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Athens, Greece

September 13-17, 2010

Book of Abstracts

Edited by
M. Kokkoris and P. Misaelides

Athens, September 2010


10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 1

FO
OREWOR
RD
This boooklet includees the Scientiific Program and Abstraccts of all inviited, oral andd poster pressentations
of the 100th Europeann Conference on Acceleraators in Appllied Researchh and Technnology (ECA AART10),
th th
which will
w take placee in Athens during
d the peeriod 13 to 17 of Septeember 2010.

The scoppe of this muultidisciplinaary conferennce organized


d by the Arisstotle Univerrsity of Thesssaloniki,
the Natioonal Techniccal Universitty of Athenss, the Nationnal Centre off Scientific R
Research Deemokritos
and the National annd Kapodistrrian University of Athen ns is to preesent the reccent developpments in
accelerattor technoloogy and to review
r the applications
a of
o particle accelerators
a in basic andd applied
physics research, in material sciience, mediccine, art and d archaeologyy, as well as, in mineraalogy and
geology..

The prevvious confereences of this series took place


p in Fran
nkfurt a.M./D
D (1989, 19991), Orleans/FF (1993),
Zurich/C
CH (1995) Eindhoven/N
E L (1997), Dresden/D
D (1999), Surreyy/UK (2001)), Paris/F (2004) and
Florencee/IT (2007). The Local organizing
o ffort to offer you a confeerence of
teeam will maake every eff
high scieentific qualitty in a very pleasant
p envirronment.

The Scieentific Prograam of the coonference inccludes invited


d lectures, orral presentattions and possters. The
Proceediings of the ECAART10 will be published p n a special volume of the journal Nuclear
in
Instrumeents and Metthods in Physsics Researchh B.

The Orrganizing Committee


C of the ECCAART10 wishes
w youu a lot of success wiith your
presentaations, fruittful discussiions and contacts leadiing to new ideas
i for yoour future work
w and
a very pleasant
p stayy in Greece.

For the ECAART10 Organizinng Committtee

Prof. Drr. P. Misaellides, Chairm


man
2 Book of Abstracts

Committees

International Scientific Advisory Board


H.H. Andersen, Denmark
K. Bethge, Germany
F. Ditroi, Hungary
J.-C. Dran, France
L.J. van Ijzendoorn, The Netherlands
J. Keinonen, Finland
H. Klein, Germany
W. Kutschera, Austria
P.A. Mandò, Italy
P. Misaelides, Greece
M.A. Respaldiza, Spain
B. Sealy, U.K.
D. Strivay, Belgium
M. Suter, Switzerland

Local Committees

Organizing Team

P. Misaelides (Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki) – Chairman


M. Kokkoris (Nat. Technical Univ., Athens) - Deputy chairman
A. Godelitsas (Nat. & Kapodistrian Univ., Athens)
A. Karydas (NCSR Demokritos, Athens)
A. Lagoyannis (NCSR Demokritos, Athens)
F. Noli (Aristotle Univ. Thessaloniki)

Scientific Advisory Committee


X. Aslanoglou (Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina)
A. Clouvas (Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki)
S. Harissopulos (NCSR Demokritos, Athens)
N. Kallithrakas (Techn. Univ. of Crete, Chania)
A. Karabarbounis (Nat. & Kapodistrian Univ., Athens)
E. Paloura (Aristotle Univ. Thessaloniki)
R. Vlastou (Nat. Technical Univ., Athens)
T. Zouros (Univ. of Crete, Herakleion)
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 3

Exhibitors

High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V.

National Electrostatics Corporation

Support of Public and Industrial


Research using Ion beam Technology

Sponsors
The Organizers would like thankfully acknowledge the support of
- the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
- the Municipality of Glyfada
- High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V.
- the International Atomic Energy Agency
- the Mesytec G.m.b.H.
- the N.C.S.R. Demokritos
- the National Electrostatics Corporation
- the National Technical University of Athens
- the Oxford Microbeams Ltd
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Social Program
Monday, September 13 (7 – ca. 9 pm)

Welcome Reception

A welcome reception with drinks and light snacks will be organized in the garden of the conference
venue after the end of the poster session.

Tuesday, September 14 (5:30 – ca. 10 pm)

Athens City Tour

Afternoon guided sightseeing tour, through some of the famous sites of ancient and modern Athens.
The tour will end with a pleasant walk around the well-known areas of Acropolis and Plaka.

Wednesday, September 15 (0:30 – 10 pm)

Half day Tour Mycenae and Nafplio

We will visit MYCENAE, home to the kingdom of legendary Agamemnon, leading figure in the
Trojan war. In the second millennium BC Mycenae was one of the major centers of Greek civilization,
a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece.
NAFPLIO, with its venetian fortress of PALAMIDI, is a seaport town in Peloponnese that has
expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf. The town was the first capital of
modern Greece, from 1829 to 1834.
PALAMIDI is a military fortress nestled on the crest of a high hill. The fortress was built by the
Venetians during their second occupation of the area (1686-1715).
Finally, we will observe the fortified islet of BOURTZI . The castle of Bourtzi is located in the middle
of the harbour of Nafplio. The Venetians completed its fortification in 1473 to protect the city from
pirates and invaders from the sea. The Greeks regained it from the Turks on June 18, 1822, from
where they assisted in the siege of Nafplio. Until 1865 it served as a fortress. Now, it is mainly a
tourist attraction hosting occasionally parts of the Summer Music Festival. Light lunch (boxes) will be
offered during the trip and a traditional small feast with ouzo and 'mezedes' (light snacks) will be held
in Nafplio.

Thursday, September 16

Conference dinner (optional)

The conference dinner will be held at 8 pm at the 'Blue Water' resort, not far from the conference
venue.

Details about the social program will be provided during the conference.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 5

Companions' Program

The companions can participate in all activities of the ECAART10 Social Program and additionally to:

1. Morning guided tour in the brand new ‘Acropolis Museum’ (ride to Athens centre by tram).
The participants will also have the chance to see the National Garden, the Parliament, the
National Academy and the main University building. Shopping and free time for a coffee in
Ermou st., near Syntagma Square (Tuesday, September 14).

2. Morning guided tour in ‘Benakis Museum’ (ride to Athens centre by tram), followed by a
funicular railway ride to the top of Lycabettus hill for coffee and a breathtaking view of the
whole city. Shopping in Kolonaki area, near Syntagma square (Thursday, September 16).
6 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 7

Scientific Program
8 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 9

CONFERENCE PROGRAM
12.09.10 13.09.10 14.09.10 15.09.10 16.09.10 17.09.10
8:00 – 9:00
REGISTRATION
9:00 – 9:20 9:00 – 9:45 9:00 – 9:30 9:00 – 9:45 9:00 – 9:30
WELCOME M. Altarelli Ph. Moretto M. Lindroos M. Suter
REMARKS
9:20 – 9:40 9:45 – 10:15 9:30 – 9:50 9:45 – 10:15 9:30 – 9:50
S. Harissopulos B. Beckhoff K. Yamamoto O. Meusel P. Steier
9:40 -10:10 10:15 – 10:35 9:50 – 10:10 10:15 – 10:45 9:50 – 10:10
S. Leray A. Karydas U. Weinrich N. Colonna K. von Reden
10:10 – 10:40 10:35 – 10:55 10:10 – 10:30 10:45 – 11:15 10:10 – 10:30
D. Abriola T. Dupuis S. Hanna COFFEE BREAK M. Fedi
10:40 – 11:10 10:55 – 11:00 10:30 – 11:00 11:15 – 11:45 10:30 – 10:50
COFFEE BREAK Announcements COFFEE BREAK I. Bogdanovic-Radovic E. Chanizo
11:10 – 11:40 11:00 – 11:30 11:00 – 11:30 11:45 – 12:05 10:50 – 11:20
A. Gurbich COFFEE BREAK U. Wahl C. Jeynes COFFEE BREAK
11:40 – 12:00 11:30 – 12:00 11:30 – 11:50 12:05 – 12:25 11:20 – 11:40
A. Lagoyannis L. Beck J. Matsuo J. Vacik F. Marzaioli
12:00 -12:30 12:00 – 12:20 11:50 – 12:10 12:25 – 12:45 11:40 – 12:00
M. Mayer G. Chêne A.-C. Wera A. Climent-Font V. Palonen
12:30 – 13:00 12:20 – 12:40 12:30 – ca. 22:00 12:45 – 13:05 12:00 – 12:20
V. Vlachoudis F. P. Romano EXCURSION TO D. Ila M. Quarta
MYCENAE AND
NAFPLION
17:00 –21:00 13:00 – 14:30 12:40 – 13:00 13:05 – 14:30 12:20 – 12:40
LUNCH BREAK M. Rodrigues LUNCH BREAK M. Klein
Registration 14:30 – 15:00 13:00 – 14:30 14:30 – 15:00 12:40 – 13:00
R. Webb LUNCH BREAK W. Assmann K. Bethge
Final remarks -
Summary – End of
ECAART10
15:00 – 15:20 14:30 – 15:00 15:00 – 15:20
R. Hippler M. Chiari S. Pellegrino
15:20 – 15:40 15:00 – 15:20 15:20 – 15:50
T. Kobayashi M. A. Rizzuto W. Kleeven
15:40 - 16:10 15:20 – 15:40 15:50 – 16:10
COFFEE BREAK B. Nsouli R. von Hahn
16:10 – 16:30 15 :40 – 17:10 16:10 – 16:40
P. Grande COFFEE BREAK COFFEE BREAK
AND Poster
Session II (PII-x)
16:30 – 16:50 17:15 – 22:00 16:40 – 17:10
M. Laitinen EVENING DRIVE T. Zhang
TO ATHENS
CITY CENTRE
16:50 – 17:10 17:10 – 17:30
C. Solis Sh. Akhmadaliev

17:30 – 19:00 17:30 – 17:50


Poster Session I A. M. Müller
(PI-x)
19:00 – 21:00 20:00
WELCOME CONFERENCE
RECEPTION DINNER (optional)
10 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 11

Invited and Contributed Oral Presentations


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10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 13

Monday, 13.9.2010 (IBA, fundamentals, computing)

SESSION 1 – Chair: P. Misaelides


9:00 – 9:20 WELCOME REMARKS

9:20 – 9:40 S. Harissopulos


The LIBRA project

9:40 – 10:10 S. Leray


INVITED Key issues and perspectives in nuclear physics applications

10:10 – 10:40 D. Abriola


INVITED Development of a reference database for ion beam analysis at the IAEA and
future perspectives

SESSION 2 – Chair: M. Kokkoris


11:10 – 11:40 A.F. Gurbich
INVITED Evaluation of the cross-sections for nuclear reaction analysis

11:40 – 12:00 A. Lagoyannis


Recent EBS and NRA measurements at the tandem accelerator facility of NCSR
“Demokritos”

12:00 - 12:30 M. Mayer


INVITED Computer simulation of ion beam analysis: Possibilities and limitations

12:30 – 13:00 V. Vlachoudis


INVITED Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo code for nuclear and accelerator physics
14 Book of Abstracts

SESSION 3 – Chair: H. H. Andersen


14:30 – 15:00 R. Webb
INVITED Molecular mapping of surfaces and multi-layers with MeV ion beams

15:00 – 15:20 R. Hippler


Energy dependence of silver cluster ions sputtered by 150 keV Ar+ ions

15:20 – 15:40 T. Kobayashi


Ion beam stimulated desorption using a compact system of three-dimensional
medium-energy ion scattering

SESSION 4 – Chair: F. Ditroi


16:10 – 16:30 P. Grande
Characterization of Pb nanoislands in SiO2/Si interface through MEIS

16:30 – 16:50 M. Laitinen


Depth profiling of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates by means of time-of-flight–energy
spectrometer

16:50 – 17:10 C. Solis


Air pollutants accumulation in Tillandsia usneoides L. from an industrial corridor
in Central Mexico, determined by PIXE and NAA.

17:30 – 19:00 Poster Session I (Posters PI-x)


19:00 – 21:00 Welcome reception in the garden of the Conference Hall
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 15

LIBRA: A status report


S. Harissopulos1, A. Lagoyannis1, T. J. Mertzimekis1, M. Axiotis1, A. G. Karydas1,
P. Demetriou2, Th. Geralis2, G. Fanourakis2, M. Andrianis1, S. F. Ashley1, R. Huszank1,
Th. Konstantinopoulos1, V. Foteinou1, G. Provatas1, D. Sokaras1, V. Kantarelou1,
V. Paneta1, G. J. Van Klinken1, Th. J. M. Zouros1,3, L. Aloupi-Siotis1,4
1
Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Inst. of Nuclear Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens
2
Inst. of Nuclear Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens
3
Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion
4
Thetis Authentics Ltd., Athens
The Center of Excellence in Low-Energy Ion-Beam Research and Applications (LIBRA) runs since
January 1, 2009. The LIBRA project was funded by the European Commission within the "Research
Potential" (REGPOT) scheme of the FP7/Capacities program. The objectives of LIBRA is to unlock
and develop further the research potential of the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR
“Demokritos” and to strengthen the capacity of the INP’s research group by: a) Increasing the
personnel of the INP group, b) Facilitating the transfer of know-how and expertise in forefront
research areas and technological developments from certain European institutions (Partner
Institutions) with leading roles in ion-beam based scientific research to INP, c) Enabling an active
participation of the INP group in R&D activities at EU level enhancing this way the level of
excellence of the group, d) Improving the existing infrastructure of the Tandem Accelerator
Laboratory of INP improving this way its response to the socio-economic needs of the country as well
as of the whole Southeast European and Mediterranean region, e) Promoting the existing research and
training capacity of INP and enhancing its international reputation and visibility. LIBRA targets three
different research directions: Nuclear Astrophysics, Nuclear Structure, and Ion-Beam Applications.
The aim of the presentation is to provide with a status report on LIBRA and its planned successor
CALIBRA.
16 Book of Abstracts

Key issues and perspectives in nuclear physics applications


S. Leray
CEA/Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, sylvie.leray@cea.fr
The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, NuPECC, is preparing a long range plan,
LRP2010, [1] for nuclear physics in Europe, which aims at reviewing the status of the field and
formulating recommendations for the next decade. In this framework, a working group devoted to
Nuclear Physics Tools and Applications has been established, which is reviewing the different
domains of applications of nuclear physics, i.e. energy, life science, environmental and space
applications, security, material science and cultural heritage. I will present its main conclusions on the
current state of the art in the different domains of applications, the future perspectives, the identified
strengths and weaknesses of the different communities involved in these domains and the possible
recommendations.

References
[1] http://www.nupecc.org/index.php?display=lrp2010/main
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 17

Development of a reference database for ion


beam analysis at the IAEA and future perspectives
D. Abriola1, A.F. Gurbich2, N.P. Barradas3, I. Bogdanovic-Radovic4, M. Chiari5, C. Jeynes6,
M. Kokkoris7, A.R. Ramos3, M. Mayer8, L. Shi9, I. Vickridge10
1
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (E-mail: d.abriola@iaea.org)
2
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia
3
Nuclear and Technological Institute, Sacavem, Portugal
4
Ruder Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia
5
Insituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Firenze, Italy
6
University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, UK
7
National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece
8
Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany
9
Fudan University, Institute of Modern Physics, Shanghai, China
10
Insitut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris, France
Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is a set of material characterization techniques using energetic ion beams.
IBA obtains information about composition and structure of the near-surface layers of a sample from
the energy spectra of backscattered primary particles, recoils, or nuclear reaction products. All IBA
methods presuppose a knowledge of the measured differential cross-section data (except for strict
Rutherford Backscattering Analysis which can be calculated exactly). To address the data needs of the
IBA community, the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Development of a Reference Database for
Ion Beam Analysis” was initiated by the IAEA in 2005 and will be concluded in 2010. Ten IBA
experts participated in the CRP coordinated by IAEA staff. Information about the CRP can be found in
Refs [1, 2] and at http://www-nds.iaea.org/iba/. The Project focused mainly on the measurement,
assessment, evaluation and benchmarking of cross sections. Data measured by the participants have
been incorporated in the IBANDL database (http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl/), whereas the evaluated
cross-sections are made available to the community through the on-line calculator SigmaCalc
(http://www-nds.iaea.org/sigmacalc/).
A summary of the results of the CRP activity is presented, problems still existing in the field are
discussed, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated. In particular, a new
proposed CRP about Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission is described.

References
[1] A. Gurbich et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266 (2008) 1198 .
[2] D. Abriola, I. Vickridge, Report INDC(NDS)-0555, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2009.
18 Book of Abstracts

Evaluation of the cross-sections for nuclear reaction analysis


A.F. Gurbich
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia, gurbich@ippe.ru
Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is based on detection of nuclear reaction products and
measurements of their energy spectra. In many cases NRA has analytical characteristics surpassing
those of other Ion Beam Analysis methods. It is especially favourable in order to analyze light
elements in heavy matrices. However, the problem which is often encountered in application of NRA
is lack of reliable cross-sections. A procedure of the cross-section evaluation which proved to be a
powerful tool for elaboration of reliable data for elastic scattering analysis [1,2] was extended in the
present work to the cross-sections used in NRA. Briefly the procedure consists in parameterization of
the available experimental data using theoretical model which involves relevant physics. Once the
optimal in a statistical sense set of model parameters is obtained, the required excitation functions for
analytical purposes may be calculated for any scattering angle. A self consistent model which takes
into account both direct and resonance reaction mechanisms has been employed for the calculation of
the reaction cross-sections at low energy. Details of the procedure and the obtained results are
discussed.
The evaluated cross-sections can be retrieved from the web site SigmaCalc (http://www-
nds.iaea.org/sigmacalc/). They are also presented at the web site IBANDL (http://www-
nds.iaea.org/ibandl) where a comparison of the available experimental data with results of the
evaluation can be easily made.

References
[1] A.F. Gurbich, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 261 (2007) 401.
[2] A.F. Gurbich, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.011.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 19

Recent EBS and NRA measurements at the tandem accelerator facility of


NCSR “Demokritos”
A. Lagoyannis1, M. Kokkoris2, P. Misaelides3, M. Axiotis1, V. Foteinou1,
1
S. Harissopulos1, Th. Konstantinopoulos1, T. J. Mertzimekis1, G. Provatas
1
Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Centre for Scientific Research
“Demokritos”, 153 10, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece (lagoya@inp.demokritos.gr)
2
Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus 157 80, Athens,
Greece
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Among Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) methods, Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy (EBS) and Nuclear
Reaction Analysis (NRA) are well known and widely spread nuclear techniques used for
stoichiometric and depth profiling analysis. However, the lack of experimental data in a wide range of
angles and energies hinders the use of these methods. Over the past few years, an important effort has
begun in order to provide the scientific community with reliable datasets for various charge particle
reactions with light elements. The result of this ongoing effort can be summarized at the creation of
the IBANDL [1] database. In this context, three reactions were investigated by our group, namely
4
He(p,p)4He, 6Li(d,α) 6Li and 45Sc(p,p) 45Sc, which either provide new differential cross section
datasets or extend previous existing ones.
The increasing interest of 4He implanted solid state targets for the study of astrophysical relevant
reactions in inverse kinematics requires a fast and accurate method for the determination of the
amount of implanted 4He. For this purpose, the 4He(p,p)4He reaction appears as an ideal tool. The use
of this reaction is further enhanced due to the presence of a wide resonance at 2.2 MeV as has been
reported in previous works [2-4]. In the present work, 8 backward angles were measured for the
energy range between 1.5 and 3.5 MeV with an energy step of 100 keV. Moreover, differential cross
section data for the depth profiling of a heavier element such as 45Sc, which is common in aluminum
alloys, is for the first time measured for three angles.
Lithium is a widely used element in modern electronic materials and there are numerous cases where
its concentration in complex matrices must be accurately determined. Nuclear reaction analysis
through the (d,α) reaction provide means for its detection. New data for four angles of 6Li are
presented for a deuteron energy range of 900 to 2000 keV in steps of 25 keV and are compared with
previous data [5].

References
[1] http://www-nds.iaea.org/reports/indc-nds-0481-summary.pdf
[2] Y.F. Lu, L.Q. Shi, Z.J. He, L. Zhang, B. Zhang and R. Hutton, NIMB 267 (2009), 760.
[3] P. Pusa, E. Rauhala, A. Gurbich, A. Nurmela, NIMB 222 (2004), 686.
[4] A.Nurmela, E.Rauhala, J.Raisanen, J.Appl.Phys. 82 (1997), 1983.
[5] B. Maurel, G. Amsel and D. Dieumegard, NIM 191 (1981), 349.
20 Book of Abstracts

Computer simulation of ion beam analysis: Possibilities and limitations


M. Mayer1*, W. Eckstein1, F. Schiettekatte2, U. von Toussaint1
1
Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching,
Germany,
2
Groupe de Recherche en Physique et Technologie des Couches Minces, Département de Physique,
Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3J7
*
matej.mayer@ipp.mpg.de
Ion beam analysis methods are powerful tools for depth profiling of elements in the near-surface layer
of solids. The quantitative evaluation of energy spectra obtained by IBA methods requires the use of
sophisticated computer codes. Three different types of codes were developed during the last two
decades for this purpose [1]: Analytical codes (SIMNRA, RUMP, NDF, and other), Monte-Carlo
(MC) codes with weight function (MCERD, CORTEO), and full Monte-Carlo codes (TRIM.SP,
SRIM).
Analytical codes are fast, versatile and can simulate quantitatively most IBA methods. A recent
intercomparison of the available codes yielded very good agreement between them [2], thus giving
some confidence in their correctness. Nevertheless, some phenomena, such as multiple small-angle
scattering, plural large-angle scattering, nuclear energy loss, and surface roughness can be taken into
account only approximately by this type of codes. Recent code developments include the use of non-
Gaussian energy spread distributions and the use of correlations for rough surfaces, thus allowing an
increased level of accuracy at least in some of the above areas. MC codes provide an improved
accuracy, but at the cost of increased computing time. MC codes with weight function were initially
developed for ERD applications and show some weaknesses when used for backscattering
simulations. Additional problems arise for both types of codes if low energies have to be considered,
as is the case in MEIS applications or ion microscopy. Full MC codes are the most accurate
alternative, but are suffering from much too long computing times, rendering their use impractical
even with modern computer hardware.
While all codes give satisfying results for laterally homogeneous layered samples, the analysis of
complex materials with lateral inhomogeneous distributions of elements, rough surfaces, and porosity
or inclusions in the bulk of the material, is still a challenge. The analysis of these types of materials
has to be done very carefully, as the results are often ambiguous and may require additional
information from non-IBA techniques.
IBA methods often do not exploit their full potential due to non-optimized experimental setups: The
optimal depth resolution for a given sample and depth is usually achieved at one specific incident
energy – incident angle combination, and is often not achieved in existing measurements. These
optimized parameters are element- and depth dependent and can be calculated with the programs
DEPTH or RESOLNRA, thus allowing to perform optimized individual experiments. If multiple
energies and/or multiple detectors are used, then Bayesian probability theory allows to optimize the
experimental procedure, for example by determining a set of optimal energies. This set depends on the
prior information available about the samples.

References
[1] E. Rauhala et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 244 (2006) 436
[2] N.P. Barradas et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 262 (2007) 281
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 21

Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo code for nuclear and accelerator


physics
V. Vlachoudis & the FLUKA Collaboration
CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code, capable of handling all radiation components from
thermal energies (for neutrons), or 1 keV (for all other particles) till cosmic ray energies. It is a multi-
purpose, multi-particle code that can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is
maintained for various platforms with Unix Interface: Linux, Compaq-Unix, HP-Ux and Sun-Solaris.
The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety
of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the
Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications
in radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific matter of radiation damage in space
missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations. After a short description
of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for this physics, the present paper summarizes some
of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the Nuclear as well High Energy
physics. In particular it addresses topics such as accelerator related applications.
22 Book of Abstracts

Molecular mapping of surfaces and multi-layers with MeV ion beams


B. Jones, V. Palitsin, M. J. Bailey, A. A. Karim, J. Mody and R. Webb
Surrey Ion Beam Centre,
University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom
The use of high energy (MeV) heavy primary ions to sputter large molecules from molecular solids
has been a topic of interest for more than 30 years. Initially developed as a technique called Plasma
Desorption Mass Spectrometry (PDMS) it utilizes the high energy density deposited into the electronic
system by a fast heavy ion to create high sputtering yields of secondary ions. These secondary ions can
be extracted from the target and analyzed in a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-
SIMS) to gain molecular information of the surface material. We report here on how this technique
has been developed with our microprobe system to allow molecular maps of surfaces to be produced.
Typically beams of 10MeV O4+ have been used, which also allow simultaneous PIXE and RBS
elemental maps to be taken. It is also possible to allow the beam to exit the vacuum system and to
perform these experiments at (or near) atmospheric pressure. This novel experimental setup will be
described.
The process for molecular ejection from a molecular solid via this process is not well understood, but
the MeV ion is expected to break the bonds of the molecules along the ion track as it penetrates the
material. Thus it is expected that this technique will only be good for molecular imaging below the
static limit – where the ion does not re-sample an area that has been affected by a previous ion.
However, recent results, using the system for forensics applications, have demonstrated an unexpected
apparent ability to obtain depth profile information from the sputtered molecular solid. Further
experiments and simulations on multilayer molecular solids have been made to determine how this
might be possible and these will be reported here.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 23

Energy dependence of silver cluster ions sputtered by 150 keV Ar+ ions
R. Krupinski and R. Hippler
Institut für Physik, Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Hippler@Physik.Uni-Greifswald.De
The energy distribution of small silver cluster ions Agn+ (n=1-4) sputtered by 150 keV Ar+ ions was
investigated. The experiment was performed at the 400 kV ion accelerator at the University of
Greifswald. 150 keV Ar+ were directed onto a polycrystalline silver foil (thickness 0.1 mm) mounted
inside a high vacuum chamber (base pressure 10-8 mbar). Ions sputtered from the silver foil were
detected by a HIDEN EQS electrostatic quadrupole SIMS mass spectrometer with an energy range of
100 eV per charge unit and mass range up to 510 amu.
A typical energy spectrum of positively charged Ag+ and Ag3+ ions is shown in Fig. 1. Both
distribution peak around 3.5 eV. Towards larger energies Ag3+ falls off more quickly while Ag+ ions
display a pronounced high-energy tail presumably produced by direct recoil ions.

Figure 1: Normalized energy distribution of Ag+ and Ag3+ ions


sputtered by 150 keV Ar+ ion impact.
24 Book of Abstracts

Ion beam stimulated desorption using a compact system


of three-dimensional medium-energy ion scattering
T. Kobayashi1, S. Toda1,2, Y. Kuwahara2, R. Andrzejewski1
1
RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), tkoba@riken.jp
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan
A compact system of three-dimensional medium-energy ion scattering (3D-MEIS) has been developed
for structural and chemical compositional analysis of nanomaterials. In 3D-MEIS a pulsed He+ ion
beam with a pulsed width of 2 ns at a medium energy of 100 keV is used for an incident beam, and
scattered (and/or recoiled) particles are detected using a two- dimensional position-sensitive and time-
resolving microchannel plate (three-dimensional) detector [1]. Figure 1 shows the compact system of
3D-MEIS. The system is consisted a Penning ionization gauge ion source combined with a 100 keV
accelerator, a beam chopping system, a sample on a goniometer and 3D detectors. A length of the
system is less than 4 meters. Recently we have found for the first time that it is feasible to have a high
sensitive for detecting surface hydrogen using the system of 3D-MEIS. Desorption stimulated by
highly charged ion (HCI) has been known as potential sputtering[2], although there is a large
difference between HCI beam and He+ ion beam from an application viewpoint. We consider that the
mechanism of hydrogen analysis using He+ ion beam at a medium energy is not due to the
phenomenon of elastic recoil, but due to that similar to electron stimulated desorption. Surface
hydrogen contents on Si(001) and Si(111) were analyzed as a function of time after flushing at a
temperature of 1200 by 100 keV He+ ion beam stimulated hydrogen ion desorption. It was found that
the hydrogen content on Si(001) increased 10 times more quickly as compared with the case of
Si(111). Furthermore it has been found that light elements other than hydrogen are measurable by this
method.

Figure 1: A compact system of three-dimensional medium-energy ion scattering

References
[1] S. Shimoda, T. Kobayashi, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 219-220 (2004) 573.
[2] K. Kuroki, N. Okabayashi, H. Torri, K. Komaki, Y. Yamazaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2002)3561.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 25

Characterization of Pb nanoislands in SiO2/Si interface through MEIS


D. F. Sanchez, F. P. Luce, Z. E. Fabrim, M. A. Sortica, P.F.P. Fichtner and P. L. Grande
Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Recently, the MEIS technique has been used as an additional tool for characterization of Pt-Rh [1] and
Au nanoparticles [2] and of InAs-GaAs quantum dots [3]. Basically the nanoparticles shape,
composition, size distribution and stoichiometry have been successfully obtained. Other promising
MEIS application, namely the determination of depth distributions of different elements in a single
nanoparticle has been recently appeared in the literature [4]. This possible MEIS application is unique
and is hardly achieved by any other analytical technique. Recently we have developed a Monte Carlo
simulation and fitting software [5] that considers any geometry, size distribution, density of the
nanostructures and also the asymmetry of the energy loss-distribution. Here we investigate Pb
nanoislands (NIs) synthesized by ion implantation with low temperature and long aging time
treatments followed by a high temperature thermal annealing. This process leads the formation of a
dense 2D NIs array located at the SiO2/Si interface. From MEIS spectra (energy and angle), and also
from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, we have determined the nanostructure
geometry, areal density and size distribution of such system.

(a) (b)

Figure 1: (a) TEM micrograph, size distribution obtained by MEIS analysis and shape modeled of Pb
NIs (b) 2D MEIS Pb nanoislands, analyzed with a beam of He+ with energy of 100 keV (simulation
and experimental data).

References
[1] I. Konomi, S. Hyodo, and T. Motohiro, Journal of Catalysis 192, 11 (2000).
[2] T. Okazawa, M. Kohyama, and Y. Kido, Surface Science 600,4430 (2006).
[3] P.D. Quinn et al., Applied Physics Letters 87, 153110 (2005)
[4] H. Matsumoto, K. Mitsuhara, A. Visikovskiy, T. Akita, N. Toshima, and Y. Kido, NIMB (2010)
[5] M. A. Sortica, P. L. Grande, G. Machado, L. Miotti, Journal of Applied Physics 106, 11432 (2009) 0.
26 Book of Abstracts

Depth profiling of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates by means of time-of-flight–


energy spectrometer
M. Laitinen1, T. Sajavaara1, M. Rossi1, R. Puurunen2, T. Suni2,3,
T. Ishida3, H. Fujita3, K. Arstila4, B. Brijs4, H. J. Whitlow1
1
Dept. of Physics, P.O.Box 35, 40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland, mikko.i.laitinen@jyu.fi
2
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland
3
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo
ew304, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo, Japan
4
IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven 3001, Belgium
The silicon dioxide insulating layer in the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers can nowadays be replaced
by atomic layer deposited (ALD) oxides. By using ALD nanolaminates, it is possible to fine tune the
roughness of the surface layer for different bonding applications in micro-electro-mechanical systems
(MEMS). In this study the elemental depth profiles and surface roughnesses were determined for
Al2O3+TiO2 nanolaminates with layer thicknessses of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 nm.
Depth profiles were measured with a time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA)
telescope built in Jyväskylä during 2009–2010. With our telescope all the sample elements, including
hydrogen, can be identified and depth profiles can be determined with a resolution better than 2 nm
(FWHM) at the surface (Fig. 1). The telescope timing resolution for 4.8 MeV He2+ beam scattered
from a thin Au layer is better than 160 ps.
Nanolaminates were measured in Jyväskylä both with heavy (35Cl and 63Cu) and light (4He,
12
C) incident ions in order to get maximal information of the elemental distributions and
Monte Carlo simulations were performed to analyze the ERDA measurements. Some of the
nanolaminates were measured at IMEC with high resolution magnetic spectrometer for
comparison. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were done for some of the
samples (Fig 1.). Surface roughness was measured with an atomic force microcope (AFM).

Figure 1: Left: TEM image of a Al2O3+TiO2 nanolaminate on Si. Center: Raw TOF-E histogram and
(right) depth profiles that were obtained from the elemental energy spectra. The sample was atomic
layer deposited 10×(22×Al2O3 + 44×TiO2 ) nanolaminate and a density of 3.5 g cm-3 was used in
converting areal densities to nanometers.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 27

Air pollutants accumulation in Tillandsia usneoides L. from an industrial


corridor in Central Mexico, determined by PIXE and NAA.
C. Solis, M. A Martínez-Carrillo, E. Andrade, K. Isaac, C. Lopez, L. C. Longoria,
C. A. Lucho-Constantino, R. I. Beltrán-Hernández
1
Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D. F.,
corina@fisica.unam.mx
2
Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesús
Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de México
3
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045, Edo. de México.
4
Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagún Km. 20. Hidalgo, México
5
Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera
Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5. 42067. Pachuca, Hidalgo, México
The Tula industrial corridor in central Mexico is considered one of the critical zones of the country
because of the atmospheric contaminants high concentration, produced mainly by a refinery, one
power plant and several cement and limestone industries. In spite of the high emission of pollutants,
the monitoring network stations are limited. Because of the easy sampling, the excellent accumulation
capacity and (the fact) that T. usneoides adapts to different climates, it has been selected to study the
atmospheric pollution of the Tula industrial corridor. An active monitoring was performed by
transplanting plants from an unpolluted site to four locations in the corridor. By its high sensitivity and
multielemental characteristics, PIXE and NAA nuclear techniques are very adequate to study
biological monitor’s complex structure. These techniques were applied to have an elemental profile as
complete as possible. Transplanted plants showed enrichment of most analyzed elements. High
concentrations of elements such as Ca, S, V, were observed in biomonitors reflecting the
environmental conditions of the region. Also, the high sensitivity of both nuclear techniques allowed
detecting and quantifying the enrichment of elements such as Hg, as well as several lanthanoides.
Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allowed a first approximation of air sources to provide
insights of the atmospheric pollution in the Tula industrial corridor.
28 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 29

Tuesday, 14.9.2010 (X-ray facilities, synchrotron, PIXE, art)

SESSION 1 – Chair: D. Strivay


9:00 – 9:45 M. Altarelli
INVITED The European X-ray free-electron laser facility in Hamburg

9:45 – 10:15 B. Beckhoff


INVITED Advanced materials characterization by X-ray spectrometry using synchrotron
radiation

10:15 – 10:35 A. G. Karydas


Photon-in/photon-out X-ray studies in low energy particle accelerators

10:35 – 10:55 T. Dupuis


X-ray production cross-sections with 6-12 MeV alpha particles.

SESSION 2 – Chair: A. G. Karydas


11:30 – 12:00 L. Beck
INVITED IBA techniques: Useful combinations for the characterization of cultural heritage
materials

12:00 – 12:20 G. Chêne


First applications of external beam mode RBS detection set up at the IPNAS
cyclotron of Liege – Study of Roman gilding craftwork techniques

12:20 – 12:40 F. P. Romano


Non-destructive determination of the silver content in Roman coins by the
combined use of the PIXE-alpha, and DPAA techniques

12:40 – 13:00 M. Rodrigues


Analysis of the Hoard of Beçin using X-ray based techniques
30 Book of Abstracts

SESSION 3 – Chair: B. Beckhoff


14:30 – 15:00 M. Chiari
INVITED The role of PIGE technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols: Just the
sidekick of PIXE?
15:00 – 15:20 M. A. Rizzuto
Prehispanic ceramics analyzed with PIXE and radiography techniques

15:20 – 15:40 B. Nsouli


On the quantification of organic active ingredients in commercial solid drugs
using PIXE and PIGE techniques

15:40 – 17:10 Poster Session II (Posters PII-x)


17:15 – 22:00 Evening drive and walking tour to Athens city centre
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 31

The European X-ray free-electron laser facility in Hamburg


M. Altarelli
1
European XFEL GmbH, 22607 Hamburg, Germany, massimo.altarelli@xfel.eu
Synchrotron light sources have contributed in the last decades to a revolution in photon science. The
constant improvement in brilliance of storage ring sources is however attaining its basic physical
limits.
There is at present a worldwide flurry of activity towards the realization of free electron laser (FEL)
UV and X-ray sources to produce spatially coherent, ultra-short (~ 100 fs or less) pulses with very
high peak brilliance (in excess of 1028-1032 photons /s/ mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth). These sources
overcome the intrinsic limits to the brilliance imposed by the storage ring geometry, where the same
electrons radiate millions of time per second, with a single-pass geometry, based on linear accelerators
(linacs). The scientific case includes time-resolved studies of dynamics on sub-ps scales, structural
studies by imaging of non-periodic systems, and investigation of high-energy density phenomena such
as the phase diagram of warm dense matter and non-linear x-ray optics.
The European XFEL project in Hamburg is an international effort, aiming to attain the hard X-ray
region, with wavelengths of order 0.1 nm or less, and with the high repetition rate allowed by the
superconducting linac technology. The project is presented and discussed, with reference to the
presently operational facilities, FLASH at DESY and LCLS in Stanford.
32 Book of Abstracts

Advanced materials characterization by X-ray spectrometry using


synchrotron radiation
B. Beckhoff
Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin, Germany
Burkhard.Beckhoff@PTB.de

Information on the elemental composition and binding states of advanced materials can be effectively
revealed by X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS) which is a wide spread non-destructive analytical technique.
Reference-free quantification in X-ray spectrometry is based on the knowledge of both the
instrumental and fundamental atomic parameters [1,2]. In different configurations, both matrix and
trace constituents of a sample or layer thicknesses can be determined, providing lateral or even depth-
profiling elemental information. With respect to very flat samples, such as semiconductor wafers, the
photon energy and the angle of incidence of the exciting radiation determines the probing depth of
XRS analysis. In total-reflection geometry, i.e. having an angle of incidence smaller than the critical
angle of total external reflection, only surface contamination and the surface-near layer of a few nm
contributes to the fluorescence spectra. Allowing the angle of incidence to be varied, the probing depth
ranges from a few up to several hundreds of nm.
The development of XRS at PTB is dedicated to high-end investigations in the R&D of semiconductor
samples requiring reference-free methods, in particular for advanced materials where not enough
appropriate reference materials are available. Grazing incidence investigations demonstrated the
capability for elemental depth profiling in nanolayers. Reference-free XRS has the potential to
contribute to the thickness and composition analysis of novel materials such as high k nanolayers (fig.
1) and nearly vertical sidewalls of semiconductor test structures [3]. This technique is also able to
contribute to the elemental depth-profiling of ultra-shallow junctions (USJ) [4], i.e. near-surface
implantation profiles in different semiconductor wafers (fig. 2), or of matrix element gradients in
CIGS based photovoltaics [5]. XRS can be combined with X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS)
spectroscopy [6], revealing information on the depth profile of the chemical structure (fig. 3) in deeply
buried nanolayers with varying chemical state [7].

