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Bachelor of Technology (Electronics & Communication Engineering)


Scheme of Studies/Examination
Semester VII

S. No. Course Subject L:T:P Hours/Week Examination Schedule (Marks) Duration of


No. Theory Sessionals Practical Total Exam (Hrs)

ECE-401N Microcontroller & Embedded Systems 3:0:0 3 75 25 0 100 3


1 Design

2 ECE-403N Digital Image Processing 4:0:0 4 75 25 0 100 3

3 ECE-405N Power Electronics 3:0:0 3 75 25 0 100 3


4 Core Elective - I** 3:0:0 3 75 25 0 100 3
5 Core Elective - II** 3:0:0 3 75 25 0 100 3
ECE-407N Microcontroller & Embedded Systems 0:0:3 3 0 40 60 100 3
6 Design Lab

7 ECE-409N Digital Image Processing Lab 0:0:3 3 0 40 60 100 3

8 ECE- 0:0:10 10 0 100 100 200 3


411N*** Project-1
9 ECE- Industrial Training Viva 2:0:0 2 0 100 0 100
413N*
Total 34 375 405 220 1000

* The performance of the student will be evaluated by the technical training (undertaken after 6th semester) seminar and the report submitted by the student which
should also include the Industrial/Research problems faced & suggested solutions.
** The students should select two departmental electives subjects from the list of core elective subjects.

***The project should be initiated by the student in the 7th semester beginning and will be evaluated in the end of the semester on the basis of a presentation and
report submitted to the department.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

Bachelor of Technology (Electronics & Communication Engineering)


Scheme of Studies/Examination
Semester VIII
S. No. Course No. Subject L:T:P Hours/ Examination Schedule (Marks) Duration
Week of Exam
(Hrs)
Theory Sessionals Practical Total

1 ECE- 402N Wireless & Mobile 4:0:0 4 75 25 0 100 3


Communication
ECE- 404N Microwave Engineering 3:0:0 3 75 25 0 100 3
2

3 Core Elective - III** 3:0:0 3 75 25 0 100 3


4 Core Elective - IV** 3:0:0 3 75 25 0 100 3
Project-II 0:0:14 14 0 100 100 200 3
5 ECE-
406N ***
6 ECE- 408N Wireless & Mobile 0:0:3 3 0 40 60 100 3
communication lab
7 ECE- 410N Microwave Engineering Lab 0:0:3 3 0 40 60 100 3

8 ECE- 412N Seminar & Report Writing 2:0:0 2 0 100 0 100 3


*
Total 35 300 380 220 900
ECE- General Fitness & Professional 3
9
440N**** Aptitude 100
* The performance of the student will be evaluated by the presentation delivered and the report submitted by the student related to Industrial/Research
problems & its suggested solutions.
** The students should opt two departmental electives subjects from the list of core elective subjects.
***The project should be initiated by the student in continuation of the 7th semester and will be evaluated in the end of the semester on the basis of a presentation and
Report.
**** A viva of the students will be taken by external examiner ( Principal/Director/Professor/or any senior Person with Experience more than 10
years) at the end of the semester and grades will be given according to the grade chart.
S. No. Core Electives-7th Sem. S. No. Core Electives-8th Sem.

1 ECE-415N Advance Digital Communication 1 ECE-414N DSP Processor

ECE-417N Nano Electronics ECE-416N Mobile Communication Networks


2 2

ECE-419N Optical Communications ECE-418N MEMS


3 3

ECE-421N Adaptive Signal Processing ECE-420N Transducers & Its Applications


4 4

ECE-423N Satellite Communication ECE-422N Radar Engineering


5 5

ECE-425N Digital VLSI Design ECE-424N High Frequency


6 6 Circuit and Systems

ECE-427N Analog CMOS IC Design ECE-426N Biomedical Signal Processing


7 7

ECE-429N Consumer Electronics ECE-428N Multimedia Communications


8 8

9 ECE-431N Robotics 9 ECE-430N Mixed VLSI Design

10 ECE-433N Non-Conventional Energy Resources 10 ECE-432N Microstrip Antenna

ECE-435N Microstrip line Analysis ECE-434N Strategic Electronics


11 11
ECE-437N Software Defined Radios ECE-436N Cognitive Radios
12 12
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
ECE-401N MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Pre-requisites: Microprocessor
Course Outcomes
CO1 Acquired knowledge about the architecture of microcontrollers.

CO2 Acquired knowledge about instruction set and programming concepts in C and assembly
language.
CO3 To understand peripheral interfacing to microcontrollers.

CO4 To design the systems /models based on microcontrollers

Unit- I
INTRODUTION: Microprocessor and Microcontroller, Different types of Microcontrollers, 4 bit, 8 bit, 16
bit, and 32 bit Microcontrollers, Processor Architectures: Harvard & Princeton, CISC & RISC,
Microcontrollers memory types, Microcontrollers features, Criteria for choosing a microcontroller,
Applications of microcontrollers.
Embedded System, Embedded Processors, Hardware units, Devices and Software in a system, Embedded
system on chip, Complex Systems design and processors, Design examples.

Unit- II
8051 ARCHITECTURE: 8051 Architecture, On-chip memory organization – general purpose registers,
SFR registers, Internal RAM and ROM, Oscillator and Clock circuits. Pin Diagram of 8051, I/O Pins, Port,
Connecting external memory, Counters and Timers, Purpose of TCON & TMOD registers, Serial data
transmission/reception and transmission modes, Purpose of SCON & PCON registers, Different Types of
Interrupts, Purpose of Time Delays.

Unit- III
8051 INSTRUCTION SET AND PROGRAMMING : Instruction syntax, Assembler directives,
Addressing modes, Data transfer instructions, arithmetic and logical instructions, Jump and Call instructions,
I/O port, Timer and Counter programming, Serial port and Interrupt programming.
PIC MICROCONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE: Introduction to PIC Microcontroller families, Different
features of PIC16 Microcontrollers, PIC16 Architecture and Pipelining, Pin Configuration of PIC16, Program
memory considerations, Register file structure, Addressing modes, Instruction set.

Unit-IV

APPLICATION DESIGN & HARDWARE INTERFACING WITH 8051: Interfacing Matrix


Keyboards, LCD, ADC, DAC, Temperature Sensor, Stepper and DC motor, Relay and PWM.
Introduction of Advanced Microcontrollers: AVR and ARM microcontrollers.
Text Books:
1. Kenneth Ayala,” The 8051 Microcontroller” 3rd ed. CENGAGE Learning.
2. M.A. Mazidi, J.G. Mazidi, R. D. McKinlay,” The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using
assembly and C” -2nd Ed, Pearson Education.
3. John. B. Peatman, “Design with PIC Microcontroller”, Pearson Education, 2003.

References Books:

1. Myke Predko, “Programming and Customizing the 8051 Microcontroller”, TMH.


2. Manish K Patel,”Microcontroller based embedded system”, McGraw Hill Education.
3. Raj Kamal, “Embedded systems architecture, programming and design”-2nd nd. McGraw-Hill
Companies.
4. Intel’s manual on “Embedded Microcontrollers”.
5. Myke Predko, “Programming and customizing PIC microcontroller” Mc- Graw Hill.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
6. M.A. Mazidi, R. D. McKinlay,Causey,” The PIC microcontroller and Embedded Systems using
assembly and C for PIC18” -2nd Ed, Pearson.
7. M.A. Mazidi,Naimi” The AVR microcontroller and Embedded Systems using assembly and C” -2nd
Ed, Pearson.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE- DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING


403N
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

4 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Course Outcomes
CO1 Students should be able to explain the basics of Digital Image processing

CO2 Student will be able to explain sampling and quantization of digital image

CO3 Student will be able to analyze the image enhancement operations on digital image

CO4 Students will be able to analyze the various image analysis and computer vision algorithm

Unit-I

Introduction: Processing and applications, Image representation and modeling, Image Enhancement, Restoration,
analysis, reconstruction from Projections, Image Data Compression. Image Perception: Light, Luminance,
Brightness, Contrast, MFT of visual System, Visibility Function, Image fidelity, Color representation, color
matching and reproduction, color vision Model
Unit-II
Image sampling and Quantization: Introduction, Two dimensional sampling theory, practical limitations in
sampling and reconstruction, Image quantization, Optimum mean square or Lloyd-Max quantizer.

Unit-III
Image Enhancement: Introduction, Point Operation, Histogram Modeling, Spatial Operations, Transform
Operations, Multispectral Image enhancement, Color Image enhancement.

Unit-IV
Image Analysis and Computer Vision: Introduction, Spatial Feature Extraction, Transform features, Edge
Detection, Boundary Extraction, Shape features, Image segmentation.

Text Books:
1. Digital Image Processing, third edition by Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E Woods. Publisher: Pearson
Education.
2. Digital Image Processing by S. Sridhar , Publisher: Oxford

Reference Books:
1. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing by Anil K Jain, Publisher: Prentice Hall
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-405N POWER ELECTRONICS

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To understand and acquire knowledge about various power semiconductor devices.
To prepare the students to analyze and design different power converter circuits.
Course Outcomes
CO1 Acquire knowledge about fundamental concepts and techniques used in power
electronics.
CO2 Ability to analyze various single phase and three phase power converter circuits and
understand their applications.
CO3 Foster ability to identify basic requirements for power electronics based design
application.
CO4 To develop skills to build, and troubleshoot power electronics circuits.

