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GPHY 101 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

Week 1 – Introduction:
• Human geographers do not just study where things are, but also why they are there,
which can be useful in overcoming issues of close-mindedness/discrimination
• We as humans know the world through interactions and experiences
o This leads to the gaining of knowledge
• Maps are tools that layout the different experiences of places that we have had, and are
often only approximations rather than including every detail of a certain place
• Mental maps are different from normal maps as they show what matters in a place to a
specific individual

Vocabulary:

Human The study of people’s relationships with the environment in different areas of
Geography the world, as well as the study of spatial organization of human activity
Latitude The distance (angular) of a point measured in degrees on the surface of the
Earth that runs north to south
Longitude The distance (angular) of a point measured in degrees on the surface of the
Earth that runs east to west
Place Each person has their own meaning of a place which is contingent, changing
with the experiences a person has; experience is what defines a place
Mental A map that shows a specific person’s perception of a place; may not be
Map accurate, but relates to that person’s life and the experiences they have in
different places
Sample Questions:

T or F: Space is a concept of its True


own, different from the term
location.
Give one example of how One way that a place can be contingent could be when a
places are contingent. natural disaster occurs, such as a fire. That fire could
destroy houses and the environment around them,
changing that place for a lot of people.
T or F: Maps can lie. True
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 2 - Labour
• The Tomato Trail: how tomatoes originally came from Mexico and how they became a
staple in Canada
o Seasonal migrant workers from places like Jamaica, Mexico, and other
Caribbean islands come to Canada to work in the fields
▪ These workers have basically no rights and are still forced to pay taxes
even though they do not get to enjoy any of the benefits
o The landscape of Canadian fields changes because of migrant workers, and
those workers’ countries change because of the money that they send home
• World Systems:
o In the 16th Century world system, increased trade and political competition was
occurring; Europeans were beginning to explore other areas of the world by sea
which led to expansion and helped Europe emerge as a core region
o In the modern world system, the core dominates over periphery and semi-
periphery regions; these regions rely on the core for trade to support their
economies
o Canada’s switch from a periphery country to a semi-periphery country occurred
in the 19th century due to their resources; they manufactured products for the
core

Vocabulary:

Globalization The interconnectedness of cultures and economics across the


globe, as well as new technologies and ideas
Colonization The taking over of land beyond a nation’s own regions; usually
a resource-based expansion
O.I.D.L (Old International The old division of labour in which periphery countries would
Division of Labour) provide raw resources to core countries to turn into finished
products
N.I.D.L (New The current division of labour in which both resources and
International Division of manufacturing occurs in periphery countries, while more
Labour) knowledge intensive jobs occur in the core regions

TNCs (Transnational A large company that has investments and does work in
Corporations) multiple regions and has smaller factories/companies in
different areas of the world; (examples: Ford, Nestle)
Spatial Justice The equality/fairness related to the allocation of society’s costs
and benefits; spatial justice varies throughout the world, often
based upon wealth and world systems
Commodity Chain The processes and people involved in a finished product,
including the extraction of raw materials, the manufacturing
within factories, and the transportation of goods to stores
Sample Questions:

Which of the following is a characteristic e. all of the above; all of these characteristics
of globalization? are interdependent of each other and cannot
a. internationalization of financial markets be analyzed in isolation from each other
b. new international division of labour
c. new technology system
d. growth of consumer markets
e. all of the above
How are the workers in tomato fields They are from other areas of the world, they
different from local Canadians? do not get paid as much as most Canadians,
they do not get the same benefits even though
they have to pay taxes, they are mostly men,
they can be asked to leave the country at any
time, etc.
Who is responsible for the N.I.D.L.? Transnational Corporations (TNCs)
T or F: A transnational corporation (TNC, False
also called a ‘multinational corporation’ or
MNC) is a fairly simple form of production
with very little relationship to the New
International Division of Labour (N.I.D.L.).
What is the cause of the globalization that Telecommunication technologies, a new
has occurred during the past 35 years? international division of labour,
homogenization of international consumer
markets, and the internationalization of finance
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 3 – Spatial Justice and Health