Figure 1: Deconvolved Figure 2: Low energy boron Figure 3: Absorption fine structure
fluorescence spectrum implantation depth profiles in of differently oxidized, buried Ti
of a HfO2 nanolayer Si by grazing incidence XRS nanolayers in grazing incidence

References
[1] B.Beckhoff et al., Anal. Chem. 79 (2007) 7873.
[2] B.Beckhoff, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23, 845 (2008)
[3] P.Hönicke et al., Spectrochim. Acta B 63, 1359 (2008)
[4] P.Hönicke et al., Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 396, 2825 (2010)
[5] C.Streeck et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 268, 277 (2010)
[6] F.Reinhardt et al., Anal. Chem. 81, 1770 (2009)
[7] B.Pollakowski et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 235408 (2008)
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 33

Photon-in/photon-out X-ray studies in low energy particle accelerators


D. Sokaras1, Ch. Zarkadas1,2, A. Lagoyannis1, M. Andrianis1, M. Muller3, M. Kolbe3, B. Beckhoff3, A.
G. Kochur4 and A. G. Karydas1,5
1
Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310, Athens, Greece,
dsokaras@inp.demokritos.gr
2
PANalytical B.V., 7600 AA Almelo, The Netherlands
3
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587, Berlin, Germany
4
Rostov State University of Transport Communication, 344038, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia
5
Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),
Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444, Seibersdorf, Austria
Low energy (1-2 MeV) and high current (~µΑ) proton beams can be utilized to form unpolarized x-ray
beams of high intensity and monochromaticity after irradiating pure materials-“anodes”. The idea is
motivated by the respective high proton inner-shell ionization cross sections, the about three order of
magnitude less bremsstrahlung intensity that accompanies their interaction with matter, and the
minimum emission of nuclear radiation, when the incident proton beam energy lies far below the
Coulomb barrier of the “anode” isotopes. A novel scattering chamber was designed, installed and
operated at the Tandem accelerator laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics at N.C.S.R.
“Demokritos” in order to produce x-ray beams of tunable energy in the range 1.2 keV -10 keV,
whereas an UTW Si(Li) spectrometer enabled the detection of the soft x-ray energy window [1]. The
main purpose of this development was through photon-in photon-out experiments to study
fundamental phenomena related with the inelastic scattering of x-rays with atoms (X-ray Resonant
Raman Scattering-RRS) and the cascade emission of soft L-x-rays. Further on, applied studies were
also considered, as for instance the exploration of the benefits of unpolarized tunable excitation for
advanced materials characterization, in comparison with synchrotron radiation.
The X-ray resonant Raman scattering (RRS) effect was studied in the vicinity of the 1s absorption
threshold of low Z elements like magnesium, aluminum and silicon while the total cross sections were
deduced and compared with respective polarized synchrotron radiation results and theoretical
predictions. The cascade soft L-shell x-ray emission was studied experimentally for the case of iron, as
the monochromatic radiation overpass its 1s ionization threshold. A full theoretical investigation
resulted to a detailed straightforward construction of the cascade decay trees within the Pauli-Fock
approximation, whereas the comparison of theory and experiment provided new insights for the
current precision of x-ray fundamental parameters and the influence of solid state phenomena in
atomic processes.
The advantages and the limitations of the particle induced x-ray sources for basic and applied studies
are discussed and assessed in comparison with parallel studies accomplished in state-of-the-art
synchrotron radiation facility.

References
[1] D. Sokaras, M. Müller, M. Kolbe, B. Beckhoff, Ch. Zarkadas, and A.G. Karydas, Phys. Rev. A, 81,
012703 (2010).
34 Book of Abstracts

X-ray production cross-sections with 6-12 MeV alpha particles.


T. Dupuis1, 2, G. Chêne1, 2, F. Mathis1, 2, M. Philippe1, A. Marchal1,
H. P. Garnir1, D. Strivay1, 2
1
Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Université de Liège, Sart Tilman B15, B-
4000 Liège, Belgium
2
Centre Européen d’Archéométrie

The « IPNAS » laboratory, in collaboration with the « Centre Européen d’Archéométrie » is partly
focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport
beam line has been constructed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyse Cultural Heritage objects
with these techniques. This facility allows us to produce higher energy beams up to 20 MeV for both
proton and alpha particles [1].
Our team has recently developed a vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-
Rutherford cross-section measurements. In the first place, we have characterised the chamber’s
geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ≤ Z ≤ 82) with 3 MeV proton
beam.
Then, we have begun measuring the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range
with alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to fill in the serious
lack of experimental values in the databases for this particular energy range with alpha particles. We
have decided to focus, for now, on alpha particle interaction with light elements because of the high
interest that the analysis of low Z elements generates in the field of archaeometry [2].
This work will show the first results obtained and the comparison of these new X-ray production
cross-sections to fitted empirical reference and theoretical one.

References
[1] G. Chêne, H.-P. Garnir, A. Marchal, F. Mathis, D. Strivay, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266, 10, May 2008, pp.
2110-2112
[2] T. Dupuis, G. Chêne, F. Mathis, A. Marchal, M. Philippe, H.-P. Garnir, D. Strivay, Nucl. Instr. and Meth.
B, Accepted Manuscript 2010.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 35

IBA techniques: Useful combinations for the characterization of cultural


heritage materials
L. Beck1,2, L. Pichon1, B. Moignard1, T. Guillou1, P. Walter1
1
C2RMF, Palais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris, France
2
INSTN, CEA Saclay, 91120 Gif sur Yvette, France
For many years, ion beam analysis techniques have been used to successfully study cultural heritage
objects. The chemical composition of work art is usually determined by PIXE, but in some cases, RBS
and/or PIGE can provide useful complementary information. RBS can provide depth information and
concentration in light elements, such as carbon and oxygen. So, the association of both techniques is
very attractive for certain cultural heritage objects, in particular for those materials containing both
mineral and organic compounds or in case of multilayered structure. In the past years, the
experimental setup of the AGLAE accelerator has been progressively developed in order to
simultaneously perform PIXE, PIGE and RBS under the best conditions with an external beam [1].
This combination is now routinely used and several examples on painting, ceramics, bone and metal
will be presented.
In addition, the data processing has been recently upgraded with the implementation of a mapping
system generating elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra [2].
Another approach using PIXE as production of monochromatic X-rays for radiography purposes will
be also discussed. The advantages of the monochromatic source with regard to conventional
generators is the possibility of bringing to light chemical contrasts.

References
[1] J. Salomon, J.-C. Dran, T. Guillou, B. Moignard, L. Pichon, P. Walter, F. Mathis, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B
266 (2008) 2273 - This presentation is the direct continuation of the talk given by our regretted colleague
Joseph Salomon at the last ECAART conference in Florence.
[2] L. Pichon, L. Beck, Ph. Walter, B. Moignard, T. Guillou, Nucl. Instrum. Meth, in press
36 Book of Abstracts

First applications of external beam mode RBS detection set up at the


IPNAS cyclotron of Liege – Study of Roman gilding craftwork techniques
G. Chêne1,2, S. Bols2, F. Mathis1,2, T. Dupuis1,2, A. Marchal1,2, H.-P. Garnir1,2, D. Strivay1,2
1
Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie,
2
Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
Cyclotrons can offer a wide variety of analytical solutions suited for archaeometric purposes. As the
improvements on the AVF (Azimutal Varying Field) cyclotron in Liège (Belgium) have provided an
energy resolution comparable to that of classic electrostatic accelerators [1] and given the wide range
of incident beam energies (3-20 MeV) at our disposal, a whole new perspective opens in terms of
access to rarely practiced nuclear reactions and deeper probing of materials.
In this paper we will present here the latest improvements on the new High-Energy High-Resolution
beam line (HE-HR) which has been upgraded namely with a new extraction nozzle allowing non
invasive in-air measurements on precious artefacts and with a new detection set-up allowing particle-
detection developed to take full advantage of the increased probed thickness.
The benefits of the extended energy and particle range will be discussed and new applications and
combinations of techniques both in the conventional and high energy will be commented. For instance,
the possibility and advantages of analysing thick layers such as corrosion or gildings often observed
and studied on Cultural Heritage artefacts with this set-up will be illustrated here [2-3].
First results of a study led on Roman gilding craftwork techniques by means of “high-energy” alpha
backscattering spectrometry performed in-air and combined with PIXE will be also presented to stress
the interest of higher energies and their implementation with depth-sensitive and particle-detection
based techniques.

References
[1] G. Chêne, H.-P. Garnir, A. Marchal, F. Mathis, D. Strivay,Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266 Issue 10 (May
2008) p.2110-2112.
[2] S. Röhrs, T. Calligaro, F. Mathis, I. Ortega-Feliu, J. Salomon, P. Walter Nucl. Instr. and Meth B 249,
Issues 1-2, August 2006, Pages 604-607
[3] Šmit, Ž., Pelicon, P., Simcic, J., Istenic, J., Nucl. Instr. and Meth B 239, Issues 1-2, September 2005, pp.
27-34
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 37

Non-destructive determination of the silver content in Roman coins by the


combined use of the PIXE-alpha, and DPAA techniques
F. P. Romano1,2,*, S. Garraffo4, G. Pappalardo1,2, L. Pappalardo1,2, F. Rizzo1,3
1
IBAM-CNR, Via della Biblioteca 4 , 95124 Catania
2
LANDIS, INFN – LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123, Catania
4
ITABC-CNR, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma
*
romanop@lns.infn.it
In the last years a non-destructive protocol of analysis, based on the combined use of the portable
PIXE-alpha [1] and of the new DPAA (Deep Protons Activation Analysis) method [2], was developed
at the INFN-CNR LANDIS laboratory for studying the Roman nummi dated to 294–333 A.D.
belonging to the Misurata treasure (Lybia), one of the most important finding of coins in the
Mediterranean Area.
The main aim of the investigation was the determination of the silver content of the coins produced in
different times and the study of the technique used to manufacture the nummi.
It is well known that this typology of coins was produced with a few microns silvered patina and a
bronze core containing a lower quantity of silver. Therefore the association of non-destructive surface
and in-depth techniques is necessary in order to investigated in a non-destructive way the different
layers of the samples under investigation. The PIXE-alpha system [1], due to the definite range of
alpha particles in the matter, limits the analysis to the patina of the coins while the DPAA method
(Deep Protons Activation Analysis), that make uses of 20 MeV energy proton beam produced by the
TANDEM accelerator of the LNS laboratories in Catania, was used to determine the silver content in
their core [2].
The present paper discuss the results obtained from the analysis of 15 nummi dated back to 308-311
A.D. produced by the mint of Carthago.
The analytical data obtained by the application of the above protocol of measurement allowed to make
some historical considerations about the production of the nummi in the Carthago area in this limited
period of time.

References
[1] L. Pappalardo, F.P. Romano, S. Garraffo, J. de Sanoit, C. Marchetta, G. Pappalardo. Archaeometry, 45: 333
(2003)
[2] G. Pappalardo G., A. Esposito, G.A. Cirrone, G. Cuttone, S. Garraffo, L. Pappalardo, F. Rizzo, F.P.
Romano, S. Russo. NIM B 6: 2286 (2008)
38 Book of Abstracts

Analysis of the Hoard of Beçin using X-ray based techniques


M. Rodrigues1,2, M. Schreiner1,2, M. Melcher1,2, M. Guerra3, J. Salomon3, M. Radtke4, M.
Alram5,6, N. Schindel6
1
Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Academy of Fine Arts, Schillerplatz 3, A-1010
Vienna/Austria, m.rodrigues@akbild.ac.at
2
Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology,
Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Vienna/Austria
3
Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) – UMR 171, Palais du
Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris/France
4
Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard Willstätter-Straße 11,
12489 Berlin/Germany
5
Coincabinet, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Burgring 5, A-1010 Vienna/Austria
6
Numismatic Commission, Academy of Sciences, Ignaz-Seipl-Platz 1, A-1010 Vienna/Austria
During excavations carried out at the medieval site of Beçin Kalesi in summer 2000, a team of
archaeologists from Izmir University found one of the most important Turkish monetary treasures.
Consisting of about 60,000 coins stemming from the Ottoman Empire and for their most part produced
during the 16th and 17th centuries under the sultans Murad III, Mehmed III
and Ahmed I, this treasure has specimens issued in 18 different mints, covering the whole Ottoman
Empire and its available sources of metal.
416 coins, representative for the periods as well as the mints studied, were analyzed in order to
confirm the fineness of the coinage as well as to study if any groups (mints) showed homogeneous
traits concerning metal composition which could suggest a common ore. Due to the large size of the
treasure and the corrosion processes which changed the composition of the surfaces of the coins, small
samples were taken to investigate the core composition. A broad combination of methods was applied
in order to determine the main constituents, Ag and Cu, as well as the minor and trace elements
characteristic for the provenance of the alloy used for the coins. Therefore, µ-XRF, performed with the
self-built instrument COPRA [1], µ-PIXE and µ-SRXRF could be employed. µ-PIXE measurements
could be carried out at the accelerator AGLAE in the C2RMF and allowed us to detect not only the
major components (Ag and Cu) but also some of the minor and trace elements (Pb, Au, Bi, Fe, Ni, Zn,
As, Hg, Sn, and Sb). Finally, SEM/EDX was applied in order to study the homogeneity/heterogeneity
of the coins and the presence of surface enrichments, and to explain differences between the µ-SRXRF
and µ-PIXE measurements concerning the main components.
In general, the silver content of the analyzed specimen varies between 90 and 95 wt%. These results
have not supported the historical interpretations, which predict that during the period studied a
debasement of approximately 44% of the silver content of the coins should have occurred [2]. Our
investigations have shown as well that although the coins are made of a similar Ag-Cu alloy, they can
be divided in groups with regard to their trace contents.

References
[1] EU-Project COPRA, Project No. SMT4-CT98-2237
[2] S. Pamuk, A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire, Cambridge University Press (2000)
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 39

The role of PIGE technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols: Just
the sidekick of PIXE?
M. Chiari, G. Calzolai, F. Lucarelli, S. Nava
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino,
Italy, chiari@fi.infn.it
Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) technique is an invaluable tool, complementary to
Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), to quantify low-Z elements (F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, ...) in
atmospheric aerosols samples. At the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence, PIGE is routinely
performed simultaneously to PIXE, using a proton beam extracted in atmosphere from the accelerator
beam line, thus reducing the risk of selective loss of some more volatile aerosol components.
In the study of airborne particulate matter, PIGE measurements can be used to correct the
underestimation of PIXE in quantifying the concentration of the lighter elements, like Na, Mg, Al and
Si, due to X-ray self-absorption inside each individual aerosol particle (dimensions up to several
micrometers). An accurate measurement of the concentration of crustal elements, namely Na, Mg, Al,
Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe, is mandatory for the study of airborne mineral dust. Quantitative analysis of dust
aerosols is needed since, on a global scale, mineral dust is one of the major components of
atmospheric aerosols and has an important effects on the radiative budget of the atmosphere and thus
on climate forcing. Examples considering the use of PIGE to analyse Al – the lightest major element in
the composition of mineral dust - in dust aerosols collected in-flight over the Sahel desert (for climate
change study) and in mineral dust particles archived in Antarctic ice cores (for paleoclimate research
studies) will be described.
As concerns even lighter elements, not detectable by PIXE, the analysis of F as a tracer of specific
industrial emissions and the feasibility of PIGE measurements of N (a major component of aerosols, in
the form of ammonium, nitrate and n-containing organic compounds) using proton beams will be
discussed.
40 Book of Abstracts

Prehispanic ceramics analyzed


d with PIX
XE and raadiograph
hy techniq
ques
L 1, M. A. Rizzutto2, N.
S. C. Lima N Added2, M.M D. L. Barb bosa2, G. F. Trindade
T 2
M. I. D´A. Fleeming1
,M
1
Museu de Arqueoloogia e Etnoloogia da Univversidade de São Paulo, Cidade C Universitária, Sãão Paulo,
S Brasil., Brasil,
SP, B sclima
a@mae.usp.bbr
2
Insstituto de Físsica, Universsidade de Sãoo Paulo, Ciddade Universsitária, São PPaulo, SP, Brrasil,
rizzzutto@if.usp
p.br
Ceramiccs objects aree the most coommon arteffacts found during
d excavvation of arcchaeological sites and
may reppresent culturral habits suuch as domestic or rituall use. The principal
p raw
w material appplied for
ceramicss is clay whiich can be of o different types
t in natu
ure. The knoowledge of tthe proprietiies of the
clays as plasticity, coolour, porosiity and the mix
m of differrent type of clay
c were ussed by anciennt culture
to achieeved desiredd characteristics as size, colour, weeight, resistaance, etc. T The determin nation of
microscoopic characteeristics of suuch material as the main chemical coomponents annd the trace elements
presents in the ceram mic composiition can revveal many asspects about the culture, such as its degree
d of
developm ment, the orrigin and thee manufacturring process used. Also the images through rad diography
permits investigate thet process of manufactture, the sizze of the tem mpers used aand the con nservation
status off the artefactts. In this prresent work the
t principall chemical elements pressent in one set
s of pre
Hispanicc ceramics pieces from m the Chimuu Culture of o the Museeu de Arquueologia e Etnologia
E
(MAE/U USP) were determined
d w PIXE (P
with Particle Indu
uced X-ray Emission)
E teechnique. The
T PIXE
analysess were perforrmed in the external beaam setup at LAMFI
L (Labboratório de Análise de Materiais
M
por Feixxes Iônicos).. The PIXE spectra werre obtained with about 2MeV protoon beam du uring 600
seconds of irradiatioon. The radioography imaages were peerformed witth an X ray ttube Philips MG 450
with volltage of 50K KV and currrent of 14m mA and 8 minutes
m apprroximately. An examplle of the
radiograaphy and the PIXE setup used to anallyze one vessel are preseent in figure11. The analyses allow
some obbservations about
a the diifferences between the compositionns of this anncient ceram mics. The
objects clays
c are sepparated in grooups with diifferent concentrations off elements suuch as Si=Caa and K=
Fe; Si>CCa and K=Fee; Si>Fe>Caa>K.

b)

a)

c)

Figuree 1: Image off radiographyy (a) and the PIXE measuurement in a pre Hispanic ceramics from
fr the
Chim
mu Culture (bb) front view
w and (c) overrview
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 41

On the quantification of organic active ingredients in commercial solid


drugs using PIXE and PIGE techniques
B. Nsouli1*, A. Bejjani1, K. Zahraman1, G. Younes2, R. Mahmoud3, I. Saad2,
E. Fadel4, M. Roumié1, F. Yazbi5 and J. P. Thomas6
1
IBA laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission – CNRS, P.O.Box: 11-8281 Beirut – Lebanon,
bnsouli@cnrs.edu.lb,
2
Faculty of Sciences, Chemistry Department – Beirut Arab University, Beirut – Lebanon, 3Faculty of
Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry - Beirut Arab University, Beirut-
Lebanon,
4
Mediphar Laboratories, P.O.Box: 60-202, Dbayeh – Lebanon,
5
Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria – Egypt,
6
Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne - France
The quantification of active ingredients (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality
control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV
spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. However, if the active ingredient
contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl…), elemental IBA like PIXE and PIGE techniques, using small
tandem accelerator of 1-2 MV, can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit
the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparations. This is an
advantage when the number of sample is relatively large.
In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick Target PIXE and PIGE technique for rapid and
accurate quantification of low concentration of different fluorinated, sulfured, bromide and chlorinated
active ingredients in eight commercial drugs.
The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity (Use of external standards, absolute
quantification, matrix effect, accuracy, LOD, sensitivity and acquisition time) will be presented and
discussed.
42 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 43

Wednesday, 15.9.2010 (Medical applications)

SESSION 1 – Chair: W. Assmann


9:00 – 9:30 P. Moretto
INVITED Biomedical applications of microbeam lines at AIFIRA facility

9:30 – 9:50 K. Yamamoto


Experimental verification of an APF linac for a proton therapy facility

9:50 – 10:10 U. Weinrich


Recent advances for ion beam therapy accelerators using synchrotrons

10:10 – 10:30 S. Hanna


Image-guided radiation therapy and its new requirements on medical accelerators

SESSION 2 – Chair: T. Zhang


11:00 – 11:30 U. Wahl
INVITED Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion
beam facility

11:30 – 11:50 J. Matsuo


Characterization of cells and tissues by "wet-SIMS" using swift heavy ion
beams

11:50 - 12:10 A.-C. Wera


In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

12:30- ca. 22:00 Excursion to Mycenae and Nafplion


44 Book of Abstracts

Biomedical applications of microbeam lines at AIFIRA facility


Ph. Moretto
Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, CENBG,
Chemin du Solarium, BP120, 33175 Gradignan, France, moretto@cenbg.in2p3.fr
Nuclear microscopy is a generic term referring to a large panel of ion beam analysis techniques carried
out using light ion microbeams in the MeV energy range (typically H+, D+ and He+). After twenty five
years' experience by world-wide research groups in the use of those microbeams, nuclear microscopy
is now recognised as a powerful technique for routine chemical microanalysis and elemental mapping
in the frame of biomedical applications.
The lateral resolution achieved by advanced facilities is about 50 nm in low current mode for pure
imaging and 300 nm in high current mode for trace elements analysis and mapping. Since MeV ions
may induce both nuclear reactions and ionisation of atomic shells, a non-exhaustive list of available
methods includes PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis), RBS
(Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). PIXE
is the basic method employed for routine elemental mapping. Numerous applications in biomedicine
take advantage of its versatility and easy operation, either at the tissue or individual cell scale. In
addition, micro-PIXE and other microbeam techniques complement each other to offer unique
information. This is particularly true for RBS and STIM for sample mass monitoring and ultra-
structure elucidation. Those microbeam applications have been completed during the last decade by
single event techniques for the targeted irradiation of individual living cells in the frame of radiation
biology studies. The current development of time lapse on line microscopy of signalling and repair
proteins along the ion track will open new exciting fields.
In this review, different examples of investigation carried out using the two microbeam lines available
at AIFIRA facility will be presented with emphasis placed on dermatology, toxicology of metals and
nanoparticles and radiation biology. Microanalysis of individual cells and prospective studies of
STIM-PIXE Tomography will be also discussed.

Figure 1: Detail of the end-station on the new single ion micro-irradiation beamline
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 45

Exp
perimentaal verificaation of an
n APF lin
nac for a proton
p theerapy faccility
K. Yamamoto, H. Tanak ka, S. Haradaa,
K. Sugaharra, H. Inoue, S. Kawasakii, T. Nagayam
ma, S. Ueda
Mitsubishhi Electric Corporation,
Co Yamamoto.KKazuo@bc.M MitsubishiElectric.co.jp
Alternatiing-Phase-Foocusing (AP PF) known as a beam focusing method m have been applieed to an
Interdigiital H-mode (IH) structurre and high current proto on beams weere successfuully acceleraated up to
the desirred energy foor a medical synchrotron injector.
Longituddinal and traansverse focuusing strengthhs were geneerated just with
w the rf acceleration fieeld in the
cavity with
w an optimized arrayy of synchrronous phasses. Thus, no n focusing element orr cooling
equipmeents had to be installed in the caviity. This allo owed us to employ a rrather high operating
o
frequenccy, and hencce to design a compact and a cost-effective cavity. A further aadvantage off the APF
linac cann be found inn its operatioon: beam tunning can be carried out with
w ease sinnce the levell of the rf
input poower is the onnly parameteer to be adjuusted. APF linac has neveer been practtically used in proton
therapy facilities
f duee to a weak focusing
fo fieldd which can not
n overcom me the strong space chargee effects.
A High--Current-APF F linac was accomplisheed by the speecial optimal design of tthe cavity, drift
d tubes
themselvves, as welll as the displacement of o the drift tubes basedd on a co-aanalysis of a precise
Electrommagnetic fieldd and the spaace charge beeam dynamics.
A protonn injector foor a medical accelerator complex waas fabricatedd with the newly-developed APF
linac. The
T injector consists off an Electroon-Cyclotron n-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS), a Radio-
Frequenccy-Quadrupoole linac andd the APF liinac. Experim mental resultts approved that 11.5 mA proton
beams were
w acceleraated up to 7 MeV.M
In this paaper, the dessign methodoology and thee results of th
he measuremments will be described.
Table 1: Presentattion of recen
nt experimenttal data

Title
T Designed Measured
Beam inttensity mA 10 or more 11.5
Extracted energy MeV
V 7.35 +/-
+ 0.05 7.39

Figure 1:
1 Presentatiion of a recen
nt experimenntal setup

Referen
nces
[1] Y. Iwata et. al., Nucl. Instr. annd Meth. A 5772 (2007) 100
07.
46 Book of Abstracts

Recent advances for ion beam therapy accelerators using synchrotrons


U. Weinrich
GSI – Helmholtz centre for ion research
Ion beam therapy (IBT) has evolved a lot during the last years. The first fully clinical based facility
able to perform carbon and proton treatment came into operation in November 2009 in Heidelberg.
Other similar facilities are in the commissioning phase. All the machines providing carbon beam
treatment use a synchrotron as main accelerator.
The presentation will focus on highlights of the recently achieved performances as well as the
currently ongoing studies to further improve these types of accelerators.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 47

Image-guided radiation therapy and its new requirements on medical


accelerators
S. M. Hanna
Microwave Innovative Accelerators (MINA)
Danville, California, USA
samy.hanna@comcast.net

One of the recent trends in treating cancer by radiation therapy (RT) is to combine imaging with
treatment in the same session. This approach of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) places new
requirements on the design and performance of the linear accelerator (linac) used in the radiation
therapy machine. In this paper, we will review new approaches for incorporating imaging in the RT
machine. One of the IGRT techniques is to use the same linac to provide x-rays for both imaging and
treatment phases. This linac should be able to operate at two different energies. In the imaging mode,
the linac should produce x-rays at energies significantly lower than energies needed for the treatment
mode. Different techniques are implemented to make the same accelerator operate at different energies
efficiently [1]. We will present some of these techniques.

References
[1] S.M. Hanna “Review of Energy Variation Approaches in Medical Accelerators”, Proceeding of the 11th
European Particle Accelerator Conference, Genoa, Italy, June 2008
48 Book of Abstracts

Materials science and biophysics applications


at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility
U. Wahl
Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Sacavém, Portugal, and
Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN [1,2] provides a variety of radioactive ion beams,
currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are
produced on-line by nuclear reactions of a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets (fission,
fragmentation and spallation), outdiffusion and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed
by acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics
studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently
~13%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments [3]. The ISOLDE materials
science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating
institutes and 21 countries.
In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with
the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of
metal ions in biological systems. A project is under way to refurbish a setup for surface and interface
physics studies, which also have a long tradition at ISOLDE.
The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer
spectroscopy (MS), perturbed angular correlation (PAC), emission channeling, and tracer diffusion
studies. Beta nuclear magnetic resonance (β-NMR) is also currently being re-established at ISOLDE.
In addition to these “classic” methods of nuclear solid state physics, various standard semiconductor
analysis techniques such as photoluminescence (PL), deep level transient spectrocopy (DLTS), Hall
effect and conductivity measurements profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps
them to overcome their chemical “blindness” since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a
signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves.
For the future, as part of the HIE (High Energy and Intensity)-ISOLDE upgrade [4], it is planned to
increase the proton driver beam power from 3 kW to 10 kW, optionally to 30 kW. The resulting
increase in radioactive beam intensity will further improve the conditions for applications, making a
wider range of radioactive isotopes available as high-intensity beams.
In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and
biophysics at ISOLDE, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

References
[1] http://isolde.web.cern.ch/ISOLDE/
[2] M. Lindroos, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 204 (2003) 730.
[3] https://espace.cern.ch/ISOLDE-SSP/default.aspx
[4] M. Lindroos, P.A. Butler, M. Huyse, and K. Riisager, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266 (2008) 468
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 49

Chaaracterizaation of cells and tiissues by "wet-SIM


MS"
u
using swiift heavy ion
i beamss
J. Matsuo1,2, Y. Wakam matsu3, H. Yaamada3, S. Ninomiya
N 1,2
,
T. Sekki2,3 and T. Aoki
A 2,4
1
Quanttum Science anda Engineeering Center, Kyoto University, Gokassho, Uji,
Kyoto, 6111-0011, Japan, matsuo@ @nucleng.kyooto-u.ac.jp
2
CREST
T, Japan Scieence and Tecchnology Ageency (JST), Chiyoda,
C Tokkyo, 102-00775, Japan Dep
epartment
off Nuclear Enggineering, Kyoto
Ky Universsity
4
Electronnic Science and
a Engineerring, Kyoto University
U

Molecular structurall and chemiccal state infoormation is extremely


e im
mportant andd invaluable,, because
most of biological molecules
m haave similar chhemical com
mposition, suuch as H, C and O. Enerrgetic ion
irradiatioon leads emmission of secondary
s attomic and molecular
m ioons from a sample surfface, and
secondarry molecularr ions repreesent the cheemical comp position of the
t samples. Molecular imaging
techniquue with seconndary molecuular ions emmitted by swift heavy ion beams[MeV V] combing with
w time
of flight (ToF) mass spectrometeer has been demosntrated for biologiccal material aanalysis[1].
In additiion, swift heeavy ion beaams have higgh transmissiion capabilitty in matter and allows us
u to use
this beam m in low vacuum presssure. In-air PIXE is an example utilizing this advantage. The T low-
vacuum condition prrevents evapporation of water
w from saamples. Thiss helps to maaintain the shape and
moleculaar distributioon of biological cells and tissues. A new exxperimental ssetup equipp ped with
orthogonnal ToF has be developedd to analyze biological samples
s conttaining volatiile molecules at 2000
Pa(Fig. 1).
1 We call thhis new techhnique “wet-SIMS”. Characterizationn of biologicaal samples co ontaining
waters can be realizeed with this new
n system.
Recent progress
p in the
t developm ment of a new
n "Wet-SIIMS" system m using swifft heavy ions will be
presented and demonnstrated analyysis of bioloogical samplees.

Figure 1:1 Figure 2:


Experimeental setup off "Wet-SIMS S" system Molecular image of a single animal ccell. Optical image
i is
with swifft heavy ions. Samples aree set in n. A cell nucleei is clearly fo
also shown found in the molecular
m
low presssure(2000Pa)), which is suufficiently M Cu+ beam
image. 6 MeV ms were usedd to obtain this image.
higher thhan water vappor pressure.

Referen
nces
[1] Y. Nakata, Y. Honda,
H S. Ninoomiya, T. Sekki, T. Aoki an nd J. Matsuo, "Matrix-free
" hhigh-resolution imaging
maass spectromeetry with high--energy ion prrojectiles", Jou
urnal of Mass Spectrometryy, 44 (2009) 128.
50 Book of Abstracts

In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments


A.-C. Wéra1, H. Riquier2, A.-C. Heuskin1, C. Michiels2, S. Lucas1
1
NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), research center in Physics of
Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP,
Corresponding author: anne-catherine.wera@fundp.ac.be
2
NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unité de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire
(URBC), University of Namur-FUNDP
Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium
The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance for
radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology.
Particle accelerators and the associated equipments are proved to be helpful tools to perform basic
science in all these fields. Indeed, one can accelerate virtually any ions to given energy and flux and
let them interact either in vivo or in vitro with living material.
In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station to be
used for Radiobiology. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and may be irradiated at various flux with
ions from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on our 2 MV Tandem accelerator, and the
energy range can be setup in the useful LET ranges for radiobiological experiments.
This paper describes the current status of the developed hardware and presents some physical results
related to its performance in term of dose, energy range and beam uniformity for proton, helium and
carbon ions.
Results of clonogenic assays of lung carcinoma cells irradiated with protons, helium and carbon ions
will also be presented and compared with literature.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 51

Thursday, 16.9.2010 (Neutrons, IBMM, facilities, detectors)

SESSION 1 – Chair: R. Vlastou


9:00 – 9:45 M. Lindroos
INVITED The European Spallation Source (ESS): Current status and the way ahead

9:45 – 10:15 O. Meusel


INVITED The Frankfurt Neutron Source - FRANZ

10:15 – 10:45 N. Colonna


INVITED Neutron measurements for advanced reactor systems: Results from the n_TOF
facility at CERN

SESSION 2 – Chair: M. Respaldiza


11:15 – 11:45 I. Bogdanovic-Radovic
INVITED Light element analysis using elastic scattering coincidence technique at the Zagreb
microprobe

11:45 – 12:05 C. Jeynes


Fluence control in several European ion implanters

12:05 - 12:25 J. Vacik


Free volume distribution analysis of the stressed hybrid films by profiling of the
Hg and Li diffusion markers
12:25 – 12:45 A. Climent-Font
Modification of the electrochemical properties of crystalline silicon by MeV Si
implantation
12:45 – 13:05 D. Ila
Materials science and engineering research and training at the Center for
Irradiation of Materials of Alabama A&M University
52 Book of Abstracts

SESSION 3 – Chair: H. Klein


14:30 – 15:00 W. Assmann
INVITED Electronic sputtering of ionic crystals

15:00 – 15:20 S. Pellegrino


The JANNUS Saclay multi-ion irradiation platform: Capabilities, performances
and first application examples

15:20 – 15:50 W. Kleeven


INVITED Recent developments and progress of IBA accelerators

15:50 – 16:10 R. von Hahn


The Electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR - a new instrument for the
exploration of ions to massive clusters

SESSION 4 – Chair: M. Suter


16:40 – 17:10 T. Zhang
INVITED The cyclotron development activities at CIAE

17:10 – 17:30 Sh. Akhmadaliev


A new universal 6 MV Tandetron for ion beam analysis, ion implantation and
accelerator mass spectrometry in Dresden

17:30 – 17:50 A. M. Müller


Mini gas ionization chambers for IBA applications

20:00 Conference dinner


10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 53

The European Spallation Source (ESS): Current status and the way ahead
M. Lindroos, Ch. Vettier, C. J. Carlile, P. Carlsson
European Spallation Source, Lund, Sweden

The European Spallation Source (ESS) will be the most powerful neutron source in the world. To
achieve such a goal, it must provide facilities that will fulfil the imaginative wishes of the many
researchers in Europe that exploit neutron beams for their own research. These facilities comprise the
experimental installations (neutron instruments, interface laboratories), the neutron source itself
(proton target and neutron moderators) and the proton linear accelerator.
The ESS project is now in a Design Update phase during which the whole Linac/target/moderators
assembly is iteratively optimised. Starting from the ESFRI Roadmap specification, the performance
parameters for ESS are the peak neutron flux which should be at least 30 times higher than the today’s
most powerful neutron source in the world, the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), and the time-averaged
flux which should be equal to ILL’s. The accelerator key parameters include the proton energy, the
pulse width and frequency, but also the proton beam reliability and beam losses. Several options
(mercury or lead alloys, with a solid rotating target as fall-back option) are still open for the target
materials. The ESS design should be completed by 2012. The construction will immediately start in
order to produce the first neutron beams in 2019; it is expected that ESS will reach full specifications
in 2025.
The ESS neutron instruments will focus on the use of cold and cold/thermal neutrons that are perfectly
suited to today’s priorities in materials science: chemistry, bio-materials, soft condensed matter, solid
state physics. The gain in cold neutron flux achieved at ESS will allow the wide ranges in time and
space domains that neutron methods can cover to be even further extended. ESS will convene a first
ESS User Meeting in early 2011 to review the top priorities in neutron methods to be developed at
ESS in order to fulfil its scientific goals.
54 Book of Abstracts

The Frankfurt Neutron Source - FRANZ


O. Meusel1, L.P. Chau1, M. Heilmann1, H. Podlech1, U. Ratzinger1, A. Schempp1, C. Wiesner1,
S. Schmidt1, K. Volk1, M. Heil2, R. Plag2, R. Reifarth2, K. Stiebing3, J. Stroth3, F. Käppeler4,
D. Petrich4
1
IAP, Goethe University Frankfurt
2
GSI, Darmstadt
3
IKF, Goethe University Frankfurt
4
IKF, KIT Karlsruhe
The Frankfurt Neutron Source will use the 7Li(p,n) reaction to produce an intense neutron beam. The
planned experiments require variable neutron energy between 10 and 400 keV. Hence the energy of
primary proton beam should be adjustable between 1.8 and 2.2 MeV. The FRANZ beam line consists
of two branches to allow different methods of neutron capture measurements. The compressor mode
offer time of flight measurements in combination with a 4p BaF2 detector array. The proton beam of
about 150 mA will be compressed to a 1ns pulse with a peak current of about 9A at the repetition rate
of 250 kHz. The activation mode uses a continuous neutron flux. The primary cw proton beam with a
low current up to 30 mA will be focussed on the production target.
FRANZ is not only a neutron source but also a test bench for the research on new accelerator and
diagnostic concepts for intense ion beams. The planned proton beam properties on the target poses a
challenging task of accelerator design and target development. This presentation emphasises on the
ongoing construction of the neutron source and planned experiments.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 55

Neutron measurements for advanced reactor systems: Results from the


n_TOF facility at CERN
N. Colonna, for the n_TOF Collaboration
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy

Climatic problems associated to the greenhouse effect have recently stimulated a renewed interest in
nuclear energy production. One of the problems associated with current nuclear reactors is the
production of nuclear waste. At present, the only safe and stable solution is the disposal of the high-
level radioactive waste in geological repositories. However, a more appealing and efficient solution
would consist in the transmutation of the long-lived radionuclides in dedicated systems, such as
Accelerator Driven Systems. Another possibility being investigated is the recycling of actinides in the
fuel cycle of the so-called Generation IV fast nuclear reactors. Together with the nuclear waste
incineration, a closed fuel cycle would allow a more efficient use of U resources and minimize safety
concerns and proliferation issues.
The design and operation of new nuclear systems require accurate neutron cross section data on a large
number of isotopes, in particular plutonium, minor actinides, long-lived fission fragments and
structural materials. An important contribution in this respect is being provided since a few years by
the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF, based on the spallation of a pulsed 20 GeV/c proton
beam on a lead target. The wide energy range, high instantaneous neutron flux and excellent energy
resolution are the main features that make n_TOF well suited for measurements in fundamental and
applied Nuclear Physics. Several results relevant for nuclear waste transmutation, for the development
of new generation reactors, as well as for Nuclear Astrophysics, have been obtained in the first
measurement campaign. In particular, capture and fission cross sections have been accurately
determined for various actinides related to the development of new fuel cycles, and to the design of
ADS and Gen IV systems.
Recently, a new spallation target and cooling systems have been installed at n_TOF and the measuring
station has been upgraded in order to allow handling of high-activity samples. Following the
refurbishing of the facility, a new measurement campaign has started in 2009.
In this talk, a review of the main results obtained at n_TOF will be presented, together with the status
of the facility, its instrumentation and the upcoming experimental program.
56 Book of Abstracts

Light element analysis using elastic scattering coincidence technique at the


Zagreb microprobe
I. Bogdanović Radović, Z. Siketić, N. Skukan, Ž. Pastuović and M. Jakšić
Department for experimental physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia,
iva@irb.hr
Elastic scattering coincidence is an ion beam technique where incident ions are detected in
coincidence with ions they recoil form the target. Both ions are detected by two solid state detectors
that can be positioned in different experimental configurations. Combined with a focused ion beam,
method can be used for 3-dimensional profiling of small concentrations of light elements in heavier
matrices, especially in cases where other IBA techniques can not be successfully applied. If both
particles are detected in forward direction only samples with thickness in the range of micrometers can
be used, depending on the ion type, energy and sample matrix.
We have developed and tested two different setups for coincident elastic scattering using focused ion
beams. First setup, with two particle detectors placed symmetrically around the beam direction at 45°
was used when scattered and recoiled heavier ions are of the same kind [1]. Similar setups are already
well established at several microbeam facilities but only for the p-p elastic scattering with incident
proton energies varying from 2.5 MeV up to 20 MeV [2,3,4].
More general configuration with two annular particle detectors that are placed one after another was
developed for cases where scattered and recoiled particles are not identical. This setup is characterized
with large solid angle opening where first detector is covering smaller and second larger scattering
angles.
Capabilities of the technique concerning depth resolution and sensitivity have been tested for both
experimental setups on several thin samples of known composition. A method is also compared with
other IBA techniques that are suitable for microbeam irradiation.

