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Electronics and Communication Systems

Fourth Edition
George Kennedy and Bernard Davis

1.0 Basic Communications

1-1 Communications
Communications – 1840’s with Wire Telegraphy
Radio Communications – Invention of Triode Tube
Amplifiers and Oscillators – Building Blocks of all Electronic Processes

1-2 Communications Systems

Bits and Dits – Unit of Measurement (Binary Digits)
Modulation – Maybe High Level or Low Level
Channel – Frequency Range allocated
Noise may interfere at any point in the Communication System
Most Receivers conform to the Superheterodyne group

1-3 Modulation
Audio Frequency Range – 20Hz – 20KHz
Telephone Conversation – 300Hz – 3400Hz
Amplitude – Volume
Frequency – Pitch

1-4 Bandwidth Requirements

Sine Wave, Square Wave, Sawtooth Wave, Triangular Wave
Wave Analyzer – High Gain Tunable Amplifier with a Narrow Band Pass

2.0 Noise

2-1 External Noise

Atmospheric Noise
 Field strength is inversely proportional to frequency
 Less severe at 30MHZ

Extraterrestrial Noise
 Solar Noise
11 years – solar cycle disturbances repeat
 Cosmic Noise/Thermal/Black-Body
Cassiopeia A
Cygnus A
 8MHZ – 1.43GHZ
Industrial Noise
 1 – 600MHZ

2-2 Internal Noise

Thermal Agitation/Thermal/Agitation/White/Johnson/Brownian Noise
 Boltzmann’s Constant [1.38x10-23 J/K]
 K = 273+OC
 The Resistor is a Noise Generator

Shot Noise
 Shower of Lead Shot
 Random Variations in the Arrival of Electrons
 Outputs at the Electrode
 Shot Noise Current
 e=1.6x10-19C
 in  2ei p B

Transit-Time Noise
 Transit-Time Effect concerns the travel time of electrons for Emitter-Collector
 Frequency Distortion - Fluctuations at certain Frequencies

Miscellaneous Noise
 Flicker Noise
o Modulation Noise/Pink Noise/ 1/f Noise / Excess Noise
o Low Audio Frequencies
o Completely ignored at 500Hz
 Resistance Noise
o Present in transistors
o Thermal Noise
o Base, Emitter and Collector Resistances
o Constant at above 500Hz

 Noise in Mixers
o Conversion Transconductance
o Image Frequency Rejection

2-3 Noise Calculations

Addition of Noise due to Several Sources
 Boltzmann’s Constant [1.38x10-23 J/K]
 Vn  4kTBR

Addition of Noise due to Several Amplifiers in Cascade

 Resistances at the input and output of an Amplifier

Noise in Reactive Circuits

 Resistance at Resonant Frequency

2-4 Noise Figure

Signal-To-Noise Ratio
S X s Vs / R Vs
   
N X n V n 2 / R Vn
 Ratio of the Signal-to-Noise Power supplied to the input terminals of a
receiver or amplifier to the Signal-to-Noise Power supplied to the output or
resistor load.
Noise Figure from Equivalent Noise Resistance
 The equivalent noise resistance of an amplifier is the sum of the input
terminating resistances of the previous stages

Noise Figure from Measurement

 Diode Noise Generator
o If computations are not practicable
o Included at the recevier is an Amplifier Under Test

2-5 Noise Temperature

 Noise Figure is not always the most convenient measure of Noise
 Greater Variation for any given Noise Level Change
3.0 Amplitude Modulation

3-1 Amplitude Modulation Theory

 The Amplitude of the Carrier is Varied by the Modulating Voltage
 Carrier is at HF while modulation is Audio

Frequency Spectrum of the AM Wave

 m=Vm/Vc
 Modulation Index ranges from 0-1
 Distortion occurs if Vm>Vc
 BW=2fm
 Example of Tuned LC Circuit was stated

Representation of AM
 The Central Frequency, the Carrier, has the highest Amplitude
 Sidebands’ Amplitudes can never exceed half the carrier’s
 Top and Bottom Envelope
 Vm; Vc; m; Vmax; Vmin

Power Relations in the AM Wave

 P t; P c
 Pt= 1.5Pc when m=1
 Current Calculations
 Modulation by Several Sine Waves
 Modulation Index must not exceed unity

3-2 Generation of AM
 The AM Transmitter and The AM Generator (Laboratory)