• Where things go (such as waste, factories, etc.) is often in relation with who lives there
o For example, you would not see a pulp mine in a rich community, but rather were
people are living in poverty or in disadvantaged countries
o Pictou, Nova Scotia Pulp Mine
▪ Indigenous peoples are mainly hired to work on the pulp mine whose
waste is being dumped into the landowning areas of Pictou
▪ Local women realized the health concerns (physical, mental, physical)
associated with the waste and filed a lawsuit against the government
▪ Nova Scotia offered 1million to drop the lawsuit, but in 2014, a water pipe
burst and resulted in a protest because of the contaminated water
• There are three main modern world systems today:
o Core Regions
o Peripheral Regions
o Semi-Peripheral Regions
• There are various spatial injustices associated with globalization, including:
o Marginalization
o Exploitation
o Neglect
o Economic Disparity
• A new technology system has begun to rearrange the Core
o Information is easier to be processes and sent abroad
o Containers are going to be the same size to make transport easier between
ships, trucks, and trains
• Due to the amount of new technologies being introduced, a lot of e-waste is being
produced, more than often from wealthier nations
o The most common e-waste includes computers, phones, TVs, etc.
o In 1989, countries signed the Basel Convention which made is illegal for wealthy
countries to offload their waste into less wealthy countries with poor
environmental and labour regulations
o Some e-waste is toxic, containing many carcinogens and neurotoxic compounds,
but there are also components of e-waste that are valuable, such as gold and
copper
• Planned obsolescence
o Companies constantly create new versions of their technologies (like iPhone) so
that people are pressured to buy them because they are advertised as better and
improved, even though their current technologies are perfectly fine
o This ultimately creates a lot of e-waste as people dispose of their old
technologies for the new technologies

Vocabulary:

Core Industrialized/wealthy countries that are very productive, have a dominant


Regions trading system, and have the most global wealth; Peripheral and semi-
peripheral regions often depend on the core regions (US, Canada, UK, Japan)
Peripheral Do not have as high productivity as core regions and are often classified as
Regions undeveloped – more undeveloped than semi-peripheral regions (e.g. most of
Africa, Russia, the Middle East, Central America)
Semi- These regions are working on becoming developed countries (rather than
Peripheral industrialized, they are industrializing); In between core and periphery (e.g.
Regions Mexico, Brazil, China, India, South Africa)
Fordism A mass production system that was first used by Ford’s car company
Neo- Similar to Fordism, but more flexibility is added to the distribution/marketing
Fordism system; example: Toyota
Sample Questions:

Which are some of the key principles Capacity building (improvement of skills),
of Fair-Trade initiatives? opportunity, fair evaluation of women’s labour,
safe working conditions, fair price
T or F: Resource consumption, True
landscape modification, diffusion of
disease, climate change, and
production of waste are all issues
relating to contemporary globalization.
Which are the main countries that e- China, India, and Pakistan
waste is sent to be taken apart and
reused?
What are some of the issues Containers are allowed to fly flags of countries
associated with the shipping industry? other than their own, countries with low
environmental and social standards. This often
means that they can pay the workers much less
than minimum wage. The ships also let a lot of
bad chemicals into the air, such as sulfur and
leftover metals, due to the bunker fuel that they
use.
T or F: Uneven political-economic True
relations are thought to contribute to
the international movement of waste.
China, India and Pakistan are the
largest e-waste recyclers.
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 4 – Food Security and Diversity


• Three main food systems in the world:
o Agro-Industrial food system
o Local/Alternative food system
o Cross-Cultural food system
• Agro-Industrial food system
o This system came about in the early 20th century and prospered after WWII
▪ This is because once the war ended, chemical companies were out of
businesses and turned to the food industry
o Our entire Canadian geography is structured around making the Agro-Industrial
food system work
▪ Things are built in specific places to make sure that the majority of people
have access to Agro-Industrial food
▪ Examples include shopping malls, fast-food restaurants, big-box grocery
stores
• Local/Alternative food system
o In this food system, both the environment and people are treated well
o Some examples could include the slow food movement (campaign against fast
food chains), plant-based diets like vegetarianism or veganism, the 100 Mile diet
(eating within 100 miles within your food shed), reclaiming of Indigenous food
system, and urban agriculture, such as growing food in your home, buying at
farmers markets, or rooftop gardening
• Cross-Cultural food system
o When a person moves from one place to another, they also bring their countries
food habits and dishes with them
o This type of ethnic foods that have come from other areas of the world are not
necessarily a part of the industrial system or the local system
▪ It also may not be considered great for the environment if certain foods
need to be imported from other countries