Unit-1
Introduction: Concept of Power Electronics, Applications of power electronics, Advantages and
disadvantages of power-electronic converters, Power electronic systems, Power semiconductor devices, Types
of power electronic converters. Power semiconductors: The p-n junction, Basic structure of power diodes,
Characteristics of power diodes, Power transistors, Power MOSFETS, Insulated gate bipolar transistor, Static
induction transistor.

Unit-II
Thyristors :Terminal characteristics of thyristors, thyristor turn on methods, Switching characteristics of
thyristors, Thyristor gate characteristics, Two-transistor model of a thyristor, Thyristor ratings, Thyristor
protection, Improvement of thyristor characteristics, Series and parallel operation of thyristors, Gate turn off
thyristor, Firing circuits for thyristors.
Thyristor Commutation: Class A commutation: Load commutation, Class B commutation: Resonant
commutation, Class C commutation: Complementary commutation, Class D commutation: Impulse
commutation, Class E&F commutation.
Unit–III
Phase Controlled Rectifiers: Principle of phase control, Full wave controlled converters, Single phase full wave
converters, Single phase symmetrical and asymmetrical semi converters, three phase rectifiers and thyristor
converters, Performance parameters of three phase full converters, Effect of source impedance on the
performance of converters. Principle of chopper operation, Control strategies, Step up choppers, Types of
chopper circuits, Single phase voltage source inverters: Operating principle, Force commutated thyristor
inverters, Voltage control in single phase inverters.

Unit-IV
AC Voltage Controllers: Principle of phase control, Principle of integral cycle control, single phase ac voltage
controller with R load and RL load.
Cycloconverters: Principle of cycloconverter operation, step up and step down cycloconverters, Three phase
half wave converters, Output voltage equation for a cycloconverter, Load commutated cycloconverter.

Text Books
1. P S Bimbhra: Power Electronics, Khanna Publishers.

Reference Books
1. M. H. Rashid. : Power Electronics – circuits, devices & applications, Pearson Education.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-407N MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEM


DESIGN LAB

Lecture Tutorial Practical Sessionals Practical Total Time(Hrs)

0 0 3 40 60 100 3

Course Objectives 1. To design of microcontroller based systems.


2. To impart practical knowledge of 8051 and PIC Microcontrollers

Course Outcomes

CO1 To familiarization with 8051 and PIC Microcontrollers.


CO2 Ability to write a C language and assembly language program for 8051 Microcontroller.

CO3 Ability to interfacing the various Peripheral to 8051 Microcontrollers.


CO4 Ability to design the embedded systems based on 8051 Microcontrollers.

List of experiments to be performed using 8051 Microcontrollers


1. (a) To study different commands of 8051 trainer kit with their function.
(b) To study architectural block and pin diagram of 8051 microcontroller and PIC16C74
microcontroller.
2. To write an ALP to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of two unsigned
numbers.
3. To write an ALP to perform logical operation i.e., AND, OR, XOR and Complement of two
unsigned numbers.
4. To write an ALP to perform multi byte addition and subtraction of two unsigned number.
5. To write an ALP to perform rotate operations i.e., RL, RLC, RR, RRC.
6. To write an ALP for flashing message “WELCOME M51-02 KIT” on LCD screen.
7. To write an ALP for identifying pressed number is even or odd. If number is even, message
displays on LCD “NUMBER IS EVEN” and if number is odd, message displays on LCD
“NUMBER IS ODD”.
8. To write an ALP to perform data transfer between internal & external memory using all
available addressing modes.
9. To write an embedded C program for interfacing LCD to port P0 and display message “LCD
Display” on LCD screen.
10. To write an embedded C program for interfacing keypad to port P0 .Whenever a key is pressed;
it should be displayed on LCD.
11. To write an embedded C program for interfacing a switch and a buzzer to two different pins of a
Port such that the buzzer should sound as long as the switch is pressed.
12. To write an embedded C program for interfacing stepper motor to rotate clockwise and
anticlockwise directions.
13. To write an embedded C program for interfacing relay and buzzer.
14. To write an embedded C program for interfacing PWM module to control speed of motor.
15. To write an embedded C program for interfacing LED to glow in different pattern i.e., even odd,
rotate left, rotate right.
16. To write an embedded C program for interfacing temperature sensor.
17. Design an Obstacle Detector system through Ultra Sonic obstacle detection using ultrasonic
transmitter receiver.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE- DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING LAB


409N
Lecture Tutorial Practical Sessionals Practical Total Time

- - 3 40 60 100 3 Hr.
Course Outcomes
CO1 Students should be able to explain the basics of Digital Image processing

CO2 Student will be able to explain sampling and quantization of digital image

CO3 Student will be able to analyze the image enhancement operations on digital image

CO4 Students will be able to analyze the various image analysis and computer vision
algorithm

List of Experiments:
1. Study of Image processing toolbox of Matlab.
2. WAP to read and show various images of at least five different formats.
3. WAP to extract R, G, B component of Color Image.
4. WAP to convert a color image into gray scale and save it in new format.
5. WAP to invert a gray scale image.
6. WAP to implement Morphological operations on an image.
7. WAP to implement Histogram equalization.
8. WAP to implement various edge detection algorithms.
9. WAP to implement image segmentation
10. WAP to implement boundary extraction of basic structure.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-402N WIRELESS & MOBILE COMMUNICATION


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time
4 0 0 75 25 100 3
Purpose To introduce the concepts of wireless / mobile communication using cellular environment.
To make the students to know about the various modulation techniques, ppropagation
methods, and multi access techniques used in the mobile communication.

Course Outcomes
CO 1 It deals with the fundamental cellular radio concepts such as frequency reuse and
handoff.

CO 2 This also demonstrates the principle of trunking efficiency and how trunking and
interference issues between mobile and base stations combine to affect the overall
capacity of cellular systems.
CO 3 It provides idea about analog and digital modulation techniques used in wireless
communication.
CO 4 It presents different ways to radio propagation models and predict the large – scale
effects of radio propagation in many operating environment.

Unit–I

Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems: Evolution of mobile radio communications,


examples of wireless comm. systems, paging systems, Cordless telephone systems, comparison of
various wireless systems.
Modern Wireless Communication Systems: Second generation cellular networks, third
generation wireless networks, wireless in local loop, wireless local area networks, Blue tooth and
Personal Area networks.
Unit–II

Introduction to Cellular Mobile Systems: Spectrum Allocation, basic Cellular Systems,


performance Criteria, Operation of cellular systems, analog cellular systems, digital Cellular
Systems.
Cellular System Design Fundamentals: Frequency Reuse, channel assignment strategies,
handoff Strategies, Interference and system capacity, tracking and grade off service, improving
coverage and capacity.
Unit– III

Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication: Introduction to Multiple Access,


FDMA, TDMA, Spread Spectrum multiple Access, space division multiple access, packet ratio,
capacity of a cellular systems.
Unit–IV

Wireless Standards-GSM, IS-95, UMTS-IMT-2000, Signaling, Call Control, Mobility


Management and location Tracing.

Suggested Books:
1. Theodore S.Reppaport, Wireless Communications Principles and Practice, IEEE Press,
Prentice Hall.
2. William C.Y.Lec, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications, Analog and Digital Systems, Mc-
Graw Hill Inc.
3. Kamilo Feher, Wireless Digital Communications, Modernization & Spread Spectrum
Applications, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
4. Kaveh Pahlavan and Allen H. Levesque “Wireless Information Networks”, Wiley Series,
John Wiley and Sons Inc.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-404N MICROWAVE ENGINEERING


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hrs
Purpose As a part of RF communication technology the purpose of this course is to create
awareness about conventional microwave resonators, generators, components and
devices along with the importance of scattering parameters so that the learner is able to
design and apply these basic approaches in commercial as well as defense applications.
Course Outcomes
CO1 Learner will be able to mathematically design basic resonator cavities and will be able
to measure microwave parameters such as impedance, frequency and VSWR etc.

CO2 Learner will learn the conventional methods to generate the microwaves.
CO3 Learner will know about the importance of scattering parameters along with its
applications in the analysis of basic microwave components.
CO4 Learner will learn about transferred electron and avalanche transit time devices in
detail.

