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1. 5 Components of Fitness
Analyzing Physical Fitness
There has been a lot of confusion centered on the question of what is physical fitness? It
is very important you understand the question thoroughly if you are anxious to get your
own body into the best possible condition.
There are two types of physical fitness. Skill Related fitness and health related fitness.
The skill related fitness items are factors which relate to the possibility of people
becoming good athletes. Are people fast or do they have good eye-hand coordination?
The health related components relate to how well the systems of your body operate. Are
your heart and other muscles of the body in good shape? Are your arteries, capillaries,
and lungs in good shape? This type of physical fitness is related to your overall state of
health. In this class we will focus on health related fitness. There are five components of
health related fitness: Aerobic Capacity, Flexibility, Muscular Strength, Muscular
Endurance, and Body Composition.
Aerobic Capacity
Aerobic Capacity deals with the ability of the heart, blood, blood vessels, and the
respiratory system to supply oxygen and necessary fuel to the muscles during exercise.
The best type of exercise for achieving cardiovascular fitness is aerobic exercise. Aerobic
exercises are those activities which force the body to handle a large amount of oxygen for
a sustained period of time. By sustained, we mean the exercise should be done for at least
15-30 minutes to get the important benefits. Examples of aerobic exercises are: jogging,
cycling, swimming, rope jumping, and aerobic dancing. Certain sports activities also
provide the type of demand needed to achieve an aerobic training effect, such as
basketball and soccer. Aerobic exercise is a very important key to safeguarding both your
physical and mental health and it should be done 30 to 60 min a day.

Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance

Muscular strength and endurance are two components which are very closely related and
are of extreme importance to teenagers. Muscular Strength is the ability of muscles to
exert a force one time. Muscular endurance is the ability to use skeletal muscles for long
periods of time. In the past, there has been a gap between young men and young women
from the standpoint of how much interest they had in muscular strength and muscular
endurance development. The gap is closing rapidly as more women are realizing the
importance of improving their muscles.

Differences in Males and Females

Today, women are more anxious than ever before to have firm and well-toned bodies.
The important fact to remember is most females do not have and will not develop large
muscles for the simple reason they do not have enough of the necessary hormones.
Young men on the other hand, not only have the ability to improve muscular strength and
endurance, they also can greatly increase muscular development, you will also be
improving your body image.
Flexibility means the range of movement possible at various joints. This fitness
component is probably the most frequently overlooked since people can get along
without being very flexible, particularly if they are inactive and do not wish to operate
near their maximum potential. If you want to be as good as you can be, you must work on
your flexibility just as regularly as you do your muscular strength and endurance or your
cardiovascular efficiency. It also helps reduce the risk of injury.

Body Composition
Body Composition, the fifth component of health related fitness, is the relative percent of
muscle, fat, bone and other tissues of which the body is composed. Some of your friend,
and hopefully you too, are very fit and therefore, have a relatively low percentage of
body fat. Most young adults desire a low percentage of body fat. Your body image may
suffer, if your percent of body fat is too high. Looking good and feeling good depends a
great deal on the percentage of fat on your body. Information you gain from this reading,
put to practice, it will help you to achieve an ideal body weight and an appropriate level
of body fat. Eating a balanced and healthy diet can help lower or maintain your
percentage of body fat. When you think of physical fitness, think of these five
components. You do not have to be a great athlete to be physically fit. Physical fitness is
a personal thing and should always be viewed in this manner.

Skill Related Fitness

These factors are agility, balance, reaction time, coordination, speed and power.

Agility is the ability to change the position of your body and to control the movement of
your whole body. Balance is the ability to keep an upright posture, while either standing
still or moving. Power is the ability to do strength performances at a rapid pace. Reaction
Time is the amount of time it takes to get moving once you see the need to move.
Coordination is the integration of eye, hand and foot movements. Speed is the ability to
cover a distance in a short time. The sprints in track obviously require speed. As you can
see, these six skills related components of fitness related entirely to being successful in
athletics. They have little to do with the qualities necessary for a healthy lifestyle and a
high level of physical fitness. They are related to skill. It is also important to understand
that at least two of the skill factors, reaction time and speed are very hard to change. The
beautiful thing about health related fitness is that people may begin to see a change in
their cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibility in a
surprisingly short period of time
Progression Principle
A principle of training that establishes increases in the amount and intensity of physical
activity needed to improvement over periods of time.

Specificity Principle
Activities and exercise are specific and limited to parts of the body that are needed for
improvement or necessary for success in a desired activity or sport.

Overload Principle
States that placing a greater than normal physical demand on the body will require the
body to adapt to the grater load by increasing the body’s efficiency and strength.

F. I. T. T.
Frequency: How often
Intensity: How hard
Time: How long
Type: The type of activity you are going to do. Could include variations of the desired
exercise; example: if focusing on pushups, a workout could include various modifications
of pushups, fitness gram pushups, standard pushups, knee pushups, wall pushups, clap
pushups etc…

What advice would you give us when we know we should exercise, but we just don’t
feel up for it?

My answer to them is what I’d tell anyone, child or adult:

Don’t look at it as exercise — instead, play games and sports and have a ton of
fun! The main thing is just to get outside every day and do something you think is
fun. You can play sports like soccer, basketball, baseball, or badminton. You can
play games like freeze tag or ride a bike or do running races with your friends or
family. You can go on hikes with your family or go swimming or paddling. Do lots
of different things, and again, focus on having fun, and doing it often.

Michelle and Casen’s class, which has created the excellent Kids Read and
Ride program, took this advice to heart and came up with 48 Fun Ways to
Exercise. This is a good list for anyone:
1. Aerobics
2. Ballet
3. Baseball
4. Basketball
5. Biking
6. Boating
7. Bowling
8. Boxing
9. Canoeing
10. Dance Revolution
11. Dancing
12. Double Dutch
13. Field Hockey
14. Football
15. Frisbee
16. Golf
17. Gymnastics
18. Hiking
19. Hockey
20. Hopscotch
21. Horseback Riding
22. Hula hooping
23. Ice Skating
24. Jogging
25. Juggling
26. Jump rope
27. Laser tag
28. Paintball
29. Ping-Pong
30. Playing catch
31. Rock Climbing
32. Roller Blading
33. Roller Skating
34. Running
35. Skateboarding
36. Skiing
37. Soccer
38. Softball
39. Swimming
40. Tae Kwon Do
41. Tennis
42. Trampoline
43. Treadmill
44. Unicycling
45. Volleyball
46. Walking
47. Weightlifting
48. Wii sports games

My recommendation is to choose one of these activities, most days of the week

(4-5 days perhaps). If you go out, have fun, enjoy the activity, it won’t feel like
“exercise” … but you’ll be getting fit and healthy in the meantime.

*click on link for weight room workouts.