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Electronics and Communication Systems

Fourth Edition
George Kennedy and Bernard Davis

1.0 Basic Communications

1-1 Communications
Communications – 1840’s with Wire Telegraphy
Radio Communications – Invention of Triode Tube
Amplifiers and Oscillators – Building Blocks of all Electronic Processes

1-2 Communications Systems


Bits and Dits – Unit of Measurement (Binary Digits)
Modulation – Maybe High Level or Low Level
Channel – Frequency Range allocated
Noise may interfere at any point in the Communication System
Most Receivers conform to the Superheterodyne group

1-3 Modulation
Audio Frequency Range – 20Hz – 20KHz
Telephone Conversation – 300Hz – 3400Hz
Amplitude – Volume
Frequency – Pitch

1-4 Bandwidth Requirements


Sine Wave, Square Wave, Sawtooth Wave, Triangular Wave
Wave Analyzer – High Gain Tunable Amplifier with a Narrow Band Pass

2.0 Noise

2-1 External Noise


Atmospheric Noise
 Field strength is inversely proportional to frequency
 Less severe at 30MHZ

Extraterrestrial Noise
 Solar Noise
11 years – solar cycle disturbances repeat
 Cosmic Noise/Thermal/Black-Body
Cassiopeia A
Cygnus A
 8MHZ – 1.43GHZ
Industrial Noise
 1 – 600MHZ

2-2 Internal Noise


Thermal Agitation/Thermal/Agitation/White/Johnson/Brownian Noise
 Boltzmann’s Constant [1.38x10-23 J/K]
 K = 273+OC
 The Resistor is a Noise Generator

Shot Noise
 Shower of Lead Shot
 Random Variations in the Arrival of Electrons
 Outputs at the Electrode
 Shot Noise Current
 e=1.6x10-19C
 in  2ei p B

Transit-Time Noise
 Transit-Time Effect concerns the travel time of electrons for Emitter-Collector
 Frequency Distortion - Fluctuations at certain Frequencies

Miscellaneous Noise
 Flicker Noise
o Modulation Noise/Pink Noise/ 1/f Noise / Excess Noise
o Low Audio Frequencies
o Completely ignored at 500Hz
 Resistance Noise
o Present in transistors
o Thermal Noise
o Base, Emitter and Collector Resistances
o Constant at above 500Hz

 Noise in Mixers
o Conversion Transconductance
o Image Frequency Rejection

2-3 Noise Calculations


Addition of Noise due to Several Sources
 Boltzmann’s Constant [1.38x10-23 J/K]
 Vn  4kTBR

Addition of Noise due to Several Amplifiers in Cascade


 Resistances at the input and output of an Amplifier

Noise in Reactive Circuits


 Resistance at Resonant Frequency

2-4 Noise Figure


Signal-To-Noise Ratio
2
S X s Vs / R Vs
   
N X n V n 2 / R Vn
Definition
 Ratio of the Signal-to-Noise Power supplied to the input terminals of a
receiver or amplifier to the Signal-to-Noise Power supplied to the output or
resistor load.
Noise Figure from Equivalent Noise Resistance
 The equivalent noise resistance of an amplifier is the sum of the input
terminating resistances of the previous stages

Noise Figure from Measurement


 Diode Noise Generator
o If computations are not practicable
o Included at the recevier is an Amplifier Under Test

2-5 Noise Temperature


 Noise Figure is not always the most convenient measure of Noise
 Greater Variation for any given Noise Level Change
3.0 Amplitude Modulation

3-1 Amplitude Modulation Theory


 The Amplitude of the Carrier is Varied by the Modulating Voltage
 Carrier is at HF while modulation is Audio

Frequency Spectrum of the AM Wave


 m=Vm/Vc
 Modulation Index ranges from 0-1
 Distortion occurs if Vm>Vc
 BW=2fm
 Example of Tuned LC Circuit was stated

Representation of AM
 The Central Frequency, the Carrier, has the highest Amplitude
 Sidebands’ Amplitudes can never exceed half the carrier’s
 Top and Bottom Envelope
 Vm; Vc; m; Vmax; Vmin

Power Relations in the AM Wave


 P t; P c
 Pt= 1.5Pc when m=1
 Current Calculations
 Modulation by Several Sine Waves
 Modulation Index must not exceed unity

3-2 Generation of AM
 The AM Transmitter and The AM Generator (Laboratory)