Unit-I
Microwave Resonators: Brief description of waveguides, coplanar waveguides, cavity resonators:
rectangular, cylindrical, spherical and coaxial, excitation and coupling of cavities, Q factor.
Microwave Measurements: Measurement of Frequency, Impedance (using slotted section)
attenuation, power, dielectric constant, measurement of V.S. W. R., insertion loss and permeability
Unit-II
Microwave Generators: Construction, characteristics, operating principle and typical applications
of Klystron(two cavity, multicavity), Reflex Klystron, magnetron(Cylindrical magnetron and
description of Π mode applications) and Traveling Wave Tube (TWT).
Unit-III
Matrix Description of Microwave Circuits: Scattering Matrix: properties, measurement of scattering
coefficients, scattering matrices for common microwave systems. Microwave Components:
Waveguide tees- E-plane, H-plane, magic tee, rat race, directional coupler, tuning screws and stubs,
isolators and circulators-their constructional features and applications. Microwave filters, Phase
shifters, attenuators, and frequency meter.
Unit-IV
Solid State Microwave Devices: Transferred Electron Devices- Gunn Effect; negative differential
resistance phenomenon, field domain formation, Gunn diode structure. Avalanche transit time
devices: IMPATT, TRAPATT, BARITT diodes, Parametric amplifiers

Text Book:
1. Samuel Y. Liao, Microwave Engineering, Pearson Education 3rd/4th/ higher Ed.

Reference Books:
2. Annapurna & Sisir K. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill.
3. David M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-408N WIRELESS & MOBILE COMMUNICATION LAB

Lecture Tutorial Practical Sessionals Practical Total Time


- 3 40 60 100 3 Hour
Purpose To give the students an idea about the Wireless communication theory and technology
using the NI-Labview software and RF communication module.

Course Outcomes
CO 1 To study the wireless communication using NI-Labview
CO 2 To learn about the functioning of Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP)
CO 3 To learn the implementation of different analog modulation schemes using the USRP.
CO 4 To learn the implementation of different digital modulation schemes using the USRP.

List of Experiments:
1. Introduction to NI-LabVIEW and familiarization with its basic functions.
2. Study of modulation toolkit and its usage in Wireless Communication.
3. Study the interfacing of hardware (USRP module) with the PC and configuring the same.
4. Implementation of AM using Software Defined Radio (SDR).
5. Implementation of FM using SDR with application such as transfer of files
6. Implementation of M-PSK transmitter using SDR concept.
7. Implementation of M-PSK receiver using SDR
8. Implementation of M-QAM transmitter using SDR.
9. Demonstrates the use of the Bluetooth functions to set up data transfer via Bluetooth
between a server VI and a client VI.
10. Design two-dimensional convolution to perform image edge detection.
11. Implementation of M-QAM receiver using SDR.
12. Implementation of PSK Modulation system with Convolutional Coding.
13. Implementation of FSK Modulation system with BCH Coding.
14. Implementation of QAM Modulation system with Golay Coding
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-410N MICROWAVE ENGINEERING LAB


Lecture Tutorial Practical Sessionals Practical Total Time
- 3 40 60 100 3 Hour
Purpose To give the students an idea about the study and analysis of components used in
Microwave Engg.
Course Outcomes
CO 1 Students will learn the steps to analyze microwave components.
CO 2 Students will be able to find the characteristics of microwave components.
CO 3 Students will learn the steps to analyze various antennas.
CO 4 Students will be able to find the characteristics of various antennas.

List of Experiments:
1. To study microwave components.
2. To study the characteristics of the reflex Klystron tube and to determine its electronic tuning range.
3. To determine the frequency and wavelength in a rectangular waveguide working in TE 10 mode.
4. To determine the standing wave ratio and reflection coefficient.
5. To study the I-V characteristics of gunn diode.
6. To study the magic Tee.
7. To study the isolator and attenuator.
8. To measure the coupling coefficient and directivity of a waveguide directional coupler.
9. To measure the polar pattern and the gain of a waveguide horn antenna.
10. To measure the insertion loss and attenuation.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-415N Advance Digital Communication

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


4 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To understand and acquire knowledge about various power semiconductor devices.
To prepare the students to analyze and design different power converter circuits.
Course Outcomes
CO1 Acquire knowledge about fundamental concepts and techniques used in digital
communications
CO2 Ability to analyze various techniques of communication and understand their
applications.
CO3 Foster ability to identify basic requirements for power digital communication based
design application.
CO4 To develop skills to build, and troubleshoot on digital communication circuits

Unit-I

Probability and Stochastic Processes: Probability: Random Variables, Probability Distribution, and
Probability Densities, Functions of Random Variables, Statistical Average of Random Variables, Some Useful
Probability Distributions, Upper Bounds on the Tail Probability, Sums of Random Variables and Central Limit
Theorem.Stochastic Processes: Statistical Averages, Power Density Spectrum, Response of a Linear Time -
Invariant System to a Random Input Signal, Sampling Theorem for Band- Limited Stochastic Processes,
Discrete-time Stochastic Signals and Systems, Cyclostationary processes.

Unit -II

Source coding: Mathematical Models for Information Sources, A Logarithmic Measure of information:
Average Mutual Information and Entropy, Information Measure for Continuous Random Variables. Coding for
Discrete Sources: Coding for Discrete Memory less sources, Discrete Stationary Sources, The Lempel-Ziv
Algorithm.Coding for Analog Sources-Optimum Quantization: Rate- Distortion Function, Scalar Quantization,
Vector Quantization. Coding Techniques for Analog Sources: Temporal Waveform Coding, Spectral
Waveform Coding, Model- Based Source Coding.

Unit -III

Characterization of Communication Signal and Systems: Signal Space Representation: Vector Space
Concept, Signal Space Concept, Orthogonal Expansion of Signals, Gram Schmitt Procedure.
Optimum Receivers for the Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel: Performance of the Optimum
Receiver for Memory Less Modulation: Probability of Error for Binary Modulation, Probability of Error for
M- ary Orthogonal Signals, Probability of Error for M- ary Binary- Coded Signals, Probability of Error for M-
ary PAM, Optimum Receiver for Binary Signals.

Unit -1V

Carrier and Symbol Synchronization: Signal Parameter Estimation: The Likelihood Function, Carrier
Recovery and Symbol Synchronization in Signal Demodulation.Carrier Phase Estimation: Maximum
Likelihood Carrier Phase Estimation, The Phased – Locked Loop, Effect of Additive Noise on the Phase
Estimate, Decision Directed Loops, Non- Decision Directed Loops.

Text Book: Digital Communication, J.G. Proakis, Prentice Hall India.


Reference Book: Principles of Communication Systems, Taub & Schilling, McGraw Hill Education; 3rd.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-417N NANO ELECTRONICS


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time
4 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hour
Course Outcomes
CO 1 Students will be using physics, mathematics, and material science engineering to
understand the latest development in the area of Microelectronics leading to
Nanoelectronics.
CO 2 Students be able to understand the fundamentals of classical CMOS technology and issues
in scaling MOSFET in the sub-100nm regime

CO 3 Understanding basic principles of non -classical transistors with new device structure and
nano materials.
CO 4 Understand the issues in realizing Germanium and compound semiconductor MOSFET.

CO5 Students will learn materials characterization techniques extensively.

Unit-I

Overview: Nano devices, Nano materials, Definition of Technology node, Basic CMOS Process flow,
MOS Scaling theory, Issues in scaling, Short channel effects, Description of a typical 65 nm CMOS
technology, Requirements for Non classical MOS transistor, MOS capacitor, Role of interface
quality and related process techniques, Gate oxide thickness scaling trend, SiO2 vs High-k gate
dielectrics. Integration issues of high-k , Interface states, bulk charge, band offset, stability, etc.

Unit-II

Metal Gate Transistor : Motivation, requirements, Integration Issues, Transport in Nano MOSFET,
velocity saturation, ballistic transport, injection velocity, velocity overshoot, SOI - PDSOI and
FDSOI., Ultrathin body SOI - double gate transistors, Vertical transistors - FinFET and Surround
gate FET, Metal source/drain junctions - Properties of schotky junctions on Silicon, Germanium and
compound semiconductors –Work function pinning, Germanium Nano MOSFETs : strain ,
quantization , Advantages of Germanium over Silicon.

Unit-III

PMOS versus NMOS, Compound semiconductors - material properties, MESFETs Compound


semicocnductors MOSFETs in the context of channel quantization and strain , Hetero structure
MOSFETs exploiting novel materials, strain, quantization.
Synthesis of Nanomaterials : CVD, Nucleation and Growth, ALD, Epitaxy, MBE. Compound
semiconductor hetero-structure growth, emerging nano materials: Nanotubes, nanorods and other
nano structures, LB technique, Soft lithography etc. Microwave assisted synthesis, Self assembly etc.

Unit-IV

Characterization : Quantum wells and Thickness measurement techniques: Contact - step height,
Optical - reflectance and ellipsometry, AFM, Nanomaterials Characterization techniques: FTIR,
XRD, AFM, SEM, TEM, EDAX and interpretation of results.

Books:
1. Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices, Y. Taur and T. Ning, Cambridge University
Press. Silicon VLSI Technology, Plummer, Deal , Griffin , Pearson Education India.
2. Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization, Edited by: Brundle, C.Richard; Evans, Charles A. Jr.;
Wilson, Shaun ; Elsevier.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE - OPTICAL COMMUNICATION


419N
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time
3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To familiarize the students with the concepts of Optical communication covering the contents of
optical fibers, losses in fibers, optical sources, detectors etc.
Course Outcomes
CO1 Students will be able to understand the structure of fiber and the mechanism of light travelling in the
fiber.