Vocabulary:

Agro-Industrial The main food system that has the highest demand in the world and is
Food System mainly highly processed/synthetic foods; heavy use of pesticides
because the goal is to produce quantity over quality
Local/Alternativ A shift from quantity to quality; alternative foods can include locally
e Food System grown, food produced by fair trade, organic crops, etc.
Cross-Cultural A food system that involves food migrating to different areas of the
Food System world; one example is Chinatown because Chinese people migrated to
the US and brought their food with them
Sample Questions:

What are some of the costs There are environmental, social, and health costs
associated with the Agro- associated with the Agro-Industrial food system. Some
Industrial food system? environmental costs include land preservation, a large
carbon footprint, poor animal welfare, use of
pesticides/herbicides, and soil degradation. Social costs
include limited access to culturally appropriate foods, lack
of justice in the migrant worker program, and corporate
shutdowns. Health costs include lack of access to healthier
foods, a bad diet that can lead to obesity, diabetes and
heart conditions, and the fact that even though there is
clearly a lot of food in the world, there are still people
starving in impoverished areas.
Why is local organic food Local food is beneficial not only to humans but to the
beneficial? environment as well. With the decreased use of pesticides,
the soil is protected, and humans are not ingesting
chemicals. With the decreased distance for transportation,
fewer fossil fuels are produced and the food is fresher
T or F: An iconic example – True
some might say triumph – of
the industrialization of food is
fast food.
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 5 – Cities and Social Division


• Regent Park
o Located in downtown Toronto, Regent Park is an Irish immigrant community in
poor living
o The idea behind Regent Park was to replace the previous slum housing with a
single income group under one landlord, have a single developer/architect, have
one master plan, make it looks new, modern, and separate from everything else,
and have high-rise buildings
o There were many negatives associated with Regent Park and it did not work as
planned
• St. Lawrence
o Also located in downtown Toronto, St. Lawrence, but was a success rather than
a failure
o St. Lawrence included a mix of income groups, a mix of developers/architects,
diversified management, preserved existing buildings, extended streets into rest
of city (to not look out of place), low and medium rise buildings, etc.
• Although US and Canadian cities are similar in many ways, they are also very different
from each other, from public transport to tax systems to racial issues
o The textbook argues that these differences have to do with government
regulation

Vocabulary:

Anthropocene The period of time occurring right now in which humans are having
revolutionary effects on the planet, those of which are not good or
beneficial to the future of the environment we live in; 80% of
anthropogenic emissions come from cities
Congregation People gathering together for various reasons, such as Chinatown,
churches, gated communities for wealthy people, etc.
Segregation A result of congregation, but more forced and including aspects of
discrimination
Gentrification The process of older working-class neighborhoods being taken over and
renovated by wealthy people to create more upper-class housing
Sample Questions:

T or F: The negatives associated with True


Regent Park, Toronto include:
Everyone knows that the inhabitants
are poor, drugs/guns are being sold,
looks out of place from the surrounding
area, family housing is on streets where
you would have to walk past drug
dealers, etc.
What is the main dictating factor of Economics
most demographic structures of cities?
How are Canadian and US cities There is large economic boom in both countries,
similar? similar construction styles, dominated by car
structures, the presentation of local
governments, massive immigration giving rise to
urban centres and diverse communities, and
both countries have had an increase in
population in their cities
How are Canadian and US cities There are more racial issues in the US than
different? Canada which have led to geographical
segregation, there are different policies in the US
that have led to the growth of suburbs (tax
structure incentives to buy a home), public
transport is more developed in Canadian cities,
Canadian cities are less dense, ownership is
more prevalent in US, gates communities are
more numerous in US, governments are much
less fragmented in Canada, Canadian cities
have higher levels of investment, there is more
immigration in Canada, US has a large Hispanic
population, poverty is more widespread and
severe in US
T or F: Former Queen’s geography True
professor Maurice Yeates famously
stated that there is a an archetypal
“North American City” that
characterizes both Canadian and
American cities.
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 6 – Energy and Sustainability


