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Force in a statically indeterminate cantilever truss.

1.0 OBJECTIVE

To observe the effect of redundant member in a structure and understand the method of analyzing
type of this structure.

2.0 THEORY

In a statically indeterminate truss, static equilibrium alone cannot be used to calculated member
force. There would be too many “unknowns” and would not be able to complete the calculations.
Therefore, a method known as the flexibility method will be used which uses an idea known as
strain energy. The mathematical approach to the flexibility method can be found in the most
appropriate text books.

Figure 1: Idealised Statically Indeterminate Cantilever Truss

Basically the flexibility method uses the idea that energy stored in the frame would be the same
for a given load whether it is the redundant member or not. In other word, the external energy is
equal to internal energy. In practice, the loads in the frame are calculated in its “released” from
(that is, without the redundant member) and then calculated with a unit load in place of the
redundant member. The value for both are combined to calculate the force in the redundant
member and remaining members. The redundant member load in given by:
The remaining member force are then given by:

Member force = Pn + f

Where,
P = Redundant member load (N)
l = length of members (as ratio of the shortest)
n = load in each member due to unit load in place of redundant member (N)
f = Force in each member when the frame is “release” (N)

Figure 2 shows the force in the frame due to the load of 250 N. You should be able to calculate these
values from Experiment: Force in a statically determinate truss.

Figure 3 shows the loads in the member due to the unit load being applied to the frame. The
redundant member is effectively part of the structure as the idealized in Figure 2.
3.0 APPARATUS

Force in a statically indeterminate cantilever truss equipment.

Adjustable load force Electronic dial indicator


Reading equipment for each trust member.

4.0 PROCEDURE

1. Manually tighten the thumbwheel of the ‘redundant’ member of the truss.

2. Apply the preload of 100N, re-zero the load cell and carefully zero the digital indicator.

3. Carefully apply a load of 250N and make sure that the frame is stable and secure.

4. Return the load to zero (leaving the 100N preload). Recheck and re-zero the digital indicator.
Never apply loads greater than those specified on the equipment.

5. Apply the increment loads as shown in Table 1. Record the strain and the digital indicator
readings.

6. Subtract the initial (zero) strain reading (be careful with your signs) and complete Table 2.

7. Calculate the equipment member force at 250 N and record in Table 3.

8. Plot a graph of Load vs Deflection from Table 1 on the same axis as Load vs Deflection when
the redundant member removed. The calculation for redundant truss is made much simpler and
easier if the tabular method is used to sum up all of the “fnl” and “n2l” terms.

9. Fill in Table 4 and carefully calculate the other terms as required.


10. Fill in your result in Table 3.
Load Strain Reading Digital
(N) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Indicator
reading
100 145 262 -7 -10 69 -14 28 31 0.046
150 156 258 -14 -22 73 -18 40 37 0.067
200 168 254 -22 -34 77 -25 51 44 0.085
250 179 250 -30 -47 81 -31 62 50 0.101
300 190 246 -38 -59 84 -37 73 56 0.114
350 201 242 -45 -70 88 -42 84 62 0.133

Load (N) Strain Reading


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 11 56 -7 -12 4 -4 12 6
100 23 52 -15 -24 8 -11 23 13
150 34 48 -23 -37 12 -17 34 19
200 45 44 -31 -49 15 -23 45 25
250 56 -20 -38 -60 19 -28 56 31
Member Experimental Force (N) Theoretical Force (N)
1 334.68 354.37
2 -119532 -145.63
3 -227.11 -250
4 -358.60 -395.63
5 113.55 104.37
6 -167.34 -147
7 334.68 353.55
8 185.27 206.55
Table 3: Measured and Theoretical Force in the Cantilever Truss

Member Length f n fnl n2l Pn Pn+f


1 1 250 -0.71 -177.5 0.5 104.37 354.37
2 1 -250 -0.71 177.5 0.5 104.37 -145.63
3 1 -250 0 0 0 0 -250
4 1 -500 -0.71 355 0.5 104.37 -395.63
5 1 0 -0.71 0 0.5 104.37 104.37
6 1.414 0 1 0 1.414 -147 -147
7 1.414 353.55 0 0 0 0 353.55
8 1.414 353.55 1 353.55 1.414 -147 206.55
Total 710 4.828
Calculation for true strain reading:

True strain reading = strain reading – strain reading (load0)