CO2 Students will be able to analyze various losses associated with fibers.
CO3 Students will learn about the optical sources and optical detecters.

CO4 Students will be able to understand the various components needed in optical networks

Unit – I
INTRODUCTION : Optical Fibers: Structure, Propagation within the fiber, Numerical aperture of
fiber, step index and graded index fiber, Modes of propagation in the fiber, Single mode and multi mode
fibers. Splices and connectors. Optical Power Launching and Coupling. Fiber-to-fiber joints.
Unit–II
LOSSES IN OPTICAL FIBER : Rayleigh Scattering Losses, Absorption Losses, Leaky modes, Mode
coupling losses, Bending Losses, Combined Losses in the fiber.
DISPERSION EFFECT: Effect of dispersion on the pulse transmission Intermodal dispersion, Material
dispersion, Wave guide dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion Total dispersion, Transmission rate.
Dispersion Shifted Fibers, Dispersion Compensating Fibers.
Unit – III
LIGHT SOURCES : LEDS, Laser Action in semiconductor Lasers, Semiconductor Lasers for optical
communication – Laser modes, Spectral Characteristics, Power Voltage Characteristics, Frequency
response.
DETECTORS : P-I-N Photodiode, APD, Noise Analysis in detectors, Coherent and non-coherent
detection, Infrared sensors. Bit error rate.
Unit– IV
THE FIBER-OPTIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: Design considerations of fiber optic systems:
Analog and digital modulation. Optical Devices: Optical coupler, space switches, linear divider-
combiners, wavelength
division multiplexer and demultiplexer, optical amplifier
OPTICAL NETWORKS: Elements and Architecture of Fiber-Optic Network, Optical link network-
single hop , multihop, hybrid and photonic networks.

Suggested Books:

1. John Power, An Introduction to Fiber optic systems, McGraw Hill International.


2. John Gowar , Optical communication Systems.
3. R. Ramaswamy, Optical Networks, Narosa Publication
4. John M. Senior,Optical Fiber Communication
5. Gerd Keiser, Optical Fiber Communication
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE - ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING


421N
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time
3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To familiarize the students with various stochastic processes and models, analysis of wiener
filters, steepest descent algorithms. Also, students will be able to understand LMS & RLS
algorithms and check the robustness and study the Finite-Precision effects on LMS and RLS
algorithms.
Course Outcomes
CO1 To understand various stochastic processes and models in adaptive signal processing.
CO2 To understand the analysis of wiener filters, the concept of the linear prediction and steepest
descent algorithms.
CO3 To understand the concept and use of Least-Mean-Square (LMS) & Recursive Least-Squares
(RLS) algorithms with applications to specific engineering problems.
CO4 To apply the concept robustness and analysis the Finite-Precision effects on LMS and RLS
algorithms.

Unit -I

Stochastic Processes and Models: Partial Characterization of a Discrete-Time Stochastic Process,


Mean Ergodic Theorem, Correlation Matrix, Correlation Matrix of Sine Wave Plus Noise, Stochastic
Models, Wold Decomposition, Asymptotic Stationarity of an Autoregressive Process, Yule—Walker
Equations.

Wiener Filters: Linear Optimum Filtering: Statement of the Problem, Principle of Orthogonality,
Minimum Mean-Square Error, Wiener-Hopf Equations, Error-Performance Surface, Multiple Linear
Regression Model.

Unit -II
Linear Prediction: Forward Linear Prediction, Backward Linear Prediction, Levinson-Durbin
Algorithm, Properties of Prediction-Error Filters, Schur-Cohn Test.

Method of Steepest Descent: Basic Idea of the Steepest-Descent Algorithm, The Steepest-Descent
Algorithm Applied to the Wiener Filter, Stability of the Steepest-Descent Algorithm, Example, The
Steepest-Descent Algorithm as a Deterministic Search Method, Virtue and Limitation of the Steepest-
Descent Algorithm.
Unit -III
The Least-Mean-Square (LMS) Algorithm: Signal-Flow Graph, Optimality Considerations,
Applications, Statistical Learning Theory, Transient Behavior and Convergence Considerations,
Efficiency.
The Recursive Least-Squares (RLS) Algorithm: Some Preliminaries, The Matrix Inversion Lemma,
The Exponentially Weighted RLS Algorithm, Selection of the Regularization Parameter, Update
Recursion for the Sum of Weighted Error Squares, Example: Single-Weight Adaptive Noise Canceller.

Unit -IV
Robustness: Robustness, Adaptation, and Disturbances, Robustness: Preliminary Considerations Rooted
in H∞ Optimization, Robustness of the LMS Algorithm, Robustness of the RLS Algorithm,
Comparative Evaluations of the LMS and RLS Algorithms from the Perspective of Robustness.

Finite-Precision Effects: Quantization Errors, Least-Mean-Square (LMS) Algorithm, Recursive Least-


Squares (RLS) Algorithm, Summary and Discussion.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory, Pearson
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. T. Adali and S. Haykin, Adaptive Signal Processing, Wiley India
2. B. Widrow and S.D. Stearns, Adaptive signal processing, Prentice Hall.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE- SATELLITE COMMUNICATION


423N
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time
3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To familiarize the students with the concepts of Satellite communication and various terms,
laws and multiple access schemes used in its working.
Course Outcomes
CO1 To understand the concept of basics of satellite communication and various basic laws and
terms of satellite communication.
CO2 To understand the concept and processes of various communication satellites used in
satellite communication.
CO3 To familiarize with the concept and design issues of satellite link design and satellite
access.
CO4 To familiarize with the concepts of Multiple access schemes used in satellite
communication.

Unit -I

SATELLITE ORBITS: Orbital Mechanics- Kepler’s laws ,locating the satellite in the Orbit, locating
the satellite with respect to the earth, Orbital elements, look angle determination, Sub satellite point,
Azimuth and elevation angle calculation, Orbital perturbations, Longitudinal and Inclination changes;
Launches and launch vehicles-ELV’s, Placing the satellite into geostationary orbit, Doppler shift, range
variations, solar eclipse, sun transit outage.

Unit -II

COMMUNICATION SATELLITES: Satellite Subsystems, Attitude and Orbit Control


system(AOCS), Telemetry, Tracking, Command and Monitoring (TTC&M), Power System,
Communication Subsystems-description, Transponders, satellite antennas-basic antenna types, basic
antennas in practice.

Unit -III

Satellite link design and Satellite access: Basic transmission theory, system noise temperature and G/T
ratio; Downlink design-link budget; Uplink design; design for specified C/N, uplink and downlink
attenuation in rain, communication link design procedure; system design examples.

Unit –IV

Multiple access schemes: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, DAMA; VSAT systems-basic techniques, VSAT
earth station engineering, system design; DBS systems-C-band and Ku band home TV, digital DBS;
satellite mobile systems; GPS

Text Books:
1. Timothy Pratt, Satellite Communications, Wiley India edition

Reference Books:
1. Anil K Maini, Satellite Communication, Wiley India edition
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-425N Digital VLSI Design

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


3 - - 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose Analog CMOS circuits are used in amplifiers and various filters circuits. This course
teaches design methods of CMOS IC circuits.
Course Outcomes
CO1 To understand MOS digital circuits concepts

CO2 To understand the MOS inverter and its design

CO3 To learn MOS combinational and sequential circuit design

Unit -I

Introduction: Introduction to MOSFETs : MOS Transistor Theory – Introduction MOS


Device, Fabrication and Modeling , Body Effect, Noise Margin; Latch-up

Unit -II

MOS Inverter: MOS Inverter, MOS Transistors, MOS Transistor Switches, CMOS Logic, Circuit
and System Representations, Design Equations, Static Load MOS Inverters, Transistor Sizing, Static
and Switching Characteristics; MOS Capacitor.

Unit -III

MOS Combinational circuits: Combinational MOS Logic Circuits: Pass Transistors/Transmission


Gates; Designing with transmission gates, Primitive Logic Gates; Complex Logic Circuits.

Unit -IV

MOS Sequential Circuits: Sequential MOS Logic Circuits: SR Latch, clocked Latch and flip flop
circuits, CMOS D latch and edge triggered flip flop.

Books:
1. S. M. Kang and Y. Leblebici, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits : Analysis and Design, Third
Edition,
MH, 2002.
2. N. Weste, K. Eshraghian and M. J. S. Smith, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design : A Systems
Perspective, Second Edition (Expanded), AW/Pearson, 2001.
3.J. P. Uyemura, CMOS Logic Circuit Design, Kluwer, 1999.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-427N Analog CMOS IC Design

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


3 - - 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose Analog CMOS circuits are used in amplifiers and various filters circuits. This course
teaches design methods of CMOS IC circuits.
Course Objectives
CO1 To understand CMOS digital circuits concepts

CO2 To design Analog circuits using CMOS.