• The world is dominated by fossil fuels that are contributing to climate change
o We have already used up most of the fossil fuels that are readily available, so
renewable energy, such as wind or solar, need to be utilized
• Green Energy Act (GEA)
o Ontario came up with the Green Energy Act to help combat this issue and
encourage individuals to use solar panels
o The act was passed on May 14, 2009 and its plan was to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions, reduce the burning of coal, and to create 50,000 new jobs
o Some of the elements that the GEA included was a way to simplify the process
companies had to go through to build a renewable energy process and the FIT
program
▪ The FIT program paid people for the renewable power they produced and
was divided based on the type of technology you were dealing with,
including biomass, biogas, landfill gas, solar PV rooftop, solar PV ground,
and wind onshore
▪ The one thing missing from the FIT program was storage of the energy
o The GEA ended after 10 years and did not end up generating anywhere near the
amount of new jobs they intended to create
• Alternative energy sources
o There is lots of hydroelectric energy potential in Canada, and hydro producers
have determined that we still have around 30% that is untapped
o Geothermal power is also a large power source, and although Canada does not
have much due to the lack of active volcanos, we do have geo-storage
(underground storing through different seasons)
• Lifestyle changes and policy changes
o In order for these changes in energy to be successful, people need to change
their behaviours and understand that using renewable energy sources is in their
best interest
o Politics needs to become involved to encourage people to convert to renewable
energy, and laws should potentially be passed

Vocabulary:

Fossil Fuels Fuel that is brought about by natural processes, such as the
decomposition of animals and plants; examples include coal, oil, and
natural gas; often release greenhouse gases when used which is
contributing to climate change
Green Energy A plan to reduce greenhouse gases in the province of Ontario by focusing
Act (GEA) on renewable energy like solar panels; was in place for 10 years but did
not meet goals
FIT (Feed in A program put in place under the GEA that paid individuals for every
Tariff) kilowatt of power that they produced that fed into the larger grid of energy
Program
Sample Questions:

Does the FIT Program pay more for Smaller


larger or smaller projects?
Why did the FIT Program not work? The program did not work because it was not
making a profit and it did not generate as much
power as intended because although the incentive
was high, not many solar panels were utilized by
households due to the price and the attractiveness.
Which is not one of the main three c. school/governmental heating
energy sectors that need to be
met?
a. home/industrial heating
b. personal/mass transportation
c. school/governmental heating
d. electricity generation
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 8 – Politics and Colonialism


• Imperialism/Colonialism: ways in which powerful states control less powerful states
o Geographers are interested in this because imperialism/colonialism has resulted
in the remapping of the world in various periods of time which has created a
legacy of uneven development
o Geographers themselves have also had important effects on
imperialism/colonialism because due to their skills, they were often indispensable
when it came to map making and the knowledge of other languages
• Waves of European Colonialism
o The first wave of European colonialism occurred from 1492 to 1750 in which
mainly Spain and Portugal dominated (Portuguese empire far less organized)
▪ The trade was very competitive, and slavery was introduced at this time
▪ South America was a major colonization due to their mineral wealth
o Colonialism seemed to be slightly on the wane after the first wave
▪ Portugal had been chased out of the far east by the British and French,
and the US had declared its independence from Britain
▪ Europe had also gone through its enlightenment period, and with the
French Revolution came concepts of equality and liberty (these ideals
were a major contradiction to the imperialism/colonialism)
o The second wave of European colonialism started near the mid 18 th century and
lasted until the start of WWI
▪ Britain was using force to extract resources from their colonized nations
and also began exporting its unwanted citizens/criminals
▪ Britain also controlled the seas and most of the world’s shipping, and
London became the world’s top financial centre
▪ The Scramble for Africa also occurred in this second wave
• The end of colonialism
o WWI and WWII impoverished Europe and made it so that they could no longer
maintain their colonies
o Also, colonials who had gone to Europe to be educated realized that they were
being ruled by countries inferior to their own and they started to question why
and discover social philosophies
▪ This led them to fight for their country's independence
▪ The philosophies they discovered were the rights of man:
• Liberty
• Equality
• Fraternity

