engineers/J. Es 6000 3000
6. Delegates from Foreign Countries 250$ 125$
_______________________Days from_______________________to______________________________
Accommodation for delegates (Paying Full) Single (S) / Double (D)
Hotel Name: _________________________________@ Rs. ________________________________
Days from___________________________to___________________ November, 2018___________

For on-line payment and booking of Accommodation, visit www.79ircnagpur.in

Note : Draw Demand Draft in favour of “Local Organising Secretary, 79th Annual Session, IRC” payable
at Nagpur for accommodation. Accommodation would be confirmed only on receipt of payment in
advance.

62 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


Announcement

Indian Roads Congress


Organizing
Two Days International Seminar
on
“Construction and Rehabilitation of Rigid Pavement-Current
Practice and Way Forward”
On 18th and 19th January, 2019 at New Delhi (India)

Excellent opportunity to learn the best practices from renowned experts from the country and
across the globe.
All are benefited from better road construction. All the stakeholder are invited to attend the two
days International Seminar to become partner in road construction.
Who should attend: Central/State Government Departments/Agencies, Manufactures,
Consultant, Public Sector Undertakings, Autonomous Organization, Research/Academic
Institutions, Road Sector Project Executing Agencies both from Government and Private Sector
including Concessionaries.
Themes of the Seminar:
Session 1: Planning and Design of Rigid Pavement
Session 2: Construction Materials and Technology
Session 3: Evaluation and Health Monitoring
Session 4: Repair and Rehabilitation
Session 5: Case Studies
Abstract of the Papers may please be submitted by the 15th November, 2018 to IRC
E-mail: internationalseminar2019@gmail.com
Opportunity available for Advertisers and Exhibitors to Display of Products on first-come-first
serve basis.
For further details and enquiry for getting associated with the International Seminar, please
contact following officers.

For Sponsorship and For Registration For Submission of


Advertisement in Souvenir Technical Papers

Shri Naveen Tewari Shri Naveen Tewari Ms. Shilp Sree


Section Officer Section Officer Assistant Director (Tech.)
Tel. 011-26171548 Tel. 011-26171548 Tel. 011-26185273
E-mail: admn.irc-morth@gov.in E-mail: admn.irc-morth@gov.in E-mail: ad.irc-morth@gov.in

For more details please visit the IRC website www.irc.nic.in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 63


Registration Form

64 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


New/Revised Publications

NEW/REVISED PUBLICATIONS OF IRC in 2017


The IRC has brought out the following New/Revised Publications. These prestigious publications will be quite useful to
the Highway Professionals.
Title of the Document Price Packing & Postage
IRC:7-2017 “Recommended Practice for Numbering Culverts, Bridges and Tunnels” 100.00 20.00
(Second Revision)
IRC:15-2017 “Code of Practice for Construction of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements 1000.00 40.00
(Fifth Revision)
IRC:44-2017 “Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for Pavements” 500.00 40.00
(Third Revision)
IRC:65-2017 “Planning and Design of Roundabouts” (First Revision) 400.00 40.00
IRC:70-2017 “Guidelines on Regulation and Control of Mixed Traffic in Urban 400.00 40.00
Areas” (First Revision)
IRC:92-2017 “Guidelines for the Design of Interchanges in Urban Areas” (First 400.00 40.00
Revision)
IRC:121-2017 “Guidelines for Use of Construction and Demolition Waste in Road 300.00 40.00
Sector”
IRC:122-2017 “Guidelines for Construction of Precast Concrete Segmental Box 300.00 40.00
Culverts”
IRC:123-2017 “Guidelines on Geophysical Investigation for Bridges” 600.00 40.00
IRC:124-2017 “Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Design Guidelines for Indian Cities” 600.00 40.00
IRC:125-2017 “Guidelines on Dozers for Highway Works” 400.00 40.00
IRC:126-2017 “Guidelines on Wet Mix Plant” 400.00 40.00
IRC:SP-93-2017 “Guidelines on Requirements for Environmental Clearance for 1200.00 40.00
Road Projects” (First Revision)
IRC:SP-110-2017 “Application of Intelligent Transport System (ITS) for Urban 600.00 40.00
Roads”
IRC:SP:111-2017 “Capacity Building of Road Agencies In Charge of Implementation 300.00 40.00
of Road Projects in Urban Areas”
IRC:SP:112-2017 “Manual for Quality Control in Road and Bridge works” 1500.00 40.00
Copies of these publications can be obtained from IRC Office against cash payment. For more details please contact + 91
11 2338 7759 and E-mail: ircsale1934@gmail.com

NEW/REVISED PUBLICATIONS OF IRC in 2018


The IRC has brought out the following New/Revised Publications. These prestigious publications will be quite useful to the
Highway Professionals.
Title of the Document Price Packing & Postage
IRC:SP:65-2018 “Guidelines for Design and Construction of Segmental Bridges” (First 400.00 20.00
Revision)
IRC:SP:71-2018 “Guidelines for Design and Construction of Precast Pre-Tensioned Girders 400.00 20.00
for Bridges” (First Revision)
IRC:83-2018 Part II: “Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Road Bridges” 600.00 40.00
IRC:83-2018 Part III: “Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Road Bridges” 600.00 40.00
IRC:SP:89-2018 Part II: “Guidelines for the Design of Stabilized Pavements” 800.00 20.00
IRC:SP:113-2018 “Guidelines on Flood Disaster Mitigation for Highway Engineers” 800.00 40.00
IRC:SP:114-2018 “Guidelines for Seismic Design for Road Bridges” 1000.00 40.00
IRC:SP:115-2018 “Guidelines for Design of Integral Bridges” 500.00 20.00
IRC:SP:116-2018 “Guidelines for Design and Installation of Gabion Structure” 600.00 20.00
IRC:99-2018 “Guidelines for Traffic Calming Measures in Rural and Urban Areas” (First 1000.00 20.00
Revision)
Copies of these publications can be obtained from IRC Office against cash payment. For more details please contact + 91 11
2338 7759 and E-mail: ircsale1934@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018 65


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66 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│NOVEMBER 2018


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