Load = 200N

True Strain Reading (member 1) = 201-145

=56

True Strain Reading (member 2) = 242 – 262

=-40

True Strain Reading (member 3) = -45+7

=-38

True Strain Reading (member 4) = -70+10

=-60

True Strain Reading (member 5) = 88-69

=19

True Strain Reading (member 6) = -42+14

=-28

True Strain Reading (member 7) = 84-28

=56

True Strain Reading (member 8) = 62-31

=31
Calculation of cross section area of member (mm2):

Diameter = 6.02mm

Radius = 3.01mm

Area = 𝜋𝑟 2

= (𝜋)(3.01𝑚𝑚)2

= 28.46mm2

Calculation of experimental force:

Given that:
𝜎
E= Where: E = Young’s Modulus (Nm-2) , 𝜎 = 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 (𝑁𝑚−2 ), ε =
𝜀

displayed strain

𝐹
σ= 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐹 = 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 , 𝐴 = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 (𝑚𝑚2 )
𝐴

Esteel = 2.10×105 N/mm2

𝐹 = 𝐴𝐸𝜀

Member 1

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(56 x 10-6)

= 334.68 N

Member 2

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(-20 x 10-6)

= -119.532 N
Member 3

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(-38 x 10-6)

= -227.11 N

Member 4

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(-60 x 10-6)

= -358.60 N

Member 5

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(19 x 10-6)

= 113.55

Member 6

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(-28 x 10-6)

= -167.34 N

Member 7

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(56 x 10-6)

= 334.68 N

Member 8

= (28.46𝑚𝑚2 )(2.10 × 105 𝑁𝑚𝑚−2 )(31 x 10-6)

= 185.27 N
Σ𝐹𝑥 = 0

𝐹𝐵𝑋 + 𝐹𝐴𝑋 = 0

Σ𝐹𝑌 = 0

𝐹𝐴𝑌 = 200𝑁

Σ𝑀𝐴 = 0

−(200)(2) + (1)(𝐹𝐵𝑋 ) = 0

𝐹𝐵𝑋 = 400𝑁

𝐹𝐴𝑋 = −400𝑁
Σ𝐹𝑌 = 0 Σ𝐹𝑥 = 0

𝐹𝐷𝐸 𝑠𝑖𝑛45 = 250 353.55 𝑐𝑜𝑠45 + 𝐹𝐶𝐷 = 0

𝐹𝐷𝐸 = 353.55𝑁 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛) 𝐹𝐷𝐸 = −250𝑁(𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛)

Σ𝐹𝑌 = 0 Σ𝐹𝑥 = 0

353.55𝑐𝑜𝑠45 + 𝐹𝐶𝐸 = 0 353.55𝑠𝑖𝑛45 = 𝐹𝐴𝐸

𝐹𝐶𝐸 = −250𝑁 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛) 𝐹𝐴𝐸 = 250𝑁 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛)

Σ𝐹𝑌 = 0 Σ𝐹𝑋 = 0

𝐹𝐴𝐶 𝑠𝑖𝑛45 = 250 353.55𝑐𝑜𝑠45 + 250 + 𝐹𝐵𝐶 = 0

𝐹𝐴𝐶 = 353.55𝑁 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛) 𝐹𝐵𝐶 = −500𝑁 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛)

Σ𝐹𝑌 = 0

𝐹𝐴𝐸 = 0𝑁
Calculation of force due to 1 unit load:

NDE = 0 N
NDC = 0 N

Σ𝐹𝑌 = 0 Σ𝐹𝑋 = 0

0.71 = 𝑁𝐶𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛45 1𝑐𝑜𝑠45 + 𝑁𝐶𝐵 = 0

𝑁𝐶𝐴 = 1𝑁 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛) 𝑁𝐶𝐵 = −0.71𝑁 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛)

Σ𝐹𝑌 = 0

1𝑠𝑖𝑛45 + 𝑁𝐴𝐵 = 0

𝑁𝐴𝐵
= −0.71𝑁 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛)

Forces in the Redundant Truss:


𝑓𝑛𝑙
P𝐴𝐶 = ∑
𝑛2 𝑙
−710
P𝐴𝐶 = ∑
4.828
P𝐴𝐶 = −147N(Compression)
Conclusion

Based on the result of the experiment, we can see that the indeterminate structure had 1 or
more truss member jointed among the structure. The indeterminate truss structure is more stable
compared to determinate structure as the extra member can support the internal force incase the
specific member failed or having too much internal force. From the experiment, we can learn that
the force of structure member of indeterminate truss cannot be determined directly using joint
method or section method, but need a longer step that require redundant force and table to
determinate the internal force.