References
[1] I.B. Radović, Z. Siketić, N. Skukan, M. Jakšić, J. Appl. Phys. 105 (2009) 074901
[2] P. Reichart, G. Datzman, A. Hauptner, R. Hertenberger, C. Wild, G. Dollinger, Science 306 (2004) 1537
[3] K. A. Sjöland, P. Kristiansson, M. Elfman, K. G. Malmqvist, J. Pallon, R. J. Utui, C. Yang, Nucl. Instr.
and Meth. B124 (1997) 639
[4] P. Berger, J.-P. Gallien, H. Khodja, L. Daudin, M.-H. Berger, A. Sayir, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B249
(2006) 527
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 57

Fluence control in several European ion implanters


C. Jeynes1, A.J. Smith1, N. Peng1, M. Zier2, A. Morel3, Z. Qiang3, K. Temst3, W. Vandervorst3,4, A.
Vantomme3, A. Cassimi4, E. Balanzat5, R. Elliman6
1
University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, England*, c.jeynes@surrey.ac.uk
2
Forschungszentrum Dresden, Rossendorf, Saxony, Germany*
3
Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium*
4
IMEC Kapeldreef 75, Leuven, Belgium*
5
Commissariat à L’Energie Atomique, Caen, France *
6
Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
This work reports the results of an initial cycle of implantations carried out under a strict quality
control protocol for four SPIRIT [1] partners who offer specific implantation services to the European
community. Surrey has two controlled accelerators with a nominal specification of 2% fluence
accuracy and 2% fluence uniformity over a 100 mm wafer. FZD Dresden has four controlled
accelerators with nominal specifications from 2% to 10% fluence accuracy and uniformity over a 100
mm wafer. KUL Leuven has two controlled implanters designed for small samples (1 cm2), with a
nominal specification of 5 % fluence accuracy. CEA Caen (IRRSUD facility) will test 1014Xe/cm2
implants at 40 MeV. Most test implants will be measured at Surrey by RBS (Rutherford
backscattering) under a published protocol [2] capable of determining implanted fluence with an
absolute accuracy better than 1%. The high energy low fluence implants from Caen will be measured
by quantitative PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) at about 5%. The implantation protocols will
be described in detail, and the ion beam analysis measurements reported.

References and Acknowledgements


* Partner providing Trans-National Access for SPIRIT (“Support of Public and Industrial Research Using
Ion Beam Technology”)1
[1] SPIRIT is supported by the European Community as an Integrating Activity under EC contract 227012.
SPIRIT integrates 11 leading ion beam facilities from 6 European Member States and 2 Associated States.
7 partners provide Trans-National Access to their facilities, offering highly complementary equipment and
areas of specialization to European scientists. Ions are supplied in an energy range from below 10 keV to
more than 100 MeV for modification and analysis of solid surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and soft matter.
SPIRIT will increase the quality of research by sharing best practice, harmonizing procedures and
establishing rigorous quality control measures.
[2] C. Jeynes, N. Peng, N.P. Barradas, R.M. Gwilliam, Quality assurance in an implantation laboratory by
high accuracy RBS, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B, 2006; 249, 482–485
58 Book of Abstracts

Free volume distribution analysis of the stressed hybrid films


by profiling of the Hg and Li diffusion markers
J. Vacik1, V. Lavrentiev1, V. Hnatowicz1, K. Narumi2
1
Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, 25068 Rez, Czech Republic; vacik@ujf.cas.cz.
2
Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki,370-1292, Japan
In the present paper, thin hybrid films of the organic fullerenes (C60) and transition metals (Ni, Ti, Co,
etc.) have been synthesized by co-evaporation or alternating deposition of the fullerenes and metal
components at different deposition kinetics (deposition rates, temperatures of the substrates, etc.). As a
result, thin film mixtures and multilayers with various nano-structures were prepared. The structural
forms, stability and thermal response of the composites were inspected using the ion and neutron beam
analytical techniques (e.g., Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling, Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis
and Thermal Neutron Depth Profiling), and other complementary methods (e.g., micro-Raman
spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy). It has been found that the synthesis of the immiscible
organic-metallic phases leads to the (nano)structures exhibiting a variety of forms that strongly depend
on the deposition kinetics. As-deposited, the composite films are usually internally stressed with free
volume defects. The evolution of the stress relaxation, induced by thermal annealing (or energetic ion
or laser beams) can, advantageously, be studied by the free volume distribution analysis. If the free
volume is marked by a suitable (well-analyzable) diffusion marker, then the depth profiles of the
marker copy the depth distributions of the free volume. In the paper, highly mobile free volume
markers, Hg vaporized atoms and Li+ ions (from the 5 M/l LiCl water bath) have been utilized. The
markers indiffused into the thin films of the hybrids and occupied in the first place the free volume
defects. The controlled thermal annealing of the composites triggered a process of the gradual phase
separation and structural stress relaxation. This also caused an alteration of the structure and,
consequently, the free volume distribution that the Hg and Li diffusion markers could occupy. It has
been found that the marker distributions of the as-deposited films follow mainly the character of the
C60 component distribution. After annealing of the hybrid systems at elevated temperatures, however,
the marker profiles decrease dramatically - suggesting a significant drop-off of the free volume
concentration, perhaps due to the formation of the spatially compact a-C clusters.

References
[1] J. Vacik, H. Naramoto, S. Yamamoto, K. Narumi, K. Miyashita, J. Chem. Phys. 114 (2001) 9115.
[2] S. Sakai, H. Naramoto, P.V. Avramov, T. Yaita, V. Lavrentiev, K. Narumi, Y. Baba, Y. Maeda, Thin
Solid Films, Volume 515 (2007) 7758.
[3] J. Vacik, V. Lavrentiev, V. Hnatowicz, V. Vorlicek, S. Yamamoto, H. Stadler, Journal of Alloys and
Compounds 483 (2009) 374.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 59

Modification of the electrochemical properties of crystalline silicon by MeV


Si implantation
V. Torres-Costa1, M. Manso-Silván1, E. Punzón-Quijorna1, R. J. Martín-Palma1,
D. Martín-Marero1,2, A. Climent-Font1,2
1
Dept. Applied Physics, University Autónoma Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain)
2
CMAM, University Autónoma Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain), acf@uam.es

It is known that irradiation of silicon with H and He ion beams in the MeV energy range modifies the
electrochemical properties of the material, as is evidenced by the inhibition of porous silicon growth in
the irradiated areas [1]. MeV ion beams of heavier elements with higher stopping force will be more
effective in the modification of the physical and chemical properties of the material under irradiation.
In this work we study this alteration effect of the electrochemical properties of crystalline silicon
substrates using MeV Si ion beams with the electrostatic accelerator of CMAM facility. Thus, besides
irradiating the material with an ion heavier than H or He, the ion is of the same elementary nature as
the irradiated material, ruling out the possibility of ascribing any contribution of the observed effects
to the implanted species. A drastic resistivity increase of the irradiated silicon substrate is observed for
growing implantation fluence, which can be pointed out as the mechanism responsible for the
inhibition of pore formation.
Patterns of localized porous silicon have been obtained using TEM copper grids as a mask. Porous
silicon growth is precisely confined to non-implanted areas (Figure 1), producing abrupt porous
silicon/silicon lateral interfaces.

Figure 1: The mask pattern, 40 µm spacing copper grid, is transferred to the substrate as porous
silicon

References
[1] M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, Phys. Rev. B 73 035428
(2006) 1
60 Book of Abstracts

Materials science and engineering research and training at the Center for
Irradiation of Materials of Alabama A&M University
D. Ila (ila@cim.aamu.edu), R. L. Zimmerman (rlzimm@cim.aamu.edu), C. Muntele
(Claudiu@cim.aamu.edu), L. R. Holland (hollandl@bellsouth.net), B. Chhay (Bopha@cim.aamu.edu),
S. Budak (Sbudak@cim.aamu.edu), and Z. Xiao (Xiao@cim.aamu.edu)
Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A&M University
Normal, AL 35762-1447 USA
The Center for Irradiation of Materials @ AAMU (http://cim.aamu.edu) established in 1990 to serve
the University in its research, education and services the need of the local community and Industry.
CIM irradiation capabilities oriented around two tandem type ion accelerators with seven beam lines
providing high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), MeV focus ion beam, high
energy ion implantation and irradiation damage studies, particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE),
particle induced gamma emission (PIGE), and ion induced nuclear reaction analysis in addition to
fully automated ion channeling. One of the two tandem ion accelerators designed to produce high flux
ion beam for high fluence MeV ion implantation and high fluence ion irradiation damage study. The
CIM facility is well equipped with variety of surface analysis systems, such as SEM, ESCA, as well as
scanning micro-Raman analysis, UV-VIS Spectrometry, luminescence spectroscopy, nanoscale
thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, IV/CV systems, mechanical test systems, AFM, FTIR,
Voltmetry analysis as well as low energy implanters, Ion Beam Assisted Deposition and MBE
systems. In this presentation we will demonstrate how the facility provides education and training
services to schools, industries and how highlight few of the recent inventions at CIM. Example of
research, services and training by CIM are: A) pure & fundamental research, B)applied research in
materials modification (ion Implantation, Radiation effects, …), forensics, materials characterization
(RBS, NRA, PIXE, PIGE, micro-beam, ion channeling, device prototyping (such as sensors, detectors,
thermoelectric, filters, HT carbon-composites, bio-materials, and nano-pores devices), C) education
through special topics courses (3-6 Credit hours), summer training, REU, IGART, exchange students,
and visiting scientists/scholar programs, D) services such as small business innovative research, small
business tech transfer, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification and innovative forensics projects. As
a result of this program at CIM, as of 2009 we have had 17 Ph. D. dissertations, 13 Masters degree
theses, over 75 Undergraduate funded research, 4 high school research scholars and over 100
Summer/Visiting Scholars.

Sponsors: Supported in part by AAMU Research Institute, NSF (MRSEC, EPSCoR, GRSP, REU,
MSP), DOE, DOD, NASA (Propulsion, EPSCoR), and NRC
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 61

Electronic sputtering of ionic crystals


W. Assmann1, A. Bergmaier2, A. Mücklich3, A. Tripathi4, C. Trautmann5, M. Toulemonde6
1
Ludwig Maximilians Universität München, Garching, Germany, walter.assmann@lmu.de
2
Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg, Germany
3
FZ Dresden, Rossendorf, Germany
4
Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India
5
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany
6
CIMAP laboratoire, CEA, CNRS, ENSICAEN, Univ. Caen, Caen, France
Ion-matter interaction processes in the electronic energy loss regime have shown a number of new
phenomena. For many materials, the electronic sputtering yields are larger than expected from purely
collisional processes. Ionic crystals, such as LiF or CaF2, exhibit sputtering yields orders of magnitude
above nuclear sputtering. In addition, a sharp jet-like component is observed which is symmetric
around the surface normal and superimposed on the usual cosine angular distribution [1]. Whereas
electronic sputtering of metals and insulating oxides can almost quantitatively be explained by an
inelastic thermal spike model, assuming thermal evaporation of particles around the ion track [2],
similar calculations with reasonable material parameters cannot reproduce the measured yield of ionic
crystals [3]. Their angular distribution points at an additional sputtering mechanism.
New experiments have been performed to get deeper insight into the physical processes governing
electronic sputtering of ionic crystals. By varying the projectile charge state, the energy loss along the
ion trajectory can be modified in particular in the sputtering sensitive surface region. This approach
provides information on the depth of origin of the ejected particles. In a recent study, we evaporated
very thin carbon layers on the surface of a LiF target in order to test the influence of the layer
thickness. In these experiments, the sputtering yields and angular distributions are deduced from arc-
shaped catcher foils analyzed by elastic recoil detection. Specific information on the size, composition,
and structure of the ejected particles was obtained from transmission electron microscopy analysis of
Cu grids covered by a thin carbon foil used as catcher.

References
[1] M. Toulemonde, W. Assmann, C. Trautmann, F. Grüner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 057602.
[2] H.D. Mieskes, W. Assmann, F. Grüner, H. Kucal, Z.G. Wang, M. Toulemonde, Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003)
155404.
[3] W. Assmann, M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, in R. Behrisch, W. Eckstein (Eds.)‘Sputtering by Particle
Bombardment’, Topics in Appl. Physics 110 (2007) 401, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
62 Book of Abstracts

The JANNUS Saclay multi-ion irradiation platform: Capabilities,


performances and first application examples
S. Pellegrino1, S. Vaubaillon1, N. Châabane1
P. Trocellier2,Y. Serruys2, S. Miro2, E. Bordas2, H. Martin2
1
CEA-INSTN/UEPTN, Centre d'études de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, stephanie.pellegrino@cea.fr
2
CEA-DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMP, Centre d'études de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette
In the first part of this paper, a description of the JANNUS (Joint accelerators for Nanosciences and
Nuclear Simulation) project is given. Because of the growing interest in Europe for nuclear material
sciences and nanotechnology this project was born in France in 2002 between CEA and CNRS. The
multi-ion irradiation platform JANNUS is devoted to simulate the effects of neutron bombardment in
nuclear materials based on single-, dual- or triple-beam experiments. Using the ion beams delivered by
the accelerators of JANNUS, it is possible to study the combined effects of target damaging, ion
implantation effects, helium and hydrogen production, and the occurrence of nuclear reactions. Three
electrostatic accelerators have been coupled in the JANNUS facility:
- a 3 MV Pelletron™ from NEC, installed in December 2006. It is equipped with an ECR multi-
charged ion source Nanogan™ from PANTECHNIK, able to produce almost any ion beam from
hydrogen to bismuth.
- a 2.5 MV single ended HVEE Van de Graaff used for research and teaching purposes able to supply
proton, deuteron, helium-3 and helium-4 ion beams.
- a 2 MV Pelletron tandem from NEC installed in November 2009. It is implemented with a cesium
sputtering charge exchange ion source (SNIICS), able to produce almost any ion beam except rare
gazes.
Damage dose up to 100 dpa can be reached in 10 hours irradiation with heavy ion beams.
Three beam lines (one from each accelerator) converge in a dedicated vacuum chamber implemented
with a multi-Faraday cup device for dose monitoring and energy degraders. The sample holder allows
irradiation to be carried on from –150 °C to 800 ◦C. The first triple beam irradiation has been
performed in the middle of March 2010.
In the second part, we will develop the different research topics conducted around JANNUS such as
irradiation behaviour of structural materials for actual fission reactors, future reactors, fusion
machines, nuclear fuel developments, nuclear waste management and ion beam analysis such as RBS,
ERDA, PIXE and NRA.

Room 66 Room 65

Japet 2 MV

Room 64

Room 61 Room 63

Yvette 2.5 MV
Room 62

Épiméthée 3 MV

Figure 1: General layout of the Saclay triple beam facility.


10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 63

Recent developments and progress of IBA accelerators


W. Kleeven, Y. Jongen, M. Abs, J.-M. Geets, T. Servais, J.-L. Bol, L. Medeiros-Romao,
S. Zaremba, E. Forton, V. Nuttens, F. Stichelbaut
Ion beam Applications, Chemin du cyclotron 3, B-1348, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium
www.iba-worldwide.com, willem.kleeven@iba-group.com
During the last few years several new accelerator developments were realized at IBA. These concern
three main directions: i) accelerators for the production of medical radio-isotopes, ii) medical
accelerators for patient treatment and iii) accelerators for industrial applications.
Within the first category four important projects are discussed:
a) Upgrade of our existing Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron (18 MeV p and 9 MeV d) towards higher
beam current and increased reliability (Twin source). This machine is mainly used for
production of PET isotopes and replies to the strong demand of the 18-F radiotracer.
b) Upgrade of our existing Cyclone 30 cyclotron towards higher intensity. The machine is mainly
used for the production of SPECT isotopes on solid targets. This solution replies to the higher
needs of 201-Thalium since the shortage of 99Mo/Tc generators from nuclear reactors.
c) Development of a new versatile multiple-particle isotope-production cyclotron (Cyclone
30XP) that will be able to accelerate 15-30 MeV H- as well as 7.5-15 MeV D- (both beams
extraction by stripping) and also 30 MeV α-particles (extracted with electrostatic deflector).
The α-beam allows for the production of the 211 At α-emitter for therapeutic use.
d) Commissioning results of our Cyclone C70 cyclotron installed for Arronax in France. This
machine is similar to the Cyclone C30XP but provides higher energy (K-value=70).
Within the second category two major projects are addressed:
a) The major design work of the superconducting cyclotron C400 is completed and the
construction will start as soon as the contract negotiations with the potential customer Archade
are succeeded. The C400 will accelerate 12-C up to 400 MeV/A for carbon therapy, but can
also accelerate H2+ that will be extracted by stripping and allow for conventional proton-
therapy.
b) Several improvements are made to our existing C235 cyclotron for proton-therapy.
Within the third category two more major projects will be mentioned:
a) IBA is converting its Dynamitron electron machine into a high intensity proton machine that
will provide a continuous multi-mA 4 MeV proton beam for industrial applications. This
machine together with a dedicated beam transport and scanning system is currently under
commissioning as part of an industrial silicon wafer cutting facility.
b) IBA is currently commissioning the eXelis system which comprises the high performance
TT1000 Rhodotron accelerating a 700 kWatt electron beam onto a Tantalum X-ray target.
Worldwide this is the first industrial X-ray facility to be used for sterilization of medical
devices.
64 Book of Abstracts

The Electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR -


a new instrument for the exploration of ions to massive clusters
R. von Hahn, K. Blaum, F. Fellenberger, M. Froese, M. Grieser, C. Krantz, M. Lange,
S. Menk, F. Laux, D. A. Orlov, R. Repnow, A. Shornikov, T. Sieber, A. Wolf
Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany,
Robert.von.hahn@mpi-hd.mpg.de
A new and technologically challenging project, the Electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR, is
presently under construction at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg (see Fig.
1). Employing liquid helium cooling the CSR with 35 m circumference will provide a low temperature
environment of only a few K and an extremely high vacuum. This produces conditions comparable
with those in the interstellar space and opens up new research opportunities for our understanding in
fields as diverse as fundamental quantum chemistry, star formation and the properties of interstellar
molecular clouds.
As particle storage is accomplished using electrostatic forces and therefore does not depend on the
particle mass, in addition to clusters also properties of very large (bio-)molecules (e.g. DNA
constituents) will be investigated. In order to test the cryogenic concept of the CSR a 4 m long
electrostatic ion trap at around 10 K was successfully developed and commisioned as a prototype and
achieved a residual pressure in the 10-14 mbar range [1]. The status of the project will be reported.

Figure 1: Schematic of the CSR with the connection to the cryocooler and with in-ring experiments.
The inner cryogenic chambers and outer cryostat chambers are visible.

References
[1] M. Lange et. al., Rev. Sci. Instr., Accepted for publication (2010).
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 65

The cyclotron development activities at CIAE


T. Zhang, Zh. Li, F. Yang
China Institute of Atomic Energy, tjzhang@ciae.ac.cn
The Cyclotron Laboratory at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has been devoting to cyclotron
development and related applications since it was founded in 1956. The first cyclotron in China, Y-
120, was successfully provide beam for user here in 1958, marking a remarkable event in the cyclotron
development history in China.
At the moment two cyclotrons are being built at CIAE, i.e. a 100 MeV cyclotron CYCIAE-100 and a
14 MeV cyclotron CYCIAE-14. In the meanwhile, we are designing and proposing to build a number
of cyclotrons at different energies, e.g. an 800 MeV proton cyclotron.
The paper will present an overview of the construction progress of the ongoing project CYCIAE-100,
including the accomplished fabrication of a 2-meter long, 38° sector resonant cavity, 2 sets of 100kW
amplifiers, and the test results that go with them, as well as other major parts about to be finished,
from the 435-ton main magnet, main coil, high stability DC power supply, to the main vacuum
chamber, extraction system, etc. Also included in this paper is a multi-cusp, 15mA H- ion source
specially developed for CYCIAE-100 and the test results on the experimental test stand.
A part of this paper will cover the construction of a 10MeV Central Region Model Cyclotron,
CYCIAE-CRM, whose development has come to an end with success in the December of 2009. The
beam intensity, after many improvements made during the commissioning, has been up to 430 µA.
The basic structure and design parameters will be introduced, as well as the results of isochronous
field mapping and shimming, and beam tests, etc.
The other highlight of this paper will go to a 14 MeV cyclotron, known as the CYCIAE-14 project. An
overall introduction of the machine will be given, including the primary technical specifications,
calculation results of the beam dynamics, physics design results of the major parts and their fabrication
progress, etc. The construction of this machine is to be accomplished within 2 years.
The last part of the paper deals with some future developing plans being conceived and to be
conducted at the Cyclotron Laboratory of CIAE, including the concept design of a 800 MeV high
power proton cyclotron, the physics design of a 70 MeV compact high intensity H- cyclotron, as well
as the beam intensity upgrading plan based on CYCIAE-CRM and possible applied research related to
BNCT.
66 Book of Abstracts

A new
w universsal 6 MV Tandetroon for ion
n beam an
nalysis, ion
n implanttation
a accelerator maass spectrrometry in
and n Dresden n
Sh. Akhmadalieev, R. Hellerr, S. Merchel, A. Kolitschh, and W. Mööller
Forscchungszentruum Dresden--Rossendorf, Institute of Ion
I Beam Phhysics and M Materials Reseearch,
Bautzner Landstr.
L 400,, D-01328 Dresden,
D Germmany, E-maiil: akhmadalliev@fzd.de
A new 6 MV electroostatic tandeem accelerattor is put intto operation at Forschunngszentrum Dresden-
Rossenddorf (FZD). It I will be useed for ion beeam analysiss (IBA) suchh as RBS, ER RD, PIXE/PIGE, and
NRA ass well as foor material modification
m n via high-en nergy ion im mplantation. The system m is also
equippedd for accelerrator mass sppectrometry (AMS)
( and opens
o this neew research field at the FZD.
F The
Dresden AMS facilitty (DREAM MS) will especcially be useed for measuurements of 10Be, 26Al, 366Cl, 41Ca,
and 129I.
The system is baased on a 6 MV-Tandettron with tw wo separate ion injectorss (Fig. 1). TheT AMS
injector consists off two Cs-spuutter ion soources with wheels for up to 200 samples eaach. The
multipurrpose ion injector containning a Cs-spputter ion sou urce and a He-duoplasm
H matron will be applied
for ion beam
b analysiis and high-eenergy ion im
mplantation in
i the autom matic wafer-haandler operaating with
8-inch wafers.
w Two high-energy 90° analyziing magnets deflect the ions i in eitherr the AMS section
s or
the implantation beeamline. Thee interconneecting beamlline will connect the nnew system with the
existing experimentaal IBA equippment allowinng to replacee the old 5 MV-Tandem
M accelerator. The new
accelerattor allows too increase thhe depth rangge, improvess resolution and detectioon limits of ion
i beam
analysis..

Figure 1: 6 MV-Tandeetron at FZD


10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 67

Mini gas ionization chambers for IBA applications


A.M. Müller, M. Döbeli, M. Mallepell, M. Suter, H.-A. Synal
Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, arnold.mueller@phys.ethz.ch
In AMS, gas ionization chambers are applied since decades for rare isotope detection. Also for IBA
applications (ERDA, HIBS) gas detectors are increasingly being used. The benefits of these detectors
are the high radiation hardness and the better energy resolution compared to Si detectors for ions
heavier than Li. In order to facilitate their construction and use we have designed very small and
simple tubular gas ionization detectors of only a few centimeters in length (Fig. 1). If used with small
entrance windows they can withstand pressure differences up to 1 bar and thus can be operated both
under vacuum or atmospheric pressure. They are especially suited for high fluence applications like
e.g. STIM. Tests with the direct beam from an ion microprobe have shown that no change in detector
response can be observed even after a fluence of 10 million protons per square micron of entrance
window area. An overview of the present status and potential of the technique will be given.

Figure 1: Photograph of the tubular gas ionization detector


68 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 69

Friday, 17.9.2010 (AMS)

SESSION 1 – Chair: S. Merchel


9:00 – 9:30 M. Suter
INVITED How can we optimize AMS facilities?

9:30 – 9:50 P. Steier


AMS of heavy ions at VERA: Measurement procedures and applications
9:50 – 10:10 K. von Reden
Design and reality: Continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry
10:10 – 10:30 M. Fedi
New perspectives for AMS at LABEC, Florence

10:30 – 10:50 E. Chamizo


Presence of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in soils from Chile

SESSION 2 – Chair: P. Misaelides


11:20 – 11:40 F. Marzaioli
Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE

11:40 - 12:00 V. Palonen


Improved AMS data analysis with the CAR model

12:00 - 12:20 M. Quarta


Radiocarbon AMS determination of the biogenic component in CO2 emitted from
waste incineration

12:20 - 12:40 M. Klein


A new HVE 6 MV AMS system at the University of Cologne

12:40 - 13:00 K. Bethge


INVITED Final remarks – Summary – End of ECAART-10
70 Book of Abstracts

How can we optimize AMS facilities?


M. Suter1, H.- A. Synal2
1
Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, martin.suter@phys.ethz.ch
2
Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich
There is increasing demand on AMS, both for higher accuracy and for measuring samples with lower
nuclide concentrations or smaller size. Meeting these demands requires that we find ways for
improving the performance of existing AMS facilities or for building new, better instruments. The
terminal voltage (VTerm) of tandem accelerators and the associated maximum beam energy are
certainly important parameters for characterizing performance, since higher energies make nuclide
detection and identification significantly simpler. On the other hand, initial investment and operating
costs are significantly higher for facilities with higher VTerm. In addition to VTerm, performance depends
very strongly on the layout of the instrument and on the design of individual components. Progress is
best served by approaching the optimization of AMS instrumentation in a systematic, scientific way.
This approach requires that we have a sufficient understanding of the measurement scheme to enable
the process to be modeled and reliable predictions to be made for the behavior of different
configurations. For low energy AMS ((VTerm)< 1 MV), this optimization was an essential step in the
design of competitive, compact instruments. Similar know-how can be applied for improving the
performance of larger AMS facilities. Because the same physical effects are not necessarily relevant in
all energy ranges, different concepts, arrangements and methods may be appropriate at lower than at
higher energies. This will be illustrated using the example of isobar separation techniques based on
differences in stopping power. We first demonstrate that the models and computer codes presently
available for stopping power and energy straggling are not sufficient to make reliable predictions of
isobar suppression. It is therefore important that more reliable experimental data become available to
allow improvement and evaluation of the models. Gas detectors must be optimized individually for the
various energy ranges: electronic noise is a key limitation at low energies, whereas at higher energies
energy straggling is a dominant effect. Other particle identification techniques such as absorber cells,
degrader foils and gas filled magnets show different energy dependant limitations.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 71

AMS of heavy ions at VERA: Measurement procedures and applications


P. Steier1, F. Dellinger1, O. Forstner1, R. Golser1, W. Kutschera1, M. Martschini1, A. Priller1,
M. Srncik2, A. Wallner1, G. Wallner2
1
Universität Wien, Fakultät für Physik - Isotopenforschung, Währinger Straße 17, A-1090 Wien,
Austria, peter.steier@univie.ac.at
2
Universität Wien, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien, Austria
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) has proven to be the most sensitive method for the detection of
actinides [1]. Based on realistic assumptions, actinides AMS can provide a higher detection efficiency
than α-spectrometry if the half-life is longer than ca. 103 years.
Depending on the nuclide, the detection limit for heavy, long-lived radioisotopes can be several orders
of magnitude below that of the conventional mass spectrometric methods such as TIMS (Thermal
Ionization Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-MS. This advantage is especially large for 236U (t1/2 = 23 Myr)
where the high natural abundance of 234U, 235U and 238U make the abundance sensitivity of AMS a
prerequisite for its detection [2]. Only a few facilities worldwide exist so far which can reach the
natural abundance levels of 236U (< 10-10), among them the Vienna Environmental Research
Accelerator (VERA).
Also for other actinides, where no abundant natural isotopes exist, the overall detection limit seems to
be better with AMS than with competing methods [1], probably due to the complete suppression of
molecular ion species and of "tails" from uranium. This seems to hold also for machines with lower
terminal voltage (≤ 1 MV), and a growing number of AMS laboratories are now pursuing such
applications [3,4]. The high sensitivity extends the domain of applicability to almost every
compartment of the environment, where many such radio-nuclides occur at detectable levels, both of
anthropogenic and natural origin. At VERA, we have carried out measurements for radiation
protection and environmental monitoring (236U, 239,240,241,242,244Pu), astrophysics (182Hf, 236U, 244Pu, trace
amounts of Pt), oceanography (236U), nuclear physics (210mBi, 202Pb, 236U, 239Pu), and a search for long-
lived super-heavy elements (Z > 100).
We will present the detection methods used for heavy isotopes at VERA. 236U and 210mBi, where stable
isotopes exist which are one mass lighter are presently limited by the abundance sensitivity of several
10-12. For 236U/U ratios in the 10-11 range and mg-sized samples, an accuracy of about 1% can be
reached. Smaller uranium samples are limited by counting statistics (or, in many cases, laboratory
background). For small samples, beam-current measurements of 233U, 234U, and 235U are no longer
possible, but require a measurement in a particle detector. The precision of plutonium and other
elements where no stable isotope for beam current measurements by fast sequencing exists, is limited
by counting statistics or by the switching time between the various isotopes. We will discuss these
limitations, and present recent and planned improvements at VERA.

References
[1] L.K. Fifield, Quaternary Geochronology 3 (2008) 276–290.
[2] P. Steier, F. Dellinger, O. Forstner, R. Golser, K. Knie, W. Kutschera, A. Priller, F. Quinto, M. Srncik, F.
Terrasi, C. Vockenhuber, A. Wallner, G. Wallner, E.M. Wild. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 268
(2010) 1045–1049.
[3] E. Chamizo, S.M. Enamorado, M. García-León, M. Suter, L. Wacker. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res.
B 266 (2008) 4948–4954.
[4] J. Lachner, M. Christl, T. Bisinger, R. Michel, H.-A. Synal, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 68 (2010)
979–983.
72 Book of Abstracts

Design and reality: Continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry


K. F. von Reden1, M. L. Roberts1, C. P. McIntyre1, J. R. Burton1
1
Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution,
kvonreden@whoi.edu
In 2007 we published [1] the design of a novel accelerator mass spectrometry system capable of
analyzing gaseous samples injected continuously into a microwave plasma gas ion source. Obvious
advantages of such a system are drastically reduced processing times and avoidance of potentially
contaminating chemical preparation steps. Another paper in these proceedings will present the
progress of the development of this system that has since been built and tested at the National Ocean
Sciences AMS Facility in Woods Hole [2]. In this paper we will review the original design and present
updates, reflecting our recent encouraging experience with the system. A simple summary: large
acceptance ion beam optics design is beneficial to accelerator mass spectrometry in general, but
essential to AMS with plasma gas ion sources.

References
[1] B. Han, K. von Reden, M. Roberts, R. Schneider, J. Hayes, “Electromagnet Field Modeling and Ion
Optics Calculations for a Continuous-Flow AMS System”, Nucl. Inst. & Meth. in Physics Research B
259, 2007, p.111.
[2] M. Roberts, K. von Reden, C. McIntyre, J. Burton, “Progress with a gas-accepting ion source for
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry”, these proceedings.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 73

New perspectives for AMS at LABEC, Florence


M.E. Fedi1*, L. Carraresi1,2, L. Caforio2,3, M. Manetti1, F. Taccetti1, P.A: Mandò1,2
1
INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino (Fi), Italy
2
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Fi), Italy
3
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
*fedi@fi.infn.it
The LABEC laboratory in Florence has now gained some years of experience in Accelerator Mass
Spectrometry. During these first years of operation, our activity has been focused both on applications
(mainly dedicated to radiocarbon dating) and on the investigation of the Tandetron accelerator
capability and performance (i.e. reproducibility and background). To better understand the behaviour
of the machine, new detectors and solutions for the dedicated AMS beam line were studied; in
particular, the high-energy side (HE) has been recently upgraded by installing a new line that allows
us to have a better beam diagnostics and detection resolution. The original beam line was equipped
only with Faraday cups and commercial Beam Profile Monitor that can however provide beam
transport monitoring along the HE line only through the use of stable isotope ion beams (e.g. 13C). In
order to have the possibility to directly monitor the position and the spatial distribution of the rare
isotope ion beam (e.g. 14C), after the energy-mass-charge analysis (magnet + ESA) and after the final
quadrupole doublet, just in front of the detector, we have added a multiwire proportional chamber to
be used as a BPM optimized for ultra-low intensity beams (of the order of a few particles per seconds).
The device has been mounted on a retractable arm, to give us the possibility to use it only during the
tuning phase and extract it during measurements. Signals read-out electronics and acquisition system
have been realized custom as well: charge pre-amplifiers are based on high-frequency discrete
components; DAQ is based on a VME bus.
As to rare isotopes detection, a silicon detector has been added to the original ionisation chamber,
which is however still installed. The better energy resolution of this detector can help us to identify the
particles that have reached the final detector after scattering events.
Finally, the new beam line has been already equipped with the necessary mechanics to house a new
Time of Flight (TOF) system for measurements of rare isotopes heavier than 14C, namely 129I. The first
tests of the TOF are planned within short.
In the talk, details about mechanics and electronics of the new beam line will be given, and tests of the
BPM performance with a real 14C-beam will be shown, in standard AMS measurement conditions.
74 Book of Abstracts

Presence of
o plutoniu pes, 239Pu and 240Pu
um isotop u, in soils from Chiile
1
E. Chamizo
C , M. García-Leónn2, J.I. Perucchena1, F. Ceereceda3, V. Vidal
V 3
, E.C. Pinilla4, C. Miró
M 5
1
Cenntro Nacional de Aceleraddores (CNA)), Avda. Thom mas Alba Eddison, 7, 410992, Sevilla, Spain.
S
ecchamizo@us.es.
2
Departamennto de Física Atómica, Molecular
M y Nuclear,
N Univversidad de SSevilla, Spain n.
3
Centrro de Tecnoloogías Ambienntales (CETA AM), Universsidad Técnicca Federico SSanta María, Chile.
4
Deparrtamento de Química Anaalítica, Univversidad de Extremadura,
E , Spain.
5
Depaartamento dee Física Apliicada, Universidad de Exxtremadura, SSpain.
To date, plutonium is i present inn every envirronmental co ompartment, due to a wiide variety of o nuclear
activitiess. The Southhern Hemisphhere has receeived about 20% 2 of the global
g enviroonmental inv ventory of
both 239PuP (T1/2=241110 y) and 2440Pu (T1/2=24110 y), witth an importtant contribuution of the so-called
troposphheric fallout from both thhe atmospherric nuclear teests perform med by France in the Paciific atolls
of Muruuroa and Fanngataufa and by United KingdomK in Maralinga,
M A
Australia. Hoowever, the data
d base
on the loong-range ennvironmentall impact of the t former nu uclear activiities is very sscarce. This is due to
the very low 239+240PuP activities involved,
i whhich makes necessary
n thee use of ultrra-sensible teechniques
t work wee present for the first timee 239,240Pu ressults (239+240Pu
to affordd their quantiification. In this P massic
activitiess and 240Pu/239
2
o Northern, Central and Southern
Pu atomic ratio) in soiils from diffeerent areas of
Chile obbtained by Accelerator
A M
Mass Spectroometry on thhe 1 MV faacility at the Centro Naccional de
Aceleraddores (CNA,, Seville, Spaain). Preliminary results,, correspondiing to the Puuchuncaví vaalley, 110
km awayy from Santtiago de Chiile, point ouut to the preesence of deebris from thhe French teests, with
240
Pu/239Pu
P atomic ratios
r quite heterogeneou
h us and ranging from 100 to 20%. T They are sign nificantly
differentt from the expected
e onee for the gloobal fallout in
i the Southhern Hemispphere for thee 30-53ºS
latitude range (18.5 ± 0.5)%, [11]), but in agreement wiith the reporrted values ffor other po oints with
similar latitudes
l [1] (Figure 1). The 239+240PuP activity in nventories arre in agreem ment as well with the
obtainedd results in [11]. However,, there is nott a systematic study of 239,240Pu in diffferent areas of Chile,
which will
w be providded in this woork.

Figuree 1: Comparrison betweenn the obtaineed 240Pu/239Pu


u atomic ratioos in this woork in soils frrom the
Puchuuncaví valleyy and other areas
a studied in [1].

