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TOPIC 1:

At any given location, the sea elevation changes randomly with time. It is represented by

statistically using energy spectra. One of the most powerful means of representing an

irregular sea and, incidentally, a ship’s responses, is the concept of an energy spectrum.

How is an energy spectrum used to represent the sea? Explain in detail. How are various

parameters like significant wave height, average wave height, frequency, etc are derived

from the spectrum? Explain Response Amplitude Operator.

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Introduction:

One way we can define the sea in simple terms, its total energy must necessarily be

made up of the sum of the energies of all the small, regular waves that make up the sea –

no more and no less.

The intensity of the sea is characterized by its total energy; and, what is most important,

we can show the individual contribution made by each of its component waves. With

each component wave of different length or period (or, more conveniently, of different

frequency), we can show how the total energy of the sea is distributed according to the

frequencies of the various wave components. This distribution is what we call the

“ENERGY SPECTRUM” of the sea or more simply the “WAVE SPECTRUM”.

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Main body:

Wave length, L, ft = gT2/2Π

Wave speed, C fps = L/T = gT/2Π

Cyclic frequency, f, cps = 1/T

Circular frequency, w rad/sec = 2Π/T

The ordinate of the curve is expressed as energy seconds and may be regarded as an

abstract term conventionally selected so that the area under the spectrum curve

represents the entire energy of the system when plotted on a frequency base that has the

dimension of 1/seconds. While we have centered the energy of each component wave at

its designated frequency, we have given it a small “bandwidth,” so that the energy

seconds ordinates have finite values and so that the curve has a semblance of continuity

over a wide range of frequency.

Let us consider a small number of regular waves of different lengths and heights as

shown in figure 3.1.

1 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Figure 3.2. shows a crude spectrum made up of the same waves used in fig 3.1.

According to observed behavior of the actual sea, we must consider that the sea contains

a great number of waves varying slightly in frequency, one from the next. Otherwise, if

we only had four different waves, as per this elemental example, or even ten or twenty,

sooner or later we would see the wave pattern of the sea repeating itself exactly.

Furthermore, as the sea proceeded into new areas, it would separate into groups of

regular waves. So consider that a sea is composed of a very great number of different

frequency waves; and, for a given amount of total energy of the sea, we can see that the

greater the number of waves considered, the less energy (or height) each of these

component waves possesses. Ultimately the most factual energy spectrum of the sea is a

smooth, continuous curve made up of the contribution of an infinite number of regular

waves, all of different period and exceeding small height, as shown in figure 3.3.

2 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

We can never tell just when several waves will group together to form a high sea wave,

or when they will tend to cancel out, or whatever, in any systematic sequence. Instead of

using energy-seconds as the ordinate of the curve, resulting in energy as the area, we

may conventionally substitute square feet-seconds for the ordinate and square feet for

the area as a direct indication of component wave height variations since energy and

height2 are directly proportional.

The spectrum builds from the high frequency end. For a given wind speed, the first

waves generated are those that are of short length; and then, as the wind continues to

blow, longer and longer waves are generated until finally the condition is known as “ the

fully developed sea” is reached, where the system is stable and no further effect is

produced, regardless of how much longer the wind blows and over how much more area

is shown in figure 3.4.

3 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

We cannot predict the actual pattern of the sea surface in so far as which wave follows

which. However, we can predict by statistical methods how often waves of various

heights will occur over any given period of time for a sea of a given amount of energy.

The height of all the given waves in a record are measured and the percentage of

occurrence calculated, i.e., the number of waves under two feet high, from two to four

feet high, four to six, and so forth, are each divided by the total number of waves in the

record. These percentages are then plotted against the wave heights themselves, resulting

as shown in figure 3.5.

4 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

It was found that one single form of curve fits most sea-wave histogram records very

closely. This is known as the Rayleigh distribution and it is written as

2Hi 2

p(Hi) = 𝑒𝐻−𝐻𝑖

2

𝐻2

This may be expressed as “the percentage of times that a wave of height, Hi feet, will

occur in all the waves of that series.

This is the average of all the squared values of the wave heights in the record, or

expressed mathematically as,

Where N is the total number of waves in the record.

1

H2 = N ∑𝑖=𝑁

𝑖=1 Hi

2

To devise the spectrum for the particular motion or force on the body we need,

The height characteristics of the component waves of different frequencies that

occur in the sea. These are, of course, given by the sea spectrum in terms of

square feet-seconds.

The unit response of the vessel for each of the component waves of different

frequency.

ISSC Spectrum: The International Ship Structures Congress gives the formula as

follows:

Where,

Hs = significant wave height (average of the one-third highest waves).

Ts = “significant period,” actually the average period of the significant waves.

2h2(w) = ordinate of spectral density.

Hs2 = Area under the curve.

The best philosophy to adopt at this time is the one expressed by the International Ship

structures Committee, which presented its formula in association with an assembly of

data on wave heights and periods representative of ocean areas all over the world.

5 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

In the field of ship design and design of other floating structures, a response amplitude

operator (RAO) is an engineering statistic, or set of such statistics, that are used to

determine the likely behavior of a ship when operating at sea. RAOs are usually

calculated for all ship motions and for all wave headings.

For regular waves, RAO is the ratio of a vessels motion to the wave amplitude causing

that motion and presented over a range of wave periods.