Basic Requirements-Comparison of Levels

 Flywheel Effect - Good Approximation of an AM Wave will result if the
original current are made proportional to the modulating Voltage
 This is possible in tuned circuit whose Q is not too low
 Cathode: Emitter
 Anode: Plate/Collector
 Grid: Base
 If the output stage in the Transmitter is PLATE-MODULATED, the system is
 If MODULATED in any other POINT, the system is called LOW-LEVEL
o Both have stable RF Source, Buffer Amplifiers and RF Power Amplifiers
o Both process AUDIO VOLTAGE
o Both have POWER AUDIO FREQUENCY Amplifiers
o The point at which Modulation takes place
 The Higher the Level of Modulation, the larger the AUDIO POWER required
 Class A Amplifiers are capable of handling Amplitude Variations
 Plate-Modulated Class C Amplifiers have:
o Better Efficiency
o Lower Distortion
o Better Power Handling
Grid-Modulated Class C Amplifier
 Fixed Battery Bias
 Amount of Bias is proportional to the Amount of Modulating Signal
 The Application of Pulses will yield Amplitude Modulation
 No Distortion will occur if the Transfer Characteristic of the Triode is Perfectly
 Maximum Efficiency for Class C Amplifier is obtained when the Grid is driven
to the Limit
 Harmonics are reduced by operating the amplifier in push-pull
 Harmonics results from the Nonlinearity of the Transfer Characteristic of the

Plate-Modulated Class C Amplifier

 Standard and most widely used method of obtaining Amplitude Modulation
 Final Power Amplifier is the Power Amplifier
 Anode-B Modulation is the application of the output of the modulating
Amplifier to the Power Amplifier through an Audio Output Transformer
 Class B Modulator provides good AUDIO Efficiency
 Transformer Modulation Using Triode
 Plate Modulation of Tetrode

Modulated Transistor Amplifiers

 Transistor at Low Power Level (Modern High Power AM Transmitter)
 For MAXIMUM POWER OUTPUT, Modulated Transistor Amplifiers have
Push-Pull Final Amplifier

4.0 Single-Sideband Techniques

4-1 Evolution and Description of SSB

 Physical Length of the Antenna must equal the wavelength of the transmitted
signal, usually in the RF Range
 The Audio signal is much too long to be transmitted directly by a conventional
 The Intelligence or Audio must be processed by the electronic circuitry to
meet transmission requirements of the system. This process is MIXING
 A reference carrier is reinserted to maintain AUDIO QUALITY, EFFICIENCY and
 DSBFC is officially known as A3E

4-2 Suppression of Carrier

4-3 Suppression of Unwanted Sideband

4-4 Extensions of SSB

7.0 Transmission Lines

7-1 Basic Principles

 Transmission Lines are Impedance-Matching Circuits
 Transmission Lines are Systems of Wires
 Fundamentals of Transmission Lines
o Parallel-Wire or Balanced
o Coaxial Cable or Unbalanced
 Parallel-Wire
o Folded-Dipole to TV Receiver
o Rhombic Antenna to an HF Tx
 Coaxial Cable
o Broadcast Tx to its Ground Antenna
o UHF and Microwave Frequency @ 18 GHz

*Any system of conductors is likely to radiate RF Energy if the Conductor Separation

approaches One-Half Wavelength.

*Lines maybe Rigid or Flexible, Air-Spaced or Filled with Different Dielectric with
Smooth or Corrugated Conductors.

 Flexible Lines are much easier to Stow and Transport.

 Rigid Lines can carry mush Powers and are easier to make Air Dielectric
than Solid Dielectric

*Solid Dielectrics have higher Losses than Air Dielectric as the Frequencies are

 Nitrogen Under Pressure avoids corrosion and is less reactive

 Dry Air Under Pressure avoids Moisture
 Dielectric is a medium formed when two wires are closely place together

*At Radio Frequency, the Inductive Reactance is much greater than Resistance and
the Capacitive Susceptance is much larger than Shunt Conductance.

*Any circuit that has series and shunt impedances must have input impedance.

 Characteristic Impedance or SURGE IMPEDANCE

o A reference input impedance as regards to certain standards and
o The impedance measured at the input of this line when its length is
o It should be considered purely Resistive

 Types of Losses
o Radiation
 Transmission Lines act as Antennas
o Conductor Heating
 I2R Loss
 Skin Effect occurs when frequency increases
o Dielectric Heating
 Voltage is Directly Proportional to Dielectric Heating
 Velocity Factor
o Velocity Reduction Ratio

 Standing Waves
A pattern made by V and I
V and I are out of phase basically at 180o

 Traveling Waves
V and I are in phase

*A line terminated in its characteristic impedance is a non-resonant, resistive or flat


 Standing Wave Ratio or SWR

The ratio of the maximum current to the minimum current
The ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum voltage
Measure of Mismatch between the load and the line

*If the load is reactive, SWR is infinity.

*The higher the SWR, the greater the mismatch.

 Quarter and Half-Wavelength Lines