Referen
nces
[1] J.M. Kelley, L.A.. Bond, T.M. Beasley,
B Sciennce of the Tota
al Environment (1999) 2377/238, 483.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 75

Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE


F. Marzaioli1, M. Capano1, I. Passariello1, F. Terrasi1
1
CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Università di Napoli , Caserta,
Italy, fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it
The CIRCE AMS system, in operation since 2005, has rapidly attained very good precision and
accuracy in 14C measurements, as demonstrated also by the results of the VIRI intercomparison
program [1]. Typical statistical errors affecting the measured 14C/12C isotopic ratios are ≤ 0.3% for
samples not older than few thousands years. We have then accepted requests from private citizens or
public institutions to certify the authenticity of different findings in several forensic activities. In
particular, we have radiocarbon dated the wooden support of a painting whose attribution to Leonardo
da Vinci is heavily disputed among experts. Moreover, we have used the bomb spike method to
determine the date of death of several individuals and the date of production of the paper support of
relevant documents. In the present contribution details are given about both the methodology
employed and the role of AMS measurements in the framework of more general analytical approaches
to the investigated problems

References
[1] F. Terrasi, N. De Cesare, A. D'Onofrio, C. Lubritto, F. Marzaioli, I. Passariello, D. Rogalla, C. Sabbarese,
G. Borriello, G. Casa, A. Palmieri,. High precision 14C AMS at CIRCE. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys.
Res. B266 (2008) 2221
76 Book of Abstracts

Im
mproved AMS
A dataa analysis with the CAR model
V. Palonen1, P.
V P Tikkanen2, J. Keinoneen2
1
Depaartment of Phhysics, Univeersity of Helssinki, vesa.paalonen@helssinki.fi
2
Deppartment of Physics,
P Univversity of Heelsinki
The CAR R model is the
t best avaiilable methood of data-an nalysis for Accelerator
A M
Mass Spectro ometry. It
delivers Gaussian unncertainties with small random scattter and biass and providdes good con ntrol and
detectionn of instrumeental error [11, 2]. Furtherrmore, the CAR
C model is general enough to be applied
a in
other simmilar fields, e.g.
e mass speectrometry.
CAR4AM MS is a freeely-availablle implemenntation of th he CAR moddel for AM MS data-analy ysis. The
usabilityy of the proggram has beeen improved and a built--in MCMC convergence
c diagnostics has been
added. The
T developm ment of a well-defined ouutlier detectioon option is in progress. Here we desscribe the
model, detail
d the novvel improvem
ments, and inntroduce the usage
u of the program.

Figuree 1: Scatter of
o the AMS results
r with the
t CAR mo odel (black) and
a with a coonventional method
m
(gray).

Referen
nces
[1] V. Palonen, P. Tikkanen, J. J Keinonen, ‘A Bayesian measuremennt model; reliiable uncertaiinties and
control over instrumental driff’,. Journal off Physics D 41
1 (2008) 2120001.
[2] V. Palonen, P. Tikkanen,
T J. Keinonen,‘Imp
K proving AMS uncertainties
u and detectionn of instrumen
ntal error’,
Nuuclear Instrum
ments and Methhods in Physics Research B 268 (2010) 972-975.
9
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 77

Radiocarbon AMS determination of the biogenic component in CO2


emitted from waste incineration
L. Calcagnile1, G. Quarta1, M. D’Elia1, G. Ciceri2, V. Martinotti2
1
CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100,
Lecce, Italy, Corresponding author: Lucio Calcagnile (lucio.calcagnile@unisalento.it)
2
ERSE (ENEA-Ricerca sul Sistema Elettrico) S.p.A, Via R. Rubattino, 54, 20134, Milano
The thermal utilization of wastes for energy production is gaining importance in European countries.
Nevertheless, the combustion of wastes leads to significant CO2 emissions in the atmosphere which,
depending on the fraction of biogenic and fossil materials, have to be only partially accounted for the
national greenhouse gas inventory. Thus the development of a proper, standardized experimental
methodology for the determination of the biomass component of combusted wastes, plays a crucial
role.
Recently, a novel approach has been suggested as based on the determination of the radiocarbon
content in the CO2 stack emissions. The method is based on the large difference in the 14C content
between fossil-derived (not containing 14C) and biogenic waste, whose radiocarbon content reflects the
modern atmospheric concentration. Nevertheless, beside the significant advantages of this approach,
with respect to more traditional ones such as the manual sorting and the energy-mass balance methods,
some issues have still to be properly addressed. A crucial point if, for instance, the evaluation of the
radiocarbon concentration for the pure biogenic waste which strongly depends on the waste
composition and the radiocarbon concentration in the single fraction of the biomass.
In this paper we present the results of the AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) measurements
carried out on CO2 sampled at the stack of a plant burning SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel), obtained by
processing MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), in Northern Italy. A dedicated system for CO2 stack
emission sampling was developed allowing the gas purification by mean of cold traps and the
following dissolution of carbon dioxide in 4 M KOH solution. A proper protocol for the chemical
processing of the solutions was then developed at CEDAD for the release of the dissolved CO2 by
mean of acidification with H3PO4, its purification by mean of cryogenic traps and its catalytic
reduction to graphite for the AMS radiocarbon measurements. We determined that 200 µl of solution
(corresponding to less than 1 h of sampling time) produce enough graphite to allow the estimation of
the radiocarbon concentration by AMS.
Blank values were obtained by measuring samples taken from plants burning exclusively fossil fuels
while the reference value for the 14C content in pure biomass was established by measuring CO2
emission form plants burning biomass only. This references values were then used to determine the
biogenic component in the CO2 emitted from waste incineration plants. Our results indicate the
potentialities of 14C AMS as monitoring tool also considering the high temporal resolution achievable
by this method.
Finally, the obtained values were compared with those obtained by using conventional methods (UNI
prEN 15440) for the quantification of the biomass content of SRF.
78 Book of Abstracts

A new HVE 6 MV AMS system at the University of Cologne


M. Klein1, A. Dewald2, A. Gottdang1, S. Heinze2, D.J.W. Mous1
1
High Voltage engineering Europa B.V., The Netherlands, www.highvolteng.com
2
CologneAMS/ Institute of Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, Germany,
www.cologne-ams.de

Cologne AMS is the new Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the University of
Cologne. It will operate a dedicated AMS system designed to measure all standard cosmogenic
nuclides (10Be,14C,26Al,36Cl, 41Ca,129I) and which uses a 6 MV TANDETRON accelerator equipped
with an all solid-state power supply, foil and gas stripper. The system also enables a sensitive
detection of heavy ions up to 239U and 244Pu. The high-energy mass-spectrometer consists of a 90°
magnet with a radius of 2 m and a mass-energy product of 351 amu MeV to allow the detection of
244
Pu5+ up to the maximum terminal voltage of 6 MV. This magnet is followed by an electrostatic
energy analyzer and a switching magnet that can transport the rare isotope beam into various beam
lines. The switching magnet forms a third analyzing element which is needed especially for the
sensitive detection of heavy elements. So far two beam lines are equipped with their own detection
system. One of these lines is used for suppression of isobaric background in the case of the analysis of
e.g. 36Cl. This is accomplished by an absorber foil which generates a Z-dependent energy loss in
combination with a momentum/charge-state selection via a 120 degree magnet that features up to 30
mrad acceptance for efficient beam transport.
In this contribution we will introduce the new Centre, the layout and specific characteristics of the
AMS system as well as the main topics of the future scientific work to be performed at Cologne AMS.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 79

POSTER SESSION I, MONDAY, 13/9/2010


80 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 81

POSTER SESSION I

PI-1 L. Bonanni, A. Caciolli, G. Calzolai, M. Chiari, A. Climent-Font, F. Lucarelli, S.


Nava
Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine
PI-2 V. Foteinou, A. Lagoyiannis, M. Kokkoris, G. Provatas, T. Konstantinopoulos, P.
Misaelides, S. Harissopulos
Cross section measurements of the 6Li(d,α0)4He reaction
PI-3 M. Kokkoris, A. Kafkarkou, V. Paneta, P. Misaelides, R. Vlastou, A. Lagoyannis
Differential cross-sections for the 11B(p,αo)8Be and 11B(p,p)11B reactions
suitable for analytical purposes
PI-4 G. Provatas, M. Kokkoris, A. Lagoyannis, T. Konstantinopoulos, V. Foteinou, S.
Harissopulos
Proton elastic scattering differential cross section measurements in 45Sc
PI-5 F. G. A. Sampaio, L. S. del Lama, P. C. D. Petchevist and A. de Almeida
Gap theoretical analysis from adjacent electron beams measured with the
Fricke xylenol gel
PI-6 Z. Siketić, I. Bogdanović-Radović, M. Jakšić
Testing of heavy ion SRIM stopping power data
PI-7 S. Takács, F. Tárkányi, A. Hermanne, R. Adam Rebeles, A. Ignatyuk
Activation cross sections of proton-induced nuclear reactions on hafnium
PI-8 F. Tárkányi, A. Hermanne, B. Király, S. Takács, F. Ditrói, M. Baba, A.V. Ignatyuk
Investigation of activation cross sections of deuteron-induced reactions on
indium up to 40 MeV for production of a 113Sn(113mIn) generator
PI-9 F. Tárkányi, A. Hermanne, S. Takács, F. Ditrói, B. Király, H. Yamazaki, M. Baba,
A. Mohammadi, A.V. Ignatyuk
Investigation of activation cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on
vanadium, molybdenum, tin and gold for accelerator technology
PI-10 J. A. R. Pacheco de Carvalho, C. F. F. P. Ribeiro Pacheco, A. D. Reis
Applications of spectral computer simulation to surface analysis of materials
PI-11 B. J. Patil, S. T. Chavan, S. N. Pethe, R. Krishnan, S. D. Dhole
Estimation of neutron production from accelerator head assembly of 15 MV
medical LINAC using FLUKA simulations
PI-12 D. Ila, R. L. Zimmerman, C. I. Muntele and S. Budak
Formation of pseudo-crystals using MeV ion beam tracks
PI-13 F. Noli, P. Misaelides, A. Hatzidimitriou, A. Lagoyannis, J.-P. Riviére
Characterization and corrosion resistance investigation of TiN-Ni
nanocomposite coatings using RBS and NRA
PI-14 H.Tsuji , P. Sommani , T. Yamada , H. Kojima, H. Sato, Y. Gotoh, J. Ishikawa, J.
Ishikawa
Ion beam modification of polymers for self-aligned adhesion of mesenchymal
stem cells and control of nuclei orientation
PI-15 J. Vacik, V. Lavrentiev, V. Hnatowicz, K. Narumi
Effect of high energy electron bombardment on iodine and lithium penetration
into PEEK, HDPE and PI
PI-16 N.P. Barradas , C.Jeynes, M.J.Bailey, M.Zier, E.Alves, A.Bergmaier, I. Bogdanović
Radović, Z. Siketić, I.Vickridge, E.Briand, D. Benzeggouta, P.Pelicon, Z.Qiang,
B.Brijs, K.Temst, W.Vandervorst, A.Vantomme, G.Terwagne, A.Simon, E.Szilágyi,
A.Winn
Round-robin for the measurement of the Ti/N ratio in TiNx thin films in
several European laboratories
82 Book of Abstracts

PI-17 C. Jeynes , M.J. Bailey, M. Zier, N.P. Barradas, E. Alves, Z. Qiang, B. Brijs,
K.Temst , W. Vandervorst, A. Vantomme, G. Terwagne, A. Simon, E. Szilágyi, R.
Elliman
Round-robin for the RBS measurement of implantation fluence in several
European laboratories
PI-18 L. Carraresi, L. Bardelli, P. Bonanni, N. Grassi, A. Migliori, P. A. Mandò
Scanning and acquisition system for PIXE-PIGE mapping of large areas with
sub-millimeter beams
PI-19 J. Chacha, S. Budak, C. Smith, M. Pugh, K. Ogbara, R. Tilley, K. Heidary, R. B.
Johnson, C. Muntele, D.Ila
Effects of MeV Si ions bombardment on the thermoelectric generator from
SiO2/SiO2+Cu nanolayered multilayer films
PI-20 L. Bonanni, G. Calzolai, M. Chiari, F. Lucarelli, S. Nava, S. Becagli, R. Udisti
Determination of organic and elemental carbon in aerosol samples collected on
Teflon filters by proton elastic scattering techniques
PI-21 I.C. Cho, H. Niu, C.H. Hsu
DNA double-strand breaks induced along the particle trajectory
PI-22 F. Ditrói, S. Takács, F. Tárkányi, E. Corniani, R.W.Smith, M. Jech, T. Wopelka
Thin layer activation for wear measurement under the micrometer range
PI-23 M. Fonseca, H. Luís, J. Cruz, D. Galaviz, J.P. Ribeiro, A.P. Jesus
Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques
PI-24 M. Fonseca, K. Loren, R. Melo, M.L. Botelho, H. Luís, N. P Barradas, A.P. Jesus
Calibration of a TOC setup with elastic backscattering spectrometry
PI-25 Y. Furuyama, A. Taniike, A. Kitamura
Accelerator analyses of particulate matter in the exhaust Gas of a ship diesel
engine
PI-26 A. Godelitsas, N. Stamatelos, M. Kokkoris and E. Chatzitheodoridis
Lead patination in the atmosphere of Athens, Greece
PI-27 P. C. Gutiérrez-Neira, A. Climent-Font, I. Montero, A. Zucchiatti
Application of PIXE and PIGE techniques to the study of Roman glasses: The
case of the archaeological site of Duratón (Spain)
PI-28 C. Gutiérrez, A. Zucchiatti, A. Climent Font, C. Escudero, M. Barrera
Ion beam analysis of a laser cleaned archaeological metal object: The San
Estebam de Gormaz cross (Soria-Spain)
PI-29 R. T. Huang, J.Y. Hsu, J. W. Huang, Y.C. Yu
Microstructural study of silicon-on-insulator structures by using nitrogen-
implantation
PI-30 E. Markina, M. Mayer, H.T. Lee
Measurement of He and H depth profiles in tungsten using ERDA with
medium heavy ion beams
PI-31 J.A. Mars, D. Gihwala
Ion beam analysis of human finger nails
PI-32 F. Mathis, J. Dewalque, O. Dubreuil, C. Toussaint, R. Delhalle, G. Spronck, P.
Colson, R. Cloots, D. Strivay, C. Henrist
Analysis of thin layers for photovoltaic application: comparison between RBS
and ellipsometry on the determination of roughness and porosity
PI-33 A. I. Moreno-Suárez, B. Gómez-Tubío, M. A. Respaldiza, F. Chaves, I. Ortega-
Feliu, M. Á. Ontalba-Salamanca and F. J. Ager.
Combining non-destructive nuclear techniques to study Roman leaded copper
coins from Ilipa (II-I b.C.)
PI-34 A.M. Müller, M. Döbeli, M. Mallepell, M. Suter, H.-A. Synal
Surface erosion during heavy ion backscattering analysis
PI-35 M. Nakamura, K. Imai, M. Hirose, H. Matsumoto, M. Tosaki, D. Ohsawa, S.
Makino, O. Niwa, K. Komatsu, H. Utsumi
Heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation at Kyoto University
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 83

PI-36 S. Petrović, V. Berec, D. Borka, and N. Nešković


Superfocusing of protons in silicon crystals: Rainbow subatomic microscopy
PI-37 G. Quarta, L. Maruccio, M. D’Elia, L. Calcagnile
Provenance studies of obsidians from Neolithic contexts in southern Italy by
IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) methods
PI-38 M. Tosaki, M. Nakamura, M. Hirose, and H. Matsumoto
Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy
deposit in imaging plate by single carbon-ion irradiation
PI-39 S. Neve, H-E. Zschau, K. E. Stiebing, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Schütze
An ion beam analysis chamber for non-destructive depth-profiling of TiAl
turbine blades
PI-40 E. Andrade, A. Romero Núñez, A. Ibarra Palos, J.Cruz, M.F. Rocha, C. Solis, O. G.
de Lucio, E.P. Zavala
Ion beam analysis of partial lithium extraction of LiMn2O4 by chemical
delithiation
PI-41 J.H. Liang , Y.Z. Chen, C.M. Lin
Characterization of radiation damage induced by low-temperature B4 cluster-
ion implantation into silicon
PI-42 M. A. Sortica, P. L. Grande, C. Radtke
Nanostructures characterization using the MEIS technique
PI-43 R. Vlastou, M. Kokkoris, M. Diakaki, A. Tsinganis, V. Paneta, Ch. Constantinou, A.
Kotrotsou, E. Mara, M. Lambrou, V. Loizou, A. Lagoyannis, G. Provatas
Characterization of the neutron flux distribution at the Athens tandem
accelerator NCSR “Demokritos”
PI-44 M. Chekirine, R. K. Choudhury, D. C. Biswas, H. Ammi and S. Tobbeche
Stopping powers of mylar for 16O, 19F, 28Si from 1.6 to 5.5 MeV/u
PI-45 A. Majid
Structural modifications of AlInN thin films by neon ion implantation
PI-46 D. Abriola
Development of a genetic algorithm for the search of optical potentials
PI-47 M. Ueda, A. R. Silva Jr., C. B. Mello, G. Silva, V. S. Oliveira
Influence of residual oxygen in plasma immersion ion implantation processing
of materials
PI-48 M. Ueda, A.R. Silva Jr., V.S. Oliveira, C. B. Mello, G. Silva, R. M. Oliveira
Sub-atmospheric and low pressure air plasma immersion ion implantation
applied to SS304, AL7075, TI6AL4V and Si
PI-49 M. V. Siciliano, V. Nassisi, L. Velardi
Surface modifications of AISI 420 stainless steel by yttrium ions
PI-50 V. Nassisi, M.V. Siciliano and L. Velardi
Characterization of an ion beam delivered by two accelerating gaps
PI-51 A. Paulenova, S. Sadi, W. D. Loveland, P. R. Watson, J. Greene, G. Zinkann
Microstructure damage of thin metal films by irradiation with fission
fragments
PI-52 M. Pugh, S. Budak, C. Smith, J. Chacha, B. Lowery, K. Ogbara, K. Heidary, R. B.
Johnson, C. Muntele, D. Ila
MeV Si ions modification effects on the thermoelectric generator from
Si/Si+Ge superlattice nanolayered films
PI-53 D. Jezeršek, P. Pelicon, N. Grlj, P. Vavpetič, M. Žitnik, Ž. Šmit, I. Čadež, Z. Rupnik,
S. Markelj, P. Pongrac, M. Kavčič
Upgrade of ion beam analysis at Jožef Stefan Institute and transnational access
PI-54 R. Huzsank, S.Z.Szilasi, D.Szirka
H+ ion beam irradiation of poly(dimethilsiloxane) and characterisation of the
chemical changes at the surface and in the function of proton penetration
depth
PI-55 A.Amokrane, N.Boudra, A.Nourreddine and J.P. Stocquert
84 Book of Abstracts

Analysis of Polluting Elements in sea water and marine sediments in Algiers


port
PI-56 N.Saxena, P.Kumar, A.Agarwal, D.Knajilal
Ion beam induced formation of nanocrytalline silicon in pulsed laser deposited
SiOX thin films
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 85
86 Book of Abstracts

Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine


L. Bonanni1, A. Caciolli2, G. Calzolai1, M. Chiari1, A. Climent-Font3, F. Lucarelli1, S. Nava1
1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino,
Italy, chiari@fi.infn.it
2
CGT, University of Sienna, Siena, Italy and INFN Padua, Padova, Italy
3
CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, in particular from the first two
excited levels of 19F at 110 and 197 keV, 19F(p,p1)19F and 19F(p,p2)19F, were measured for beam
energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 µg/cm2) evaporated
on a self-supporting C thin film (30 µg/cm2). Absolute cross-sections were calculated with a method
not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge, detector solid angle and target
thickness.
The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections has been checked by benchmark
experiments at several proton energies on thick Teflon (CF2) samples.
The knowledge of the 19F(p,p1)19F and 19F(p,p2)19F inelastic scattering cross sections is indeed crucial
when performing Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) with MeV protons to analyse samples
containing nitrogen and oxygen other than fluorine, since the energy of protons elastically
backscattered by N and O is very close to the energy of p1 and p2 protons and mistakes might happen.
As a practical application, using the present new measurements of 19F(p,p1)19F and 19F(p,p2)19F
differential cross sections and the measured and evaluated non-Rutherford elastic scattering cross
section of protons on C, N, O and F [1], it will be discussed the possibility of obtaining quantitative
information on the concentration of light elements, such as C, N and O, in atmospheric aerosol
samples collected on Teflon filters [2] by EBS and direct simulation of the backscattering spectra.

References
[1] IBANDL, Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library, http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl/
[2] M. Chiari, P. Del Carmine, F. Lucarelli, G. Marcazzan, S. Nava, L. Paperetti, P. Prati, G. Valli, R. Vecchi,
A. Zucchiatti, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 219-220 (2004) 166
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 87

Cross section measurements of the 6Li(d,α0)4He reaction


V. Foteinou1, A. Lagoyannis1, M. Kokkoris2, G. Provatas1, T. Konstantinopoulos1, P. Misaelides3,
S. Harissopulos1
1
Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ``Demokritos'' 15310 Aghia
Paraskevi, Athens, Greece, foteinou@inp.demokritos.gr
2
National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece.
3
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
The quantitative determination of lithium is important for the characterization of various materials,
including aluminum and magnesium alloys, ceramics, glass, lubricants, greases, and rechargeable
batteries. The main problem in lithium's case, coming from the fact that it is highly reactive, is that it is
usually present in relatively complex matrices along with several medium or high-Z elements. Among
Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) methods, with the exception of Resonant Photon Induced Gamma-ray
Emission (R-PIGE) technique, which is time consuming and strictly isotope specific, only Nuclear
Reaction Analysis (NRA) can quantify the abundance of individual light isotopes in material samples,
and can depth profile with nanometer resolution. Therefore it is a highly suitable ion beam technique
for determining the concentration and the depth profile of light elements in complex matrices. In the
present study, differential cross sections measurements of the 6Li(d,α0)4He reaction have been
performed for a deuteron energy of 900 keV to 2,000 keV in steps of 25keV. The experiments were
performed using the 5.5 MV Tandem Accelerator of N.C.S.R. ``Demokritos'', Athens, Greece. A thin
self-supported (~50 µg/cm2), isotopically enriched (94% 6Li) LiF target, was evaporated onto a carbon
foil of 10 µg/cm2. On top of the target, a thin Au layer (~10 µg/cm2) was evaporated in order to ensure
the thermal stability of the target. The reaction α-particles were detected at four backward angles from
140o to 170o in steps of 10o, by four silicon surface barrier detectors, placed in a large goniometer. A
typical experimental spectrum is shown in Figure 1. The results are also compared to data from
literature, when present [1,2], and are validated through benchmarking experiments using high purity
thick, mirror polished natural LiF and LiAlO2 targets.

4 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000


5x10
6
Li(d,p0)7Li 600
6
197 197 Li(d,a 0) 4He
Au(d,d) Au
Li(d,p1)7Li

4
4x10
400
F(d,p0)20F
F(d,a3) O

F(d,a2)17O

F(d,a0)17O
17
6

4
F(d,a1)17O
F(d,a4) O

3x10
17

200
Counts

19

19

19

19
19

19

4
2x10
0
19 19
F(d,d) F
12 13
4
C(d,p0) C
1x10

0
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
Energy (keV)
.
Figure 1: Experimental spectrum taken at 160o and Ed=1600 keV.
References

[1] B.Maurel,G.Amsel and D.Dieumegard, NIM, 191(1981), 349.


[2] J.M.Delbrouck-Habaru, P.D.Dumont, M.Huez, G.Robaye, L.Winand, Bull.Soc.Roy.Sci. Liege
38, 240 (1969)
88 Book of Abstracts

Differential cross-sections for the 11B(p,αo)8Be and 11B(p,p)11B reactions,


suitable for analytical purposes
M. Kokkoris1, A. Kafkarkou1, V. Paneta1, P. Misaelides2, R. Vlastou1, A. Lagoyannis3
1
Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou campus, 15780 Athens,
Greece, kokkoris@central.ntua.gr
2
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens, Greece
Boron is a highly regarded technological material and has numerous applications in various fields. It is
widely used in the semiconductor industry as a dopant for Si and Ge substrates, and it is also an
essential ingredient of hard coatings on the walls of thermonuclear plants [1]. Thus, the accurate
quantitative determination of boron depth profiles in heavy and light matrices or substrates is of great
importance.
For Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), both the 11B(p,αo)8Be and the 11B(p,p)11B reactions seem to be quite
suitable for analytical purposes. However, the elastic boron peak in typical low energy p-EBS/RBS
spectra often interferes with peaks from other light elements, such as 12C, or lies on a significant
background caused by other, heavier elements co-existing in the matrix. For such complex cases the
11
B(p,αo)8Be reaction seems to be more appropriate for boron depth profiling, since it provides a well
isolated peak in higher energies, due to its high Q-value. Nonetheless, there seems to be a certain lack
of available data in literature, concerning both reactions, suitable for material analysis in the
backscattering geometry. Moreover, the existing datasets are quite discrepant.
In an attempt to clarify the situation, both reactions were studied in the present work between 135o and
170o, in steps of 5o, for the proton beam energy range between 2.2 and 4.2 MeV, in steps of 50 keV.
The proton beam was provided by the 5.5 MV TN11 VdG Tandem accelerator of N.C.S.R
‘Democritos’. The target consisted of a thin boron film (~99% isotopically enriched 11B), with a
thickness of ~323 µg/cm2, evaporated on a thick, polished tantalum backing. An attempt to explain the
occurring results in the framework of the resonance mechanism is also presented, along with a
comparison with previously published data.

References
[1] M. Mayer, A. Annen, W. Jacob, S. Grigull, Nucl. Instr. & Methods in Phys. Res. B 143 (1998) 244-252.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 89

Proton elastic scattering differential cross section measurements in 45Sc


G. Provatas1, M. Kokkoris2, A. Lagoyannis1, T. Konstantinopoulos1, V. Foteinou1, S. Harissopulos1
1
Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Centre for Scientific Research
“Demokritos”, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece (gprovatas@inp.demokritos.gr)
2
Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens,
Greece
The implementation of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, such as elastic backscattering
spectroscopy (EBS), in element depth profiling in the case of 45Sc is limited by the lack of differential
cross section data in the literature, over a wide range of energies and backscattering angles. The
present work aims at contributing in this field through the measurement of the differential cross
sections for the elastic scattering of protons in 45Sc, providing for the first time data in the literature
available for element depth profiling of 45Sc using IBA techniques.
For the cross section measurements, a thin self-supporting target was prepared by evaporating ScBr3
powder onto a carbon foil. The proton beam was delivered by the 5.5 MV Tandem TN11 accelerator
of NCSR “Demokritos” Athens, Greece. The laboratory energies of the protons ranged from 2.3 to 5.5
MeV in steps of 25 and 50 keV. For the detection of the scattered protons three Si surface barrier
detectors were used and they were placed at 140o, 160o and 170o with respect to the beam axis. The
detectors were connected to a multichannel analyzer using standard NIM electronics.
The error of the measured differential cross sections was not greater than 10%. The result of this work
indicates small random like fluctuations of the order of 10mb/sr for proton energies above 3.1 MeV
for all three angles.
The measured cross sections were evaluated by carrying out measurements irradiating a thick Sc2O3
target. The collected spectra of backscattered protons were fitted using the measured differential cross
section values and the agreement between the simulated and experimental spectra was of the order of
5%.
90 Book of Abstracts

Gap theoretical analysis from adjacent electron beams measured with the
Fricke xylenol gel
F. G. A. Sampaio1, L. S. del Lama1, P. C. D. Petchevist1,2
and A. de Almeida1
1
FFCLRP, Universidade de SãoPaulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, francisampaio@pg.ffclrp.usp.br
2
Instituto de Radioterapia e Megavoltagem, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) is a very effective chemical dosimeter used also for radiation doses spatial
distribution measurements for a wide range for absorbed doses, specially in radiotherapy. Dosimetry
accomplished with the FXG is based on the oxidation of ions (Fe+2) into ions (Fe+3), due to the
radiation energy absorbed. The latter ions form colored complexes with the xylenol orange indicator
ions, [XO-Fe+3], which characterize the absorbance spectrum of the dosimeter, centered at 585 nm.
Once the optical absorbance is linearly related with absorbed dose, it is possible to determine the
spatial absorbed doses values in the system. The FXG allied with the CCD system are able to provide
a bidimensional matrix data, with a depth dose distribution when adjacent fields are applied [3]. Since
FXG is suitable to evaluate the absorbed dose distribution at the interface of two or more adjacent
fields, the main objective of this work was to determine the gap equation from adjacent electron beams
incident on FXG samples.
The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU [4], presents a gap study
between adjacent electron beams fields of 5, 10 and 15 mm to avoid sub or overdose at the interface of
two fields. In this work, we investigated the depth absorbed dose distribution, without gap (0 mm), for
two electron adjacent beams of 10x10, 15x15 and 20x20 cm2, for 5, 8 and 10 MeV and source skin
distance (SSD) of 100 cm. The results obtained without gap shown hot regions with an increase
around 40% on prescribed dose, at the target volume. As the FXG has an effective atomic number and
density near to those of the soft tissue (7.75 and 1.05 g/cm3, respectively), it was shown that the FXG
is an alternative dosimeter to evaluate the absorbed dose distribution in the interface between adjacent
electron beams.

References
[1] M.A. Bero, W.B. Gilboy, P.M. Glover, D. El-Masri, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 166-167 (2000) 820.
[2] G. Gambarini, G. Gomarasca, R. Marchesini, A. Pecci, L. Pirolo, S. Tomatis, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 422 (1-
3) (1999) 643.
[3] R. Sato, A. de Almeida and M.V. Moreira, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B, 267 (5) (2009) 842.
[4] The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU 71 – Prescribing,
Recording and Reporting Electron Beam Therapy, 4 (2004).
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 91

Testing of heavy ion SRIM stopping power data


Z. Siketić*, I. Bogdanović-Radović, M. Jakšić
Institute Ruđer Bošković, P. O. Box 180, 1000 Zagreb, Croatia
*zsiketic@irb.hr
Accurate knowledge of the stopping power data is essential in Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection
Analysis (HI-ERDA). Simulation code SRIM [1] relays on the stopping power data from stopping
formulations where the accuracy of the predicted stopping values is around 7% for those several ion-
target pairs that have been actually measured. Even worse is in experiments where the data analysis
relies on the interpolated values for ion-target pairs for which stopping power were not measured yet.
It can be concluded that accuracy of such HI-ERDA experiments is certainly worse than 7%.
In this work we have measured Time-of-flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF-ERDA)
spectra of the NIST 2136 standard reference material that consists of seven thin chromium layers (30
nm) separated by thin chromium oxide layers (2 to 3 monolayers thick) used as markers. Standard
sample, with well known thickness, was chosen to test how good experimental spectra can be
simulated using heavy ion SRIM2010 stopping power data. TOF-ERDA measurements were
performed with different incident ions (Cl, Cu, Au and I) impinging under several incident angles
toward the sample surface.

References
[1] J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section
B (2010), doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.091
92 Book of Abstracts

Activation cross sections of proton-induced nuclear reactions on hafnium


S. Takács1, F. Tárkányi1, A. Hermanne2, R. Adam Rebeles2, A. Ignatyuk3
1
Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen,
Hungary, s.takacs@atomki.hu
2
Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussels, Belgium
3
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020, Russia
Experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on high purity natural hafnium were
measured up to 36 MeV with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. Metallic
hafnium foils with natural isotopic composition and thickness of 10 microns were stacked together
with 50 microns thick aluminium and 12 micron thick titanium foils. The aluminium foils served as
energy absorber while the titanium foils were used to monitor the energy and intensity of the
bombarding proton beam. Measuring the complete excitation function of the natTi(p,x)48V monitor
reaction simultaneously it was possible to adopt the proper incident energy and beam intensity by
comparing the result with the recommended values. High resolution off-line gamma-ray spectrometry
was applied to assess the activity of each foil. From the measured activity independent elemental
cross-section data for production of 173,174,175,176,177,178mTa in (p,xn) reactions were determined. Only
cumulative cross sections could be determined for the 173,175,179m2,180mHf and 173,177Lu radionuclides
because beside the direct production of these radionuclides they are also produced in decay of mother
radioisotopes. No experimental cross section data were published earlier for these reactions in the
investigated energy region. Only one paper presents data at 108 and 194 MeV proton energies.
The presented experimental data and results predicted by theoretical codes are compared. Thick target
yields for 173,174,175,176,177,178mTa, 173,175,179m2,180mHf and 173,177Lu were calculated from a fit to our
experimental excitation curves. The deduced yield values were compared with the directly measured
thick target yield (TTY) data for those radionuclides where literature data are available. We found
significant differences between our thick target yield data and those of measured at 22 MeV proton
energy by Dmitriev et al. Their data are systematically higher than our result. One reason can be the
improper separation of the interfering gamma lines.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 93

Investigation of activation cross sections of deuteron-induced reactions


on indium up to 40 MeV for production of a 113Sn(113mIn) generator
F. Tárkányi1, A. Hermanne2, B. Király1, S. Takács1, F. Ditrói1, M. Baba3, A.V. Ignatyuk4
1
Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI),
Debrecen, Hungary, tarkanyi@atomki.hu
2
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium
3
Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
4
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia
Objectives
113
Sn (T1/2= 115.09 d) is the parent nuclide of the important (113Sn)113mIn generator system. 113mIn (T1/2
= 1.658 h) was popular as a diagnostic nuclear medicine agent and is used as a model radionuclide in
research studies and as tracer in various technical experimental studies. The Auger-electron emitter
113m
In is also a candidate for internal radiotherapy.
The aim of the present work, in the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes
of therapeutic radionuclides, is to investigate the production capabilities through the natIn(d,xn)113Sn
reaction. As no earlier experimental cross sections were found in the literature, the obtained results are
important for other nuclear technologies.
Methods
This study involves cross section measurements of deuteron induced reactions on natIn using the
activation method and stacked foil irradiation technique. Irradiations of metal foil targets were
performed at the external beam of the AVF 930 cyclotron at CYRIC and CGR 560 cyclotron at VUB.
The activity of the irradiated samples was measured nondestructively with high resolution HPGe γ-ray
spectrometry.
Results
Excitation functions were measured for production of the 113Sn, 116mIn, 115mIn, 114mIn, 113mIn,
111
In,115gCd, 111mCd radioisotopes up to 40 MeV for the first time. Theoretical calculations were made
by means of the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS nuclear reaction model codes and results were
compared with the experimental data. Thick target yields, impurity levels and specific activities were
deduced for the optimal energy range and compared to the same parameters of other charged particle
production routes of 113Sn.
Conclusions
Today, large scale of 113Sn is produced via the (n,γ) reaction (σth = 850 mb) on enriched 112Sn at
nuclear reactors. This route results in a product of low specific activity. Alternative production routes
utilizing charged particle beams to reach high specific activities are used relying on the 111Cd(α,2n),
nat
Cd(α,xn), natCd(3He,xn), 113In(p,n), natIn(p,xn) and 113In(d,2n) nuclear reactions. By inter-comparing
these production routes and the presently investigated 113In(d,2n), natIn(d,xn) reactions, at medium
energies (up to k = 40) the 113In(d,2n) and natIn(p,xn) reactions are the most productive. At higher
energies (k = 100) the natIn(d,xn) reaction is also advantageous.
94 Book of Abstracts

Investigation of activation cross sections of deuteron-induced reactions


on vanadium, molybdenum, tin and gold for accelerator technology
F. Tárkányi1, A. Hermanne2, S. Takács1, F. Ditrói1, B. Király1,
H. Yamazaki3, M. Baba3, A. Mohammadi3, A.V. Ignatyuk4
1
Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI),
Debrecen, Hungary, tarkanyi@atomki.hu
2
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium
3
Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
4
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia
Objectives
There are few high intensity neutron source facilities producing intensive neutron fields (IFMIF,
SPRIRAL2). In the design, neutrons are produced by medium energy, high intensity deuteron beams.
It is essentially important to predict the activation of the structural materials due to the irradiating
deuterons and the produced neutrons. Selection of low activation materials requires reliable deuteron
activation database. Recently, the available experimental data and the predictivity of the theoretical
nuclear models are very poor. In the frame of a systematic study of deuteron induced reactions on
structural materials, activation cross sections of radioisotopes produced on V, Mo, Sn and Au targets
were measured and compared to the results of model calculations and to the data of the activation data
libraries.
Methods
This study involves cross section measurements of deuteron-induced reactions on vanadium,
molybdenum, tin and gold targets of natural isotopic composition. The irradiations of metal foil stacks
were performed at the external beam lines of the AVF 930 cyclotron at CYRIC and CGR 560
cyclotron at VUB. The activity of the irradiated samples was measured nondestructively with high
resolution HPGe γ-ray spectrometry.
Results
Excitation functions of
• natV(d,x)47,48Sc,48V,48,51Cr,
• natMo(d,x)93,94m,94g,95m,95g,96,99mTc,90,93m,99Mo,88,89Zr,
• natSn(d,x)115,116m,117,118m,120m,122,124,125Sb,113g,117m,125mSn,111,116m,117mIn and
• 197Au(d,x)195m,195g,197m,197gHg,194,195,196m,196g,198gAu
were measured up to 40 MeV.
The experimental results were compared to the curves calculated by means of the ALICE-IPPE,
EMPIRE-II and TALYS theoretical model codes and to the data of EAF-2007 and JENDL-HE
activation data files.
Conclusions
The measured new experimental data can be used effectively to produce new evaluated data files.
Significant disagreements between the measured data and the theoretical calculations can be observed,
so revision of the used optical potentials and better handling of the direct processes are required. The
data in the activation cross section libraries need new evaluations. Our measured data can be used in
various applications including accelerator and target technology, thin layer activation technique,
medical isotope production and radiation safety.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 95

Applications of spectral computer simulation to surface analysis of


materials
J. A. R. Pacheco de Carvalho1,2, C. F. F. P. Ribeiro Pacheco 1, A. D. Reis 1,2
1
Unidade de Det. Remota,
2
Dept.de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal, pacheco@ubi.pt
There is a wide range of surface analysis techniques, involving e.g. ion, electron and photon beams
interacting with a solid target. The techniques are, generally, complementary and provide target
information for depths near the surface. A broad range of nuclear and non-nuclear techniques has been
available. Nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive, provide for analysis over a few microns
close to the surface giving absolute values of concentrations of isotopes and elements. They have been
applied in areas such as scientific, technologic, industry, arts and medicine, using MeV ion beams [1-
6]. Nuclear reactions permit tracing of isotopes with high sensitivities. We use ion-ion reactions and
the energy analysis method where, at a suitable energy of the incident ion beam, an energy spectrum is
recorded of ions from the reaction, coming from several depths in the target. Such spectra are
computationally predicted, giving target composition and concentration profile information [4-7].
Elastic scattering is a particular and important case. A computer program has been developed in this
context, mainly for flat targets [4-6]. The non-flat target situation arises as an extension. Applications
of the method are made to depth profiling of light nuclei e.g. 12C and 18O, mainly for the thick target
case, using the 12C(d,p0)13C and 18O(p,α0)15N reactions, respectively. The usefulness of elastic
scattering is also shown. Electron microscopy is used, too. The main results which were obtained in
the present work would be difficult to reach by other techniques.

References
[1] J. R. Tesmer, M. Nastasi (Eds.), Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis, Materials Research
Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1995.
[2] G. Amsel, G. Battistig, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005) 1.
[3] J. M. Calvert, D. J. Derry, D. G. Lees, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 7 (1974) 940.
[4] J. A. R. Pacheco de Carvalho, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Manchester, England, 1984.
[5] J. A. R. Pacheco de Carvalho, A. D. Reis, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266, 10 (2008) 2263.
[6] J. A. R. Pacheco de Carvalho, A. D. Reis, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. V. 47, 4 (2008) 252.
[7] N.P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kótai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer,
E. Rauhala, E. Szilágyi, M. Thompson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 262 (2007) 282.

