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Section 8 Team 5

Submitted by: ​Sameep Ayinoor​, ​Evan Hernandez​,​ Johnny Christian​,​ Louis Sentman​, ​Michael

Submitted to: Xinli Wu ​(link to course website)


Date of Submission: December 10th, 2018



This report covers the design process of the proposed IMERYS Filtration system whose purpose
is to mitigate agricultural runoff. The team started out with a task to build a housing system that
incorporated the IMERYS filters. Then created multiple designs, based on group member input
and extensive research. Next, the team narrowed down the designs and built a prototype to
describe how the system would work. The aforementioned steps were accomplished with a +/-
decision matrix, a Gantt chart, Solidworks, and many hours of hard work.

Table of Contents

Cover Page ​i

Abstract ​ii

Table of Contents ​ii

Introduction 1

Description of Task 1

Design Approach 2

Pg 2​(​Gantt Chart, Customer Needs Assessment) Pg.3-5 (Concept Drawings) Pg. 6 (Design

Final Design and Prototype 7

Pg. 7 - 9 (Working Drawings) Pg. 10 (Operational Instructions)

Engineering Analysis- 10

Pg. 11 (Cost Analysis)

Conclusion/Reference 12

Introduction (Evan Hernandez)

Agricultural runoff is one of the leading sources of water pollution for many rivers and lakes in
the United States. The growing population in the U.S. has caused the increased usage of
fertilizers and pesticides on farms. When there is heavy rainfall, these chemicals can be washed
into any number of bodies of water. The most notable impact area being that of the Chesapeake
Bay area. IMERYS, along with Penn State Engineering students will work together to create
designs suitable to mitigate these problems.

Description of Design Task (Sameep Ayinoor)

Problem Statement​: At this point in time there is not a system to deal with the influx of nonpoint
source runoff leading to the Chesapeake Bay Area. This is creating issues of dissolved solids and
fertilizes creating a build up pollutants in the bay.

Mission Statement​: The mission is to design a system that will effectively mitigate the effects of
nonpoint water pollution from farm runoff leading to the Chesapeake bay area - decreasing said

Design Specifications: (Louis Sentman)

1. Self monitoring
2. Inexpensive
3. Does not obstruct agricultural process
4. Self sufficient
5. Prevents filtration media from overflowing
6. Use the IMERYS Filters
7. Be able to filter the calculated water flow

Design Approach

Gantt Chart: (Evan Hernandez)

(​​Table 1. Gantt Chart)


Concept Generation

Concept A Below (Evan Hernandez) Concept B Below ( Evan Hernandez)

Concept C Below (Ike Hajdak) Concept D Below( Louis Sentman)


Concept E Below(Johnny Christian)


Design Matrix (Michael Hajdak)

(Table 2. Design Matrix)

Design Analysis (Michael Hajdak, Louis Sentman)

Design A: (Final Design) After many different concepts the team came to this design, as it fulfills the
most requirements of the system. The only downside to this design is the large size that It would take up.

Design B: This design was one of the team’s first initial concepts, it featured many good items that we
then used in the final design. However, it proved too costly, and there was no way for the system to keep
up with the amount of water that would be provided.

Design C: This design was much like design B, so much so that it tied for fourth place in the design
matrix. An issue with this design was that it was too costly, and with the life cycle analysis, the design
was just not sustainable in large scale production. Although unlike design B this design would be able to
handle the amount of water specified.

Design D: Design D had a very basic concept of bringing all of the water to a gravel ballast and then
funneled into a pond before going into the filters. This idea would have been too expensive and would
have obstructed with the production of the farm. Most importantly, the ballast and filtering unit could not
be monitored and were not accessible enough for the farmer to do so by hand.

Design E: Our first design was one of the better plans, as seen by the design matrix, but it had a few
flaws. This design followed a similar funneling technique the was seen in the final design, but did not
include a method for self-monitoring and overload prevention. The group decided these were two of the
more important features of the designs, so they had to be included in the final design.

Final Prototype

(Figure 1. Front view of

prototype open position)

(Figure 2. Top view of Prototype, Left)

(Figure 3. Left side view of Prototype,


Life Cycle Analysis: IMERYS Agricultural Runoff Filter and Housing (Evan Hernandez)

Agricultural runoff is an ever growing problem in the US and around the world. The biggest
impact zone being found in the Chesapeake Bay; where agricultural runoff from the
Pennsylvania region is wreaking havoc in the Bay downstream. The IMERYS Filtering system
plans to mitigate this problem. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the most sustainable
option between virgin steel, recycled steel, and concrete when constructing the system. While the
system as a whole will not contain 100% of one material above; only the main construction
material will be analyzed. The two main elements of each material when it comes to
sustainability are broken down into: Cost of energy to produce per ton, and carbon generated per
ton. As a side note:

● The mining of Iron, and Limestone for the production of Steel are accounted for, and
added to the totals.

Total carbon emissions for each material

were found at: ​https://nepis.epa.gov/

(Table 3. Life Cycle Analysis)

From Table x. Left, the most sustainable

option for the system will be recycled
steel. While production of concrete is
cheaper, energy wise compared to steel;
the overall GHGs produced is the most of
the three. The calculated weight of the IMERYS system was 4 tons. Plugging in the researched
numbers, it can be estimated that 6 tons of carbon dioxide can be stopped from entering the
atmosphere just by using recycled steel.


