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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Chicken is one of the foods of high nutritional value, because it contains

protein and essential amino acids, fats contain essential fatty acids, vitamins and

minerals that are good for the human body as well as the proliferation of bacteria

(Situmorang, 2008)

Contamination by microorganisms in meat may come from infections

while animals still lives or postharvest contamination. post-harvest contamination

is when the contamination on the surface of meat or carcass that may have

occurred since the slaughter of livestock to meat consumption. the cutting process

when in the house slaughtering source of contamination or infection may from the

surrounding soil, skin (dirt on the skin), the contents of the digestive tract, water,

tools that are used during the process of preparing the carcass (eg, knives, saws,

pulleys and hooks and viscera bowls ), dirt, air, and workers (Soeparno, 2005).

Escherichia coli is a bacteria that normally grow in the digestive tract but

under certain circumstances may be able to attack as the pathogen as well as

animals and humans. This bacterium is a bacterium that is bacterial contamination

environment environmental contaminant. This contamination occurs due to a lack

of proper sanitation of trditional market management. These bacteria often

contaminate the products of animal origin include chicken meat.

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Antibiotics have been used extensively since the 1950s for a better

treatment of microbial diseases in humans, and also improve food quality

production. Antibiotics have been used in animal health, prophylaxis and growth

promotion especially in poultry (S. N. Al-Bahry et al., 2006).

Antibiotic resistance to bacterial pathogens have become a worldwide

problem. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance is due to the improper use of

antibiotics for the treatment of humans as well as the use of antibiotics as growth

promoters in animals that have contributed occurrence of antibiotic resistance in

both humans and animals (Barton, 2000).

So far, prevention and treatment of bacterial attack is generally done with

antibiotics and chemicals, but the use of antibiotics was found to cause side

effects for pathogenic bacteria itself and to livestock kept. Microorganisms are

able to develop resistance to drugs through a variety of mechanisms that

microorganisms capable of producing enzymes that can destroy the active drug,

changing its permeability to the drug, developed a different target structure from

the original target, develop metabolic shortcut can not be inhibited by the drug,

and forming an enzyme that has changed but the enzyme can still run metabolic

function but are not affected by drugs such as enzymes in bacteria sensitive.

The main mechanism of bacterial resistance is inactivation of the antibiotic

agent by enzymes produced by bacteria, antibiotics target agent alteration thereby

weakening the effect of antibiotics, lowering the permeability to antibiotics that

can not be achieved concentrations of antibiotics are effective against bacteria and

actively exclude antibiotic agents (Jawet et al., 1995).


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The goal of antibiotic treatment is to render the bacteria helpless (either by

kiling or inhihibit the bacteria replication) and not to hurt the animal when being

treated.this is accomplished by making sure that infecting bacteria are susceptible

to the antibiotic, that antibiotic reaches the the infection site, and that animal can

tolerate the antibiotic. (Romnich, 2010)

This study use non β lactam antibiotic such as tetracyclin, kanamycin,

eritromycin, sulfanamide, which will be carried out sensitivity tests to determine

the sensitivity of the Escherichia coli to non β lactam antibiotic.

1.2 Problem Identification

Based on the background described problems can be formulated as follows:

1.2.1 Can Escherichia coli be isolated and identified from samples of chicken

meat in Surabaya?

1.2.2 Does Escherichia coli isolated resistance to the non Beta – lactam

(tetracyclin, kanamycin, eritromycin, sulfanamide) antibiotic were isolated from

chicken meat in Surabaya?

1.2.3 what is the level of resistency zone of Eschericia Coli which is isolated from

chicken meat?
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1.3 Theoritical Framework

Chicken meat is a food of high nutritional value because it is rich in

protein, fat, minerals and other substances that are needed body. Chicken meat

supply business requires special attention because it is easy and fast chicken meat

contaminated by bacterial growth. Chicken meat is very good for the growth and

breeding of bacteria that can degrade the quality of chicken meat. Decrease in

organoleptic quality of chicken meat that it changes color, flavor, aroma, texture

and even decay. Efforts to improve the quality of chicken meat is done through

handling or processing the better so as to reduce the damage or decay during

storage (Situmorang, 2008).

Contamination occurs on the surface of the meat for chicken meat

distribution process and at points of sale. market as one of the points of sale of

meat and also factors of bacterial contamination. according to chotiah (2009) the

level of microbial contamination in chicken meat that exist in traditional markets

and supermarkets are generally different. supermarket is a market with products

that meet the standards of quality and food safety, while the traditional markets

are generally less attention to cleanliness and hygiene tools and environment.

The Morphology is short rod-shaped Escherichia coli, measuring 0.5 x 1.0

- 3.0 μm, and do not form spores. This bacterium is a gram-negative and

facultative anaerobes (Vogt and Dippold, 2005). Notch each other generally alone,

but can also be in pairs or short chains. Most motile because it has flagella and
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there are not motile, Escherichia coli is a member of the faecal coliform group

and is a more specific indicator of faecal pollution than other faecal coliforms

Resistance is the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to suppress

the effects of antibiotics so that even if livestock are given antibiotics bacteria can

still survive and multiply so that more can harm livestock (Mutschler, 1991).

Antibiotics that often, irrational, and in the long term the more it can increase the

likelihood of emergence of resistant bacteria (Setiabudy, 2007).

1.4 Research Objectives

1) This study aims to isolate and identify of Escherichia coli that were

resistant to the non Beta – lactam (tetracyclin, kanamycin, eritromycin,

sulfanamide) antibiotic were isolated from chicken meat in Surabaya.

2) This study aims to determine the sensitivity of Escherichia coli bacteria to

the non Beta – lactam (tetracyclin, kanamycin, eritromycin, sulfanamide)

antibiotic.

1.5 Outcomes of Research

1) Source of scientific information for non beta lactam antibiotics Resistant

Escherichia coli from chicken meat samples from traditional market in Surabaya.

2) Early warning for humans that animals can be a source of transmission of

non beta lactam antibiotics Resistant Escherichia coli, so that people are more

preventive against yourself when eating chicken.