Project funded by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) / POCI2010 (Programa Operacional Ciência e
Inovação).
96 Book of Abstracts

Estimation of neutron production from accelerator head assembly of 15


MV medical LINAC using FLUKA simulations
B. J. Patil1, S. T. Chavan2, S. N. Pethe2, R. Krishnan2, S. D. Dhole1
1
Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune - 411 007, India sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in
2
SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai – 400 076, India
Electron accelerators used for medical radiation therapy generates continuous energy gamma rays
called Bremsstrahlung radiations (BR) by impinging electrons on high Z material (e-γ target). A
parasitic effect occurring in medical accelerators operating above 10 MeV is the production of
neutrons, mainly due to photonuclear reactions (γ,n) induced by high energy photons in the accelerator
head materials[1]. These neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and give a non negligible
contribution to patient dose. This work estimated the neutron dose equivalent in water phantom
(equivalent to patient body) along with BR dose for different field sizes of 15 MV medical LINAC
using FLUKA simulations.
For the production of clinical photon beam, the accelerator head assembly consisting of e-γ target,
primary collimator and secondary collimators is required. The target and collimators are usually made
up of high Z materials (W) for getting maximum bremsstrahlung yield and gamma attenuation. The
neutron production will take place in these materials because the photo neutron production threshold
energy of these materials lies between 6 to 8 MeV. A Monte Carlo based FLUKA code was used to
model 15 MV medical LINAC. The entire geometry including the accelerator head and water phantom
(at 100 cm SSD) was simulated to calculate the neutron dose-equivalent profile and gamma depth dose
curve at field sizes of 0X0, 10X10, 20X20, 30X30, 40X40 cm2. FLUKA is general purpose tool for
calculations of particle transport and interactions with matter.
The figure 1 (a) shows schematic design of 15 MeV medical LINAC modeled in FLUKA. The
maximum neutron dose equivalent observed near the central axis of 30X30 cm2 field and had a value
36.6 mSv/min. This is 0.61% of the central axis photon dose rate of 60 Gy/min. The ratio of neutron
dose equivalent to central axis photon absorbed dose along the longitudinal axis is plotted in figure 1
(b) for different field sizes.
The values of neutron dose equivalent estimated are consistent with the results of other measurements
reported in literature [2] and below the allowed limit [3].

Figure 1 (a): Schematic design of accelerator head assembly of 15 MV medical LINAC at field size
of 0 X 0 cm2 (not to scale), (b)The neutron dose equivalent to central axis photon absorbed dose
estimated at patient plane at various field sizes.

References
[1] K.W. Price, et al., Med. Phys. 5(4) (1978) 285-289.
[2] N. Golnik, et al., Rad. Prot. Dosim. 126(1-4) (2007) 619-622.
[3] International Electrotechnical Commission. International Standard IEC 60601-2-1 (1998).
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 97

Formation of pseudo-crystals using MeV ion beam tracks


D. Ila (ila@cim.aamu.edu), R. L. Zimmerman (rlzimm@cim.aamu.edu), C. I. Muntele
(Claudiu@cim.aamu.edu) and S. Budak (sbudak@cim.aamu.edu)
Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A&M University,
PO Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762-1447 USA
For the past fifteen years, we have formed nanostructure in the MeV ion beam tracks in order to fabricate
pseudo-crystals consisting of nanostructures. The focus of our work is based on the energy deposited due to
ionization in order to produce quantum dots or nano-structures resulting to production of pseudo-crystal
consisting of nano-crystals with applications in optical devices as well as with applications in highly
efficient thermoelectric Materials. The interacting nanocrystals enhance the electrical conductivity, reduce
thermal conductivity and increase the Seebeck coefficient, in order to produce highly efficient
thermoelectric materials. Theoretically, the regimented quantum dot superlattice/ pseudo-crystals consisting
of nanostructures of any materials produces new physical properties such as new electrical band structure,
phonon mini-bands, as well as improved mechanical. A proper choice of nanocrystals, host and buffer layer
result in production of highly efficient thermoelectric generator (TEG, Fifure 1: Example)* with efficiencies
as high as 30% which correspond to figure of merit above 4.0. In addition to above such systems are in a
unique position to be used both as electrical generation from heat and/or other forms of radiation as well as
cooling the structures, thus enhance the applicability of hybrid systems.
The interaction of nanostructures results in phonon mini-bands formation reducing the thermal conductivity,
while increasing the electrical conductivity resulted in synthesis of TEG with much higher efficiency than
reported to this date. We will review a series of materials selected for investigation some operating at
temperatures around 300K and some at about 1000K.

Metal contact
Figure 1: Example (Design of NL/NC 
(QW/QD) Device using Ion Beam)

Si1-xGex/Si (nm)
100 period

Metal contact
SiO2
Substrate ‐ Si

Schematic of Si1‐xGex/Si Superlattice TE device

Sponsors: Supported in part by the Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A&M University and by the
AAMURI Center for Advanced Propulsion Materials under the contract number NAG8-1933 from NASA, and by
National Science Foundation under Grant No. EPS-0814103.
* Patent by AAMURI
98 Book of Abstracts

Characterization and corrosion resistance investigation of TiN-Ni


nanocomposite coatings using RBS and NRA
F. Noli1*, A. Hadjidimitriou1, P. Misaelides1, A Lagoyannis2, J.-P. Rivière3
1
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece,
noli@chem.auth.gr
2
Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Nuclear Physics Institute, NCSR Demokritos, GR-15310
Aghia Paraskevi- Attiki,Greece
3
Université de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Métallurgie Physique UMR6630-CNRS, 86960
Chasseneuil, Futuroscope Cedex, France
TiN-Ni nanocomposite coatings were produced by a duplex treatment on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The
production procedure included the plasma nitridation of the substrate followed by deposition of a TiN-
Ni layer obtained by sputtering a composite Ti-Ni target with 1.2 keV Ar+ ions. During the deposition
the growing film was bombarded by a mixture of 50 eV Ar+-N2+-N+ ions. The temperature as well as
the Ni and N content varied in order to get optimum structural and mechanical properties.
The microstructure and surface morphology of the coatings was examined by X-Ray Diffraction
(XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that Ni appears as an
amorphous phase around the TiN crystallites. The thickness and the composition of the coatings were
investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) using deuterons as projectiles. The
nitrogen depth distribution was determined by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the 14N(d,α)
and 14N(d,p) nuclear reactions. The investigation of the corrosion resistance of the initial and nitrided
coatings under aggressive conditions (NaCl 3% at R.T) was performed using electrochemical
techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic voltammetry). The results showed that the
nanocomposite coatings were stable and had no influence on the already very high corrosion
resistance of the Ti-substrate. The wear and corrosion resistance of the nitride coatings was found to
be increased and directly related with their Ni content.
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 99

Ion beam
m modificcation of polymers
p for self-aaligned ad
dhesion off
mesen
nchymal stem
s cellss and conttrol of nuuclei orien
ntation
H. Tsuji 1, P. Sommani 2, T. Yamada 1, H. Kojimaa 1, H. Sato 1, Y. Gotoh 1, J. Ishikawa 1
1
Deppartment of Electronic
E Sccience and Engineering,
E Kyoto Univeersity
2
Phootonics and Electronics
E S
Science and Engineering
E g Center, Kyooto University
ty, Kyotodaiggaku-
Katssura, Nishikyyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan
J
3
Department of Eleectronics andd Informatioon Engineerin ng, Chubu University,
U M
Matsumoto-ch ho 1200,
Kasuga, Aichi,
A 487-85501, Japan
Surface modificationn of polymerric materials for stem cell adhesion, especially,
e seelf-alignmentt of cell
in a line and control of cell nucleeus orientation, is one off the challengging issues ffor cell enginneering.
We alreeady reported the pattterning of rat mesencchymal stem m cells (MSC) and in nducing
differenttiation into neurons
n [1, 2]].
In this study,
s we haave investigaated the the minim
m modiified
line-widdth on siliconne rubber byy using carbbon negative-ion
implantaation in ordder to obtainn fine adheesion pattern n of
single MSC
M cell and control of ceell nuclei.
Carbon negative ionns were impplanted into silicone rub bber
sheet wiith a thickneess of 0.5 mm m at 10 keV V with 3 x 1015
ions/cm2 in a ridge pattern
p with about 1.1 deegrees in thee top
angle. We
W used twoo pattern maasks dislocateed with a sllight
angle to produce the ridge patternn. Each mask has many slits
with 50 µm in width and 70 µm spacing.
s In thhe ridge patttern,
the increease in the line width wasw 1 µm forr each 50 µm m in
line lenggth. The sampple of p-C/SR was placedd in the PS dish.
d
MSC Ceells were culttured on the p-C/SR sampple for 2 day ys in Fig. 1 Phase contrrast image of self-
o
an incubbator at 37 C with 5%-C CO2 flow affter sterilizattion. alignedd MSC cellss on line-moodified
siliconne rubber surfface with 50 µm in
After immmobilizatioon with form malin, the MSC
M cells were
w
width by using carbon implantatioon.
stained by
b DAPI for nuclei. The adhered cellls extended their t
bodies loong along thhe implantattion line as shown in Fiig.1.
We evalluated the poosition of MSC adhesionn by the nucleus
position,, i.e. the adhhesion widthh in the impllantation patttern
at the nucleus
n locattion. The toop MSC celll in each riidge DAPI
patterns adhered on the area from m 3 µm to 12 µm. The most m
probablee value of adhesion
a widdth was 8 µm.
µ At a width
w
more thaan 20 µm shhown in Fig.3, plural ceells adhered in a
lateral direction
d of the
t line. As nucleus direection, all MSCM
cells hadd the same direction of thheir nuclei inn the region of 3
– 12 µm. This meeans that we w can conttrol of nucleus Fig. 2. 2 Fluorescennt image of MSC
orientation by the linne-width in thhe ion implanntation. nuclei stained with DAPI at thee very
narrow
w modified region of wedge
w
patternn.
Referen
nces
[1] H. Tsuji,
T et al, Nucl.
N Instr. Meth.,
M B266((2008)3067.
[2] H. T
Tsuji, et al, Surf.
S Coat. Tech.,
T 203(20009)2562.
50 µm
µ

Fig. 3.
3 Fluorecentt image of MSC
M
nuclei atained wiht DAPI adhereed on
20 µm m-width moodifed region n of
Siliconne rubber.
100 Book of Abstracts

Effect of high energy electron bombardment


on iodine and lithium penetration into PEEK, HDPE and PI
J. Vacik1, V. Hnatowicz1, S. Dahiwale2, S. D. Dhole2, V. N. Bhoraskar2
1
Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, 25068 Rez, Czech Republic; vacik@ujf.cas.cz.
2
Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India
Here, the effect of the electron beam irradiation on penetration of iodine and lithium into several
selected polymers (i.e., poly-ether-ether-ketone - PEEK, high density polyethylene - HDPE and
polyimide - PI) was studied. For this purpose, water solution of (i) iodine and (ii) lithium chlorine was
used. The polymeric foils were immersed into 5 Mol/l solutions (of I and LiCl) and exposed insitu to a
6.5 MeV electron beam. The fluence of the electrons was 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 x 1011 cm-2.
Penetration of iodine (atoms) and lithium (ions) was studied by the Rutherford Backscatterings (RBS)
and Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) techniques. The doping of various atoms/ions into polymers under
a massive electron bombardment is a complex, dynamic process that may affect important mechanical,
electrical and optical properties of the polymers. Understanding of this process is however insufficient
and it demands further investigation. In this study, the penetration of the (iodine and lithium) dopants
was strongly dependent on the electron fluence and it differed for both iodine atoms and lithium ions.
Both dopands indiffused deeply into the inspected polymers, their depth profiles, the amount of the
indiffused species and their depth distributions, however strongly varied. The paper discusses various
aspects of the electron irradiation impact on the penetration (depth profiles) of iodine and lithium into
the PEEK, HDPE and PI polymers.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 101

Round-robin for the measurement of the Ti/N ratio in TiNx thin films in
several European laboratories
N.P. Barradas 1, C. Jeynes 2, M.J. Bailey 2, M. Zier 3, E. Alves 1, A. Bergmaier 4, I. Bogdanović-
Radović5, Z. Siketić 5, I. Vickridge 6, E. Briand 6, D. Benzeggouta 6, P. Pelicon 7, Z. Qiang 8, B. Brijs 9,
K. Temst 9, W. Vandervorst 8,9, A. Vantomme 8, G. Terwagne 10, A. Simon 11, E. Szilágyi 12, A. Winn 13
1
Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Sacavém, Portugal*, nunoni@itn.pt
2
University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, England**
3
Forschungszentrum Dresden, Rossendorf, Saxony, Germany**
4
Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany**
5
Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia*
6
Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, SAFIR, UPMC, Campus Jussieu, Paris, France*
7
Institute “Jožef Stefan”, Ljubljana, Slovenia**
8
University of Namur (FUNDP, LARN), Namur, Belgium
9
Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium*
10
IMEC Kapeldreef 75, Leuven, Belgium*
11
ATOMKI-HAS , Debrecen, Hungary***
12
KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, Hungary
13
International Rectifiers Ltd., Newport, Wales
Titanium nitride is an important material in a wide variety of modern technologies. It is a (gold
coloured) hard coating valuable for many tool and medical applications, although chemically a
ceramic it has relatively high conductivity and is classed as a “barrier” metal in semiconductor
applications (especially to inhibit copper diffusion), and it may become important in novel gate
dielectric designs for low dimensional transistor devices.
The control of the TiNx stoichiometry is very important in many applications, and ion beam analysis
(IBA) techniques to measure the Ti/N ratios should be valuable. However, it has become clear that
the Ti/N ratio measured by RBS (Rutherford backscattering) is much more uncertain than expected,
largely because of the large uncertainty introduced by the high background on the N signal. In this
Intercomparison we will measure the Ti/N ratio with high absolute accuracy using a variety of IBA
techniques, and establish a reliable protocol for the measurement of this ratio using RBS (the most
convenient of the techniques).
As an application of industrial relevance, and to promote valuable applications of ion beam analysis
techniques, this project has been organised in the context of the EU-funded SPIRIT**** project.

Acknowledgements
* SPIRIT (“Support of Public and Industrial Research Using Ion Beam Technology”) partner
** SPIRIT Partner providing Trans-National Access
*** ATOMKI (Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) provides an IBA Trans-
National Access service in the field of Cultural Heritage within the FP7 CHARISMA project
www.charismaproject.eu (project No. 228330)
**** SPIRIT is supported by the European Community as an Integrating Activity under EC contract no.
227012. SPIRIT integrates 11 leading ion beam facilities from 6 European Member States and 2
Associated States. 7 partners provide TransNational Access to their facilities, offering highly
complementary equipment and areas of specialization to European scientists. Ions are supplied in an
energy range from below 10 keV to more than 100 MeV for modification and analysis of solid surfaces,
interfaces, thin films, and soft matter. SPIRIT will increase the quality of research by sharing best
practice, harmonizing procedures and establishing rigorous quality control measures.
102 Book of Abstracts

Round-robin for the RBS measurement of implantation fluence in several


European laboratories
C. Jeynes 1, M.J. Bailey 1, M. Zier 2, N.P. Barradas 3, E. Alves 3, Z. Qiang 4, B. Brijs 5, K. Temst 4, W.
Vandervorst 4,5, A. Vantomme 4, G. Terwagne 6, A. Simon 7, E. Szilágyi 8, R. Elliman 9
1
University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, England*, c.jeynes@surrey.ac.uk
2
Forschungszentrum Dresden, Rossendorf, Saxony, Germany*
3
Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Sacavém, Portugal**
4
Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium*
5
IMEC Kapeldreef 75, Leuven, Belgium*
6
University of Namur (FUNDP, LARN), Namur, Belgium
7
ATOMKI-HAS , Debrecen, Hungary***
8
KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, Hungary
9
Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

To verify the implanted fluence for implantation services offered by SPIRIT**** partners we
have used RBS at a nominal absolute accuracy <1% [1,2]. The present work will demonstrate
the reproducibility of analysis at this accuracy.
All participating labs will measure the fluence of a 100 keV (nominally) 5.1015As/cm2 implant into Si,
using a 1.5 MeV 4He+ beam and determining the charge.solid-angle product from the yield of the a-Si
substrate signal (amorphised by the implantation). The electronic stopping power of a-Si given by
SRIM 2003 for this beam has been demonstrated to be accurate [3] by comparison with the Sb
implanted CRM (IRMM-302/BAM-L001, certified at 0.6% [4]). The accuracy with which the
electronic gain is known dominates the measurement, and the gain is determined to better than 0.2%
using single-sample multi-elemental standards with careful data handling which includes use of pulse-
height-defect-corrected spectra [5]. For internal self-validation of results from each laboratory, double
detector data acquisition is employed. The uncertainty budget [6] will be explicitly evaluated.

References and Acknowledgements


* Partner providing Trans-National Access for SPIRIT****
** SPIRIT (“Support of Public and Industrial Research Using Ion Beam Technology”) partner
*** ATOMKI-HAS (Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) provides Ion
Beam Analysis Trans-National Access service in the field of Cultural Heritage within the FP7
CHARISMA project www.charismaproject.eu (project No. 228330)
**** SPIRIT (www.spirit-ion.eu) is supported by the European Community as an Integrating Activity under
EC contract 227012. SPIRIT integrates 11 leading ion beam facilities from 6 European Member States
and 2 Associated States. 7 partners provide Trans-National Access to their facilities, offering highly
complementary equipment and areas of specialization to European scientists. Ions are supplied in an
energy range from below 10 keV to more than 100 MeV for modification and analysis of solid surfaces,
interfaces, thin films, and soft matter. SPIRIT will increase the quality of research by sharing best
practice, harmonizing procedures and establishing rigorous quality control measures.
[1] C. Jeynes, N. Peng, N.P. Barradas, R.M. Gwilliam, Quality assurance in an implantation laboratory by
high accuracy RBS, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B, 2006; 249, 482–485
[2] C.Jeynes et al., Fluence Control in several European Ion Implanters, to be presented at this Conference
[3] Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kótai E, Lulli G, Mayer M,
Rauhala E, Szilágyi E, Thompson M, Summary of "International Atomic Energy Agency intercomp-
arison of ion beam analysis software". Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B, 2008; 266: 1338-1342
[4] CRM = “certified reference material”. K.H. Ecker, U. Wätjen, A. Berger, L. Persson, W. Pritzcow,
M.Radtke, H. Riesemeier, RBS, SY-XRF, INAA and ICP-IDMS of antimony implanted in silicon - A
multi-method approach to characterize and certify a reference material, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys.
Res., Sect. B, 2002; 188, 120-125
[5] A.F. Gurbich, C. Jeynes, Evaluation of non-Rutherford proton elastic scattering cross-section for
magnesium, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B, 2007; 265, 447–452
[6] K.A. Sjoland, F. Munnik, U. Wätjen, Uncertainty budget for ion beam analysis, Nucl. Instrum. Methods
Phys. Res., Sect. B, 2000; 161, 275-280
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 103

Scanning and acquisition system for PIXE-PIGE mapping of large areas


with sub-millimeter beams
L. Carraresi*, L. Bardelli, P. Bonanni, N. Grassi, A. Migliori, P. A. Mandò
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze and INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Italy
*
luca.carraresi@fi.infn.it
A setup for scanning PIXE-PIGE analysis of relatively large areas using sub-millimiter beams
(obtained by collimation) has been developed and tested at LABEC-INFN (Florence). The scan is
obtained by continuously moving the target in the plane perpendicular to the fixed beam direction.
A list-mode acquisition allows the record of energy and position (x-y coordinates of the translation
stages) for every detected event (X-ray, gamma rays, etc).
Every detector is handled by a standard shaper-ADC electronic chain and a dedicated microprocessor
with an access to the motors controller to receive the x-y coordinates.
For each detector the events data are packed and sent to the acquisition computer, using ethernet
communication, where they are stored , analyzed and displayed on the screen.
The display and analysis program is based on the ROOT package developed at CERN.
Elemental maps obtained with PIXE-PIGE can be obtained from the scan of areas of several cm2 with
proton beams ranging from 0.1 to 1 mm size. Such experimental conditions particularly fit most of
archaeometric problems, where a high spatial resolution is rarely strictly required but where the
possibility of “compositional imaging” is crucial for the characterization of materials.
In this contribution the developed system is described and examples of elemental maps obtained from
the analysis of different materials (paint miniatures, inks, circuit boards…) are presented.
104 Book of Abstracts

Effects of MeV Si ions bombardment on the thermoelectric generator from


SiO2/SiO2+Cu nanolayered multilayer films
J. Chacha1, S. Budak1*, C. Smith2, M. Pugh1, K. Ogbara3, R. Tilley1,
K. Heidary1, R. B. Johnson 3, C. Muntele2, D. Ila2
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL USA
*S. Budak; satilmis.budak@aamu.edu
2
Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL USA
3
Department of Physics, Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL USA
This efficiency of the thermoelectric devices is limited by the properties of n- and p-type
semiconductors. Effective thermoelectric materials have a low thermal conductivity and a high
electrical conductivity. The performance of the thermoelectric materials and devices is shown by a
dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical
conductivity, T is the absolute temperature and K is the thermal conductivity. ZT can be increased by
increasing S, increasing σ, or decreasing K [1, 2]. The defects and disorder in the film caused by MeV
ions bombardment and the grain boundaries of these nanoscale clusters increase phonon scattering and
increase the chance of an inelastic interaction and phonon annihilation. We have prepared the
thermoelectric generator device from 100 alternating layers of SiO2/SiO2+Cu multi-nano layered
superlattice films at the total thickness of 382 nm using the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD).
Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and RUMP simulation software package have been
used to determine the stoichiometry of the elements of SiO2, Cu in the multilayer films and the
thickness of the grown multi-layer films. The 5 MeV Si ions bombardments have been performed
using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to make quantum clusters in the multi-layer
superlattice thin films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane
Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. To characterize the thermoelectric
generator devices before and after Si ion bombardments we have measured the cross-plane Seebeck
coefficient, the cross-plane electrical conductivity, and the cross-plane thermal conductivity for
different fluences.

Acknowledgement
Research sponsored by the Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM), National Science Foundation
under NSF-EPSCOR R-II-3 Grant No. EPS-0814103, DOD under Nanotechnology Infrastructure
Development for Education and Research through the Army Research Office # W911 NF-08-1-0425
References
[1] S. Budak, S. Guner, R. A. Minamisawa, and D. ILA, Surface and Coating Technology 203 (2009) 2479.
[2] S. Guner, S. Budak, C. I. Muntele, D. ILA, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B, 267 (2009)1353.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 105

Determination of organic and elemental carbon in aerosol samples collected


on Teflon filters by proton elastic scattering techniques
L. Bonanni1, G. Calzolai1, M. Chiari1, F. Lucarelli1, S. Nava1, S. Becagli2, R. Udisti2
1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino,
Italy, chiari@fi.infn.it
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
For the study of atmospheric aerosols, the application of complementary techniques allows a quite
complete mass closure and chemical characterization, assuming the aerosol is simultaneously collected
on Teflon and Quartz fibre filters: Teflon filters can be analysed by PIXE, or XRF, and ion
chromatography (IC) to measure the elemental and ionic composition, while Quartz fibre filters can be
used to determine elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermo-optical transmittance
(TOT) analyses. However, it is not always possible to collect the aerosol by two samplers
simultaneously for long periods. When only Teflon filters are used, EC and OC can not be obtained by
TOT analysis. However, the concentrations of low-Z atoms like C, N, O and H can be measured by
elastic scattering techniques using MeV energy protons, such as Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry
(EBS) and Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA), based on the detection of a proton beam
elastically scattered by the target nuclei in the backward and in the forward directions, respectively
[1].
In the hypothesis that H in aerosol samples is mainly present only in the Particulate Organic Matter
(POM) component and in Ammonium (NH4+), the measurements of total H (by PESA) and NH4+ (by
IC) allow us to calculate by difference the H content in the organic compounds (HPOM). If the OC/H
ratio in organic matter, which is characteristic of the sampling region and sampling season, is
“known”, the OC concentration can be thus estimated. The EC concentration can be then obtained
subtracting the OC contribution to the total Carbon content, measured by EBS, thus obtaining a
characterization of the carbonaceous fractions in the particulate matter samples using proton elastic
scattering techniques.
The reliability of this procedure will be demonstrated, using samples collected in parallel on both
Teflon and Quartz fibre filters, in different typologies of sampling sites (urban background, urban
traffic and regional background) and during different seasons. These samples have been analysed by
PESA, EBS, IC and TOT to determine the H, C, NH4+, EC and OC concentrations in order to
investigate the OC/HPOM ratio for the different sampling sites/periods and to verify the agreement
between the estimated and the measured EC.
The improvements in PESA analysis accomplished with the 3MV accelerator of INFN-LABEC
laboratory will be also illustrated: in particular we will show how H can be easily measured also in an
enclosed external beam set-up, simultaneously with external beam PIXE.

References
[1] M. Chiari, F. Lucarelli, F. Mazzei, S. Nava, L. Paperetti, P.Prati, G. Valli, R. Vecchi, X-Ray Spectrometry
34 (2005) 323
106 Book of Abstracts

DNA double-strand breaks induced along the particle trajectory


I.C. Cho1, H. Niu 2*, C.H. Hsu1
1
Department of Biological Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua
University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, Republic of China,
2
Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University,
Hsinchu 30013,Taiwan, Republic of China, hniu@mx.nthu.edu.tw
It is known that the type of DNA damage caused by charged particle is different to which caused by
photon radiation. The DNA lesion was more complex and cluster formatted in the case of charged
particle irradiation. Such clustered damage was presumed to hardly repair, and might be lethally[1]. In
this study, cells were hit by 2 MeV alpha particles and investigated theγ-H2AX accumulation along
the particle trajectory. H2AX is a member of the histone H2A family. It can be extensively
phosphorylated of DNA damage and forms foci at break sites [2]. However, the poor image resolution
of traditional Immunofluorescence microscope was limited the observation ofγ-H2AX in 3D. In our
work, the Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) was used to instead of traditional microscope in
image acquisition. The preliminary result was shown on figure 1. In the wild field image, fig. 1a, the
closelyγ-H2AX foci which indicated by arrow was difficult to distinguish. In SIM image the image
resolution was improved, so the four separateγ-H2AX foci can be observed individually, as shown on
fig. 1b. Furthermore, the γ-H2AX formation along the particle track can be observed in Z-projection of
SIM image.

Figure 1: The Immunofluorescence images of γ-H2AX. Fig. 1a and 1b were the X-Y projection of
wild field and SIM image respectively, in which the white arrow indicates the four separate γ-H2AX
foci. Fig. 1c and 1d were the Z projection of wild field and SIM image.

References
[1] P.V. Bennett, O. Sidorkina, J. Laval, Biochemistry 39 (2000) 8026.
[2] T.T. Paull, E.P. Rogakou, V. Yamazaki, C.U. Kirchgessner, M. Gellert, W.M. Bonner, Current
Biology 10 (2000) 886.
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 107

Thin
n layer acttivation foor wear measurem
m ment under the micrometer range
r
F Ditrói1, S. Takács2, F. Tárkányi2, E.
F. E Corniani1,22, R.W. Smithh2, M. Jech2, T. Wopelkaa2
1
Insttitute of Nucllear Researcch, Debrecen
n, Hungary, ditroi@atom
d mki.hu
2
Ausstrian Compeetence Centeer for Triboloogy, Wiener Neustadt,
N Auustria
Thin Layyer Activatioon (TLA) wiith charged particle
p vation is exteensively used for wear, corrosion
activ c
and erossion measureements. The large groupp of construcction materiaals can be acctivated by proton p or
deuteronn activation in reasonabble time1. The T improved hard surffaces of now wadays requ uire wear
measurements underr the micrometer range. The T new tech hnique develooped makes it possible to o perform
wear meeasurements based on TL LA on very thin layers (nm ( – µm) even
e by using activities under
u the
Free Hanndling Limitts (FHL)2. The T main connstruction materials
m we can
c perform m nano-TLA with are:
Fe, Cu, Sn, Co ….. In the case of materiaals that cann not be activvated (or caannot be activated in
reasonabble time prooducing propper isotope with w proper activity) wew can also uuse secondaary recoil
implantaation3.
In the prresent work we emphasiize on devellopment of the t TLA meethod to be aable to meassure wear
under thhe micrometeer range. Thhe obvious possibility is to activate the t sample eelements at the t linear
region innstead of thee top of the cross section maximum m. The disadvvantage of thhe method iss that the
wear currve will be “linear”
“ near to the surfacce instead off “constant” byb the usual TLA. The advantage
a
is that thhe activity off the sample will be mucch lower and d it is concenntrated in thee surface thicckness in
questionn. The other obvious
o methhod is the irrradiation undder small anggle (15 to 300 degrees), which
w also
causes concentrationn of activity near
n to the suurface.

Figuree 1: Compariison of the different TLA


A setups

Referen
nces
[1] F. Ditrói, S. Takkács, F. Tárkáányi, M. Reichhel, M. Scherg
ge, A. Gervé, Wear 261 (2006) 1397.
[2] E. Corniani, M. Jech, F. Ditróói, T. Wopelkaa, F. Franek, Wear
W 267 (20009) 828
[3] F. Ditrói, I. Mahhunka, NIMB 113 (1996) 4115.
108 Book of Abstracts

Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques


M. Fonseca1,2, H. Luís1,2, J. Cruz1,2, D. Galaviz2, J.P. Ribeiro2,3, A.P. Jesus1,2
1
Dep. Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal;
mmfonseca@itn.pt
2
Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
3
Dep. Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
For Portuguese ceramists it is very important to obtain a golden glaze at 997 ºC. Unfortunately, the
most common golden glaze at 997 ºC ceased to be for sale, and the two new golden glazes available in
the market, have at that temperature a metallic black color.
A ceramic glaze contains three necessary components: Flux, Body, Flint. The Body in Portugal is
Kaolin (Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O), the Flint is Silica and the Flux will change for each glaze. Besides these
components, the glaze may have different oxides, which produce different colours and prevent the
running, the bubbles, the crackling and the crawling of the glaze.
Normally, in Portugal the ceramists use two types of glazes: the low temperature ones at 997ºC and
medium temperature glazes at 1200ºC. For economical reasons, they only use the medium
temperatures glazes if it is absolutely necessary. Therefore, achieving a golden glaze at 997 ºC is very
important.
For a glaze at low temperature (997ºC) the fluxes are frits. Portuguese sellers do not supply the
composition of frits. There are different types of frits, where the main chemical compound differs. The
most common are: borax (where Boron is the main element), barium carbonate, calcium carbonate,
lead bisilicate, lithium oxide, magnesium carbonate, sodium oxide, potassium oxide and finally zinc
oxide. Normally, a glaze can have a mixture of different frits.
In order to determine their composition, the three glazes (the previous golden glaze and the two new
golden glazes available in the market) were analyzed by PIGE and PIXE [1,2] at ITN ion beam lab,
using a Tandem Accelerator for PIGE at 3.960 MeV energy and for PIXE a Van de Graaff accelerator
at 1.050MeV energy with average currents of 10 nA. To analyse the light elements, we used a standard
free method for PIGE in thick samples. ERYA – Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis – code, which
integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample [3].
All analyzed golden glazes were characterized by consistently high amounts of Pb and Na. Elements
Mg, B, Ba and Zn didn´t appear in the spectra. The elements Li and K were only detected as trace
elements. The old golden glaze had a lower amount of Pb and the highest amount of Na. Mo and Co
appeared only in this glaze.
The results showed that all the glazes had lead bisilicate plus sodium oxide frits, however the new
ones did not have the same percentage as the old one. The elements Mo and Co were the specific
elements to the old one and most probably related to do gold color at 997ºC.
The IBA techniques proved to be suitable to help the Portuguese ceramists to understand the glazes
compositions.

References
[1] M.A. Reis, L. C. Alves, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 68 (1992) 300.
[2] M.A. Reis, L. C. Alves, A. P. Jesus, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 109/110 (1996) 134
[3] R. Mateus, A.P. Jesus, J.P. Ribeiro, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 229 (2005) 302.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 109

Calibration of a TOC setup with elastic backscattering spectrometry


M. Fonseca1,2, K. Lorenz2,3, R. Melo3, M.L. Botelho3, H. Luís1,2, N. P. Barradas2,3, A.P. Jesus1,2
1
Dep. Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal;
mmfonseca@itn.pt
2
Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
3
Instituto Tecnológico Nuclear, Sacavém, Portugal

The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer measures the content of total organic and inorganic carbon
present in liquids or in solid samples. TOC analyzers are normally used to assess the water quality, for
industry control and pharmaceutical purposes.
In order to validate the calibration of the TOC setup, several inorganic compounds were analyzed by
elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS) at ITN ion beam lab, using a Tandem Accelerator. The EBS
measurements were carried out using 1.7 MeV proton beams with average currents of 5 nA to make
use of the well known 12C(p,p)12C reaction resonance. Backscattered ions were detected by a PIPS
detector, placed at an angle of 130º to the beam axis, with a resolution of 15 keV for 5 MeV alpha
particles. The TOC measurements were performed by catalytic oxidation/NDIR spectrometry using a
TOC IL500 Shimadzu apparatus. The carbon atomic concentration in the inorganic compounds was
simulated by NDF with SigmaCalc [1,2]. The same inorganic compounds were analyzed by TOC.
The inorganic compounds that were analysed were calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate, zinc
carbide and lead carbonate. The potassium carbonate spectrum with the simulation is presented in
figure 1.
The carbon atomic concentration calculated by EBS and TOC setup were in agreement within the
experimental uncertainties and the EBS technique proved to be suitable to calibrate a TOC setup.

Figure 1: Potassium carbonate spectrum using a 1.7 MeV proton beam.

References
[1] N.P. Barradas, C. Jeynes, R.P. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (1997) 291.
[2] A. F. Gurbich, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 136-138 (1998) 60.
110 Book of Abstracts

Accelerator analyses of particulate matter in the exhaust gas


of a ship diesel engine
Y. Furuyama, A. Taniike, A. Kitamura
Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University,
Fukae-Minami-Machi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe 658-0022, Japan
furuyama@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp
There is an urgent need to reduce emission of particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship
diesel engines, which causes serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil for ships is of
low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, emission of the PM together with
exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues.
However, fundamental properties of the PM are not well known. Therefore, it is important to make
elemental analysis of the PM. The crude oil contains S with a concentration of a few percent. It is
therefore of particular, importance to make quantitative measurements of S in the PM, because this
element is poisonous for the human body.
Gas chromatography has mainly been used as the conventional PM analysis method. This analysis
method requires some chemical pretreatment of samples. On the other hand, accelerator analysis
methods can make sample measurements directly without chemical pretreatments. Accelerator
analyses are very useful methods for non-destructive analysis of trace amount of various elements.
In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a four-stroke diesel engine, and
RBS and PIXE analyses were applied to the PM samples.
The RBS analysis revealed existence of S and C in the collected PM, while V, Fe, Ni, and Zn were
observed by the PIXE analysis. The S absorbed in/on the PM are emitted together with the most
abundant element, C, in ship’s fuel oil. It has been found that the concentration ratio of S to C was
between 0.005 and 0.016, and did not depend so much on the output power of the engine. The S/C
ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the fuel oil, 0.01, estimated assuming a
rough composition of CnH2n. In conclusion, it has been confirmed that accelerator analysis methods
are easily applied and very useful for PM analysis.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 111

Lead patination in the atmosphere of Athens, Greece


A. Godelitsas1, N. Stamatelos1, M. Kokkoris2 and E. Chatzitheodoridis3
1
Faculty of Geology & Geoenvironment, University of Athens, 15784 Zographou, Athens, Greece
agodel@geol.uoa.gr
2
School of Applied Mathematics & Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
3
School of Mining & Metall. Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
The present study concerns the accelerator- and laser-based investigation of lead patination [e.g. 1-4]
in the atmosphere of Athens (Greece). Pure metallic Pb foils were exposed to the atmosphere of
Athens for different periods of time (up to 150 days) during the summer of 2005 with no rain. The
interacted Pb surfaces were probed using the Van de Graaff Tandem accelerator of NCSR
“Demokritos” (d beams, 1100 keV) and the the 12C(d,p)13C reaction [5], whereas laser-µRaman and
SEM-EDS were complementary applied (Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Schematic presentation of the experiment


Using the above methodology we recorded carbon surface profiles as a function of exposure time,
corresponding to the evolution of the carbonate layer formed onto Pb foils, due to the interaction with
atmospheric H2O and CO2. The carbon-containing surface layer was found to be stabilized in the
summer atmosphere of Athens after ~120 days. Further investigation by means of laser-µRaman and
SEM-EDS indicated that the so-called “patina” consists initially of Pb-hydroxycarbonate phases
(hydrocerussite) overgrowing Pb-oxides, whereas Pb-sulphates (anglesite) and possibly basic Pb-
sulphates are formed at the end of the patination process. The crystal growth of Pb-sulphates, or most
likely the transformation of hydroxycarbonates to sulphates, is attributed to the pollution of Athens
city by SO2.