CO3 To learn modeling of CMOS based amplifiers circuits

Unit -I

Basic Analog CMOS Circuits: Introduction to analog design, Passive and active current mirrors,
Switched Capacitor circuits - basic principles, sampling switches, switched capacitor integrator,
switched capacitor amplifier.

Unit -II

CMOS single stage Amplifiers: Common-Source stage with resistive load and diode connected load,
source follower, common-gate stage, cascode stage, folded cascode stage. Frequency responses of CS
stage, CD stage, CG stage, cascode stage.

Unit -III

Differential Amplifier & Op-Amp: Single-ended and differential operation, basic differential pair –
qualitative and quantitative analyses, common-mode response, differential pair with MOS loads,
Performance parameters of op-amp, one stage op-amp, two-stage CMOS op-amp, slew rate, power
supply rejection.

Unit -IV

Oscillators: General considerations, Ring oscillators, LC oscillators – cross-coupled oscillators,


Colpitts oscillator, One-port oscillator, and voltage controlled oscillators.

Books:
1.Razavi, “Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits”, McGraw Hill, Edition 2002.

2. Allen, Holberg, “CMOS analog circuit design”,Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2012.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE- CONSUMER ELECTRONICS


429N
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To familiarize the students with the concepts of audio and video systems and also With
various advanced electronic gadgets and home appliances
Course Outcomes
CO1 To understand the concept of basic audio system and AM/FM tuners.
CO2 To understand the concept of Video Systems.
CO3 To understand the various advanced electronic gadgets.
CO4 To understand the various electronic home appliances.

Unit-I

Audio System: Wave motion, Microphones, Headphones and Headsets, Loudspeakers, Acoustics, Disc
recording and Distortion in disc and tape, Optical recording and reproduction, Control circuits,
Amplifying systems, Portable stereo, Theatre sound system and AM/FM tuners.

Unit-II

Video Systems: Monochrome TV standards and systems, Colour TV standards and systems,
Monochrome and colour TV controls, Video Tape recording and reproduction, video disc recording and
playback, Remote controls and Video systems.

Unit-III

Electronic Gadgets: Telecommunication Systems, Switching Systems, Modulation techniques, Fiber


optics, Mobile Systems, Xerography and Fascimile fax, Automated Teller Machines and Top Boxes.

Unit-IV

Home Appliances: Digital clocks, In-Car Computers, Microwave ovens, Washing Machines, Air
Conditioners and Refrigerators.

Reference Books:
1. Consumer Electronics By S.P. Bali, Pearson Education, 1st edition.
2. Colour Television-principles & practice R.R Gulati by Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.
3. Colour Television & Video Technology by A.K. Maini CSB Publisher
4. VCR-principles, maintenance & repair by S.P. Sharma, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi
5. Colour TV by A. Dhak.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-431N ROBOTICS

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Course Outcomes
CO1 The basic concepts related to robot, Parts of robots, End effectors and to make the student
familiar with the various drive systems for robot.
CO2 Various sensors and machine vision and their applications in robots.

CO3 About various control system, robot programming, Artificial intelligence and safety
standards of robots
CO4 Industrial and Non-industrial Applications of robots.

Unit–I

Fundamentals of Robot: Definition, History and Development in robot technology. Robot


Technology: Characteristics, Basic Components, Robot Anatomy, Robot Generations, Robot
selection, Present and Future Applications.
Robot Drive Systems and End Effectors: Robot Classification: Arm geometry, Degrees of freedom,
Power sources, Types of motion, Path Control. Robot End Effectors: Mechanical grippers, Vacuum,
Magnetic, Adhesive. Special purpose grippers, Process tooling, Compliance, Robot Drive systems:
Hydraulic, Pneumatic and Electric system.

Unit-II

Sensor : Requirements of a sensor, Sensor classification, Principles and Applications of the following
types of sensors : Position of sensors (Potentiometer, Encoder, LVDT, Resolvers, LMDT, Hall –
effect sensors),Velocity sensors(Encoder, Tachometer, Differentiation of position signal),Acceleration
sensors, Force and Pressure Sensors(Piezoelectric, Force sensing resistor, Strain Gauge, Antistatic
foam), Torque Sensors, Micro switches, Visible light and Infrared Sensors, Touch and Tactile sensors,
Proximity Sensors(Magnetic, optical, Ultrasonic, Inductive, Capacitive, Eddy Current), Range Finder
(Ultrasonic, Light-based, GPS), Sniff Sensors, Taste Sensors, Vision Sensors, Voice recognition
devices, Voice synthesizers, RCC.
Machine Vision : Visual sensing, Architecture of robotics vision system, Machine vision: Image
acquisition (Vidicon tube, CCD), Digitization, Image processing, Image Analysis, Image
interpretation. Machine vision application, other optical methods.

Unit-III

Control System, Programming and Artificial Intelligence: Control Systems: PLC, PID, CNC,
MPU, URC. Robot programming: Programming methods, Languages, levels of robot programming,
Program statements. Elements of Artificial Intelligence, System architecture, Application of fuzzy
logic in robotics, Robot Safety, safety standards.

Unit–IV

Robot Applications: Industrial applications, Automation in manufacturing, Robot applications,


Material handling, Processing application, Assembly application, Inspection application, evaluating
the potential of a robot application, future applications, challenge for the future, Innovations, Non-
industrial application.
Text Books:
1. James G. Keramas, “ Robot technology fundamentals”, Delmar Publishers.
2. Saeed B. Niku, “Introduction to robotics analysis,control and applications”, 2nd ed., Wiley
India.
3. R. K. Mittal,I.J.Nagrath, “Robotics and Control”, TMH Education Pvt. Lmt.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-433N NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time
3 - - 75 25 100 3 Hour
Course Outcomes
CO 1 To understand the energy demand of world, nation and available resources to fulfill
the demand

CO 2 To know about the conventional energy resources and their effective utilization
CO 3 To acquire the knowledge of modern energy conversion technologies

CO 4 To be able to understand and perform the various characterization techniques of fuels

CO5 To be able to identify available nonconventional (renewable) energy resources and techniques
to utilize them effectively.

Unit-I

Introduction: Energy demand of world and country and gap analysis, Fossil fuel based systems, Impact of
fossil fuel based systems, Non conventional energy – seasonal variations and availability, Renewable energy
– sources and features, Hybrid energy systems. Distributed energy systems and dispersed generation (DG).

Unit-II

Solar thermal systems: Solar radiation spectrum, Radiation measurement , Technologies, Applications,
Heating, Cooling, Drying, Distillation, Power generation; Costing : Life cycle costing (LCC),Solar
thermal system
Solar Photovoltaic systems ,Operating principle, Photovoltaic cell concepts ,Cell, module, array, Series
and parallel connections, Maximum power point tracking, Applications ,Battery charging, Pumping ,
Lighting,Peltier cooling , Costing: Life cycle costing ,Solar PV system

Unit-III

Microhydel: Operating principle, Components of a microhydel power plant, Types and characteristics of
turbines, Selection and modification, Load balancing, Costing: Life cycle costing -Microhydel
Wind ; Wind patterns and wind data, Site selection, Types of wind mills , Characteristics of wind
generators, Load matching, Life cycle costing - Wind system LCC

Unit-IV

Biomass: Learning objectives, Operating principle, Combustion and fermentation, Anaerobic digester,
Wood gassifier, Pyrolysis, Applications, Bio gas, Wood stoves, Bio diesel, Combustion engine, Life cycle
costing - Biomass system LCC
Hybrid Systems, Need for Hybrid Systems, Range and type of Hybrid systems, Case studies of Diesel-PV,
Wind-PV, Microhydel-PV, Biomass-Diesel systems, electric and hybrid electric vehicles

Suggested Books:
1. Ashok V Desai, Non-Conventional Energy, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, 2003
2. Mittal K M, Non-Conventional Energy Systems, Wheeler Publishing Co. Ltd, New Delhi,2003
3.Ramesh R & Kumar K U, Renewable Energy Technologies, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi,
2004
4.Wakil MM, Power Plant Technology, Mc Graw Hill Book Co, New Delhi, 2004.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
ECE-435N MICROSTRIP LINE ANALYSIS
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time
3 - - 75 25 100 3 Hour
Purpose To create awareness about the basics of designing the modern tuned circuit based on
microstrip circuit theory.
Course Objectives
CO 1 To understand the need of microstrip line analysis.
CO 2 To be able to acquire knowledge about the dispersion models and measurements.
CO 3 To familiarize with quasi static analysis of microstrip line.
CO 4 To acquire the knowledge of importance and applications of slotline type of microstrip..

Unit -I

Microstrip Lines I: Quasi- Static Analyses, Dispersion Models, and Measurements

Introduction, Quasi-Static Analyses of a Microstrip, Microstrip Dispersion Models, Microstrip Transitions,


Microstrp Measurements.

Unit -II

Microstrip Lines II: Fullwave Analyses, Design Considerations, and Applications

Methods of Full Wave Analysis, Analysis of Open Microstrip, Analysis of Enclosed Microstrip, Design
Considerations, Other Types of Microstrip Lines, Microstrip Applications.