(Drawing 1 Left. Debris Catch)

(Drawing 2 Right. Filter Panel)

(Drawing 3 Right. Housing Unit)


(Drawing 4 Left.Assembly Drawing)

(Drawing 5 Right. Front View)

Operational Instructions: (Michael Hajdak)

1. Water enters the retention pond
2. The water passes over the large debris catch, catching any large materials in the water
(leaves, sticks, etc.)
3. Water enters the surface housing unit, where the water will be filtered by the 54 IMERYS
filters located in the flooring of the housing.
4. Water falls into the subsurface housing unit where it will be discharged into the
environment - much cleaner than before
At discharge point the water will be monitored for pollutants (pH, fertilizers etc.)
Monitoring System

Continual monitoring of:

Total dissolved solids

Engineering Analysis ​(Louis Sentman)

The task of engineering something is to create a product or method that solves a problem with a
solution that is the Conops Summary below outlines how the team came to that conclusion and
what steps the end user must take to be able to utilize this system to its maximum potential

Ultimate Goal of the G.O.A.T. Filtration System

The G.O.A.T farm runoff filtration system seeks to solve the issue of non-point source pollution
from farms entering the Chesapeake Bay area. The following steps describe the methods used to
mitigate water pollution and the requirements of the user to maintain the effectiveness of the

Basic Component List of the Filtration System

§ Mesh opening to filter out heavy debris from the polluted water
§ Ladder to allow access into the system to change the filters
§ Trench to allow water flow toward filter
§ Filter shell to hold the IMERYS’s filters
§ Solar panels to power the filter’s monitoring system
§ Filter monitoring system
§ Wireless data transmitter
§ Water retention pond

Implementing the Filtration System

§ First create a retention pond for the water to be stored
§ Create a hole in the ground to fit the system
§ The filtration system will be delivered by truck and assembled on site
§ The filters will then be added and power will be hooked up via the solar panels.
§ Connect the retention pond to the filtration system, construct the mouth of the pipe to the
desired height in the retention pond.

§ The system will alert the user, via a phone notification, when the filters need to be changed
§ There is enough space in the system for a worker to change all of the filters, for that to occur
the retention pond level must be below the intake pipe.
§ It is recommended that the system be checked at least monthly, or directly after a storm that
has caused 3 or more inches of precipitation in 24 hours.
§ The filtration system should last a lifetime, however the filters will need to be replaced. The
used filters should be taken to a filter reclamation center to be recycled.

Calculations ( Louis Sentman)

● Tile Drains required: 7 (based on research found that tile drains should be placed 30-40
feet apart)
● Runoff from tile drains: 771,823.8 cubic feet
● Rate of drainage from all Tiles: 21 cfs
● Surface runoff: 15,435,900 cubic feet
● Rate of surface runoff: 17151.64 cfs
● Total Estimated runoff: 15,513,083.8 cubic feet
Note: All calculations are based on the parameters of a 25 acre farm with a ten year
occurrence of rainfall at 3 inches per hour for 15 minutes

In addition to sedimentation another, pollutant that will be mitigated through this system will be
large debris and trash that enter the farm. Also, fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus will
be filtered through this system.
Cost Analysis (Michael Hajdak, Louis Sentman)

(Table 3. Cost Analysis)

There were many considerations as we chose the materials for the housing system. From our
sustainability analysis we found that recycled steel would be our best option to construct the
IMERYS filtration system. Aluminium was chosen for its price, and lightweight strength for the
filter panels; because the user would be taking them out to replace the filters. We Chose steel for
its weight and strength. The goal is not to have the system moving at the first sign of water flow.
The majority of the costs in this system is in the steel that it is built of. These costs are rather
inflated, because the manufacturer would likely reduce the price of the steel panels for bulk
orders. Unfortunately the team was not privy to the price of the filters making it impossible to
estimate the cost of the 54 filters needed for the system. Also the battery is inflated in cost as it is
a heavy duty, large battery. The battery most likely could be substituted with a lower cost car
battery. The cost of the screen was unattainable because the dimensions would vary from system
to system and would need to be customized at the user’s discretion.

Summary/Conclusion (Evan Hernandez)

The IMERYS Design II Project was a great way to conclude the class. Being able to design a
system that has real world applications was a lot of fun to do. From brainstorming a system that
was solely underground; to our final design that incorporated components from the other four
designs was cool to see. The experience of working in a team throughout the process, learning
how to lead, and communicate with one another are all great attributes to carry on in other
classes. The group five team believes the final design created can efficiently mitigate agricultural
runoff, using the IMERYS filters, and continual monitoring sensor. At a final cost of
$118,767.60, our system can make meaningful change at a low cost.

Links To Powerpoint & Brochure



● Dr. Xinli Wu​ - For teaching the team all of the necessary knowledge to go forth and
complete the task. Also, for his help with clarifications of the project.
● TA’s Jack and Ben​ - For all their help in using solidworks to create the models.
● Thanks IMERYS


IMERYS Website:​​ ​https://www.imerys.com/scopi/group/imeryscom/imeryscom.nsf