Displacement RAOs:

Vessel motions in waves can be defined by displacement RAOs (Response Amplitude

Operators) that are specified on the Displacements RAOs page of the vessel type data

form. Each displacement RAO consists of a pair of numbers that define the vessel

response, for one particular degree of freedom, to one particular wave direction and

period. The two numbers are amplitude, which relates the amplitude of the vessel motion

to the amplitude of the wave, and a phase, which defines the timing of the vessel motion

relative to the wave.

Example: A surge RAO of 0.5 in a wave of height 4m (and hence wave amplitude 2m)

means that the vessel surges to and fro -1m to +1m from its static position; a pitch RAO

of 0.5° per meter in the same wave means that the vessel pitches from -1° to + 1°.

The vessel has 6 degrees of freedom: 3 translations (surge, sway, heave) and 3 rotations

(roll, pitch, yaw), so the RAO data consists of 6 amplitude and phase pairs for each wave

period and direction. The RAO amplitude and phase vary for different types of vessel,

and for a given vessel type they vary with draught, wave direction, forward speed and

wave period (or frequency). It is important to obtain accurate values for the RAO

amplitude and phase if the dynamics of the system are to be correctly modeled.

RAOs can be obtained either from model tests or from specialist computer programs.

There are many different conventions for defining RAOs. There have been attempts at

standardization but these have not been successful so there remain differences between

the main computer programs and model basins: some establishments even use different

conventions for reporting model and computed data. The only safe course is to obtain a

complete description of the system used for the data in each case.

6 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

The Orcina convention is to use the amplitude of response (in length units for surge,

sway, heave, in degrees for roll, pitch, yaw) per unit wave amplitude, and to use the

phase lag from the time the wave crest passes the RAO origin until the maximum

positive excursion is reached (in other words, the phase origin being at the RAO origin).

Mathematically, this is given by:

x = R.a.cos (ωt - φ)

where

x is the vessel displacement (in length units for surge, sway, heave, in degrees for roll,

pitch, yaw)

a, ω are wave amplitude (in length units) and frequency (in radians/second)

t is time (in seconds)

R, φ are the RAO amplitude and phase.

However, OrcaFlex can accept RAO data using a wide range of different conventions so

you can input your RAO data in its original form and simply tell OrcaFlex what

conventions apply to those data.

In addition to the actual RAO data you therefore also need to know:

The coordinates of the RAO origin and of the phase origin .

The system used to define wave direction. In OrcaFlex 0° means waves

approaching the vessel from astern and 90° means waves coming from the

starboard side, but if a different convention applies to your data then you must

allow for this when entering the data.

The coordinate system used to define vessel motions and, in particular, which

direction is positive. That is whether surge is positive forward or aft, whether

heave is positive up or down and whether pitch is positive bow up or bow down.

Whether the rotational RAO data are in degrees (or radians) of rotation per meter

(or foot) of wave amplitude, or in degrees (radians) per degree (radian) of wave

slope or wave steepness.

The reference time for phase angles, and the reporting convention used (e.g.

whether phases are reported as lags or leads). Again, OrcaFlex allows a range of

options.

7 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Although OrcaFlex allows the RAO input data to use a wide range of systems, all

OrcaFlex results use a right-handed system in which the positive movements are as

follows:

Sway - Positive to Port

Heave - Positive Up

Roll - Positive Starboard Down

Pitch - Positive Bow Down

Yaw - Positive Bow to Port

RAOs, as described above, can also be used to represent the load (force and moment) on

a vessel due to waves, rather than to directly specify its motion. In this case, the

amplitude represents the magnitude of the force (in the surge, sway or heave direction)

or moment (in the roll, pitch or yaw direction); the meaning of the phase remains

unchanged.

Example: A surge force RAO of 300 kN/m in a wave of height 6m (and hence wave

amplitude 3m) means that a vessel experiences a surge force varying harmonically

between -900kN and +900kN over each wave cycle; a pitch moment RAO of 1E6

kN.m/m in the same wave means that the vessel experiences a moment about the y axis

varying from -3E6 kN.m to +3E6 kN.m.

Wave load RAOs do not completely define the vessel motion as do displacement RAOs:

they merely define the force and moment which a wave exerts on the vessel. OrcaFlex

uses these forces and moments, together with any other loads on the vessel and data on

the vessel's mass and inertia, to determine the vessel motion from its equation of motion.

The description of RAO conventions above, for displacement RAOs, carries over to

wave load RAOs with just one minor difference: rotational wave load RAOs must be

expressed per unit of wave amplitude, and they will have dimensions of moment per unit

length.

(www.orcina.com/SoftwareProducts/Orcaflex/Documentation/Help/Content/html/Vessel

theory,RAOandPhases.htm)

8 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Student ID number: TMI/EFCE/2016/05

Conclusion:

The point of examining the wave spectrum and its effects on motions and forces to see

what may result from a shift in significant wave period. The wave heights are fairly

consistently measured and accountable, it behooves any conscientious investigator to

search all likely spectrum shapes for the maximum effects on the vessel with which we

are concerned.

List of references:

www.orcina.com/SoftwareProducts/Orcaflex/Documentation/Help/Content/html/

Vessel theory,RAOandPhases.htm

9 & TMI/EFCE/2016/05

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