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COMPOSITE

MATERIALS
By ART
Intended Learning Outcome
• Explain and discuss the concept of using
composite materials in construction.

• Articulate and discuss the composite action


of two construction materials.

• Show and apply the different composite


materials that were used in certain projects
through architectural practice.
The principle is to use
different materials in
combination to best use
of their particular
characteristics. (The
same principle in
composite construction
method)
Fig. Steel Frame
What is a Composite Material?
• Often shortened to as composites or called
composition materials, are engineered or naturally
occurring materials made from two or more
constituent materials with significantly different
physical or chemical properties which remain
separate and distinct at the macroscopic or
microscopic scale within the finished structure.
• Two materials in which one of the materials , called
the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets
or particles, and is embedded in the other materials
called the matrix phase. The reinforcing material and
the matrix material can be metal, ceramic or
polymer.
• Composites are used because overall properties of
the composites are superior compare to those the
individual components.
Composition of Composites

+ =

Fiber/Filament
Matrix Composite
Reinforcement
•High Strength
•High Strength •Good Shear Properties •High Stiffness
•High Stiffness •Low Density •Good Shear Properties
•Low Density
•Low Density
Classification of
Composite Materials
Particle-Reinforced Composites

Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Structural Composites
Particle-reinforced composites
*Used in particle reinforcing
-Ceramics, glasses (small mineral particles)
-Metal particles (aluminum, and amorphous
materials) polymers and carbon black

*Particles are used to increase the modulus of the


matrix, decrease the permeability of the matrix,
decrease the ductility of the matrix and also used
to produce inexpensive composites.
EXAMPLE OF PARTICLE REINFORCED
CONCRETE:

CONCRETE where the


aggregates (sand and
gravel) are the particles and
cement is the matrix.
Particle reinforced
composites support higher
tensile, compressive and
shear stress.
Fiber-reinforced Composites

Fiber-reinforced composites are made of


metals, ceramics, glasses or polymers (resin)
that have been turned into graphite and
known as carbon fibers.

Fibers increase the modulus of the matrix


material.
USES OF FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES

Glass Fiber Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Woven Fabric
Carbon Fiber
Structural Composites
The properties of structural composites
depend on: Constituents and geometrical
design.

A structural composite is composed of both


homogeneous and composite materials.
Bonded fiber-reinforced
Stack and bonded fiber-reinforced sheets
sheets
-stacking sequence: zero to ninety degrees
-benefit: balanced, in-plane stiffness

Sandwich panels
-low density, honeycomb core
-benefit: small weight, large bending stiffness Sandwich Panel
Stack and bonded fiber-reinforced sheets
(layered composites)
Composed of 2-dimensional sheets or panels that have
a preferred high strength direction such as found in
wood and continuous and aligned fiber-reinforced
plastics. The layers are stacked and cemented together
such that the orientation of the high-strength direction
varies with each successive layer.
Sandwich panels
Consist of 2-strong outer sheets which are called faced sheets
and may be made of aluminum alloys, fiber reinforced plastics,
titanium alloys, steel.

Face sheets carry most of the loading and stresses. Core may be
a honeycomb structure which has less density than the face
sheets and resist perpendicular stresses and provides shear
rigidity.

Sandwich panels can be used in variety of applications which


include roofs, floors, walls and in aircraft, for wings, fuselage and
tailpane skins.
*SAMPLE USES
Stack and bonded fiber-reinforced sheets

Laminates Plywood
Sandwich panels

Roof and Wall Panel Aluminum composite panel (ACP)


Common composite materials:

Asphalt
Glass Fiber

Plywood or Ficem
Board

Cement
Advantage:
-Weight reduction
-Corrosion resistance
-Fatigue resistance
-Tailorable mechanical properties
-Sales through offsets
-Lower assembly costs, fewer fasteners

Disadvantage:
-Some higher recurring costs
-Higher material costs
-Non-visible impact damage
-Repairs are different than those to metal structure
-Isolation needed to prevent adjacent aluminum part galvanic
corrosion
t.y.!