Unit -III

Microstrip Discontinuities I: Quasi- Static Analysis and Characterization

Introduction, Discontinuity Capacitance Evaluation, Discontinuity Inductance Evaluation, Characterization


of Various Discontinuities, Compensated Microstrip Discontinuities.

Unit -IV

Slotlines

Introduction, Slotline Analysis, Design Considerations, Slotline Discontinuities, Other Slotline


Configurations, Slotline Transitions, Slotline Applications.

Text Book: K.C. Gupta, Ramesh Garg, Inder Bhal and Parkash Bhartia, Microstrip lines & Slotlines,
Second ed., Artech House, London
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-437N SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIOS


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 - 75 25 100 3
Purpose To understand Modern Radio Communication System that can be reconfigured.
Course Outcomes
CO 1 Conceptualize the SDR and implementation details
CO 2 Design SDR for a specific application
CO 3 Identify the challenges in the maintenance of SDR
CO 4 Analyse the transmitter and receiver architectures

Unit-I

Introduction – Software Defined Radio – A Traditional Hardware Radio Architecture – Signal


Processing Hardware History – Software Defined Radio Project Complexity.
A Basic Software Defined Radio Architecture – Introduction – 2G Radio Architectures Hybrid
Radio Architecture- Basic Software Defined Radio Block Diagram- System Level Functioning
Partitioning-Digital Frequency Conversion Partitioning.

Unit-II

Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion- Introduction – Digital Conversion


Fundamentals- Sample Rate- Bandpass Sampling- Oversampling- Antialias Filtering – Quantization –
ADC Techniques-Successive Approximation- Figure of Merit-DACs- DAC Noise Budget- ADC Noise
Budget.

Unit-III

Digital Frequency Up- and Down Converters- Introduction- Frequency Converter Fundamentals-
Digital NCO- Digital Mixers- Digital Filters- Halfband Filters- CIC Filters Decimation, Interpolation,
and Multirate Processing-DUCs - Cascading Digital Converters and Digital Frequency Converters.
Signal Processing Hardware Components- Introduction- SDR Requirements for Processing Power-
DSPs- DSP Devices- DSP Compilers- Reconfigurable Processors Adaptive Computing Machine-
FPGAs

Unit-IV

Software Architecture and Components – Introduction- Major Software Architecture Choices


– Hardware – Specific Software Architecture- Software Standards for Software Radio-Software Design
Patterns- Component Choices- Real Time Operating Systems- High Level Software Languages-
Hardware Languages.

Text Books
1. Paul Burns, Software Defined Radio for 3G, Artech House, 2002.
2. Tony J Rouphael, RF and DSP for SDR, Elsevier Newnes Press, 2008
3. Jouko Vanakka, Digital Synthesizers and Transmitter for Software Radio, Springer, 2005.
4. P Kenington, RF and Baseband Techniques for Software Defined Radio, Artech House, 2005.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-414N DSP PROCESSOR


Lecture Tutorial Practical Sessionals – VIII
(B.TECH SEMESTER)
Theory Total Time
3 - - 75 25 100 3 Hour
Course 1. To study Programmable DSP Processors.
Objectives 2. To provide an understanding of the fundamentals of DSP techniques.
3. To study implementation & applications of DSP techniques.
4. To understand architecture of DSP processor
5. To understand DSP system design using FPGA.
Course Outcomes
CO 1 To describe the detailed architecture, addressing mode, instruction sets of TMS320C5X.

CO 2 To write program of DSP processor.


CO 3 To describe the detailed architecture, addressing mode, instruction sets of TMS320C54X.

CO 4 To know DSP system design using FPGA.

Unit -I

INTRODUCTION: Digital Signal Processing, Advantages of DSP, Applications of DSP.


Fundamentals Of Programmable Dsps: Multiplier and Multiplier accumulator, Modified Bus Structures
and Memory access in P-DSPs, Multiple access memory , Multi-ported memory , VLIW architecture,
Pipelining , Special Addressing modes in P- DSPs , On chip Peripherals.

Unit -II

ARCHITECTURE OF TMS320C5X: Architecture, Bus Structure & memory, CPU, addressing modes.
Programming TMS320C5X: Assembly language syntax, Assembly language Instructions, Simple ALP –
Pipeline structure, Operation Block Diagram of DSP starter kit, Application Programs for processing
real time signals.

Unit -III

PROGRAMMABLE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS: Block diagrams of 54X internal Hardware,


buses , internal memory organization, Data Addressing modes of S320C54XX Processors, Program Control,
On-chip peripheral, Interrupts ofTMS320C54XX processors, Pipeline Operation of TMS320C54XX Processors.

Unit -IV

ADVANCED PROCESSORS and FPGA: Code composer studio - Architecture of TMS320C6X,


Introduction to FPGA, Design flow for an FPGA based system design, FPGA based DSP system design.
Comparison of the performance of the system designed using FPGA and Digital signal processors,
Application note on DSP systems.

Text- Books:
1. B. Venkataramani and M. Bhaskar, Digital Signal Processors -Architecture, Programming and Applications 2nd
edition, Mc Graw Hills 2011.
2. Avtar Singh, S. Srinivasan DSP Implementation using DSP microprocessor with Examples from TMS32C54XX
–Thamson.

Reference Books:
1. DSP Processor Fundamentals, Architectures & Features – Lapsley et al. , S. Chand & Co, 2000.
2. Digital signal processing-Jonathen Stein John Wiley 2005.
3. S.K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing, Tata McGraw-Hill Publication, 2001.
4. B. Venkataramani, M. Bhaskar, Digital Signal Processors, McGraw Hil
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-416N MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORK


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 - 75 25 100 3
Purpose To expose the students to the most recent technological developments in Mobile
communication systems.
Course Outcomes
CO 1 Fundamental concepts in wireless, cellular technology
CO 2 Standards evolved
CO 3 Models of mobile radio channels
CO 4 Communication technologies adapted, Wireless networks

Unit-I

Introduction To Mobile Radio Systems Evolution of Mobile radio communications – Mobile radio
systems in the U.S. and around the world – Examples of Mobile radio systems. Standards and
Cellular Concept Cellular concept – Frequency reuse – Channel Assignment strategies – Handoff
strategies – Interference and System capacity – Trunking and Grade of service – Improving capacity in
cellular systems.
Unit-II

Mobile Radio Propagation Small-scale multipath propagation – Impulse response of a multipath


channel – Parameters of mobile multipath channel – Types of small-scale fading – Rayleigh and
Rician distributions – Statistical models for multipath fading channels.

Unit-III

Mobile System and Network Architectures GSM Services and Features – GSM system
architecture – GSM radio subsystem – Frame structure for GSM – Signal processing in GSM – GPRS
network architecture – GPRS services and features – 3G UMTS network architecture – UMTS
services and features.
Unit-IV

Wireless Standards Multiple access techniques – FDMA, TDMA and CDMA – Wireless networking
– Design issues in personal wireless systems – Cordless systems and Wireless Local Loop (WLL) –
IEEE 802.16 Fixed Broadband Wireless Access standard – Mobile IP and Wireless Application
Protocol.

Text Books
1. Rappaport, T.S., “Wireless Communications”, Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall, NJ, 1996.
2. William Stallings, “Wireless Communication and Networking”, Pearson Education, 2002.
3. Siegmund M. Redl, Mathias K. Weber, Malcolm W. Oliphant, “An Introduction to GSM”, Artech
House Publishers, 1995.
4. Kraus, J.D., “Antennas”, II Edition, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1977. 5. Collin, R.E. and
Zucker, F., - “Antenna theory: Part I”, Tata McGraw Hill, NY, 1969.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-418N MEMS
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 - - 75 25 100 3
Course Outcomes
CO 1 Students will be using knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering to understand
various MEMS devices.
CO 2 Students be able to understand various processes used such as oxidation, metallization,
fabrication and packaging of MEMS devices.
CO 3 Understanding basic principles of bulk micromachining and clean rooms practices
CO 4 Understand materials and MEMS packaging techniques.
CO 5 Students can write an engineering report on the one of potential MEMS devices and give an
effective oral presentation.

Unit-I

Introduction to Microsystems: Overview of microelectronics manufacture and Microsystems


technology. Definition - MEMS materials. Laws of scaling. The multi disciplinary nature of
MEMS. Survey of materials central to micro engineering. Applications of MEMS in various
industries.
Unit-II

Micro Sensors and Actuators: Working principle of Microsystems - micro actuation techniques, micro
sensors – types, Microactuators and types,micropump, micromotors, micro – valves, microgrippers –
micro- accelerometers.
Unit-III

Fabrication Process Substrates - single crystal silicon wafer formation, Clean room practices,
Photolithography, Ion implantation, Diffusion, Oxidation, CVD - Physical vapor deposition, epitaxy -
etching process.
Unit-IV

Micro System Manufacturing Bulk Micro manufacturing - surface micro machining – LIGA
Micro system packaging materials - die level - device level - system level - packaging
techniques – die preparation – surface bonding wire bonding - sealing. Introduction to assembly,
Introduction to Micro-system design.

