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SESSION 3

THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO THINKING

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RECAP

We normally think in LINEAR fashion.

We conclude that A  B

Without looking at the other factors.

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HOW WE THINK

The National
Government has Gas prices are
GAS PRICES ARE economic control high because of
Therefore
HIGH and the President the President’s
is the head of doing
government

It is the Local
DETOUR Located in
Therefore Government
ROAD Bustos
of Bustos’ fault

We usually use Aristotelian Logic to explain things: by deductive reasoning.

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BUT WE FAIL TO SEE OTHER FACTORS

Disbursement
process
Limited LGU Reliance on
funds national funding

Baliwag DPWH Project

Bustos
DETOUR The detour is not
the main
ROAD alternate route

We usually use Aristotelian Logic to explain things: by deductive reasoning.

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REMEMBER

SET SYSTEM

 Nothing changes when a part is taken away  Change definitely happens if you add or
or added to this set. take away a part of this system.

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LOOK AT THE FOREST
NOT ON THE TREES
The leader is the one who climbs the
tallest tree, and surveys the entire
situation.

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Question your initial
perceptions.

CHALLENGING Looking at the • Looking at things as a


whole rather than a
bigger picture.
THE WAY WE jumble of parts.

THINK How thing are


represented

• Via direct or indirect


How they change means

How to ask “what if”


questions about
future outcomes

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SYSTEMS THINKING IS THE COMBINATION OF MANY, IF
NOT ALL, THINKING APPROACHES

SCIENTIFIC ANALYTICAL CRITICAL JUDGMENT STRATEGIC MATHEMATICAL CREATIVE SYNTHESIS


THINKING THINKING THINKING THINKING THINKING THINKING
Observation, Breaking the idea Asks four Always based on Mapping out a Arriving at A way of looking Combining
hypothesis, into smaller parts questions: Is it a predetermined course of action solutions based at problems or insights from the
experiment, and studying Reliable? Clear? set of criteria. It towards on an situations from a thesis and the
collect data, them one at a Logical? Fair? never comes achieving a understanding of fresh perspective antithesis (the
conclusion. time. down to what competitive statistics, that suggests negative and the
the judge likes or advantage. percentages, unorthodox positive).
doesn’t probability as solutions.
like. Judgment is well as very large approaches It
supposed to be numbers. problems by
an objective building things up
process as far as and creating
that is possible.

Increases possible outcomes by not being so certain about the starting


Once a starting point is chosen, there are a limited point for any logic process: jump forward, and from side to side, in an
number of logical conclusions to a problem effort to see the big picture.

SCIENTIFIC THINKING
Observation, hypothesis, experiment, collect data, conclusion.
ANALYTICAL THINKING
Breaking the idea into smaller parts and studying them one at a time.
CRITICAL THINKING
Asks four questions: Is it Reliable? Clear? Logical? Fair?
JUDGMENT
Always based on a predetermined set of criteria. It never comes down to what
the judge likes or doesn’t like. Judgment is supposed to be an objective
process as far as that is possible.
STRATEGIC THINKING
Mapping out a course of action towards achieving a competitive advantage.
MATHEMATICAL THINKING
Arriving at solutions based on an understanding of statistics, percentages,
probability as well as very large numbers.
CREATIVE THINKING
A way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh perspective that
suggests unorthodox solutions. approaches It problems by building things up
and creating

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SYNTHESIS
Combining insights from the thesis and the antithesis (the negative and the
positive).

WITH LINEAR THINKING


Once a starting point is chosen, there are a limited number of logical conclusions to a
problem.

WHILE NON-LINEAR THINKING


Increases possible outcomes by not being so certain about the starting point for any
logic process: jump forward, and from side to side, in an effort to see the big picture.

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WE WILL THINK FROM LINES & CURVES TO LOOPS

LINEAR

SYSTEMS
THINKING
NON-
LINEAR

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EXAMPLE

WORK
STRESS

PERFECTIONISM
FERNAN’S WEIGHT APPETITE

METABOLISM DISCRIMINATING
PALETTE

FOOD
AVAILABILITY

Ano ang napansin dito?


• All factors are interconnected and interrelated.
• There are no beginnings and no endings.
• We wrote factors using their neutral terms.
• The arrows connote action: cause to effect.

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CREATE A CAUSAL LOOP DIAGRAM FOR

FOR 10 POINTS
DEDUCTION OF 1 POINT FOR EVERY UNANSWERED WHY AND
STUPID OR ILLOGICAL REASONING
DETOUR
ROAD

Taking into consideration


all possible causes and
factors

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PRESENTATION
CAUSAL LOOP DIAGRAM

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Organize things
according to what they
do, not what they are
SYSTEMS
THINKING IS A
MINDSET Insight and
“What is to be done”
understanding of
not “how is it done”
systems

Purpose, context,
interconnectivity and
behavior

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Understanding
Solving a
a complex
problem
situation
WHY DO YOU
NEED TO LEARN
SYSTEMS
THINKING? Creating a
new system
Predicting
future system
behavior

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