References
[1] T.E. Graedel, J. Electrochem.Soc. 141/4 (1994) 922.
[2] L. Black, G.C. Allen, P.C. Frost, Appl. Spectr. 49/9 (1995) 1299.
[3] L. Black, G.C. Allen, British Corr. J. 34/3 (1999) 192.
[4] L. Black, G.C. Allen, British Corr. J. 35/1 (2000) 39.
[5] E. Kashy, R.R. Perry, J.R. Risser, Phys. Rev. 117/5 (1960) 1289
112 Book of Abstracts

Application of PIXE and PIGE techniques to the study of Roman glasses:


The case of the archaeological site of Duratón (Spain)
P. C. Gutiérrez-Neira1,2, A. Climent-Font1,2, I. Montero3, A. Zucchiatti1
1
Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid, Spain,
carolina.gutierrez@uam.es
2
Dpto. Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma Madrid, 28049-Madrid, Spain
3
Instituto de Historia, CCHS, CSIC. Albasanz 26-28. 28037-Madrid, Spain
A group of 56 glass fragments recovered from the archaeological site of the Roman city of Duratón
(1st to 3rd century A.D.), near Segovia, Spain have been analyzed by combined PIXE-PIGE
techniques. The analyses allowed to identify three groups of objects. The majority of glass samples
correspond to a sodium-rich glass made with natron, a widespread type of glass in Roman times. Three
samples have high potassium and magnesium concentrations as in glasses made using plant ashes. A
last group corresponds to a soda-lime glass characterised by trace levels of the elements determined
and a relatively high contents of arsenic, possibly corresponding to a more recent production. Natron
Duratón glasses have been found to belong to the Palestine production like the glasses of the nearby
Patones, what could suggest a specific trend in the glass raw material trade pattern to the Western
Mediterranean, which excluded in particular the import of Egyptian glass. This trend would need to be
confirmed with systematic analytical studies of provenance and classification so far quite limited for
the Spanish glasses.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 113

Ion beam analysis of a laser cleaned archaeological metal object: The San
Estebam de Gormaz cross (Soria-Spain)
C. Gutiérrez1, A. Zucchiatti2, A. Climent-Font3, C. Escudero4, M. Barrera5
1
Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, corresponding
author C/ Faraday, 3 Campus of Cantoblanco E-28049 – Madrid Spain, (+34)914973621
carolina.gutierrez@uam.es
2
Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
3
Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
4
Centro de Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales (CCRBC) de la Junta de Castilla y
León
5
Centro de Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales (CCRBC) de la Junta de Castilla y
León
The object, a gild copper cross with a wooden core, now almost disappeared, shows the typical features
produced by a long burial time: the entire surface of the copper alloys is covered by a carbonate, and other
degradation products layer, which hinders the “legibility” of the cross in terms of the materials used and the
techniques employed to manufature it. The cleaning of this XI century object has been performed by laser
ablation and, at first, addressed at comparing the various working modes that on such a kind of objects are
available: wavelenght selection, Q-Switched versus Long Q-Switched timing, ablation versus ultrasound
regime.
In the intermediate cleaning phase the cross has been extensively analysed with the external proton micro-
beam of the Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM) of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,
where PIXE and RBS techniques have been used in parallel to asses both the chemical composition and the
layered structure of cleaned and original parts. The aim of the analysis is to verify that none of the structural
features of the objects are being modified by the cleaning process leaving intact the possibility of artistic
interpretation of the object (e.g. small series production of the cross elements).
Amongst other results, the RBS analysis confirms the application of a double gold layer (with the technique
of the mercury amalgam clearly indicated by PIXE) in the front side of the cross; a fact which is quite
surprising and might be related to the craftsman will of enriching his object or perhaps to a repair that could
be confirmed only when the cleaning process is completed.
The recovery of this exceptional ornamental object is made possible by the coordinated work of
several professionals coming from various disciplines aimed at establishing the importance of this
cross in terms of its physical appearance and in terms of the manufacturing techniques.
114 Book of Abstracts

Microstructural study of silicon-on-insulator structures by using nitrogen-


implantation
R. T. Huang1, J.Y. Hsu2, J. W. Huang1, Y.C. Yu2
1
Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, 20224, Taiwan
2
Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, phycyu@phys.sinica.edu.tw
In some applications of ion implantation, producing silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures to fabricate
new device in IC industries has been recognized [1-3]. The implantation parameters (energy, ion dose,
substrate temperature, and ex-situ annealed temperature) play a vital role in the resultant structure of
the silicon and underlying insulating layer. The implantation requires a minimum ion dose to produce
a continuous insulating layer. In order to obtain a single-crystal surface layer, suitable for epitaxial
growth, it can be accomplished with the above threshold of requiring dose (5×1017 ions/cm2) and
subsequently annealed temperatures greater than 1200℃ after implantation. At the required dose and
temperature, exit-situ annealing takes place and consequently, amorphous layer transforms to single
crystal but contains low defect density. In this work, the effect of implanted doses, and annealing
temperatures were studied and characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and
secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The underlying silicon nitride layers was formed in a Si
(111) wafer by using the nitrogen-ion implantation with 50 keV nitrogen ions at fluences from 1×1017
to 5×1017 ions/cm2, respectively. A continuous and amorphous layer was formed at the depth of about
200 nm in these as-implanted specimens. Moreover, these samples were annealed from 800 to 1200Ԩ
for 120 min. The results showed that a continuous single-crystal layer of silicon nitride was formed at
the condition, required dose of 5×1017 ions/cm2 and subsequently 1200Ԩ annealing. The resultant
single-crystal layer was identified as α-phase of Si3N4 by using TEM diffraction. It suggests that the
amorphous layer of the as-implanted specimen with 5×1017 ions/cm2 dose would be transformed into
three successive layers after 1200Ԩ annealing, which are amorphous SiO2, single-crystal α-Si3N4 and
retained defects from surface to inner substrate, respectively. The further results and study on the
microstructure variation to different annealing time at 1200Ԩ for the specimen of 5×1017ions/cm2 dose
are presented and discussed.

References
[1] O.W. Holland, C.W. White, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 59/60 (1991) 353.
[2] W.X. Lu, Y.H. Qian, R.H. Tian, Z.L. Wang, R.J. Schreutelkamp, J.R. Liefting, F.W. Saris, Appl. Phys.
Lett. 55 (1989) 1838.
[3] H. Wong, N.W. Cheung, P.K. Chu, J. Liu, J.W. Mayer Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (1988) 1023.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 115

Measurement of He and H depth profiles in tungsten using ERDA with


medium heavy ion beams
E. Markina1, M. Mayer1, H.T. Lee2
1
Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching
Germany
2
Graduate School of Engeneering Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, AR G2-301, Suita Osaka 565-
0871 Japan
Time-of-flight ERDA with incident heavy projectiles allows to measure simultaneously all light
elements present in the sample. However, in the case of very heavy substrates the yield of
backscattered primary ions gets extremely high, rendering this method impractical. In the case of very
heavy substrates, the classical ERDA method with a stopper foil may be advantageous due to filtering
of the backscattered primary ions, resulting in much lower count rates.
For the simultaneous detection of hydrogen isotopes and helium primary beams of lithium, carbon,
nitrogen or oxygen can be used. In this work, elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) using 15 MeV
O5+ ions was used for the simultaneous measurement of hydrogen isotopes and helium depth
distributions in tungsten. The measurements were performed for tungsten foil samples implanted with
a D-He mixed ion beam. The use of incident oxygen ions for ERDA was already proposed by Qi Qiu
in 1990 [1] and T. Mitamura in 1997 [2]. However, up to now a quantitative evaluation of the ERDA
spectra was difficult because the 1H(16O,1H)16O; 2H(16O,2H)16O and 4He(16O,4He)16O cross-sections get
non-Rutherford at energies above 7 MeV and should be calculated. Only recent development of
SigmaCalc and IBANDL database made these calculations possible.
The recoil cross sections can be achieved by kinematic transformation if the scattering cross section
for each reaction is known [3]. In this work all cross sections for each reaction were calculated with
IBANDL data. In the case of oxygen analyzing beam of 15 MeV energy the difference from
Rutherford cross section is already about 30% for H.

2,0
1 16 1 16
H( O, H) O
2 16 2 16
Cross-section (ratio to Rutherford)

H( O, H) O
4 16 4 16
1,5 He( O, He) O

1,0

0,5

Recoil angle 30°

0,0
10000 15000
Energy (keV)

Figure 1: recoil cross section for 1,2H and 4He reactions in 8 – 17 MeV energy range.
The use of lithium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen beams for the simultaneous detection of hydrogen
isotopes and helium is discussed in respect to available cross-section data, sensitivity, signal overlap,
depth resolution and maximum depth of analysis.

References
[1] Qi Qiu and all, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 121 (1990) 186 – 189.
[2] T. Mitamura and all, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 121 (1997) 271 – 274.
[3] J. K. Kim and all, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 129 (1997) 323 – 326.
116 Book of Abstracts

Ion beam analysis of human finger nails


J. A. Mars, D. Gihwala
Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology,
PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535, South Africa, marsja@cput.ac.za
After physiological tissue and hair, nails have become an important body part for verification of
pathologies, especially those of environmental origin [1]. PIXE [2] has been used extensively in
analysis of human tissue. The application to nails has been mainly to bulk samples. In this study we
use PIXE, and RBS as complement [3,4], and SEM to determine the elemental concentration
distribution of human nails of healthy individuals. We report on Na, Mg, K, Ca, P and P as major
elements and on Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Rb and Se as trace elements. For PIXE and RBS the
specimens were bombarded with both a 3 MeV proton and a 2 MeV alpha beam and for SEM with a
25 keV electron beam. To ascertain any correlation in the elemental concentration distribution, a linear
traverse analysis was performed across the width of the nail (figure 1). Other elemental distribution
correlations are indicated.

Figure 1: Schematic of a PIXE linear traverse analysis (LTA) across the width of the nail, indicating the
elemental distribution in ppm concentration of the elements S, K, Ca and Zn to establish any correlation that
might exist. The concentrations were summed at every 50µm. The width of the LTA was 20µm. The LTA is
shown in the inset.

References
[1] R. Meehra and M. Juneja (2004). Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 41, pp.53-56.
[2] S. Johansson et al. (1995) Particle Induced X-ray Emssion, Wiley and Sons.
[3] J. Mars (2004). Application of the Nuclear Microprobe in Materials Science. Doctoral Thesis (Cape
Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa).
[4] J. Mars et al. (2004) Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 71, pp. 799-800.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 117

Analysis of thin layers for photovoltaic application: Comparison between


RBS and ellipsometry on the determination of roughness and porosity
F. Mathis1,2, J. Dewalque3, O. Dubreuil3, C. Toussaint3, R. Delhalle2, G. Spronck3, P. Colson3,
R. Cloots3,4, D. Strivay1,2, C. Henrist3,4
1
Europeen Center of Archaeometry, francois.mathis@ulg.ac.be
2
Institute of Atomic and Nuclear Physic and of Spectrometry
3
Department of Chemistry, GREENMAT-LCIS
4
Center for Applied Technology in Microscopy (CATµ)
University of Liège, Sart Tilman B15, 4000 Liège, Belgium
Dye-sensitized solar cells are made of thin-layered materials where both structure and properties need
to be accurately controlled in order to ensure their adequate performance. In this study we have
focused on the analysis of two different films that should be assembled in the future solar cell: a thin
platinum catalyst layer deposited over silicon or FTO glass and a mesoporous TiO2 film substrate
acting as an electrode formed by dip-coating on a silicon substrate, which presents several advantages
over other dye-sensitized solar cells [1].
State of the art techniques need to be used in order to control this material’s properties (thickness,
roughness and porosity) during and after its manufacture process. Until now, the Environmental
Porellipsometry technique has been commonly employed to characterise the micro-structural features
of films in these types of materials. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) seems to be a
powerful alternative to this method thanks to its very good accuracy and rapidity, and the number of
data given by one analysis: thickness, composition, roughness and, as we will here demonstrate,
porosity.
In this paper we will present a comparison of Porellipsometry and RBS thickness measurement plus
covering rate determination of the Pt film as well as roughness observation with Atomic Force
Spectrometry (AFM). Porellipsometry measurements and AFM observations have been made at the
GEENMAT-LCIS lab of the University of Liege. RBS has been performed at the new Ion Beam
Analysis Chamber recently mounted on the IPNAS 2,5MV Van de Graaf accelerator using 1 and 2
MeV He2+ beams. This experimental chamber has been fully designed and developed at the IPNAS
laboratory for high performance particle analysis (forward scattering and backscattering) with a new
fast sample exchange device that avoids vacuum loss.
Good agreement between Porellipsometry and RBS results makes RBS a very interesting alternative
method for the complete characterisation of the thin layers needed in the development of the DSSC.

References
[1] C. Henrist, J. Dewalque, F. Mathis, R. Cloots, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 117 (2009) 292.
118 Book of Abstracts

Combining non-destructive nuclear techniques to study Roman leaded


copper coins from Ilipa (II-I b.C.)
A. I. Moreno-Suárez1,4, B. Gómez-Tubío2,4, M. A. Respaldiza3,4, F. Chaves5, I. Ortega-Feliu4,
M. Á. Ontalba-Salamanca6 and F. J. Ager1,4.
1
Departamento de Física Aplicada I. University of Seville. Spain
2
Departamento de Física Aplicada III. University of Seville. Spain
3
Departamento de Física Atómica, Nuclear y Molecular. University of Seville. Spain
4
Centro Nacional de Aceleradores. Seville. Spain
5
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología. University of Seville. Spain
6
Departamento de Física. University of Extremadura. Spain
The non destructive analysis given by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) or X-Ray Fluorescence
(XRF) has shown to be very useful for the multielemental characterization of valuable objects. A set
of 32 Roman leaded copper alloy coins from Ilipa (Alcalá del Río, Sevilla, Spain) and dated to 2nd-1st
century BC, has been analyzed using both techniques to make a comparative study of their usefulness
in the analysis of this kind of corroded alloys. Ilipa was an important city-mint of the South of the
Iberian Peninsula and its numismatic relationships with other coetaneous city-mints of this area
(Carmo (Carmona, Sevilla), Obulco (Porcuna, Jaén) or Castulo (Linares, Jaén)) are of a great historic
interest.
PIXE analyses were done in the external beam line [1] of the 3 MV tandem accelerator of the Centro
Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) using 3 MeV protons. XRF was also done at CNA using a 241-Am
annular radioactive source. The alteration in the surface concentrations due to the corroded patinas
characteristic of this kind of coins was corrected by combining PIXE and XRF results with gamma-ray
transmission measurements using a 241-Am point source. This method was successfully used by the
authors in the analysis of corroded bronzes [2], but it had not been extensively applied to leaded
copper alloys so far.
In this work, we will discuss the capability of the method to accurately determine the matrix
composition of this particular kind of alloys, where lead segregates introduce more difficulties in the
analysis. Besides, the variation of the composition according to the chronology of the different coins
will be discussed and the comparison with other coins from relevant contemporary mints of the same
geographical area will be made.

References
[1] M.A. Ontalba et al., “External Microbeam setup at the CNA (Sevilla and its applications to the study of
Tartesic jewellery”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. In Phys. Research B181 (2001) 664-669.
[2] M.A. Respaldiza et al., “Combining PIXE and XRF with Gamma-Ray Transmission to Get Accurate
Anaysis of Archaeological Bronzes”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B50 (1990) 226.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 119

Surface erosion during heavy ion backscattering analysis


A.M. Müller1, M. Döbeli1, M. Mallepell1
1
Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, arnold.mueller@phys.ethz.ch
Material removal induced by HIBS (Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry) analysis has been
investigated. For this purpose the thickness of thin metal films deposited on graphite was measured as
a function of fluence of the Si and Ti projectile ion beam. Steady state erosion rates are in fair
agreement with surface sputtering rates calculated by SRIM. For some layers however, the first few
monolayers are removed at a much faster rate. A comparison with standard He RBS is made and
consequences for the applicability of HIBS are discussed.
120 Book of Abstracts

Heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation at Kyoto University


M. Nakamura1, K. Imai2, M. Hirose2, H. Matsumoto2, M. Tosaki3, D. Ohsawa3, S. Makino1,
O. Niwa4, K. Komatsu5, H. Utsumi6
1
School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Mikazura, Wakayama, 641-0011, Japan
nakamura@wakayama-med.ac.jp
2
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8052, Japan
3
Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Kyoto 606-8051, Japan
4
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage, Chiba 263-8555, Japan
5
Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Kyoto 606-8051, Japan
6
Health Research Center, Tanaka, Kyoto 606-8225, Japan
The charged-particle microbeam, which allows irradiation of cells individually with micron precision
and with precise number of charge particles, provides a unique opportunity to address the effect of low
levels of ionizing radiation. Heavy ions are particularly effective and different from low-LET radiation
for charged particle therapy. The ion beam was accelerated by an 8 MV tandem Van de Graaff
accelerator [1]. In order to put a cell sample horozontally, a vertical beam line was constructed.
Because of the simplicity, collimation system was chosen following the system of the Columbia
University [2]. The final collimator system consists of a pair of apertures laser-drilled in 20-µm-thick
Mo foils and separated by a 300-µm spacer. The limiting aperture is a 5-µm-diameter hole in the first
foil. Carbon ions of 42 MeV were extracted through the collimator to the atmosphere and detected
with a Si detector. In order to shut off the beam after delivering a certain number of the ions, a 10 µm
transmission scintillator and a photomultiplier tube are used. Using the signals from the scintillator,
the beam is stopped by applying a high voltage to an electrostatic deflector in the injection beam line.
Fluorine ions of 51 MeV extracted through the collimator were detected with the thin transmission
scintillator and the Si detector. The pulse-height spectrum of the Si detector is shown in Fig. 1. In
addition, other heavy ions were extracted through a single aperture of 100-µm-diameter hole.
Extracted ions were lithium ions of 24 MeV, silicon ions of 66 MeV, chlorine ions of 72 MeV and
iron ions of 78 MeV.
A microscope system with video camera was installed in the vertical beam line. The beam position
was observed with the fluorescence of the fluorescent substance on the film by the beam irradiation.
For a test of the irradiation, the cell dish was chosen following the dish of the Columbia University. At
first we are going to start the irradiation of the cell nuclei which are fluorescent stained.

Figure 1: Pulse-height spectrum of the Si detector for


fluorine ions of 51 MeV extracted through the
collimator. More than 96 % of the signals are
concentrated at the peak in the spectrum.

References
[1] M. Nakamura et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 268 (1988) 313.
[2] G. Randers-Pehrson et al., Radiat. Res. 156 (2001) 210.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 121

Superfocusing of protons in silicon crystals:


Rainbow subatomic microscopy
S. Petrović, V. Berec, D. Borka, and N. Nešković
Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences,
P. O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia, petrovs@vinca.rs
In this work we present the superfocusing effect [1] of 2 MeV protons channeled in a <100> Si thin
crystal [2, 3]. The crystal thickness is varied between 66.1 and 99.2 nm, corresponding to the range of
reduced crystal thickness being between 0.20 and 0.30, respectively. The proton beam incident angle
is increased gradually from zero up to 20 % of the critical angle for channeling. The spatial
distributions of channeled protons, obtained by the numerical solution of the proton equations of
motion in the transverse plane and a realistic Monte Carlo computer simulation code, are presented as
functions of the proton beam incident angle and reduced crystal thickness. They are analyzed via the
corresponding mappings of the impact parameter plane to the transverse position plane, which is
dominated by the rainbow effect [4]. The performed analysis shows that it is possible to focus the
proton beam within the region of the radius considerably below the Bohr radius for all the considered
values of the proton beam incident angle. Particulary, we demostrate that it is possible to measure the
cross-section for the process of ion induced X-ray emission as a function of the impact parameter
within the foreign atom, giving the transverse projection of the electron density within the atom (Fig.
1). The obtained results provide the theoretical basis for the possible development of a measurement
technique with the picometer resolution – the rainbow subatomic microscopy.

Figure 1: An illustration of the interaction of the proton beam with the inner-shell electrons of a sulfur
atom inserted in the channel resulting in the emission of characteristic X-rays.

References
[1] Yu. N. Demkov and J. D. Meyer, Eur. Phys. J. B 42, 361 (2004).
[2] N. Nešković, S. Petrović, and D. Borka, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 267, 2616 (2009).
[3] V. Berec, S. Petrović, D. Borka, and N. Nešković, submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. A.
[4] S. Petrović, L. Miletić, and N. Nešković, Phys. Rev. B 61, 184 (2000).
122 Book of Abstracts

Provenance studies of obsidians from Neolithic contexts in southern Italy by


IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) methods
G. Quarta, L. Maruccio, M. D’Elia, L. Calcagnile
CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100,
Lecce, Italy, Corresponding author: Gianluca Quarta (gianluca.quarta@unisalento.it)
The properties of obsidian have made this natural glass of volcanic origin a suitable material for
ancient populations for the production, since the end of the Paleolithic, of tools for the everyday life as
well as luxury objects. Obsidian can be thus surely considered a precious material which was
transported for thousands of kilometers from its sources to the final users. For this reason the
identification of the geological sources of the raw material has assumes a relevant role for
archaeologists since it allows the reconstruction of long-range exchange routes and, thus, cultural
relationships among the different human groups. In particular in the Mediterranean area, around the
Italian peninsula different sources have been identified and compositionally characterized (Lipari,
Pantelleria, Monte Arci and Palmarola) by using different experimental methods such as ICP-AES,
ICP-MS, NAA and fission track dating.
We present in this paper the potentialities in this field of research given by the use of IBA (Ion Beam
Analysis) methods and in particular PIXE (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle
Induced Gamma Ray Emission). In fact the bombardment of the samples by high energy (3-4 MeV)
protons and the simultaneous detection of both characteristic X-Rays and Gamma rays results in the
possibility to quantitatively estimate both the major and the trace elements, with detection limits in the
range of few ppm for elements such as Y, Sr, Rb and Nb. Furthermore the possibility to carry out the
analyses in air at atmospheric pressure allows to have completely non destructive analyses while the
used proton energies assure that no delayed radioactivity is induced in the samples.
Obsidian samples were selected from archaeological contexts, 14C-dated to the V millennium BC, in
the Salento peninsula, Southern Italy, and compositionally characterized at the external-beam IBA
beam line of CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics) of the University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. A
3.7 MeV proton beam was used as a probe and X-Ray and Gamma-Rays were simultaneously detected
by Si(Li) and Ge detectors. The results allowed to identify, by comparison with the chemical
composition of the known obsidian sources, the provenance of the raw materials giving an important
contribution to the reconstruction of the intense net of “commercial” and cultural relationships in the
Mediterranean during the V Millennium BC.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 123

Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy


deposit in imaging plate by single carbon-ion irradiation
M. Tosaki1, M. Nakamura2, M. Hirose3, and H. Matsumoto3
1
Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan,
tosaki@barium.rirc.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2
Department of Physics, Liberal Arts and Sciences, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical
University, 580 Mikazura, Wakayama 641-0011, Japan
3
Deparatment of Physics, Graduate school of Science, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

Recently many microbeam systems, employing different types of radiation such as X-ray and charged
particles, have been development for biological studies. A heavy-ion microbeam system for the
irradiation of cells has been developed using a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Kyoto University.
We have successfully developed carbon beams collimated through double apertures with 6-9 µm hole
and controlled the irradiating number of ions which is measured by a delta energy counter with a very
thin scintillator film, which are described in detail elsewhere[1].
Using the heavy-ion microbeam system, we have measured energy deposits of single ion in an
Imaging Plate (IP) using fluorescent material of BaFBr:Eu2+, which is widely used for radiography
such as in-situ detection and distribution measurements of low-level radioactivity in biological studies.
When heavy ions are injected to the IP, the information of the deposited energy is recorded as the
number of subexcited electrons such as F centers and then the deposited energy can be evaluated by
measurements of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) using scanning the surface of the IP with a
leaser. Using the IP, we have successfully measured the PSL with a precise location and with precise
number of irradiated ions; the case of one carbon ion of 42 MeV is shown in Fig.1. The investigation
of the IP response, especially for the single ion, could be important to understand some basic processes
of microbeam irradiation to cells. In this work, we will present the application of our heavy-ion
microbeam system.

Figure 1: Two dimensional profile of energy


deposits in the Imaging Plate (IP) by one carbon
ion of 42 MeV. The z-axis shows the intensity
of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) of each
pixel which is 25µmx25µm. The x-y plot area is
0.75x0.75mm2.

References
[1] M. Nakamura et al., 10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Thecnology,
Athens, Greece, September13-17, 2010.
124 Book of Abstracts

An ion beam analysis chamber for non-destructive depth-profiling of TiAl


turbine blades
S. Neve1, H.-E. Zschau2, K. E. Stiebing1, L. Ph. H. Schmidt1,
M. Schütze2
1
Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKF), Goethe-University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, neve@atom.uni-frankfurt.de
2
Karl-Winnacker-Institute, DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25,
60486 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Aeronautics and automotive industries are interested in substituting Ni-based alloys in several high-
temperature applications with TiAl-alloys. Their low density amounts only to the half and therefore
fuel-saving is expected due to lower overall weight and reduced moment of inertia of rotating
components.
Untreated TiAl-alloys cannot be used at temperatures above 700°C because of the fast formation of a
brittle mixed oxide scale of TiO2 and Al2O3 [1]. An innovative method to improve the oxidation
behavior at high temperatures is the fluorine effect: A small amount of fluorine in the near sub-surface
leads to selective oxidation of Al to Al2O3 [2]. The alumina scale was already proved to be protective
for up to 4.000 hours at 1050°C, even under cyclic conditions [3].
Depth profiles of the introduced fluorine can be measured at different stages of oxidation using the
non-destructive PIGE technique (Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission) and it was shown in previous
work that the fluorine content and its location beneath the surface are indicators of successful fluorine-
effect [4].
At the step to industrial application there is the request to use real components instead of small
laboratory samples. In the present work, the development of an ion beam analysis chamber for turbine
blades is described. First PIGE-measurements of fluorine depth profiles on TiAl turbine blades are
presented. The new chamber enables the repeated investigation of the fluorine distribution in turbine
blades for non-destructive quality assurance of several fluorination methods as well as the inspection
of the blades during service.

References
[1] A. Rahmel, W.J. Quadakkers, M. Schütze, Mater. Corros. 46 (1995) 271.
[2] A. Donchev, B. Gleeson, M. Schütze, Intermetallics 11 (2003) 387.
[3] H.-E. Zschau, M. Schütze, Mater. Corros. 59 (2008) 619.
[4] S. Neve, K.E. Stiebing, L.Ph.H. Schmidt, H.-E. Zschau, P.J. Masset, M. Schütze, Materials Science
Forum 638-642 (2010) 1384.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 125

Ion beam analysis of partial lithium extraction of LiMn2O4 by chemical


delithiation
E. Andrade1, A. Romero-Núñez2, A. Ibarra-Palos2, J. Cruz1, M.F. Rocha3, C. Solis1, O. G. de Lucio1
and E.P. Zavala1
1
Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,
Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, D.F., México
2
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,
A.P. 70-360, México D.F. 04510, México,
3
ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P. ALM, G.A. Madero, México D.F. 07738, México.
Lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, has been extensively studied by many research groups around the
world. It is a great candidate to be used as positive electrode in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries
because of its low cost, abundant precursors and non-toxicity. LiMn2O4 has a spinel Fd-3m structure
and shows a reversible extraction and insertion of lithium ions that is one of the most important
characteristic of positive electrodes in rechargeable batteries.
Lithium extraction can be performed either electrochemically or chemically. One of the well known
chemical methods is to work in an acidic medium; in this case lithium extraction involves a redox
reaction process which is called chemical delithiation. A series of partial chemical delithiated
LiMn2O4 has been obtained by acid treatment. A rigorous study of lithium contents is critical to
analyze the structure properties of this compounds and the mechanism of the process.
Direct, nondestructive and absolute measurements of Li concentration in solids can be carried out by
different ion beam analysis (IBA) methods. In this work, the energy spectra of elastic backscattered
(EBS) proton from Mn and O nuclei and the α-particles energy from the 7Li (p,α) 4He nuclear reaction
(NR) were used for the analysis of the samples. Due to the large Q-value (17.346 MeV) of this NR, the
signal to noise ratio is high and thick samples can be analyzed. Samples with known composition
(LiOH, Li4SiO4, etc.) were analyzed in the same experimental conditions as the samples in order to
test the IBA method for the determination of Li concentrations.
126 Book of Abstracts

Characterization of radiation damage induced by low-temperature B4


cluster-ion implantation into silicon
J.H. Liang1, 2, Y.Z. Chen1, C.M. Lin3
1
Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, R.O.C.
2
Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, R.O.C.
3
Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, R.O.C.

In this study, B −4 cluster and B1− monomer ions of the same energy level per atom (20 keV/atom) and
total atomic fluence (2×1015 atoms/cm2) were implanted into silicon wafers held at liquid nitrogen
temperature (LT, -196 oC). Following implantation, the as-implanted specimens were annealed via a
two-step FA+RTA annealing treatment in which FA denotes furnace annealing at 550 oC for 3 h and
RTA represents rapid thermal annealing at 1050 oC for 25 s. The characteristics of radiation damage in
both the as-implanted and as-annealed specimens were probed using Raman scattering spectroscopy
(RSS) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, crystallization and
amorphization behaviors in the specimens were quantitatively determined according to the
longitudinal and transverse optical phonon peaks, respectively, appeared in the RSS spectra in terms of
their peak intensity and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). Both the RSS and TEM results
revealed that heavily-damaged and amorphous structures are formed in the as-implanted B 4 and B1
specimens, respectively, mainly due to the so-called non-linear damage effect existed in the former.
Furthermore, there is less radiation damage remained in the as-annealed B 4 specimen compared to the
as-annealed B1 one, resulting from the occurrence of solid phase epitaxial growth (SPEG) in the
amorphous layer of the former which thus causes significant removal of radiation damage.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 127

Nanostructures characterization using the MEIS technique


M. A. Sortica1, P. L. Grande1, C. Radtke2
1
Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
2
Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) is an ion beam characterization technique, which can
quantitatively determine elemental composition and depth profile with subnanometric depth resolution
capabilities. It makes MEIS a powerful tool for nanostructures characterization [1] with enough
resolution for depth profile inside of nanostructures with diameters lower than 5 nm [2]. For this
purpose, a Monte Carlo simulation and fitting software, that consider the geometry, size distribution
and density of the nanostructures was developed [3]. The software also considers the asymmetry of the
energy loss-distribution [4]. Using this procedure we studied the influence of the nanostructure
geometry, areal density and size distribution and energy-loss line shape on the MEIS spectra [5].
Finally we investigate the core/shell structure of spherical nanoparticles of CdSe covered by ZnS shell.

Figure 1: Fitting of the 2D MEIS spectrum of gold spherical nanoparticles, analyzed with a beam of
H+ with energy of 100 keV

References
[1] J. P. Stoquert, T. Szörenyi, Phys. Rev B 67 (2002) 144108.
[2] H. Matsumoto, K. Mitsuhara, A. Visikovskiy, T. Akita, N. Toshima, Y. Kido, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in
Phys. Res. B, (2010) DOI 10.1016/j.nimb.2010.03.032 .
[3] I. Konomi, S. Hyodo, T. Motohiro, Journal of Catalysis 192 (2000) 11-17.
[4] P. L. Grande, A. Hentz, R. P. Pezzi, I. J. R. Baumvol, G. Schiwietz, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. In Phys. Res. B
256 (2007) 92-96.
[5] M. A. Sortica, P. L. Grande, G. Machado, L. Miotti, Journal of Applied Physics 106 (2009) 114320.
128 Book of Abstracts

Characterization of the neutron flux distribution at the Athens tandem


accelerator NCSR “Demokritos”
R. Vlastou1, M. Kokkoris1, M. Diakaki1, A. Tsinganis1, V. Paneta1, Ch. Constantinou1,
A. Kotrotsou1, E. Mara1, M. Lambrou1, V. Loizou1, A. Lagoyannis2, G. Provatas2
1
National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, 15780 Athens, Greece
2
NCSR “Demokritos”, Institute of Nuclear Physics, 15310 Athens, Greece
The investigation of neutron induced reactions is of considerable interest, not only for their importance
to fundamental research in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, but also for practical applications in
nuclear technology, dosimetry, medicine and industry. These tasks require high quality nuclear data
and high precision cross sections for neutron induced reactions, thus it is imperative that the
performance of the neutron source is well understood and that the experimental conditions are well
characterized.
In the 5.5 MV HV tandem TN11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos", monoenergetic
and quasi–monoenergetic neutron beams have been used for cross section measurements of threshold
reactions in the energy range 7-11.5 MeV. The neutron beam is produced via the 2H(d,n) reaction, its
flux variation is monitored using a BF3 detector, and its absolute flux is obtained with respect to reference
reactions. An investigation of the energy dependence of the neutron fluence has been carried out implementing
two different experimental methods: With a liquid scintillator BC501A detector and subsequent deconvolution
of the measured recoil energy spectra with the code DIFBAS, as well as, via the multiple foil activation
analysis technique, in combination with the SULSA unfolding code. The neutron facility has also been
characterized by means of MCNP5 Monte Carlo simulations.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 129

Stopping powers of mylar for 16O, 19F, 28Si from 1.6 to 5.5 MeV/u
M. Chekirine 1, R. K. Choudhury2, D. C. Biswas2, H. Ammi3 and S. Tobbeche4
1
Universite de Blida, faculté des sciences, département de physique BP .270, route de Soumaa,
Blida, Algérie.
2
Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
3
Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, Algérie.
4
Université de Batna, Algérie.
Stopping powers of mylar for 16O, 19F, 28Si from 1.6 to 5.5 MeV/amu have been measured by a
transmission technique. No previous data have been published with these ions in such film. The
obtained data are compared with values predicted by the SRIM-2008, MSTAR and ICRU-93
simulated codes calculations. The effective charge values of these ions have also been deduced from
the experimental set of data.

References
[1] J. Raisanen, W. H. Trzaaska, T. Alanko, V. Lapin, J. Appl. Phys. 94 (2003) 2080.
[2] H.Ammi, S. mammeri, M. Chekirine, B. Bouzid, M. Allab, Nucl. Instr. And Meth B 198 (2002)5.
[3] T. Alanko, J. Hyvonen, V. kyllonen, J. Raisanen, A. Virtanen, . Nucl. Instr. And Meth B 161 (2000) 164.
[4] F. Munnik, K. Vakevainen, J. Raisanen, U. Watjen, J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 3934.
[5] M. Chekirine, H. Ammi, Radiat. Meas. 30, 131 (1999).
130 Book of Abstracts

Structural modifications of AlInN thin films by neon ion implantation


A. Majid
Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan, abdulmajid40@yahoo.com
To study ion beam modifications into MOCVD grown wurtzite AlInN/GaN hetrostructures, neon ions
were implanted with dose ranging from 1014 to 9x1015ions/cm2. Structural characterization was carried
out by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). XRD analysis revealed
that GaN related peak for all samples lies at its usual Bragg position of 2θ=34.56o whereas a shift in
AlInN peak taken place from its position of 2θ=35.51o for as-grown sample. RBS analysis provided
interesting results with clear shift in position of indium related peak pointing to migration of indium
atoms towards interface of hetrostructures. Moreover this peak has observed to be splitted into two
peaks which is indication of depth wise re-distribution of indium atoms within the material.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 131

Development of a genetic algorithm for the search of optical potentials


D. Abriola
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, d.abriola@iaea.org

The analysis of elastic scattering cross section in terms of the Optical Model is subject to a series of
well known ambiguities. For projectile energies around the Coulomb barrier, it has been observed that
the technique determines the potential only at a sensitivity radius ([1] and references therein) while for
energies well above the Coulomb barrier pronounced refractive structures appear providing valuable
information on the shape of the potentials even at small distances [2]. Different authors starting from
different assumptions about the initial values or shape of the potentials frequently offer different
physical interpretation of the observed data. It would be important to have a set of “user independent”
Optical Potentials that adjust the data to allow the user to see a large array of possibilities before
committing to a particular Optical Potential. Here, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) code that allows a “blind
search” of the multiparametric 2 surface is presented.
The genetic material’s genes are the parameters of the Optical Potential. In the present case nine
parameters: three for the real potential (i.e. Wood Saxon (WS) shape with depth parameter V, radius
parameter r0 and diffusivity a) three for the Volume imaginary potential (WS shape with depth
parameter VI, radius parameter ri0 and diffusivity ai) and three Surface Imaginary (WS-derivative
shape with depth parameter VSI, radius parameter rsi0 and diffusivity asi). One particular chromosome
or individual is a specific instance of the nine parameters. First, an initial random population is
generated (within user selected limits for each parameter) with a given number of individuals (around
200) for each of which the individual fitness is evaluated (for instance assigning the corresponding 2
value after running an Optical Model code with its parameters). The GA code then allows this initial
generation to evolve using fitness-driven reproduction of the individuals and mutating the resulting
population. The process is repeated until a stopping criteria is fulfilled. Special care has to be taken to
avoid a too rapid convergence of the population to only a few genetically different individuals (loss of
diversity). The method could be applied to other theoretical models like coupled channel calculations
or the inclusion of resonances with R-matrix techniques. These applications will be presented
elsewhere.
Two particular examples are presented here: one for the 7Li+27Al system at low energies (6-18 MeV),
and another for the 16O+16O system at 350 MeV. The optimum GA internal parameters are discussed
as well as the population evolution as a function of fitness and diversity.

References

[1] J. M. Figueira, et al., Phys. Rev. C 73 (2006) 054605.


[2] M. E. Brandan, G. R. Satchler, Phys. Lett. B. 256 (1991) 311.
132 Book of Abstracts

Influence of residual oxygen in plasma immersion ion implantation


processing of materials
M. Ueda1, A. R. Silva Jr.1, C. B. Mello1, G. Silva1,2, V. S. Oliveira1
1
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil,
ueda@plasma.inpe.br
2
Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of nitrogen in normal operation conditions: order of 10-5
mbar base pressures, 10-20 keV energies, without special cleaning of the vacuum vessel, etc, lead
sometimes to ineffective ion implantation results, depending on the material being treated [1]. In
particular, it is well known that nitrogen PIII of Al and its alloys results very often in poor nitrogen
implanted doses, hence without any significant improvement of their surface. Oxygen interferes in
some complex way in this process hindering nitrogen uptake into the surface oxydizing it strongly [2,
3].
Residual Gas Analyser (RGA 100) was used to monitor the presence of oxygen in the vaccum
chamber (VC) of our PIII system while doing the pumping of VC, discharge cleaning of VC walls,
improving the gas feeding system, and during the PIII processing itself. Excluding as much as possible
the presence of the water by the above procedures allowed us to reduce the oxygen contamination
from 30-40% to 3-4% levels but it is still quite high compared to less than 1% expected from high
purity gas introduction. At least for amu of 100, water is the dominant impurity in the VC.
PIII with very low energy nitrogen ions of 3-5 keV was performed with ~10 µs, 1-3 kHz pulses, in
SS304 and Al7075 samples, under these very high (30-40%) and low oxygen (3-4%) presences.
Implanted surfaces were analysed by EDX, SEM, AFM, potentiodynamic technique, pin-on-disc and
XRD, showing that nitrided layers were formed in both metals for low oxygen case but very poor
nitrogen implantation occurred for high oxygen case. These results confirm the difficulties of nitrogen
PIII in low energies in the presence of high concentration of residual oxygen. On the other hand, it has
been shown in our previous experiments that good nitrogen implantations are obtained in SS304
resulting in good γN phase, even with high residual oxygen pressures if energies above 10 keV are
used. This is not true for the Al and its alloys.
So, it has been clearly shown that, although oxygen contamination is not so critical (even at the 30-
40%) for PIII in many materials, it is indeed of major importance for Al and its alloys. We also found
in our case that the gas feeding system is the major contributor of the oxygen introduction through
water contamination.