Vocabulary:

Ignorance An absence of information on specific issues that leads people to make


misjudgments; also the treatment of indigenous cultures, as Dr. Laura
Schaefli explains
Indigenous Where indigenous people live and identify with their environment; reserves
Reserves are given to indigenous people by the government, but this is just a way
that the government removes them from the rest of society even though the
land was originally theirs
Imperialism A term used to describe how powerful countries invade other countries and
turn them into foreign territories that they control indirectly through actions
such as economic sanction, control of resources, military force, etc.
Colonialism A more direct control of a foreign territory; rather than controlling at a
distance, the controlling country invades and lives within the foreign
territory, exploiting their resources and people
Settler Similar to colonialism, indigenous populations are replaced by new settlers
Colonialism who come to stay and slowly take over
Terra Nullius A concept/law that is related to settler colonialism that allowed settlers to
take over and live in uninhabited lands; however, most of the land was
inhabited by indigenous peoples but the document only recognized the
habitants if they were as civilized as the new settlers, and many tribes were
not
Orientalism A term coined by Edward Said used to describe the inferior motives that
powerful countries had towards the countries they were colonizing; their
justification was that it was their moral obligation to colonize (white man’s
burden) these inferior people
Sample Questions:

How does Terra Nullius affect Indigenous Terra Nullius affects Indigenous peoples
peoples? because it allowed foreigners to take their
land. Since Terra Nullius only recognized
the habitants if they were as civilized as the
new settlers, powerful countries were able
to take their land by simply claiming that
they were not as civilized.
Which is not an effect of colonialism? d. the development of new technologies; at
a. disease and depopulation this time, new technologies were arising, but
b. colonizers viewed themselves as superior they were not an effect of colonialism as
to the nations they were colonizing described by Dr. Cameron
c. orientalism
d. the development of new technologies
e. loss of native languages
T or F: Colonialism and imperialism allowed True
Europe to export its excess population and
to use foreign cheap or free labour (slavery)
to extract resources that enriched especially
European cities.
Orientalism relates to ____. The moral imperative colonizers feel to
colonize those seen as inferior, the historical
and contemporary way that the West has
treated Arabs, and a discourse that
describes the goal of colonizers to discipline
others
____________________________________________________________________________
Week 9 – People and Nature
• Nature is just a concept
o Nature is a product of particular times and particular needs of different societies
o Nature is a concept created by humans and we tend to decide what is
considered to be nature and what is not
• Wilderness is also just a concept
o Wilderness is considered to be the nature that is away from us, the nature that
we do not have easy access to and in which humans are not in control
o Wilderness is also continent because it changes at certain times
o It is mainly a philosophical/moral concept that we use to find our place in the
world
o Some, such as geographer William Cronon, argue that our generations view on
wilderness will end up being problematic
• History of wilderness
o The moral seesaw of nature vs. Culture in Biblical and classical thought put
culture above nature
o This seesaw began to tip the other way in the mid-19th century when there was
clear evidence that the environment was being damaged and was affecting the
lives of humans
▪ This created the Romantic view of wilderness in which people celebrated
the rare places on Earth where humans have not touched and recognized
that we need to return to a simpler way of living to undo the damage
• Wilderness in North America (NA) vs. Europe
o In NA, a beautiful landscape is defined based on essence and elemental purity
▪ Examples: never ending deserts, deep canyons, and endless forests
o In Europe, a beautiful landscape is defined based on balance and compositional
harmony (nature and culture overlap much more)
▪ Examples: Pasture land going down to a beach, foreground of a meadow
heading down to a river with a peak in the background
• National Parks
o The first national park in US was Yellowstone, and the first in Canada was Banff
o These parks are set aside to preserve and protect the land and sometimes
access is restricted to limit human interaction
o Without human management, these parks may become “too wild”
▪ Paradox of wilderness
• People flock for the purity of nature, but in reality, this nature is
manufactured to suit their pleasures
• The dangers of the dualist thinking of nature vs. culture
o When we only view wilderness as pure nature, we ignore the natures that inhabit
where we spend time every day, such as city parks
o Wilderness is worth protecting, but it's not the only nature we can need to care
about
o William Cronon believes that we are abandoning our urban/suburban nature and
that we need to focus on other environmental concerns, such as pesticide use on
lawns, excess water use, air pollution, etc.
Vocabulary:

Western Approach The Western approach believes that humans are superior to nature
to Nature-Society and that nature’s sole purpose is for the use of humans
Interactions
Ecofeminism A movement led by females that believe that the environmental
concerns occurring are a result of the male domination of society
Deep Ecology A movement that views human life as an equal when it comes to
other components of the environment
Eco-theology Theology that relates religion and nature; it involves the belief that
there is a connection between people who follow Christain faith and
the way that these people treat the environment
Wilderness Nature that is away from us, an unpredictable place where humans
are not in control; only a concept rather than an existing thing
Pristine Baseline The search for pre-existing nature that humans have not yet
interacted with
Quintessential In North America, nature/wilderness has been largely reserved for
nature pristine landscapes and we think of nature through its purity; if
humans have messed with it, then it is no longer natural, implying
that humans are not natural
Sample Questions:

Why is wilderness said to be Wilderness is said to be socially constructed because it


socially constructed? is formed through social interactions with others; we as
humans decide what is wilderness and what is not
Explain what the nature-culture We as humans often see nature and culture as
dualism means. independent entities, rather than viewing them as
interdependent, which is a problem. We create a
“seesaw of moral privilege” in which we put on over the
other. When culture is privileged, we have a progressive
narrative in which humans have tamed the wilderness
and created society. When nature is privileged, we have
a declension narrative in which human beings have
destroyed, polluted, and desecrated nature. This type of
dualism thinking breeds inequality in the world.
How is wilderness portrayed in Wilderness was portrayed as a place of moral danger, a
the Bible? place you were cast out into and where temptation could
make you turn away from God; humans are represented
as God’s ultimate creation and humans were meant to
transform nature
Why are national parks not very e. all of the above
wild?
a. humans control who enters
and exits
b. there are roads/trails only
used by humans
c. there are amenities for
humans, such as bathrooms
d. fires and other disasters are
dealt with by humans
e. all of the above
Select the person many people Henry David Thoreau, author of Walden
credit as the originator of an
American ecological philosophy
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 10 – Place Making and Identity


• Places are dynamic
o Our meaning of a place can always change depending on experiences, and we
change as we go to different places and experience new things
▪ For example, we cannot go back to our childhood home and feel the
same about that place as we did when we lived there
• People also connect to cities in different ways
o People may connect to a city through geography, the labelling of a neighborhood,
through networks (where their kids went to school, where they worked), or
through similar cultural interests
o People feel included in different ways
▪ Immigrants may not relate to a city in terms of geography, but through
networks with people who are in similar positions as their own
▪ Geography is not just the physical aspects, but also how people feel
about places the inhabit
Vocabulary:

Racialization A process that involves attributing different racial identities to groups of


people, an identity that they may have not given themselves previously;
often based on how white a group is
Sacred Place A place that is thought of as sacred by many religions/people; some
examples include promised land, shrines, homeland, etc.
Place and The experience of a person affects how the define a place; our identities
Identity are rooted in the places we live and experience
Maps Powerful tools that are a representation of different places, whether it be
a real map or a mental map
Soundscape A sound or group of sounds that combine together to define a specific
place; understood differently by each individual
Keynote Sound A sound that identifies a place; it may not always be noticed, but it is
always there
Sound Signal Sounds that cut through and get people’s attention; examples include
alarms, such as an ambulance, whistles, bells, shouts, etc.
Soundmark Derived from the term landmark, it is a sound that is unique to a specific
area; the sound may not happen continuously like a keynote sound, but
happens only in the one place
Sample Questions:

