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CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)

 Methods Used for Calculating Deformations:

1. Double Integration Method

2. Moment-Area Method

3. Conjugate Beam Method

4. Virtual Work Method

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
It is based on moment-area theorems.
It is a semi graphical method of dealing with deflection of beams subjected to
bending.
It is based on a geometrical interpretation of definite integrals.
From the figure, since the curvature is small it can assume that ds = dx, hence,

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Theorem I:
If A and B are two points on a beam the
change in slope between the tangents
drawn to the elastic curve at points A and
B is equal to the area of the moment
diagram between these two points
divided by the value of EI (the flexural
rigidity).

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Theorem II:
If A and B are two points on a beam the
deviation of point B relative to the
tangent drawn to the elastic curve at
point A, in a direction perpendicular to
the original position of the beam, tA/B is
equal to the first moment of the area of
the bending moment diagram between A
and B about the ordinate through B
divided by the value of EI.

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Sign convention
The deviation at any point is positive if the point lies
above the tangent, negative if the point is below the
tangent.
Measured from left tangent, if θ is anticlockwise, the
change of slope (θBA =θB - θA) is positive, negative if θ
is clockwise.
Generally the tangential deviation is not equal
to the beam deflection. However, in cantilever:

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Example:
Using the moment-area method,
determine the slope and deflection at the
free end.
Solution:
The B.M.D is as shown.
Slope at A ( A)
Since the slope at B (B) is equal to zero, the
change in slope between the tangents of the
elastic curve at points A and B (BA) is

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Example:
Using the moment-area method,
determine the slope and deflection at the
free end.
Solution:
Deflection at A (d A)
The deflection at A is equal to the deviation of point A
relative to the tangent of the elastic curve at point B,
tA/B.
Applying the second moment-area theorem, then

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Example:
Using the moment-area method,
determine the slope and deflection at the
free end.
Solution:
The B.M.D is as shown.
Slope at B ( B)
Since the slope at A (A) is equal to zero, the
change in slope between the tangents of the
elastic curve at points A and B (BA) is

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Example:
Using the moment-area method,
determine the slope and deflection at the
free end.
Solution:

Deflection at B (d B)
The deflection at B is equal to the deviation of
point B relative to the tangent of the elastic
curve at point A, tA/B. Applying the second
moment-area theorem, then

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Deflections in simply supported beams: Mid-span Deflection

- If the simple beam is symmetrically loaded, the maximum deflection will occur at
the mid-span.

- Therefore, the tangent drawn to the elastic curve at the point of maximum
deflection is horizontal.

- It means that the deviation from the support to the horizontal tangent is equal to
the maximum deflection.

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Example:
Using the moment-area method, calculate the mid-span
deflection and end slope for the shown simply supported
beam. E = 210 GPa and I = 834 cm4
Solution:
Deflection at mid-span
E = 210 GPa = 210 ×106 kN/m2
I = 834 cm4 = 834×10-8 m4
EI = (2.1×1011)( 8.34×10-6)
= 1.7514×103 kN.m2
The deflection at the mid-span is equal to the deviation
of the point A above the tangent to the elastic curve at
B, then

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)
 Moment-Area Method
Example:
Using the moment-area method, calculate the mid-span
deflection and end slope for the shown simply supported
beam. E = 210 GPa and I = 834 cm4
Solution:
Slope at the end A
Since the slope at B (B) is equal to zero, the change
in slope between the tangents of the elastic curve at
points A and B (BA) is equal to

Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-


CIV 301 - THEORY OF STRUCTURES (3)

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Giza Higher Institute for Eng. & Tech. - Dr. M Abdel-