References
[1] André Anders, ‘Handbook of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition’, Wiley-Interscience,
United States of America, 2000.
[2] S. Parascandola, O. Kruse, E. Richter and W. Möller. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17 (1999), p. 855.
[3] W. Möller, S. Parascandola, O. Kruse, R. Günzel and E. Richter. Surf. Coat. Technol. 116–119 (1999),
p. 1.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 133

Sub-atmospheric and low pressure air plasma immersion ion implantation


applied to SS304, AL7075, TI6AL4V and Si
M. Ueda1, A. R. Silva Jr.1, V. S. Oliveira1, C. B. Mello1, G. Silva1,2, R. M. Oliveira1
1
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
ueda@plasma.inpe.br
2
Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a well established surface engineering technique quite
suitable for the treatment of industrial components in the final form before delivery to the market [1].
Therefore, commercial interest for its application is growing fast in many areas including biomedical,
tools, aerospace and semiconductors. One of the challenges of PIII is to reduce its capital cost of the
equipments needed for the treatment. Normal PIII requires a large vacuum chamber (VC); at least a
high speed, large throughput diffusion/mechanical or roots pumping system; a high power plasma
source; high voltage pulser and an adequate gas feeding system connected to a high purity presurized
gas tank.
In the present work, we tried to see the effects of replacing the injection of the high purity nitrogen gas
with normal room temperature air. Also, it was our concern to see the effects of the pressure and the
corresponding usable high voltages to achieve effective ion implantation of nitrogen in SS304,
Al7075, Ti6Al4V and Si, using air. These materials are not only of interest to space applications but
also in other fields as mentioned above. Nitrogen implantation can improve the surface properties of
these materials significantly, depending on the retained doses achieved. Pulse voltages were varied
from 1 to 15 kV, pulse lengths from 20 to 50 µs and pulse frequencies from 300 to 5000 Hz, during
PIII treatments.
For these sets of experiments we used four PIII devices, three of them with DC Glow Discharge (GD)
plasmas, one operating in working pressures from 2x10-3 to 2x10-2 mbar, the second with 2x10-2 to
2x10-1 mbar and the other one with 2x10-1 to 1mbar, e.g., low pressure plasma regime. The fourth PIII
system is based on microwave plasma and operates well in the 10-1 to a few mbar pressures, therefore,
entering the subatmospheric region. In this last case, base presure is on the 10-2 mbar range while for
the other cases it is in the 10-5 mbar range. A turbomolecular pump is used in the first PIII system
while in the second diffusion pumping is employed. In the third PIII system, roots and diffusion
pumps are available. These pumping systems dictate both the working pressures possible as well as the
achievable base pressures. They add up in the capital cost of the PIII system and therefore, cheaper
systems are preferable. In the first device, it was also possible to confirm the O/N (oxygen to nitrogen)
ratio of about 30% with an already coupled RGA (Residual Gas Analyser), as expected from the
normal stechiometry of the air.
Materials samples exposed to ion implantation, with air as feeding gas, were analysed by EDX, SEM,
AFM, XRD, potentiodynamic technique, pin-on-disc and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy).
These subatmospheric and low pressure air PIII results will be discussed in detail during the
conference.

References
[1] André Anders, ‘Handbook of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition’, Wiley-Interscience,
United States of America, 2000.
134 Book of Abstracts

Surface modifications of AISI 420 stainless steel by yttrium ions


M. V. Siciliano1, V. Nassisi2, L. Velardi2
1
Department of Material Science, University of Salento, INFN, Lecce-Italy.
maria.vittoria.siciliano@le.infn.itl
2
Department of Physics, University of Salento, INFN, Lecce-Italy.
In this work, surface modifications of AISI 420 stainless steel were studied in order to improve the
oxidation resistance. Specimens of steel were implanted by yttrium ions using an excimer laser KrF
operating at 248 nm wavelength and a pulse duration of 20 ns. The ions were accelerated by the
application of a positive high voltage up to 100 kV to implant the steel surfaces. The steel surface
modification was studied at different dose levels.
The laser ion source produces high doses of ions [1] per laser pulse, up to 1011 ions/cm2 and it has the
advantages to work at low temperature and avoiding stray diffusion of the implanted ions inside the
substrate bulk.
The investigated steel was characterized before and after ion implantation using several analytical
techniques. Crystal phases were identified by X-ray diffractometer; surface morphology was
monitored by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy; surface compound by the scanning
electron microscopy and an energy dispersive analyzer and the roughness by a profilometry.

References
[1] B. Qi, Y.Y. Lau and R.M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett, 78, (2001) 706.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 135

Characterization of an ion beam delivered by two accelerating gaps


V. Nassisi1, M. V. Siciliano2 and L. Velardi1
1
Department of Physics, University of Salento, Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione,
LEAS I.N.F.N. sect. of Lecce, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce, Italy vincenzo.nassisi@le.infn.it
2
Department of Material Science, University of Salento, INFN, Via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce, Italy

Good quality ion beams of moderate energy are very important either for scientific applications or for
industrial production. Ion beam applications can provide new biomedical material as well as new
results in biodiversity field. In this work, we present the experimental results of a Laser Ion Source
(LIS) performed for ions acceleration. A KrF excimer laser operating at 248 nm was focused on a
solid target mounted in a vacuum chamber, in order to obtain plasma. The laser energy was fixed at 30
mJ/pulse. The ion component of the plasma can be extracted and accelerated up to 160 keV per charge
state by a double gap system formed by two different stages. Using Cu disks, as laser target, we
produced a beam containing 1.0x1011 ions per laser pulse. Applying accelerating voltages of 40 kV
and 20 kV in the first and secondary stage, respectively, we obtained an increase of the ions number
per laser pulse up to 1.2x1012 with a beam energy of 60 keV per charge state. We can suppose that the
total extracted charge per pulse resulted of 200 nC. This last result is due to the high electric field that
influences the plasma inside of the expansion chamber, mounted in the first stage of the accelerating
gap.
The characterization of the plasma was performed by a Faraday cup for the electromagnetic
characteristics, whereas a pepper pot system for the geometric ones.
In this work we will present the electromagnetic and geometric characteristics on accelerating voltage.
At 60 kV accelerating voltage and 5.3 mA output current (ion flux 3.4x1011 ions/cm2) the normalized
emittance of the beam measured by pepper pot method resulted of 0.22 π mm mrad[1].

References
[1] A. Lorusso, M.V. Siciliano, L. Velardi, V. Nassisi, Instrum. Meth. A 614, (2010) 169
136 Book of Abstracts

Microstructure damage of thin metal films by irradiation with fission


fragments
A. Paulenova1, S. Sadi1, W. D. Loveland2, P. R. Watson2, J. Greene3, G. Zinkann3
1
Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics,
alena.paulenova@oregonstate.edu
2
Department of Chemistry, 100 Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5903
3
ATLAS, Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), IL
Radiation damage is one of the most important problems for structural materials of advanced nuclear
energy systems. Aluminum and titanium can be regarded as a standard absorbing material, as backing
material for irradiation targets or for nuclear fuel cladding. The evolution of defect microstructures
during irradiation under cascade damage conditions is rather complicated and involves a variety of
defect interaction(s) processes. Studying the effect of irradiating thin metal films with fission
fragments is very important for the development of many segments of the nuclear industry and
radiation physics applications.
Uranium was deposited onto the thin titanium and aluminum foils by molecular plating in isobutanol
at a potential of 300-800V and current density of 0.5-2.7 mA/cm2 for 90-180 minutes. Under these
conditions, the deposition yield and uranium thickness for the titanium substrate were 85% and 0.50
mg/cm2, U respectively. Similarly, the deposition yield and uranium thickness for the aluminum
substrate were 99.5% and 0.73 mg/cm2, U respectively. The films were of good quality, and had
smooth surfaces and acceptable uniformity for further experiments. In these studies we have prepared
more than the 100 uranium sample targets investigating surface quality problems such as instability of
layers, crack formation, color, pitting and non-uniformity. To ensure the uniformity of films,
autoradiography and high resolution digital microscope (Keyence VHX-6000) have been used to
visualize the layers.
These deposited films of uranium (thickness 0.50 mg/cm2) on thin aluminum (thickness 0.54 mg/cm2)
and titanium foils (thickness 0.90 mg/cm2) were successfully irradiated with a 132 MeV 132Xe29+ beam
at a current intensity of 2 pnA at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System). Atomic
force microscopy (AFM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used as diagnostic techniques to investigate the structures of
pre- and post-irradiated surfaces. The damage state was characterized by: root mean square roughness
(i), depth profile of the disordered zones (ii), size and areal density of the voids (iii), and void swelling
(iv) as a function of different fluences (1.2-9.0 x1013Xe.cm-2). Irregular complex microstructures,
hillocks and blisters in a crown-shaped formation were observed on both irradiated Al and irradiated
Ti film surfaces.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 137

MeV Si ions modification effects on the thermoelectric generator


from Si/Si+Ge superlattice nanolayered films
M. Pugh1, S. Budak1*, C. Smith2, J. Chacha1, B. Lowery1,
K. Ogbara3, K. Heidary1, R. B. Johnson 3, C. Muntele2, D. Ila2
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL USA
*S. Budak; satilmis.budak@aamu.edu
2
Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL USA
3
Department of Physics, Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL USA
The performance of the thermoelectric devices is shown by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT =
S2σT/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute
temperature and K is the thermal conductivity. ZT can be increased by increasing S, increasing σ or
decreasing K [1, 2]. We have prepared the thermoelectric generator device from 100 alternating layers
of Si/Si+Ge nanolayered superlattice films at the thickness of 317 nm using the ion beam assisted
deposition (IBAD). To determine the stoichiometry of the elements of Si, Ge in the grown multilayer
films and the thickness of the grown multi-layer films Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
and RUMP simulation software package have been used. The 5 MeV Si ions bombardments have been
performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to form quantum clusters in the
nanolayered superlattice films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross
plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. We have characterized the
thermoelectric generator devices before and after Si ion bombardments as we measured the cross-
plane Seebeck coefficient, the cross-plane electrical conductivity, and the cross-plane thermal
conductivity for different fluences.

Acknowledgement
Research sponsored by the Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM), National Science Foundation
under NSF-EPSCOR R-II-3 Grant No. EPS-0814103, DOD under Nanotechnology Infrastructure
Development for Education and Research through the Army Research Office # W911 NF-08-1-0425

References
[1] S. Budak, S. Guner, C. Muntele, D. Ila, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B, 267 (2009)1592.
[2] S. Budak, S.Guner, C. Smith, R.A. Minamisawa, B. Zheng, C. Muntele, D. Ila, Surface and Coating
Technology 203 (2009) 2418.
138 Book of Abstracts

Upgrade of ion beam analysis at Jožef Stefan Institute and transnational


access
D. Jezeršek1, P. Pelicon1, N. Grlj1, P. Vavpetič1, M. Žitnik1, Ž. Šmit1,2, I. Čadež1, Z. Rupnik1, S.
Markelj1, P. Pongrac1,3, M. Kavčič1
1
Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, david.jezersek@ijs.si
2
Faculty of Math. and Phys., Univ. of Ljubljana, Jadranska cesta 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Depart. of Biology, Biotech. Faculty, Univ. of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tandem accelerator laboratory at Jožef Stefan Institute is operating for users in excess of 4000 beam
hours per year and is continuously upgrading the instrumentation. The facility is accepting proposals
for transnational access within the SPIRIT [1] project.
In-air beamline has been upgraded with a wire-mesh charge-collecting device and a chopper device to
measure accurately the ion-beam intensity. RBS detector with He flush has been added recently to
collect RBS spectra from the targets [2]. Current setup enables simultaneous collection of PIXE, PIGE
and RBS spectra with an accurate proton dose measuring. Analysis expertise includes archaeological
glass and metal samples, aerosols, written documents and paintings.
High-energy focused ion beam station is configured to host several types of nuclear spectroscopies.
Besides the established micro-PIXE and proton beam writing (PBW), micro-ERDA with 7Li beam and
micro-NRA with focused 3He beam are used to detect depth and lateral distribution of hydrogen
isotopes in surface layers, which has been successfully applied to analysis of fusion relevant materials.
The application most frequently asked for by the users is micro-PIXE for biomedical research [3].
Success of the method depends strongly on the tissue treatment in the sample preparation stage,
consisting of shock-freezing and freeze-drying. Important step further in the elemental mapping on the
cellular and sub-cellular level is a construction of the setup for measurements of frozen hydrated
tissue, currently ongoing in the laboratory.
X-ray optical devices, such as polycapillary lenses or polycapillary conic collimators (Poly-CCC),
attached to the X-ray detector and aligned in the confocal set-up, enable 3D X-ray tomography [4].
The microprobe measuring chamber has been upgraded with the silicon-drift detector equipped with
dedicated X-ray optics for the confocal PIXE measurements.
A Johansson type crystal spectrometer is available enabling X-ray emission measurements in the 1-6
keV range with sub-eV resolution giving possibility to perform chemical speciation of low-Z elements
[5].
Hydrogen interaction with metals and carbon based materials of relevance to fusion development are
studied by ERDA, including time resolving studies of hydrogen adsorption and permeation [6].

References
[1] www.spirit-ion.eu
[2] D. Jezeršek et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B (2010), doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.118
[3] K. Vogel-Mikuš et al, Plant Cell Environ. 31, 1484 (2008).
[4] M. Žitnik et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094104-1 (2008).
[5] M. Kavčič et al., X-Ray Spectrom.34, 310 (2005).
[6] S. Markelj et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 259, 989-996 (2007).
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 139

H+ ion-beam irradiation of poly(dimethilsiloxane) and characterization of


the chemical changes at the surface and in the function of proton
penetration depth
R. Huszank1,2, S. Z. Szilasi2, D. Szikra3,
1
Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR "Demokritos"
POB 60228, GR-153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece, huszank@inp.demokritos.gr
2
Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51, Hungary
3
Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Debrecen,
H-4010, Debrecen, P.O. Box 7, Hungary
Poly(dimethyl-siloxane) (PDMS) is a promising polymer base material for many application
nowadays. It has been widely used to fabricate Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS),
microfluidic devices, biosensors, biochips or creating micro-stamps. Because of its remarkable gas
permeability and biocompatibility it can be particularly suitable for the integration of biological and
biomedical applications. There are radiolysis studies on PDMS by gamma or e-beam irradiations and a
very few studies about ion beam irradiation, but the effect of ion beam irradiation on PDMS is still an
undiscovered topic yet, hence it would be important in the view of space or medical science as well.
In this work we investigated the chemical changes in poly(dimethylsiloxane) caused by proton
irradiation on the surface and as a function of the proton penetration depth as well. Up to now none of
these reports investigate the molecular structural changes due to energetic ions as a function of
penetration depth of the protons. These measurements were carried out by varying the energy of the
incident protons, so different energy losses are attainable on the surface of the samples. The energy of
the protons reaching the samples ranged from 2.00 MeV – 170 keV.
To determine the chemical changes of the functional groups at the surface of the polymer, infrared
spectroscopic measurements were carried out with a diamond head Perkin-Elmer Spectrum One type
Universal Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (UATR-FTIR).
140 Book of Abstracts

Analysis of Polluant Elements in sea water and marine sediments


in Algiers port
N. Boudra1, A. Nourreddine1, J. P. Stocquert1 and A. Amokrane1,2
1
Faculty of Physics, Houari Boumediene University for Sciences and Technology, PoBox 32, El Alia,
Bab Ezoouar, 16111, Algiers, ALGERIA
2
National Preparatory School for Engineer Study, RN n°5, Rouiba, Alger, ALGERIA
In the framework of the study of sea water pollution, we undertook the analysis of sea water and
marine sediments samples removed in the port of Algiers.
The target where prepared by two ways: freeze-drying and pelletizing and chemical preconcentration
and filtering.
The obtained solid targets where analysed by PIXE technique using a 2 MeV proton beam issued from
the Van de Graff Accelerator of Hubert Curien Institute and Nuclear Centre of Research of Algiers.
The following elements where observed: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb and
Pb. The concentrations where determined by the use Ga as internal standard, and the Chlorine present
in sea water, as a natural internal standard.
The obtained results where compared to those performed by NAA technique, near the 1 MW reactor
of the Nuclear Centre of Research of Draria (CRND) near Algiers for elements of middle half lives
and near the 15 MW reactor of Birine at Ain Oussera (CRNB) for elements of long half lives.
At the end, the results where compared to those found in literature for other countries and those
performed by Marine Institute (ISMAL) at Algiers.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 141

Ion beam induced formation of nanocrystalline silicon in pulsed laser


deposited SiOX thin films
N. Saxena1, A. Agarwal1 and D. Kanjilal2
1
Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Bareilly – 243005, (U.P.), India, n1saxena@gmail.com
2
Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi – 110067, India
Synthesis and structural studies of nanocrystalline silicon grown in pulsed laser deposited SiOX films
is reported. Pulsed laser ablation is used to deposit good quality and uniforms films with nano sized
particles [1]. Ion beam irradiation is an important tool to synthesize chemically pure nanoparticles and
tune the particle size in the film [2]. Non-stoichiometric silicon oxide films (rich in silicon) are
deposited in oxygen environment at a constant oxygen partial pressure. The effect of high energy
heavy ion beam irradiation on these films is studied using 100 MeV Ag ions. The structural studies
were carried out using micro Raman spectroscopy, glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD),
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy
(HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy
(EDX). The occurrence of phase separation in non-stoichiometric silicon oxide by means of ion beam
irradiation leading to the formation of silicon nanocrystals in the films is confirmed by the results.
HRTEM results reveal the structure of silicon phase formed after ion beam treatment and the particle
size can be controlled upto 2 – 3 nm. A detailed analysis by micro Raman and HRTEM studies
suggest the presence of crystallite size distribution. The results of GAXRD and SAED confirm the
formation of cubic phase of silicon with two different lattice parameters. The studies conclude that the
size of the nanocrystals can be controlled by varying deposition and ion irradiation parameters.

References
[1] D. Riabinina, C. Durand, M. Chaker and F. Rosei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 (2006) 073105
[2] Y.K. Mishra, V.S.K. Chakravadhanula, U. Schu¨rmann, Hardeep Kumar, D. Kabiraj, S. Ghosh, V.
Zaporojtchenko, D.K. Avasthi, F. Faupel, Nucl. Inst. and Meth. B 266 (2008) 1804.
142 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 143

POSTER SESSION II, TUESDAY, 14/9/2010


144 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 145

POSTER SESSION II

PII-1 N.I. Ayzatskiy, N.P. Dikiy, A.N. Dovbnya, Yu.V. Lyashko, V.I. Nikiforov,
A.Eh. Tenishev, V.L.Uvarov, V.A. Shevchenko
Carrier-free production of 95Tc isotope at the electron accelerator
PII-2 V.I. Nikiforov, V.L. Uvarov
A method for estimation of isotope yield in a thick target under photonuclear
production
PII-3 G. Chêne, F. Mathis, T. Dupuis, A. Marchal, M.Clar, H.-P. Garnir, D. Strivay
Towards a TOF-based solution for beam energy measurements at Liege
cyclotron facility – Conception and preliminary results
PII-4 T. Fujimoto, M. Kanazawa, T. Shirai, Y. Iwata, M. Uchiyama, K. Noda
Acceleration of the heavy ions with a new RF system at HIMAC synchrotron
PII-5 A.-C. Heuskin,A.-C. Wéra, H. Riquier, C. Michiels, M. Caccia, S. Lucas
On the use of two solid state detectors to assess beam uniformity for broad
beam in vitro cell irradiation.
PII-6 K. Katagiri, K. Mizushima, T. Furukawa, E. Takeshita, Chr. Schoemers, Sh. Sato,
Y. Iwata, T. Shirai, K. Noda
Beam stability improvement of HIMAC synchrotron using a current feed-
forward system in the magnet power supply
PII-7 R. Kuroda, M. Koike, K. Yamada
THz imaging system for material science on the basis of an S-band compact
electron linac
PII-8 J. Lopes, E. Alves, Fr. Alegria, L. Redondo, J. Rocha
Improvement of the mass spectrometry process on an ion implantation system
PII-9 S. Masubuchi, T. Nakanishi
Panofsky magnet for the beam extraction using a fast Q-magnet
PII-10 K. Mizushima, S. Sato, T. Shirai, T. Furukawa, K. Katagiri, E. Takeshita, K. Noda
Development of beam current control system in RF-knockout slow extraction
PII-11 K. Sakaue, H. Hayano, S. Kashiwagi, R. Kuroda, A. Masuda, T. Suzuki, T.
Takatomi N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, M. Washio
Cs-Te photo-cathode RF electron gun for applied researches at Waseda
University
PII-12 S. Shibuya, T. Hattori, N. Hayashizaki, Hirotsugu Kashiwagi2, T. Maruyama, T.
Mochizuki, S. Momota, J. Nakagawa, T. Takeuchi
Development of laser ion source for heavy ion applications
PII-13 R W Smith, M Karlušić, Ž Pastuović, N Skukan, M Jakšić
Recent developments of the single ion hit detection set-up at RBI
PII-14 T. Zhang, J. Zhong, M. Li, Ch. Wang, Y. Lu, X. Jiang, J. Yang, J. Lin, F. Yang
Development and application of a new method to shim first harmonic in
compact cyclotron
PII-15 T. Zhang, M. Li, J. Zhong, S. An, S. Wei, J. Yang
Beam Dynamics Study for a 14 MeV PET Cyclotron
PII-16 T. Zhang, S. An, C. Wang, Z. Yin, S. Wei, M. Li, J. Yang, B. Ji, X. Jia, J. Zhong, F.
Yang
Physics design of 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron
PII-17 T. Zhang, J. Yang, M. Li, L. Xia, S. An, J. Zhong, F. Yang, W. Joho, A. Adelmann,
P. Sigg
Conceptual design of an 800 MeV high power proton cyclotron
PII-18 T. Zhang, C. Wang, J. Zhong, H. Yao
Investigation for the vertical focusing enhancement of compact cyclotron by
asymmetrical shimming bar
146 Book of Abstracts

PII-19 T. Zhang, Y. Lu, Z. Yin, J. Zhong, T. Cui, M. Li, S. Wei, G. Song, L. Wu, B. Ji, J.
Xing, J. Qin, X. Jia, W. Hu, J. Yang, S. An, F. Guan, X. Zhen, L. Wen, J. Lin, Z. Li,
X. Zhang, Y Cai, F. Yang
Overall design of CYCIAE-14, a 14 MeV PET cyclotron
PII-20 C. Wang, X. Zheng, J. Zou, T. Zhang, X. Jiang
Design and preliminary operation of a compact pulsed power generator
PII-21 P. Álvarez-Iglesias, M. Fedi, E.M. Wild, L. Caforio, P. Steier, F. Tacceti, D. Rey, B.
Rubio, K. Mohamed, R. Coimbra F. Vilas
14
C-dating of marine carbonate samples: Sample pretreatment and
measurements
PII-22 L. Caforio, M.E. Fedi, P. Alvarez-Iglesias, M. Manetti, F. Taccetti
Upgrade of the radiocarbon sample preparation laboratory at LABEC
PII-23 L. Calcagnile, G. Quarta , M. D’Elia, L. Maruccio, A. Caramia
AMS radiocarbon dating and IBA compositional analysis of ancient musical
instruments: A study of ancient chordophones
PII-24 L. Calcagnile, G. Quarta , M. D’Elia, A. Caramia, V. Gaballo, M. Vidale
Studying the casting cores of the Riace Bronzes: AMS 14C dating and PIXE-
PIGE results
PII-25 A. Caramia, M. D’Elia, V. Gaballo, G. Quarta , L. Calcagnile
Extraction of CO2 and AMS-seawater dating at CEDAD
PII-26 M. De Cesare, Y. Guan, N. De Cesare, A. D’Onofrio, L. Gialanella, A. Palmieri, A.
Petraglia, F. Quinto, V. Roca5, C. Sabbarese and F. Terrasi
Progress in the actinides AMS at CIRCE
PII-27 O. Forstner, H. Gnaser, R. Golser, D. Hanstorp, M. Martschini, A. Priller, J.
Rohlén, P. Steier, C. Vockenhuber, A. Wallner
Assessment of 182Hf AMS measurements at VERA
PII-28 T. Jabbar, P. Steier, A.Priller, G. Wallner, N. Kandler, C. Katzlberger
AMS analysis of I-129 in aerosols from Austria
PII-29 M. Martschini, O. Forstner, R. Golser, W. Kutschera, S. Pavetich, A. Priller, P.
Steier, M. Suter, A. Wallner
Recent advances in AMS of 36Cl with a 3 MV tandem
PII-30 S. Merchel, M. Arnold, G. Aumaître, D. Bourlès, R. Braucher
How to get a new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility running: The
chemistry part
PII-31 M.L. Roberts, K.F. von Reden, C.P. McIntyre, and J.R. Burton
Progress with a gas-accepting ion source for accelerator mass spectrometry
PII-32 A.Steinhof
Status report of the Jena 14C AMS facility
PII-33 C. Vockenhuber, M. Christl, J. Lachner, D. Meister, A. Milenko Müller, H.-A. Synal
Accelerator mass spectrometry of 236U at low energies
PII-34 A. Scharf, A. Bräuning, W. Kretschmer , S. Gierl, K. Leichmann, B. Wegner, I.
Burchardt, F. Darragon
Wiggle matching of AMS radiocarbon dates from wood samples of historical
buildings in high Asia
PII-35 K. von Reden, A. Steinhof, I. Hejja, B. Longworth
Modeling calculations for the Woods Hole and Jena Tandetron AMS injectors
PII-36 W. Assmann, M. Bader, C. Schäfer, R. Sroka, S. Uschold, P. Weidlich, J. Schirra
Development of radioactive 32P-implants for brachytherapy
PII-37 D. Ila, S. Ismet Gurhan, R. L. Zimmerman, R. A. Minamisawa and M. G. Rodriguez
Next generation applications of ion beams for improving biocompatible
materials
PII-38 Y. Iwata, K. Noda, E. Takada, T. Shirai, T. Furukawa, T. Kadowaki, H. Uchiyama,
T. Fujimoto
Development of synchrotron control for heavy-ion medical accelerators
PII-39 B. Király, F. Tárkányi1, A. Hermanne S. Takács, F. Ditrói, M. Baba, H. Yamazaki,
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 147

I. Spahn, A.V. Ignatyuk


Investigation of production of the medical radioisotope 167Tm at accelerators
PII-40 E. Takeshita, T. Furukawa, T. Inaniwa, S. Sato, T. Himukai, T. Shirai and K. Noda
A fluorescent screen monitor for quality assurance of therapeutic scanned ion
beams
PII-41 J. Wu, T.-Y. Shih, B.-T. Hsieh, Y.-L. Liu, H.-H. Wu and T.-H. Wu
Dose response evaluation of n-NIPAM gel dosimetry in linear accelerator
radiotherapy: Effect of photon energy and dose rate
PII-42 T.-H. Wu, C.-Y. Hsiao, C.-H. Hsu, G. Zhang, C.-J. Tasi, J.-A. Liang, T.-C. Huang
3D dose verification using Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters for tomotherapy
PII-43 M.A. Martínez, C. Solis, I. Hernandez-Pavón, E. Andrade, M. A. Mondragón, K.
Isaac-Olivé, M.F. Rocha
Ionic liquids as passive monitors of an atmosphere rich in Hg
PII-44 T.-C. Huang, G. Zhang2, J.A. Liang,T.H. Wu
Validation of 4D dose calculations using optical flow method with 4D phantom
measurements
PII-45 G. S. Chen, Y. D. Wang, Y. C. Cheng, H. Y. Lee, H. Niu
Characterization of TiO2-based composite catalytic thin films using
synchrotron X-ray
PII-46 A. Lorusso, L. Cultrera, V. Fasano, A. Perrone
Detailed studies of photocathodes based on Y thin films grown by PLD
technique
PII-47 M. Katsikini, J. Arvanitidis, E. C. Paloura, S. Ves
Study of indium implanted GaN by means of NEXAFS and Raman
spectroscopies
PII-48 M. Katsikini, F. Bosherini, E. C. Paloura
Identification of oxygen-related defects formed after implantation into GaN
PII-49 M. Katsikini, K. Simeonidis, D. Papageorgiou, S. Tresintsi, M. Mitrakas, F.
Pinakidou, E. C. Paloura
XAFS study of nanoporous Fe, Mn oxy-hydroxides used for removal of As
from drinking water
PII-50 A. Godelitsas, P. Nastos, T.J. Mertzimekis, K. Toli, R. Simon and J. Göttlicher
A synchrotron-based characterization of urban particulate matter (PM2.5 and
PM10) from Athens atmosphere, Greece
PI-51 P. Gamaletsos, A. Godelitsas, T.J. Mertzimekis, J. Göttlicher, R. Steininger, S.
Xanthos, S. Klemme and G. Bárdossy
Spectroscopic investigation of thorium in Greek bauxite
PII-52 D. Suwannakachorn, P. Junphong, L.D. Yu, S. Singkarat
Modification of a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator to a medium-energy ion
accelerator for TOF-RBS application
PII-53 E. Andrade, C. Solis, M. Rocha, E. Perez and O. de Lucio
External-beam PIXE analysis of the ink from the Mexican codex 1548
PII-54 V. Corregidor, L.C. Alves, N.P. Barradas, M.A. Reis, M.T. Marques, J. A. Ribeiro
Characterization of mercury gilding art objects by external proton beam
PII-55 P.C. Gutiérrez Neira, A. Zucchiatti, I. Montero, R. Vilaça, C. Bottaini, and A.
Climent-Font
Late European bronze artefacts studied by PIXE
PII-56 E. Kajiya, M. A. Rizzutto, V. Pagliaro, S.I. Finazzo, P. R. Pascholati
A painting studied with integrated PIXE and image analysis
PII-57 H. Calvo del Castillo, A. Cervera Xicotencatl, F.P. Hocquet, S. Fievet, F. Mathis,C.
Oger, B. Gilbert, D. Strivay
Non-destructive analysis of a Belgian Tratatum of the 17th Century
PII-58 J. Hasegawa, S. Jaiyen, and Y. Oguri
Development of a µ-PIXE system using tapered glass capillary optics
PII-59 M.C. Jiménez-Ramos, J. García López , I. Ortega Feliu, R. García-Tenorio
148 Book of Abstracts

Analyses of U and Pu K-lines induced in radioactive particles by PIXE


PII-60 S. Wonglee, T. Tada, H. Fukuda, J. Hasegawa and Y. Oguri
Chemical speciation of chlorine in particulate matter by wavelength-dispersive
PIXE technique
PII-61 M. Roumie, N. Saliba, B. Nsouli, M. Noun
PIXE identification of fine and coarse particles of aerosol samples from Beirut
PII-62 K. Won-in, T. Kamwanna, P. Dararutana
PIXE characterization of ancient blue colored glass beads: Surat Thani sites,
southern Thailand
PII-63 J. Yang, K. Liu, B. Qin, K. Liu, D. Li, Y. Xiong, T. Yu
Field measurement system for CYCHU-10 cyclotron magnet
PII-64 A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama, A. Kitamura
Fabrication of polymer with the three-dimensional structure by ion beam graft
polymerization method
PII-65 T. Shirai, T. Furukawa, Y. Iwata, K. Noda, K. Mizushima, C. Sekine, T. Fujimoto
Beam intensity upgrade of a synchrotron for heavy ion therapy
PII-66 T. Himukai, T. Furukawa, E. Takeshita , T. Inaniwa, K. Mizushima, K. Katagiri and
Y. Takada
Spreading of heavy ion beam with dual-ring double scattering method
PII-67 K. Noda, T. Furukawa, T. Inaniwa, Y. Iwata, M. Kanazawa, S. Minohara, K.
Mizushima, S. Mori, T. Murakami, N. Sakamoto, S. Sato, T. Shirai, E. Takada, Y.
Takei
Recent progress on new treatment research project at HIMAC
PII-68 N. Bălţăţeanu, A. Gheorghiu, M. Jurba, E. Popescu
The characteristics of the beam injection system in an electron linac
PII-69 A. Wallner, K. Buczak, I. Dillman, F. Kaeppeler, K. Knie, T. Faestermann, O.
Forstner, R. Golser, G. Korschinek, W. Kutschera, C. Lederer, A. Mengoni, M.
Paul, G. Rugel, A. Ofan, U. Ott, A. Priller, F. Quinto, P. Steier, C. Vockenhuber
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry & Nuclear Astrophysics: Supernova and
Nucleosynthesis
PII-70 S. Tobbeche, A. Boukhari, R. Khalfaoui, A. Amokrane, C. Benazzouz, A. Guittoum
Mixing of Cr and Si atoms induced by noble gas ions irradiation of Cr/Si
bilayers
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 149

Carrier-free production of 95Tc isotope at the electron accelerator


N.I. Ayzatskiy, N.P. Dikiy, A.N. Dovbnya, Yu.V. Lyashko, V.I. Nikiforov, A.Eh. Tenishev,
V.L. Uvarov, V.A. Shevchenko
NSC KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine, uvarov@kipt.kharkov.ua

Traditionally, 95Tc is produced at heavy-particle accelerators with the use of 93Nb(α,2n)95Tc,


nat
Mo(α,pхn)95Tc or natMo(p,хn)95Tc reactions. By the end of irradiation, the activity of the desired
isotope in the target is mainly contributed by the 95gTc isomer (half-life period being 20 h) with an
admixture of 95mTc (61 days). These processes provide a relatively low yield of 95Tc with a significant
content of hot impurities (see, e.g., refs. [1,2]).
In the present-day practice, it is mainly the 95mTc isomer that finds use as a tracer agent [3]. At the
same time, the emission of low-energy Auger electrons with their high ionizing power in combination
with an acceptable half-life period of 95gTc make its use in nuclear medicine, e.g., in bone metastasis
treatment, rather promising. Besides, the presence of 204.12 keV γ-radiation in the spectrum of the
95m
Tc impurity isomer enables one to carry out simultaneously the diagnostics of pathology by SPECT
technique.
The paper reports the results from the studies on the conditions of 95Tc production at the relatively
inexpensive electron accelerator with the use of a poorly investigated 96Ru(γ,n)95Tc reaction. A model
has been developed for analytical description of photonuclear isotope generation under the high-
energy bremsstrahlung action. With the model as the basis, it is demonstrated the possibility for
estimating the effective cross section and the isotope yield in a thick technological target from the
reaction under study without preliminary determination of its excitation function. For the purpose,
comparison is made between the specific activities of two small samples of different materials that
were activated under the same conditions in the known reaction channel and the channel under study.
The well known reaction 68Zn(γ,p)67Cu was used as a reference one [4]. The experiment on joint
photoactivation of natural ruthenium and zinc samples was performed (see Fig.1). Their isotopic
composition was investigated and cross sections for 96Ru(γ,n)95g,mTc reactions were determined. The
yield of desired isomers in the targets from natural ruthenium of different size was estimated. It is
shown, in particular, that the operating conditions of the NSC KIPT accelerator KUT-30 (36 MeV,
265 µA) can provide the yield of 95gTc isomer up to 120 mCi/h.
99m 97 103 95
Tc Ru Ru Tc 24
Na
100000
022

10000
2754-1
counts

juvl

1000

100

95+95m
Tc 511
10

400 800 1200 1600 2000


channels

Figure 1: γ-spectrum of Ru sample a day after the activation (24Na was generated in the Al envelope
of the sample)

References
[1] K.Roy, S.Basu, D.K.Palat et al. Nucl. Chem., 256 (2003) 311.
[2] P.P.Dmitriev, G.A.Moplin, Z.P.Dmitrieva, M.V.Panarin, Atomic Energy 40 (1976) 75.
[3] P.J.Kershaw, D.McCubin, K.S.Leonard, Sci. Total Environ. 237/238 (1999) 119.
[4] N.I.Ayzatskiy, N.P.Dikiy, A.N.Dovbnya et al., Proc. 18-th Int. Conf. On Cyclotrons and their Appl.
Giardiny Naxos (Italy), Oct. 1-5, 2007, p.234
150 Book of Abstracts

A method for the estimation of the isotope yield in a thick target under
photonuclear production
V.I. Nikiforov, V.L. Uvarov
NSC KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine, uvarov@kipt.kharkov.ua
The production of isotopes for nuclear medicine with the use of bremsstrahlung of the electron
accelerator is currently considered as the promising technology for a number of radionuclides - 99Mo,
195m
Pt, 67Cu, etc. (see ,e.g., refs. [1-3]). Analysis of competitive ability of that technique calls for a
preliminary estimation of the photonuclear isotope yield with regard for the characteristics of the
accelerator, the bremsstrahlung converter and the target. The report presents a model for analytical
description of high-energy bremsstrahlung and its interaction with the thick technological target.
Simple formulas including available radiation and exit devices characteristics as well as the excitation
function in the Breit-Wigner form are derived for determining effective cross section of photonuclear
reaction and isotope yield in the cylindrical target of different size. As an illustration, we consider the
48
Ti(γ,p)47Sc, 68Zn(γ,p)67Cu, 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo, 112Sn(γ,p)111In, and 193Ir(γ,n)192Ir reactions that can be
used for production of some medical isotopes. It has been shown, in particular, that the values of the
proportionality factor between maximum and effective cross sections for the reactions under study (the
range of target atomic number Z~20-80) are neighbor for a specified endpoint energy of
bremsstrahlung spectrum in the range of interest 40-100 MeV. The obtained data on isotope yield are
compared with experiment and simulation results (see Table 1). The simulation was carried out using
especially developed and validated Monte Carlo code on basis of PENELOPE package supplemented
with the photonuclear cross section database. The characteristics for description of bremsstrahlung
utilization under technological target activation are discussed.
Table 1: Photonuclear isotope yield (cylindrical target of 2x2, cm)

Electron Isotope yield, mCi/100µА⋅h


Target
Reaction energy Е0, MC Analytical Experiment
mass, g
МeV simulation model (E0=36 MeV)
nat
Ti(γ,p)47Sc 28.2 40 6.5 11.4 -
nat
Zn(γ,p)67Cu 35 1,4 2,1
44.6 1.8
40 2,1 3,0
nat 35 15,9 17,5
Mo(γ,n)99Mo 64.1 16.8
40 20,3 21,2
nat 35 1,9 2,2
MoO3(γ,n)99Mo 12.9 2.1
40 2,4 2,7
nat
Sn(γ,p)111In 53.8 40 0,30 0,41 -
nat
Ir(γ,n)192Ir 140.7 40 17,5 19,4 -

References
[1] Making Medical Isotopes. Report of the Task Force on Alternatives for Medical-Isotope Production,
2008, available from http://www.triumf.ca/report-medical-isotope-production.
[2] M.P.Dikiy, A.N.Dovbnya, Yu.V.Lyashko et al., J.Label. Comp. Radiopharm. 50 (2007) 480.
[3] A.N.Dovbnya, V.I.Nikiforov, V.L.Uvarov, V.F.Zhyglo, Proc. 11-th Europ. Part. Accel. Conf. EPAC’08.
Genova (Italy), June 23-27, 2008, p.1308.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 151

Towards a TOF-based solution for beam energy measurements at Liege


cyclotron facility – Conception and preliminary results
G. Chêne1,2, F. Mathis1,2, T. Dupuis1,2, A. Marchal1,2, M. Clar1,2, H.-P. Garnir1,2, D. Strivay1,2
1
Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie,
2
Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
The AVF (Azimutal Varying Field) cyclotron of Liege can produce pulsed beams of positively
charged particles (1H+ and 4He ++ essentially but also 2H+, 3He++) in a wide range of energies (from 3 to
24 MeV for protons or 5 to 24 MeV for alphas) which allows deeper probing of materials and access
to rarely practiced nuclear reactions.
Among the first achievements on our way towards the development of depth sensitive techniques at
higher energies, optimization of the beam optics and building of a new magnetically analysed beam
line has led to a satisfactory reduction by a factor of 20 of our cyclotron’s "naturally poor" energy
resolution [1]. In order to fully profit of the high-energy beams for analysis purposes, we now need to
extend the Nuclear databases, and we now intend to measure Non-Rutherford differential cross-
sections for energies greater than 8 MeV, to allow a correct interpretation of diffused particle spectra.
Accordingly we are developing and implementing adapted and dedicated set ups and methodologies
for these measurements of prior importance for IBA users [2], namely with the recent mounting of the
new “STANDAR de Liège” vacuum chamber.
But to meet the accuracy and repeatability requirements for the monitoring of the mean energy of the
incident beams used during these Non-Rutherford cross-section measurement procedures, and thus, at
each energy step and over these unusual and wide energy-particle conjunctions and ranges, a Time-Of-
Flight (TOF) based solution has been considered as a interesting alternative to multiple and time-
consuming energy scanning of nuclear resonant events.
Taking full advantage of latest progress in MCP detectors and electronic chains in terms of time
resolution, an adapted set-up has been designed and will be mounted on the new High Energy-High
Resolution beam line. The first steps of its conception and first results obtained with this new TOF
system dedicated to the energy measurements of the beam will be here presented.