Why are places Places are contingent because they are constantly changing
contingent? depending on an individual's experiences. Individuals in each
place also understand that place differently than others, and the
meaning of a place can change very suddenly and
unpredictably
Name one example of One example of racialization is the belief that African Americans
racialization and explain are faster runners than those of Caucasian decent. This would
why you chose it. be considered racialization because although many African
Americans are fast runners, many are also not, and many
Caucasians are fast runners as well. This is a stereotype that
may bother some African Americans
T or F: “Places are both True
sites of belonging and
sites of exclusion."
After graduation, you Topophilia
may feel a sense of
attachment to your
university and the town
or region where it is
located. Which of the
following words
describes this feeling?
____________________________________________________________________________

Week 11 - Population Movement, Diaspora, and Immigration Overview


• Millennials, or Generation Y, those born between 1980 and 2000, are in many ways
different from previous generations
o They have different values and attitudes and have been the first generation to
grow up with the level of electrons that we currently have today
o Environmental issues are also more known now which has changed how this
generation lives their lives
▪ For example, many millennials are vegetarians/vegans, and many are
aware of the damage plastic causes and choose to cut it out of their lives
o They also prefer cities vs suburbs, public transit vs. car ownership, and higher
education vs. high school degree
• Movement/Migration
o Mobility can cause many consequences having to do with culture, politics,
economics, etc.
o Almost everyone has their own stories about the migration that their family has
gone through, whether it be in their lifetime, or the lives of their ancestors

Vocabulary:

Generation Y Another term used to refer to millennials


Boomerang Children Children who stay with their parents longer than other generations
normally would, or children who move back in with their parents
after moving out already
Migration When a person or group of people move from one place to a new
location to live in
Emigration When a person of group moves out of a location
Immigration When a person or group moves into a location
Forced Migration Migration that occurs because of specific reason and without
choice, such as a person being forced to leave due to natural
disasters, war, famine, slavery, etc.
Gross Migration The total amount of people leaving a place (emigration) and
amount of people entering a place (immigration)
Net Migration the difference between people leaving a country (emigration) and
people entering a country (immigration)

Sample Questions:

Which is not a reason that millennials d. They travel more; Millennials tend to travel
are different from past generations? less distance than past generations would have
a. They like cities more than suburbs
b. They have less cats
c. They use more public transportation
d. They travel more
Why are millennials more likely to get a Millennials are more likely to get a higher
high education rather than just a high education because with the current economy, it is
school degree? much harder to get a decent job with just a high
school degree. Higher pay is also needed from a
job because housing is also more expensive than
it was for past generations.
How are workplaces being redefined? Workplaces are being redefined because it is no
longer necessary for everyone to be working in
offices due to new technologies that are
constantly being redeveloped. For example,
people are now able to work on mobile devices
when travelling, and many people work at home
off of their personal computer.
What are examples of forced a. Migration due to war
migration? Select all that apply. b. Migration due to slavery
a. Migration due to war c. Migration due to natural disaster
b. Migration due to slavery
c. Migration due to natural disaster Migration due to a loved one would not be
d. Migration due to a loved one considered forced migration because it is by
choice, not force
The majority of the world's populace Asia
lives in what region of the world?
____________________________________________________________________________
Guest Speakers:

• Week 1: N/A
• Week 2: Dr. Beverly Mullings – The Tomato Trail
• Week 3: Dr. Heather Castleden – Environmental Racism/Pictou, Nova Scotia
• Week 4: Professor Betsy Donald – Food Systems
• Week 5: Professor David Gordon – Regent Park vs. St. Lawrence
• Week 6: Warren Mabee – Renewable Energy/Green Energy Act
• Week 8: Dr. Laura Schaefli – Ignorance and Indigenous Reserves
• Week 9: N/A
• Week 10: Dr. Leela Viswanathan – Why Peoples Are Drawn to Cities
• Week 11: Ajay Agarwal – Generation Y