Text Books

1. MEMS and Microsystems Design and Manufacture” by Tai-Ran Hsu. Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Ltd.
2. Foundation of MEMS” by Chang Liu. Pearson Education.
3. MEMS Handbook”, Mohamed Gad – el – Hak, CRC Press, 2002.
4. Rai - Choudhury P. MEMS and MOEMS Technology and Applications”, PHI Learning
Private Limited, 2009.
5. Sabrie Solomon, “Sensors Handbook,” Mc Graw Hill, 1998.
References
1. Francis E.H. Tay and Choong .W.O, “Micro fluidics and Bio mems application”, IEEE
Press New York, 1997.
2. Trimmer William S., Ed., “Micromechanics and MEMS”, IEEE Press New York, 1997.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

3. Maluf, Nadim, “An introduction to Micro electro mechanical Systems Engineering”,


AR Tech house, Boston 2000.
4. Julian W.Gardner, Vijay K.Varadan, Osama O. Awadel Karim, “Micro sensors MEMS
and Smart Devices”, John Wiby & sons Ltd., 2001.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-420N TRANSDUCERS & ITS APPLICATIONS


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 - 75 25 100 3
Purpose Understanding the structural and functional principles of sensors and transducers used
for various physical and nonelectric quantities and how to use them to measure these quantities.

Course Outcomes
CO 1 Explain the principles of operation of the sensor parameters and generators
CO 2 Interpretation of the measurement results by using transducers.
CO 3 Development of measurement schemes for different non electrical quantities
CO 4 Assimilating knowledge about the implementation of sensors and transducers.

Unit-I

Definition of transducer. Advantages of an electrical signal as out-put. Basic requirements of


transducers, Primary and Secondary Transducer, Analog or digital types of transducers. Resistive,
inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, photoelectric and Hall Effect tranducers.

Unit-II

Measurement of Pressure – Manometers, Force summing devices and electrical transducers


Measurement of Temperature – Metallic resistance thermometers, semi conductor resistance
sensors (Thermistors), thermo-electric sensors, pyrometers.

Unit-III

Measurement of Displacement – Potentiometric resistance type transducers, inductive type


transducers, differential transformer (L.V.D.T), capacitive transducers, Hall effect devices, strain gage
transducers.
Measurement of Velocity – variable reluctance pick up, electromagnetic tachometers, photoelectric
tachometer, toothed rotor tachometer generator..

Unit-IV

Measurement of Force – Strain-gage load cells, pneumatic load cell, LVDT type force transducer.
Measurement of Torque – Torque meter, torsion meter, absorption dynamometers, inductive
torque transducer, digital methods.

Suggested Books:

1. B.C. Nakra, K.K. Chaudhry, “Instrumentation Measurement and Analysis,” Tata


McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
2. Thomas G. Beckwith etc. all, “Mechanical Measurements (International Student
Edition), Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc. England.
3. A.K. Sawhney, “ A Course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and
Instrumentation,” Dhanpat Rai & Sons, Delhi-6.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE RADAR ENGINEERING


422N
Lecture Tutorial Practical Credit Theory Sessionals Total Time
3 0 0 3 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To familiarize the students with the concepts of radar, various types of radar, radar
mixers and various other technologies.
Course Outcomes
CO1 To understand the concept of basics of radar, its equation and signals associated with
radar.
CO2 To understand the concept of CW and MTI radar.
CO3 To familiarize with the concept of tracking radar.
CO4 To familiarize with the concept of radar receiver, mixers and duplexers.

Unit- I

Radar BASICS:
Radar Block Diagram & operation, Applications of Radar.

Radar Equation:
Simple form of Radar Equation, Detection of signals in noise,Signal to Noise ratio, Transmitter
Power. Pulse repetition frequenc)' & range ambiguities, System losses, Propagation effects.

Unit- II
CW & Frequency Modulated Radar:
The Doppler effect, CW Radar, FM- CW Radar, Multiple Frequency CW Radar.

MTI & Pulse Doppler Radar:


Introduction, Delay Line Cancellors. Multiple or staggered Pulse repetition frequencies.range-Gated
Doppler Filters, Limitation of MTI performance, Noncoherent MTI, Pulse Doppler radar, MTI from a
moving platform.

Unit-III

Tracking Radar: Tracking with Radar, Sequential Lobbing, Conical Scan, Monopulse
Tracking Radar, Tracking in range, Acquisition, Low angle tracking.

Unit-IV
Receivers, Displays & Duplexers:
Radar Receivers, Noise Figure, MixerLow-noise Front ends. Displays, Duplexer, Receiver protectors.

Text Book:
I. Introduction to Radar Systems: Merrill!. Skolnik,; MGH
Reference Book:
Electronic Communication Systems: Kennedy; TMH.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-424N HIGH FREQUENCY CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose This course aims to introduce the design of high frequency CMOS circuits suitable
for transmitter and receiver of modern communication devices
Course Outcomes
CO1 To explore the various performance measures of high frequency circuits.

CO2 To learn the design of high frequency filters, amplifiers and oscillators.

Unit-I

PARAMETERS OF HIGH FREQUENCY CIRCUITS


Gain Parameters, Non-linearity parameters, Noise figure, Phase Noise, Dynamic range, RF front end
performance parameters, performance trade offs in an RF circuit.
Unit-II
HIGH FREQUENCY FILTER DESIGN
Modern filter design, Frequency and impedance scaling, High Pass filter design, Band pass filter design,
Band reject filter design, the effects of finite Q.

Unit- III
HIGH FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER DESIGN
Zero as bandwidth enhances,Shunt-series amplifier, Bandwidth enhancement with frequency Doublers,
Tuned amplifiers, Neutralization and unilateralization , cascaded Amplifiers.

Unit -IV
MIXERS AND OSCILLATORS
Mixer fundamentals, Non linear systems as Linear mixers, multiplier based mixers, Subsampling mixers.
Problems with purely linear oscillators, Tuned oscillator, Negative Resistance oscillators, frequency
synthesis.

BOOKS

1. Aleksandar Tasic, Wouter.A.Serdijn, John.R.Long, “Adaptive Low Power Circuits for Wireless
Communication (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)”, Springer, 1st Edition, 2006.

2. Chris Bowick, “RF Circuit design”, Newnes (An imprint of Elesvier Science), 1st Edition, 1997.
Thomas.H. Lee, “The design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits”,Cambridge
University Press, 2nd Edition, 2004.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-426N BIO-MEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING


Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 - 75 25 100 3
Purpose To understand the concept of Bio-Medical Signal Processing.
Course Outcomes
CO 1 Introduction to signal and information.
CO 2 Introduction to Biomedical Signals and ECG.
Introduction to Adaptive filtering and EEG.
CO
CO 34 Introduction to Event detection and waveform analysis.

Unit – I

Signals and Information: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, Basic of DFT and FFT, z-
transform, Sampling theorem.
Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response,
convolution, poles and zeros, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, Applications of Digital Signal
Processing.
Unit – II

Introduction to Biomedical Signal: General measurement and diagnostic system, classification of signals,
introduction to biomedical signals, Biomedical signal acquisition and processing.
ECG: ECG signal origin, ECG parameters-QRS detection different techniques, ST segment analysis,
Arrhythmia, Arrhythmia analysis, Arrhythmia monitoring system.

Unit – III

Adaptive Filtering: Introduction, General structure of adaptive filters, LMS adaptive filter, adaptive noise
cancellation, cancellation of ECG from EMG signal, Cancellation of maternal ECG in fetal ECG.
EEG: EEG signal characteristics, Sleep EEG classification and epilepsy.

Unit – IV

Event Detection and waveform analysis: Need for event detection, Detection of events & waves,
Correlation analysis of EEG signals, Identification of heart sounds, Morphological analysis of ECG waves.
Frequency Domain Analysis: Introduction, Spectral analysis, linear filtering, Removal of high frequency
noise (power line interference), motion artifacts (low frequency) and power line interference in ECG.

Text Book:
1. Biomedical Signal Analysis” A case study approach, Rangaraj M Rangayyan, John Wiley
publications.

Reference Books:
1. “Biomedical Signal Processing Time and Frequency Domains Analysis (Volume I)”, Arnon Cohen, CRC
press.
2. “Biomedical Signal Processing Principles and Techniques” D.C.Reddy, Tata Mc Graw-Hill
3. “Biomedical Digital Signal Processing”, Willis J. Tompkins, PHI
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-428N MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATIONS

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time


3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To familiarize the students with the concepts of basic multimedia communication
systems and various compression algorithms of text, audio, image and video.
Course Outcomes
CO1 To understand the concept of basic multimedia comm. System and various types of
networks and applications.
CO2 To understand the concept text and image compression.
CO3 To understand the concept of audio and video compression.
CO4 To understand the concept of multimedia synchronization and video indexing.

Unit - I

Multimedia Communication: Introduction, Multimedia networks: Telephone networks, Data networks,


ISDN, B-ISDN. Multimedia Applications: Interactive applications over the internet and entertainment
applications.
Digitization Principles, Representation of Text, Images, Audio and Video.