Basic Requirements-Comparison of Levels


 Flywheel Effect - Good Approximation of an AM Wave will result if the
original current are made proportional to the modulating Voltage
 This is possible in tuned circuit whose Q is not too low
 Cathode: Emitter
 Anode: Plate/Collector
 Grid: Base
 If the output stage in the Transmitter is PLATE-MODULATED, the system is
called HIGH-LEVEL MODULATION
 If MODULATED in any other POINT, the system is called LOW-LEVEL
MODULATION
 COMPARISON: HIGH and LOW LEVEL MODULATION
o Both have stable RF Source, Buffer Amplifiers and RF Power Amplifiers
o Both process AUDIO VOLTAGE
o Both have POWER AUDIO FREQUENCY Amplifiers
 CONTRAST: HIGH and LOW LEVEL MODULATION
o The point at which Modulation takes place
 The Higher the Level of Modulation, the larger the AUDIO POWER required
 Class A Amplifiers are capable of handling Amplitude Variations
 Plate-Modulated Class C Amplifiers have:
o Better Efficiency
o Lower Distortion
o Better Power Handling
Grid-Modulated Class C Amplifier
 Fixed Battery Bias
 Amount of Bias is proportional to the Amount of Modulating Signal
 The Application of Pulses will yield Amplitude Modulation
 No Distortion will occur if the Transfer Characteristic of the Triode is Perfectly
Linear
 Maximum Efficiency for Class C Amplifier is obtained when the Grid is driven
to the Limit
 Harmonics are reduced by operating the amplifier in push-pull
 Harmonics results from the Nonlinearity of the Transfer Characteristic of the
triode

Plate-Modulated Class C Amplifier


 Standard and most widely used method of obtaining Amplitude Modulation
 Final Power Amplifier is the Power Amplifier
 Anode-B Modulation is the application of the output of the modulating
Amplifier to the Power Amplifier through an Audio Output Transformer
 Class B Modulator provides good AUDIO Efficiency
 Transformer Modulation Using Triode
 Plate Modulation of Tetrode

Modulated Transistor Amplifiers


 Transistor at Low Power Level (Modern High Power AM Transmitter)
 For MAXIMUM POWER OUTPUT, Modulated Transistor Amplifiers have
Push-Pull Final Amplifier

4.0 Single-Sideband Techniques

4-1 Evolution and Description of SSB


 Physical Length of the Antenna must equal the wavelength of the transmitted
signal, usually in the RF Range
 The Audio signal is much too long to be transmitted directly by a conventional
antenna
 The Intelligence or Audio must be processed by the electronic circuitry to
meet transmission requirements of the system. This process is MIXING
 A reference carrier is reinserted to maintain AUDIO QUALITY, EFFICIENCY and
HIGH FIDELITY
 DSBFC is officially known as A3E

4-2 Suppression of Carrier

4-3 Suppression of Unwanted Sideband

4-4 Extensions of SSB


7.0 Transmission Lines

7-1 Basic Principles


 Transmission Lines are Impedance-Matching Circuits
 Transmission Lines are Systems of Wires
 Fundamentals of Transmission Lines
o Parallel-Wire or Balanced
o Coaxial Cable or Unbalanced
 Parallel-Wire
o Folded-Dipole to TV Receiver
o Rhombic Antenna to an HF Tx
 Coaxial Cable
o Broadcast Tx to its Ground Antenna
o UHF and Microwave Frequency @ 18 GHz

*Any system of conductors is likely to radiate RF Energy if the Conductor Separation


approaches One-Half Wavelength.

*Lines maybe Rigid or Flexible, Air-Spaced or Filled with Different Dielectric with
Smooth or Corrugated Conductors.

 Flexible Lines are much easier to Stow and Transport.


 Rigid Lines can carry mush Powers and are easier to make Air Dielectric
than Solid Dielectric

*Solid Dielectrics have higher Losses than Air Dielectric as the Frequencies are
increased

 Nitrogen Under Pressure avoids corrosion and is less reactive


 Dry Air Under Pressure avoids Moisture
 Dielectric is a medium formed when two wires are closely place together

*At Radio Frequency, the Inductive Reactance is much greater than Resistance and
the Capacitive Susceptance is much larger than Shunt Conductance.

*Any circuit that has series and shunt impedances must have input impedance.

 Characteristic Impedance or SURGE IMPEDANCE


o A reference input impedance as regards to certain standards and
conditions
o The impedance measured at the input of this line when its length is
infinite
o It should be considered purely Resistive

 Types of Losses
o Radiation
 Transmission Lines act as Antennas
o Conductor Heating
 I2R Loss
 Skin Effect occurs when frequency increases
o Dielectric Heating
 Voltage is Directly Proportional to Dielectric Heating
 Velocity Factor
o Velocity Reduction Ratio

 Standing Waves
o
A pattern made by V and I
o
V and I are out of phase basically at 180o

 Traveling Waves
o
V and I are in phase

*A line terminated in its characteristic impedance is a non-resonant, resistive or flat


line.

 Standing Wave Ratio or SWR


o
The ratio of the maximum current to the minimum current
o
The ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum voltage
o
Measure of Mismatch between the load and the line

*If the load is reactive, SWR is infinity.


*The higher the SWR, the greater the mismatch.

 Quarter and Half-Wavelength Lines


o