Unit - II

Text Compression: Compression principles, Text Compression techniques: Static Huffman Coding,
Dynamic Huffman Coding, Arithmetic Coding, Lempel Ziv and Lempel Ziv welsh coding.

Image Compression: Graphics interchange format, Tagged image file format, JPEG in detail.

Unit - III

Audio Compression: Differential Pulse Code Modulation, Adaptive Differential PCM, Adaptive
Predictive coding, Linear predictive coding and MPEG audio coders,

Video Compression: Video Compression principles, Frame types, Motion estimation and compensation,
H.261, H.263
Unit - IV

Multimedia Synchronization: Basic definitions and requirements, Time stamping and Pack architecture.

Video Indexing: Basics of content based image retrieval and video content representation.

Reference Books:

1. Multimedia communications: Fred Halsall; Pearson Education Asia.


2. Multimedia Systems” by Ralf Steinmetz and Klara Nahrstedt
3. Multimedia Systems, Standards, and Networks” by A. Puri and T. Chen
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

ECE-430N MIXED VLSI DESIGN

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose This course teaches how in real life applications both analog and digital circuits can
implemented for various system design.
Course Outcomes

CO1 To know mixed signal circuits like DAC, ADC, PLL etc.

CO2 To gain knowledge on filter design in mixed signal mode.


CO3 To acquire knowledge on design of different architectures in mixed signal

mode.

Unit-I
PHASE LOCKED LOOP
Characterization of a comparator, basic CMOS comparator design, analog multiplier design, PLL -
simple PLL, charge-pump PLL, applications of PLL.

Unit- II
SAMPLING CIRCUITS
Basic sampling circuits for analog signal sampling, performance metrics of sampling circuits, different
types of sampling switches. Sample-and-Hold circuit with miller capacitance.

Unit- III
D/A CONVERTER
Input/output characteristics of an ideal D/A converter, performance metrics of D/A converter, D/A
converter in terms of voltage, current, and charge division or multiplication, switching functions to
generate an analog output corresponding to a digital input.

Unit- IV
A/D CONVERTER
Input/output characteristics and quantization error of an A/D converter, performance metrics of pipelined
architectures, Successive approximation architecture.

BOOKS:
1. S. M. Kang and Y. Leblebici, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits : Analysis and Design, Third
Edition, TMH, 2002.
2. Razavi, “Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits”, McGraw Hill,
Edition 2002.
3. Jacob Baker, “CMOS Mixed-Signal circuit design”, IEEE Press, 2009.
4. Gregorian, Temes, “Analog MOS Integrated Circuit for signal processing”, John Wiley & Sons,
1986.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
ECE-432N MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Purpose To familiarize the students with the concepts of basic Antenna.
Course Outcomes
CO1 To understand the concept of basic Antenna. System and various types of
applications.
CO2 To understand the concept of microstrip antenna and its analytical modeling
CO3 To understand the different designs of microstrip antenna
CO4 To understand the applications of different designs of microstrip antenna

Unit-1
Micro Strip Radiator

Introduction, Microstrip Antenna Configurations, Feeding Techniques and Modeling of Microstrip


Antenna, Radiation field, Surface wave and Photonic Bandgap Structures and Applications

Unit- 2
Analytical Modeling and Full Wave Analysis

Introduction, Transmission Line Model, Cavity model, Radiation Fields, Aperture and Mutual
admittance, conductance. Full wave analysis: Input Impedance and Radiation efficiency, Radiation
pattern, Mixed Potential Integral Equation Analysis, Greens function, Finite Difference Time-
Domain Analysis.
Unit-3
Rectangular and Circular Microstrip Antenna

Introduction, Models for Rectangular Patch Antennas, Design Consideration for Rectangular Patch
antennas, Tolerance Analysis, Mechanical Tuning, Quarter-wave Rectangular Patch Antenna,
Circular Microstrip Antenna: Analysis of Circular disk, Cavity and Transmission line modeling of
circular antennas.
Unit- 4
Circularly Polarized and Broadband Microstrip Antenna Design

Circular Polarization, Rectangular and Circular Circularly polarized Antennas, Power divider : T
Junction and Wilkinson.
Effect of Substrate Parameter on Bandwidth, Selection of suitable Patch Shape, Feeding Techniques,
Multimoding Techniques , Impedance Matching, Resistive Loading.

Text book: Ramesh Garg, Prakash Bhartiya, Inder Bahl, Apisak Ittipboon, “Microstrip Antenna
Design Handbook”, Artech House Boston, London.
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
ECE-434N STRATEGIC ELECTRONICS

Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 0 0 75 25 100 3 Hr.
Course Outcomes
CO1 Students will be aware of state-of the art in flexible electronics

CO2 Students be able to understand the fundamentals of Smart Structure and Materials
CO3 Understanding basic principles of fabrication techniques used for the fabrication
of futuristic flexible electronic devices, structure, sensors and transducers.
CO4 Understand the characterization techniques used in futuristic electronic devices,
smart materials, structures, etc.

Unit-I

Emerging flexible electronics technology, involving new materials and processing techniques
such as amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon, organic and polymeric semiconductors,
solution cast films of carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Real device are discussed including
high speed transistors, photovoltaics, flexible flat-panel displays, etc.

Unit – II

Strain Measuring Techniques using Electrical strain gauges, Types – Resistance – Capacitance
Inductance – Wheatstone bridges – Pressure transducers – Load cells – Temperature Compensation
– Strain Rosettes. Sensing Technology – Types of Sensors – Physical Measurement using Piezo
Electric Strain measurement – Inductively Read Transducers – The LVOT – Fiber optic
Techniques. Chemical and Bio-Chemical sensing in structural Assessment – Absorptive chemical
sensors – Spectroscopes – Fibre Optic Chemical Sensing Systems and Distributed measurement.
Unit - III

Clean room practices, Photolithography, Ion implantation, Diffusion, Oxidation, CVD - Physical
vapor deposition, epitaxy - etching process.
Bulk Micro manufacturing - surface micro machining – LIGA ,Micro system packaging materials - die
level- device level - system level - packaging techniques – die preparation – surface bonding - wire
bonding - sealing. Introduction to assembly, Introduction to Micro-system design

Unit - IV

Characterization Techniques: Quantum wells and Thickness measurement techniques: Contact - step
height, Optical - reflectance and ellipsometry, AFM, Nanomaterials Characterization techniques: IV-
CV Electrochemical Impedance, FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM, TEM, EDAX and interpretation of
results.
Books:

1. Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications, Editors: Wong, William S., Salleo, Alberto
(Eds.) 2.Brain Culshaw – Smart Structure and Materials Artech House – Borton. London-1996.
3. MEMS and Microsystems Design and Manufacture” by Tai-Ran Hsu. Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Ltd
4. Marc F Madou, “Fundamentals of Micro Fabrication”, CRC Press, 2nd Edition, 2002.
5. Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization By Dieter K. Schroder, Willey Publications
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
ECE-436N COGNITIVE RADIOS
Lecture Tutorial Practical Theory Sessionals Total Time

3 - 75 25 100 3
Purpose To understand the concept of Cognitive Radio and Spectrum sharing
Course Outcomes
CO 1 Conceptualize the CR and implementation details
CO 2 Design CR for a specific application
CO 3 Identify the challenges in the maintenance of CR
CO 4 Analyse the transmitter and receiver architectures

Unit-I

RF System Design – Introduction- Noise and Channel Capacity- Link Budget- Receiver
Requirements- Multicarrier Power Amplifiers- Signal Processing Capacity Tradeoff.

Unit-II

CR Architecture- Cognitive Radio Architecture, Dynamic Access Spectrum, Spectrum


Efficiency, Spectrum Efficiency gain in SDR and CR ,Spectrum Usage, SDR as a platform
for CR, OFDM as PHY layer ,OFDM Modulator, OFDM Demodulator, OFDM Bandwidth,
Benefits of OFDM in CR, Spectrum Sensing in CR, CR Network

Unit-III

Smart Antennas Using Software Radio- Introduction- 3G smart Antenna Requirements


Phased Antenna Array Theory- Applying Software Radio Principles to Antenna Systems
Smart Antenna Architectures- Optimum Combining/ Adaptive Arrays- DOA Arrays-
Beam Forming for CDMA- Downlink Beam Forming.

Unit-IV

Application of SDR -Application of SDR in Advance Communication System-Case


Study, Challenges and Issues, Implementation, Parameter Estimation –Environment,
Location, other factors, Vertical Handoff, Network Interoperability.

Text Books:

1. Jeffrey.H.Reed ,Software Radio : A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering , Pearson ,


Reference Books: 1. Markus Dillinger , KambizMadani ,Nancy Alonistioti, Software
Defined Radio : Architectures , Systems and Functions ,Wiley
2. Tony .J. Rouphael , RF and DSP for SDR, Elsevier Newness Press ,2008
3. Dr.TajStruman ,Evaluation of SDR –Main Document
4. SDR –Handbook , 8th Edition , PENTEK 5. Bruce a. Fette , Cognitive Radio
Technology, Newness, Elsevier.