References
[1] G.Chêne,H.-P. Garnir, A.Marchal, F.Mathis, D. Strivay, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266 Issue 10 (May
2008) p.2110-2112.
[2] A. Gurbich, I. Bogdanovic-Radovic, M. Chiari, C. Jeynes, M. Kokkoris, A.R. Ramos, M. Mayer, E.
Rauhala, O. Schwerer, Shi Liqun, I. Vickridge, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266 Issue 8(April 2008) p.1198-
1202.
152 Book of Abstracts

Acceleration of the heavy ions with a new RF system at HIMAC


synchrotron
T. Fujimoto1, M. Kanazawa2, T. Shirai2, Y. Iwata2, M. Uchiyama1, K. Noda2
1
Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Japan, t.fujimoto@aec-beam.co.jp
2
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan
A development of a fast 3-dimensional scanning irradiation method is progressing at Heavy Ion
Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) as a next stage of the heavy ion cancer therapy [1]. It is
necessary to control the beam size, energy and intensity with high accuracy for this method. In order
to improve the accelerated beam quality, a new scheme of the synchrotron RF system has been
developed. The new system adopts a new periodically time clock system (T-clock) instead of the
ordinary B-clock system. The new T-clock system is synchronized with the power line frequency of
50 Hz in order to synchronize with the synchrotron power supply. The B-clock system brings error
pulses due to the small analog signal of the field and the errors cause the dipole oscillation of the beam
in the RF bucket. Using the new T-clock generator of 192 kHz, it was observed that the improvement
of the acceleration efficiency and the quality of the bunch shape compared with the B-clock generator.

Acceleration Variable energy period Deceleration


period with 430→ 140MeV/n period
1.2
excitation pattern
1

0.8
B [T]

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 1000 2000 3000
t [ms]

Figure 1: Excitation pattern of the synchrotron for the scanning irradiation (left), and the beam
bunch signal at 140 MeV/n (right) in the case of (a) B-clock and (b) T-clock The bunch shape with
B-clock is distorted in the RF bucket due to the accumulated error pulse. On the other hand, the
bunch shape with T-clock is kept constant.

References
[1] T. Furukawa, et al, Proceeding of EPAC08 (2008), 1794.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 153

On the use of two solid state detectors to assess beam uniformity for broad
beam in vitro cell irradiation.
A.-C. Heuskin1,A.-C. Wéra1, H. Riquier2, C. Michiels2, M. Caccia3, S. Lucas1
1
NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), research center in Physics of Matter and
Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP, anne-catherine.heuskin@fundp.ac.be
2
NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unité de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire
(URBC), University of Namur-FUNDPRue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium
3
Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Department of Physics and Mathematics, Via Ravasi, 2 - 21100
Varese, Italy.
The interaction of charged particles with living matter has recently attracted increasing interest in the
field of biomedical applications like hadrontherapy, radioprotection and space radiation biology.
Particle accelerators are particularly useful in this area.
In vitro radiobiological studies with broad beam configuration require beam homogeneity. In this way,
the distribution of dose given to a cells’ population is hopefully uniform.
In this paper, we compare the results of two devices used to assess the beam quality for broad beam
irradiation: not position sensitive - silicon surface barrier detector and a position sensitive solid state
detector, camera like.
The first one is a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) particle detector of 300 µm nominal
depletion depth and entrance window about 500 Å thickness. It is collimated with a 0.5 mm aperture
and mounted in air on a X-Y moving table as close as possible to the exit window of the beam line.
The second one is a CMOS position sensitive detector (Technological process 0.6 µm AMS CUA),
112 × 112 pixels, 153x153 µm2 pixel size. It allows the user to get the dose map in one second over a
surface of 1x1 cm². During uniformity and dose rate assessment it is placed in air at the exact cells
location.
For both detectors, beam profile was obtained for various proton flux (from ~104 to 107 particles cm-2
s-1) and energies (from 1.0 to 3.5 MeV).
Results are analysed in light of Poisson distribution and cell hit probability.
154 Book of Abstracts

Beam stability improvement of HIMAC synchrotron


using a current feed-forward system in the magnet power supply
K. Katagiri1, K. Mizushima1, T. Furukawa1, E. Takeshita1,
Ch. Schoemers2, S. Sato1, Y. Iwata1, T. Shirai1, K. Noda1
1
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku,Chiba 263-8555, Japan,
tag410@nirs.go.jp
2
HIT-GmbH, INF 450, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Beam stability of the HIMAC synchrotron was improved for the heavy ion cancer therapy employing
the pencil beam scanning method [1]. The slow current ripples (~10 Hz) of the power supply for the
focusing quadrupole magnet and bending magnet are produced by the power consumption of the other
synchrotron ring. The beam stability, such as the variation of the incident position and the spill
structure, is influenced by the current ripples. For the reduction of the current ripples, we developed a
new feed-forward system in the magnet power supply. The current ripples were successfully
suppressed to be ∆I/I ~ 10-6 by the feed-forward system. In order to examine the effect of the
improvement on the beam stability, we measured the temporal evolution of the horizontal tune. We
also measured the beam spills, which is slowly extracted with or without the spill feedback control
system [2]. We discuss the capability of the new feed-forward system for the improvement of the
beam stability.

References
[1] T. Furukawa et al., Proc. of EPAC08, Genoa, (2008) 1794.
[2] S. Sato et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 574 (2007) 226.
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 155

THz im
maging syystem for material science
on the basiis of an S-band com
mpact eleectron linaac
R. Kurodaa, M. Koike, K. K Yamada
Researcch Institute of Instrumenttation Frontiier, Nationall Institute of Advanced
A Inndustrial Scieence and
Technoology (AIST)), Japan, ryu-kuroda@aisst.go.jp
A coherent terahertzz (THz) radiiation sourcee has been developed
d baased on ultraa-short electrron beam
using ann S-band com mpact electroon linac at AIST
A [1-2]. The coherennt THz radiaation has a highh peak
power, so
s that the linnac-based TH Hz source is expected to be instead of o a conventiional laser-baased THz
T designedd THz pulse has high peaak power mo
source. The ore than 1 kWW in frequenncy range bettween 0.1
- 2 THz. All of our system is buillt in one reseearch room about
a 10 meters square. T The linac connsists of a
laser phootocathode rf r gun (BNL L type) with a Cs-Te pho otocathode load-lock
l sysstem and tw wo 1.5-m-
long acccelerator struuctures whichh is a 1/2 π mode
m standing wave struucture. The eelectron beam m can be
acceleratted up to abbout 42 MeV V using an rf source off a 20-MW klystron. Thhe electron bunch is
compresssed to less thhan 1 ps withh a magneticc bunch comp pressor (so called
c the achhromatic arc section).
The coheerent synchrotron radiation (CSR) off the THz reg gion is generaated from the ultra-short and high
charge electron
e buncch at the 90 degree
d bendiing magnet anda it is extraacted from a z-cut quartzz window
for THz applicationss such as thee THz time-ddomain specctroscopy (TD DS) and TH Hz imaging [3 3]. In the
previouss article[3-4], THz imagiing techniquue has been established
e f the IC caard and the vegetable
for v
leaf imaging. Figuree 1 shows thee setup of thhe THz transsmission scannning imaginng experimeent with a
THz deteector (0.1 TH Hz range) annd new invesstigation systtem for the evaluation
e off the ion imp
plantation
such as boron
b ions inn a Si wafer. The Si wafeer is almost transparent
t too the THz radiation but some
s ions
absorb more
m or less THz radiatioon due to its dose. Therefore, we cann estimate im mplant dose from
f THz
absorptioon images annd evaluate thet distributiion of ion do opant of mateerials such ass a semicond ductor. In
this workkshop, we will
w report deetails of the accelerator
a based
b THz soource and exxperimental results
r of
the THz imaging for the ion impllantation matterials.

Figure 1: Setup of TH
Hz transmisssion scanningg imaging

Referen
nces
[1] R. Kuroda et al., Infrared Phyysics and Techhnology 51 (2008) 390.
[2] N. Sei, R. Kurodda et al., J. Apppl. Phys. 1044 (2008) 1149008.
[3] R. Kuroda et al., Radiat. Physs. Chem. 78 (22009) 1102.
[4] R. Kuroda et al., Nucl. Instrum m. Methods Phys.
P Res. A (2
2010) , in Press.
156 Book of Abstracts

Improvement of the mass spectrometry process on an ion implantation


system
J. Lopes1, E. Alves2, F. Alegria3, L. Redondo4, J. Rocha5
1
Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), Lisbon, Portugal, CFNUL and ITN
jgabriel@deea.isel.ipl.pt
2
Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN), Sacavém, Portugal
3
Instituto de Telecomunicações (IT) and Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Lisbon, Portugal
4
Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), Lisbon, Portugal, CFNUL and ITN
5
Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN), Sacavém, Portugal

In the Nuclear Technology Institute (ITN), the ion implanter is used in materials science research. Ion
implantation is a material engineering process by which ions of a material can be implanted into
another solid, thereby changing the physical properties of the solid. One of fundamental steps on the
ion implantation system is the mass spectrometry that allows the implantation of an accurate isotope or
to avoid the existence of more than one element on the target, by deflecting the ion beam trough a
magnetic field.
The mass spectrum is obtained in a plotter and the magnetic field is controlled manually through the
current source. With the system that is been developed, the mass spectrometry made through a PC
application and the mass spectrum is given trough the PC (Figure 1) instead of being printed
without any analysis.

Figure 1: Mass Spectrum obtain trough LabVIEW

This system consists in a PC, a data acquisition I/O board composed by multifunction input/output
board NI USB-6251 from National Instruments and four electronic modules using optic fiber control.
The computer control system uses a LabVIEW synoptic for interaction with the operator and an I/O
board that interfaces the computer and the ion implanter. In the future, one of the goals of this system
is the full automation of the mass spectrometry system.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 157

Panofsky magnet for the beam extraction using a fast Q-magnet


S. Masubuchi, T. Nakanishi
College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Japan
The fast control of beam spill extracted from a synchrotron is a key function for the spot scanning
irradiation in cancer therapy application. The authors have proposed the extraction method for the
application which uses the control of a quadruple field of fast response as well as the RF-knockout
(QAR method) [1, 2]. The operational sequence of this method is as follows: (1) particles are diffused
by the RF-knockout just to the boundary of transverse separatrix under a resonant condition, (2) the
separtrix size is shrunk with the excitation of a Fast Q-magnet (FQ) to a certain size, and the particles
outside the separtrix are extracted, (3) the FQ is turned off, and (4) the above process is repeated until
the entire circulating beam is extracted. The authors have been developing a Panofsky magnet as the
FQ with a frequency response of around 10 kHz. A Panofsky magnet has a rectangular beam aparture
and plate coils attached on the pole face. A model magnet has been manufactured with ferrite, and the
static and active magnetic fields were measured. In the presentation, the measurement results are
compared with calculated ones, and an effect of eddy current produced in the plate coils are discussed
especially.

References
[1] T. Nakanishi, T. Furukawa, K. Yoshida, and K. Noda, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A533 (2005) , pp.400-406.
[2] T. Nakanishi, K. Tsuruha, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A608 (2009) , pp.37-41.
158 Book of Abstracts

Development of beam current control system


in RF-knockout slow extraction
K. Mizushima1, 2, S. Sato2, T. Shirai2, T. Furukawa2, K. Katagiri2, E. Takeshita2, K. Noda2
1
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-
8522, Japan, mizshima@nirs.go.jp
2
Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1
Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555, Japan
The fast raster scanning irradiation method [1] has been developed for cancer therapy at HIMAC in
NIRS [2]. The method requires the high accuracy control and the fast modulation of the beam current
extracted from the synchrotron ring. For the requirements, we used the RF-knockout slow extraction
method [3, 4] with the new feedback control system of the beam current. Using the counting of the
frequency pulse signal converted from the current value measured by the dosimeter, the new system
controls the beam current the required rate with the propotional and the integral controls. We will
report the details of the system and the experimental results.

References
[1] T. Furukawa, at al., in: Proc. of EPAC08, Genoa, Italy, pp. 1794-1799.
[2] Y. Hirao, et al., Nucl. Phys. A 538 (1992) 541.
[3] K. Noda, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 492 (2002) 241.
[4] K. Noda, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 492 (2002) 253.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 159

Cs-Te photo-cathode RF electron gun for applied researches at Waseda


University
K. Sakaue1, H. Hayano2, S. Kashiwagi3, R. Kuroda4, A. Masuda1,4, T. Suzuki1, T. Takatomi2,
N. Terunuma2, J. Urakawa2, M. Washio1
1
Research Institute for Science and engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo,
169-8555 Japan, kazuyuki.sakaue@aoni.waseda.jp
2
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 Japan
3
The Institute of Science and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka,
567-0047 Japan
3
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba,
Ibaraki, 305-8568 Japan
We have developing a compact electron accelerator based on photo-cathode RF electron gun for
applied researches at Waseda University. Higher charge and higher energy are key issues for
applications such as pulse radiolysis experiment [1] and laser-Compton X-ray generation [2,3]. We
have installed a new RF gun cavity with cesium telluride (Cs-Te) photo-cathode which has higher
quantum efficiency (Q.E.). This provides us a high intense and high brightness electron beam and will
have considerable contributions for applied researches.
The evaluation of Q.E. of the photo-cathode has been performed and the value was obtained more than
5 % at the preparation stage. Further, for understanding of Cs-Te cathode properties and the higher
Q.E. operation, we have performed the fundamental studies by single bunch beam operation. As the
result, we have obtained more than 6 nC bunch charge with a high Q.E. of 2.9%. Moreover, the new
RF gun cavity was improved for obtaining higher Q-value. We observed a higher beam energy i.e.
shunt impedance compared with old type cavity. The shunt impedance have increased about 20%.

References
[1] H. Nagai et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 265 (2007) 82.
[2] S. Kashiwagi et al., J. Appl.Phys. 98 (2005) 123302.
[3] K. Sakaue et al., Rad. Phys. and Chem. 77 (2008) 1136.
160 Book of Abstracts

Development of laser ion source for heavy ion applications


S. Shibuya1, T. Hattori2, N. Hayashizaki2, H. Kashiwagi3, T. Maruyama4, T. Mochizuki4, S. Momota5,
J. Nakagawa4, T. Takeuchi1
1
Accelerator Engineering Corporation, shibuya@aec-beam.co.jp
2
Tokyo Institute of Technology, nhayashi@nr.titech.ac.jp
3
Japan Atomic Energy Agency, hirotsugu.kashiwagi@jaea.go.jp
4
Toyama Co., Ltd., nakagawa@toyama-jp.com
5
Kochi University of Technology, monota.sadao@kochi-tech.ac.jp
Recently, applications of high-charge-state (including fully stripped) heavy-ion beams have been
attracting interest in both physics and industry. To enhance their usefulness, more intense beams are
required. Cancer therapy using carbon ions is a particularly promising heavy-ion beam application.
Currently, common ion sources used to generate high-charge-state heavy ions are electron cyclotron
resonance ion source and electron- beam ion sources. Due to advances in laser technology, the laser
ion source (LIS) has become one of the most popular sources for generating highly charged and
intense heavy-ion beams. Therefore, LIS, which has an excellent performance as a heavy-ion source,
is gradually replacing conventional ion sources. To develop a high-intensity LIS, a small business
innovation research project was started on June 2009, funded by New Energy and Industrial
Technology Development Organization. The aim of this project is develop a high-performance LIS for
practical applications. Specifically, the LIS should generate a carbon beam with a peak current of
20mA and the pulse duration of longer than 1 s. The ultimate goal is to apply a heavy-ion accelerator
for cancer therapy.
In this project, we have almost conpleted designing the LIS, and manufacturing will commence soon.
A test bench, which is as important as the ion source itself, is used to measure various parameters of
laser plasmas and ion beams. It consists of five components: a target chamber, laser equipments, an
ion focusing system, diagnostic devices, and a control system. The bench is approximately 1 m wide
and 2.5 m long. A Nd:YAG laser source with a Gaussian-coupled resonator was selected as the laser
source based on our experience of high-charge-state ion beam generation. This laser can produce a
fundamental-mode pulse with a power of 650 mJ and a duration about 10 ns. A long-life target is
essential to reduce the maintainance required when the LIS is used for medical or industrial
applications. The side wall of a cylindrical graphite target was used as the target surface to maximize
the area irradiated by the focused laser beam. The target is 10cm high and has a diameter of 10cm,
which enables up to 105 laser shots to be used. Devices installed inside the target chamber (including
optical elements for the laser) are positioned with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm. The graphite target was
installed on a high-voltage stage to enable an ion beam to be extracted from the plasma source. The
maximum extraction voltage is designed to be 50 kV. We intend to measure the source performance
by performing plasma and beam tests up until the end of March 2011.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 161

Recent developments of the single ion hit detection set-up at RBI


R W Smith, M Karlušić, Ž Pastuović, N. Skukan, M Jakšić
Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia,
richard.smith@irb.hr
Ion irradiation has numerous applications in the materials modification field e.g. the formation of ion
tracks or structuring of defects in semiconductor devices. RBI has previously, among other studies,
produced etched ion tracks in polycarbonate films as well as chains of nanohillocks on SrTiO3 surfaces
using heavy ion beams, however only using broad beam irradiation. Microbeam irradiation using
heavy ions could give several important advantages if the irradiation is performed with single or a pre-
determined number (low fluence) of these ions with full control of their impact position. The optics of
the Zagreb microprobe has recently been upgraded to a quintuplet configuration to increase the
demagnification, as well as to extend the focusing capability to medium energy heavy ions.
Single ion irradiation or the measurement of low fluence requires a reliable ion hit detection
capability. For thin targets in transmission geometry ion hits can be detected using a particle detector
behind the sample. As this is not possible for thicker samples an alternative method i.e. the detection
of secondary electrons emitted from the sample surface has been explored. The set-up at RBI is based
on the use of a Channel Electron Multiplier (CEM) detector of secondary electrons that can provide an
efficient trigger signal of the heavy ion impact.
The present status and recent developments of the heavy ion hit detection set-up and microprobe will
be described. Detection efficiencies of the set-up for several different ions such as H, C, O, Si and Cl
will be compared. The latest achievements using the set-up for materials modification will also be
presented.
162 Book of Abstracts

Development and application of a new method to shim first harmonic in


compact cyclotron
T. Zhang, J. Zhong, M. Li, Ch. Wang, Y. Lu, X. Jiang, J. Yang, J. Lin, F. Yang
China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, P.R. China, tjzhang@ciae.ac.cn
Two compact cyclotrons, a 30 MeV H- machine CYCIAE-30 and a 10 MeV Central Region Model
CYCIAE-CRM, had been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) [1,2]. Other two
compact cyclotrons, a 100 MeV and a 14 MeV machines for RIB production and PET respectively, are
under construction[3]. The difficulty of effective first harmonic shimming and significance of well
control first harmonic are experienced from the field mapping and beam commissioning.
Aiming at the compact cyclotron with four sectors, attaching two shimming bars at both sides of every
sector, based on the numerical results of shimming simulation and the linear interpolation of shimming
dimension in practice, a new method to shim the first harmonic have been developed and used for
several compact machines. From the mapping data, the shimming dimension ∆T1 ( r ) of 16 shimming
bars at varying radius for isochronous field is calculated firstly. Then the different shimming
dimensions ∆T2n (r ) (n = 1,8) of the eight shimming bars at both sides of the four pairs of sectors are
calculated by the new shimming algorithm for the first harmonic, to get the final shimming dimensions
as following:
∆T n (r ) = ∆T1 + ∆T2n (r ) (n = 1,8)
The shimming dimensions can be transfer to the program for NC milling machine to fabricate the
continuous profile of the shimming bars. This new algorithm can also be used to shimming Bθ (r ) at
the medium plane, if we extend n = 1,8 to n = 1,16 with asymmetric shims at the same side of the
sector. Figure 1 shows the 10 MeV Central Region Model CYCIAE-CRM and its accessorial devices.
And the amplitudes of first harmonic before and after one shimming process are given in Figure 2.
process are given in Figure 2.
g
25

Am plitude of 1st harm onic from m apping data on 2006_06_25


Am plitude of 1st harm onic from m apping data on 2006_07_07
20
B1 / Gauss

15

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
R/cm

Figure 1: 10 MeV Central Region Model Cyclotron CYCIAE-CRM


Figure 2: First harmonic before and after one shimming process

References
[1] Mingwu Fan, et al., ‘Construction of high intensity proton cyclotron, CYCIAE-30’, Chinese Science
Bulletin, 1995, 40 20 1825
[2] Tianjue Zhang et al., ‘Test Stand Design and Construction for High Intensity Cyclotron Development’ ,
Chinese Physics C, Vol.32(S1), P237-240, 2008
[3] Tianjue Zhang et al., ‘Design and Construction progress of CYCIAE-100, a 100 MeV H- Cyclotron at
CIAE’, 18th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Appli-cations (ICCA), 2007, Italy, Invited.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 163

Beam dynamics study for a 14 MeV PET cyclotron


T. Zhang, M. Li, J. Zhong, Sh. An, S. Wei, J. Yang
China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, P.R. China, tjzhang@ciae.ac.cn
To meet the rapid growth of domestic demand for PET cyclotrons in China, a 14 MeV PET cyclotron
known as CYCIAE-14 has been designed and under construction at China Institute of Atomic Energy
(CIAE). This machine features a compact, self-shielding magnet structure and an external multi-cusp
ion souce.
The beam dynamics study presented in this paper is based on basic technical requirements set for
CYCIAE-14 and its extracted beam. It covers a wide range of subjects on beam dynamics, including
axial injection and central region; phase shift, transverse focusing and static acceptance; beam motion
inside the machine under imperfection conditions, with emphasis on the influence to the vertical beam
envelope induced by shift of the beam center and mismatching of the phase space as shown in Figure
1; optical characteristics such as dispersion and beam envelope during extraction, and dual extraction
trajectories at each outlet as shown in Figure 2. The results show that CYCIAE-14 can accept a beam
with RF phase width of ±20o and normalized emittance of 4.0 pi-mm-mrad. When the beam is well
centered and matched, the stripped beam travels to the outside of the vacuum chamber with a
transverse half envelope of ~4mm, and after it reaches the outside of the return yoke, its transverse
half envelope will be ~6mm. In that case, it can be connected to the isotope production target directly
or transferred to a solid targe through a beam line easily. This paper will give an in-depth view of the
beam dynamics study, numerical simulation as well as the corresponding results and necessary
analysis

Figure 1: Axial beam envelop as a function of radius in


three different cases:(a)vertical beam matching;(b)vertical
beam mismatch; (c)vertical shift of the beam center by 5mm

Figure 2: Equipotential lines of magnetic field and dual


extraction trajectories at one outlet (four beams for two
outlets in total)

References
[1] W.J.G.M. Kleeven, H.L. Hagedoorn, ‘The Influence of Magnetic Field Imperfections on the Beam Quality
in an H- Cyclotron’, Proc. 13th Int. Conf. On Cyclotrons and their Applications , Canada, 1992, p.380.
[2] Milan Čihák et al., ‘Beam Dynamics Simulation in the Isochronous Cyclotron U-120M’, Proc. 18th Int.
Conf. On Cyclotrons and their Applications , Italy, 2007, p.385.
[3] R.E. Laxdal et al., ‘Beam Quality Investigations For H- Extraction at Triumf’, Proc. 13th Int. Conf. On
Cyclotrons and their Applications , Canada , 1992, p.415.
164 Book of Abstracts

Ph
hysics dessign of 70 MeV hig
gh intensitty cyclotrron
T. Zhang,
Z Sh. An,
A Ch. Wang, Z. Yin, S. Wei, M. Li,, J. Yang, B. Ji, X. Jia, J. Zhong, F. Yang
Y
China Institute of Atomic
A Energgy, Beijing, P.R.
P China, tjzhang@cia
t ae.ac.cn
Recentlyy, a driver with
w a capabillity of 50KW W (70 MeV, 0.75 mA) iss indeed veryy interesting not only
for the development
d of the SPES S project, butt also for thee Radioactivee Ion-beam ((RIB) production and
proton cancer
c therappy [1,2]. Basedd on the consstruction of CYCIAE-1000 [3] at Chinna Institute of o Atomic
Energy (CIAE)
( in Beijing,
B a 70 MeV compaact cyclotron n with high intensity
i is ddesigned to be
b a dual
particle cyclotron
c abble to deliverr proton withh energy in th he range 35~ ~70 MeV andd deuteron beam with
energy ini a range of about 18~333 MeV at CIAE. C The main
m physiccs design of this machine will be
introduced in this paaper. Four strraight sectorrs will be ado opted as critical part for the machinee and two
kinds off beam H-/D-- can be injeccted, acceleraated and extrracted for muulti-applicatiion. About 700µA for
H+ and 40µA for D+ will be extractede in dual opposite directionns by chargee exchange stripping
devices. The main paarameters aree given in Taable 1. The basicb beam dynamics
d resuults are given and the
main maagnet, RF, injjection & exxtraction systtems are desiigned in detaail.
Tablee 1: Main paarameters of 70MeV cycllotron.

Acceelerated H- / D- Secctor angel ~48.0° Deees 2


Exttracted H+ / D+ Bmax 1.6 T Dee angel 36°
Energy (Chhangeable) Frequuency 55~57
Bmin 0.108 T
H+:35~~70MeV, D+:18~35 MeV V of RF MHz
M
+
Extraccted H >700uuA R
Radius of 4 for
f H-
1.40 m Harm
monics
beam current
c D+ >40uuA maagnet pole 8 for
f D-
Gapp between wer of
Pow 2
Seectors 4 6.03~4.69ccm
hills R
RF 50kW
5

Fiigure 1: Layyout of 70MeeV (left) and vertical beam


m profile withh 5mm displaacement (righ
ht).

Referen
nces
[1] Holiffield Radioacctive Ion Beam m Facility Cyyclotron Driver White Papper, annual Sccience and Teechnology
Reviiew of the Hollifield Radioacctive Ion Beam
m Facility Jun
ne2-3, 2008.
[2] http:://www.lnl.inffn.it/~spes/TD
DR2008/Chaptter4_cyclotron n.pdf
[3] Tianjjue Zhang et al.,
a ‘Design annd Constructioon progress of CYCIAE-1000, a 100 MeV V H- Cyclotron n at
CIAEE’, 18th Internnational Confeerence on Cycclotrons and Their
T Appli-caations (ICCA),, 2007, Italy, Invited.
I
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 165

Conceptu
ual design
n of an 8000 MeV high powerr proton ccyclotron
n
T. Zhanng1, J. Yang1, M. Li1, L. XiaX 1, Sh. Ann1, J. Zhong1, F. Yang1, W. W Joho2, A. A
Adelmann2, P. Sigg2
1
Chinaa Institute of Atomic
A Enerrgy, Beijing, P.R. China, tjzhang@ciaae.ac.cn
2
Paul Scherrrer Institute,, Switzerlandd
This papper briefly inntroduces thee conceptuall design work k of a high power
p protonn cyclotron proposed
by Chinna Institute of o Atomic Energy
E (CIAAE) for Spaallation Neuttron Source,, Accelerato or Driven
Systems, production of Radioacttive Ion Beam ms and otherr applicationss. For this cyyclotron the 100 MeV
injectionn proton beaam is currenntly considerred to be pro ovided by CYCIAE-100
C 0 cyclotron, which is
under coonstruction ata CIAE, andd will be repllaced by a deedicated injeector later onn for beam up pgrading.
In order to minimizee the beam loss l for highh intensity opperation, largge turn separration at thee last turn
has firstt priority. It is concludeed by using parameter analysis
a of different
d soluutions that the
t warm
magnet solution
s is better than suuperconductinng magnet so olution in terrms of high current mach hine. The
optimum m setting off the key paarameters off this cyclottron is founnd by designing, compaaring the
characters of differennt solutions. Some key parameters
p arre listed in Table
T 1. Figurre 1 shows thhe sketch
of the cyyclotron layoout includingg the injectioon system and d the extracttion system, and the betaatron tune
diagram calculated by two diffferent codess is shown in Figure 2. 2 The concceptual desiign, field
calculatiion, RF cavitty simulationn, etc. will bee presented in
n the paper.
Taable 1: Key parameters
p of
o the cyclotrron

Seeparated-
C
Cyclotron typpe Harm
monic numbeer 6
sector
Seector Numbeer 9 Main cavity numbber 5
M
Magnet type Warm Peak RFR voltage (M MV) 1.0
E
Energy (MeVV) 1000 → 800 Flat-topp cavity nummber 1 or 2
Magneetic rigidity (T·m)
( 1.48-4.88 extraction
e Single-tuurn
Turn sepaaration at extrraction 7 centerring
Averagge orbit radiuus (m) 2
2.76-5.42
(mm) injection
n
RF Frequency(M
F MHz) 44.37 Qr / Qz at extractioon 1.55/1.4
40

Figure 1:
1 Sketch maap of the cycllotron Figurre 2: Betatron tune diagraam of the cyclotron
166 Book of Abstracts

Investtigation foor the verrtical focu


using enhaancementt of compaact cyclottron by
a
asymmetr rical shim
mming barr
T. Zhang, Chh. Wang, J. Zhong,
T Z H. Yaao
China Institute of Atomic
A Energgy, Beijing, P.R.
P China, tjzhang@cia
t ae.ac.cn
CYCIAE E-100, a 1000 MeV H- cyyclotron undeer constructiion at China Institute of A Atomic Enerrgy, is an
AVF com mpact cyclottron. Since itsi energy is above 70 MeV M and the straight sector magnet, instead of
the spiraal sector maggnet, is still used
u to simpplify the commplicated enggineering proocedures, thee vertical
focusingg is likely noot strong enoough at the outer
o region and the Wallkinshaw ressonance may y occur if
the tolerrance of perrmeability deecreasing in large scale casting andd forging steel, or the faabrication
tolerancee during the magnet construction
c are seriously excessivee. Theoreticcal investigaation and
numericaal simulationn results preesented in this paper sho ow that this kind
k of risk could be avvoided by
s of speciall designed assymmetrical shimming bars between the pole edgge and dumm
using a set my Dee of
the RF cavity
c at the outer regionn. In this wayy the verticall focusing att outer radiuss region willl increase
substantiially. This innvestigation provides a protective
p measure
m for the
t main maagnet constru uction for
CYCIAE E-100.

Figure 1: Sketch Map of the Distance Between


Shimmiing Bar Edgee and RF Linner

Figure 2: Compaarison of B
Betatron Oscillations
Frequen
ncy betweenn Symmetriic and Asy
ymmetric
Shimmiing

Referen
nces
[1] J.L.X
Xie, ‘Acceleraators and Scieentific Innovattion’, Beijing Tsinghua University Presss, 2000, p82 (in
(
Chinnese)
[2] Tiann-jue. Zhang, Zhen-guo. Li,, Jun-qing. Zhhong, et al., ‘Physics
P Desiggn of CYCAIE--100’, Chinese Phys. C,
20099 33 (S2): 33——38
[3] H. L.
L Hagedoorn,, N.F.Verster, ‘Orbits in an AVF Cyclotro on’, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 18,19(1962), 201-228
[4] S.Orrass. ‘Techniqques Applied to
t the Design of the TRIUM MF Magnet Pooles’. TRIUMF F Design Notee: TRI-
70-44.
[5] Gorrdon M M. ‘Coomputation off closed orbitss and basic foccusing properrties for sectorr-focused cycllotrons
and the design off “cyclops”’. Particle
P Accellerators. 1984
4, 16:P39-62.
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 167

Overall design
n of CYCIIAE-14, a 14 MeV PET cycllotron
T. Zhangg, Y. Lu, Z. Yin,
Y J. Zhonng, T. Cui, M.
M Li, S. Wei,, G. Song, L. Wu, B. Ji, JJ. Xing, J. Qiin, X. Jia,
W Hu, J. Yangg, S. An, F. Guan,
W. G X. Zhen, L. Wen, J. Lin, Z. Li,, X. Zhang, Y Cai, F. Yaang
China Institute of Atomic
A Energgy, Beijing, P.R.
P China, tjzhang@cia
t ae.ac.cn
Positronn emission toomography (PET) is deeemed as thee most advaanced imaginng techniquee for the
nuclear medicine. Itt is consisting of PET scanner and d medical cyyclotron thaat produces short-life
isotopes. In recent years, the domestic
d dem mand for PE ET cyclotronns in Chinaa is in rapid d growth.
Thereforre, based on a 10 MeV CRM C cyclotroon developed d at China Innstitute of Attomic Energy y (CIAE)
with an achieved beam b intensiity of up too 430µA, a 14MeV high intensityy compact cyclotron, c
CYCIAE E-14, is designed and beeing built at CIAE. C It is planned
p that the first macchine of CY YCIAE-14
would bee in place wiith a span off 2 years. Wiith the advan ntage of highh intensity, thhis machine will
w have
wide appplications, inncluding thee productionn of 11C, 15O, O 13N, 18F thhat is usuallyy used for PET,P and
isotopes such as 64Cuu, 124I, 99mTcc for more medical uses. Aside from that, t CYCIA AE-14 will bee capable
of provviding 18F for coinccidence SPE ECT in many m hospiitals by eestablishing “instant
radiophaarmaceutical distribution center” in soome big citiees in China.
CYCIAE E-14 of is delicately
d deesigned to realize
r stronng vertical focusing
f by adopting a 4-sector
structuree with variabble hill gap and to achieeve high inteensity with an a external iion source. A special
design applied
a to thee stripping extraction
e givves access too dual extracction with 4 beams. The adoption
of sophiisticated induustrial technnology will back b up the target of loow power coonsumption and high
reliabilitty for the maachine. The main parameeters for CY YCIAE-14 arre listed in T Table 1. Thiss paper is
aimed too present the overall desiign of the maachine as sho own in Figurre 1, includinng the basic technical
specificaations, main magnet and coils, RF, ioon source and d axial injecttion, and striipping extracction, etc.
It will allso give an introduction
i to its constrruction sched dule as well as the up-to-date progress in line
with the schedule.
Table 1:: Main Param
meters of CY
YCIAE-14

P
Parameters Value
Particle acceleratedd H
-

Extracted Proton
Final eneergy 14.6 MeV
Bmin/Bmaax 2.0kGs/18.5kGGs
Radius of
o sector maggnet 500 mm
Sector anngle 52o
Hill gap// Valley gap 2.66 mm/318 mm m
Outer Raadius of Maggnet 880 mm
Height of
o Magnet 1066 mm
Dee Volltage 50 kV
RF frequuency 7
73.02 MHz Figure 1: Structure off CYCIAE-14
4
Harmoniic mode 4

Referen
nces
[1] Y.Y.Wang, ‘Staatus and Probblems of Cliniical Applicatio on of PET-CT T new technollogies’, Chineese Health
Ecconomics, No..6, 2007.
[2] Tiaanjue Zhang et
e al., ‘Test Staand Design annd Constructio
on for High Inntensity Cyclootron Development’,
Chhinese Physicss C, Vol.32(S11), P237-240 /2008
/
168 Book of Abstracts

Desiign and preliminarry operatiion of a co


ompact pulsed
p pow
wer generrator
Ch. Wang,
W X. Zheeng, J. Zou, T.
T Zhang, X.. Jiang
China Institute of Atomic
A Energgy, Beijing, P.R.
P China, tjzhang@cia
t ae.ac.cn
The loww impedance compact pullsed power generators
g arre consideredd as potentiaal drivers forr X-pinch
based phhase contrasst imaging[1]] and EUV source for lithography
l [22]
. The desiggnated pulseed power
generatoor should proovide square--like wave on o low imped dance load (1Ω – 2Ω) w with current amplitude
a
of 100kA A in burst mode.
m The puulse width off the current wave is 60 ns, and the rrise time of the wave
should be less thaan 30ns. Thhe dimensioons of the machine arre restrictedd to no larrger than
~2m×1m m×1.5m, according to the specific pootential appllication of thhe machine. We adopt a solution
based onn Marx geneerator combinned with low w impedancee pulse formiing line and V/N type gaas switch
technoloogy to obtainn the required high intennsity and fastt rise time cuurrent wave.. Special effforts have
been maade to reducee the inductannce of V/N switch
s and loow impedancce load sectiion, and conssequently
me and highh peak currennt, during both physicall and mechannical design stage. A
to obtainn fast rise tim
high pow wer transiennt signal meeasurement system,
s usedd to measurre the load voltage and d current,
consistinng of a capaccitive voltagee divider andd film based current
c moniitor, is also ooutlined.
The prelliminary operration of the compact pullsed power generator
g inddicates that thhe performannce of the
machinee agrees quitee well with thhe designatedd parameterss.
Figure 1 shows the structure of thhe pulsed power generato or.

Figuree 1: Structurre of the pulsed power geenerator

Referen
nces
[1] F. N. Beg, R. B.. Stephens, H..-W. Xu et al.,, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 89, 101502, 20006
[2] S.MM. Hassan, ett al., Plasma Science,
S 2008.. ICOPS 2008 8. IEEE 35th International
I C
Conference on
n, Volume
, Isssue , 15-19 Juune 2008

Acknow
wledgementss
The authoors would likee to extend theeir deep appreeciation for thee support and contribution oof Professors Naigong
Zeng andd Xinxin Wangg from Tsinghhua Universityy, Beijing.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 169

14
C-dating of marine carbonate samples: Sample pretreatment and
measurements
P. Álvarez-Iglesias1, M. Fedi2, E.M. Wild3, L. Caforio2,4, P. Steier,3, F. Tacceti2, D. Rey1, B. Rubio1,
K. Mohamed1, R. Coimbra5, F. Vilas1
1
Departamento de Geociencias Marinas y Ordenación del Territorio, Universidad de Vigo, 36310
Vigo (Spain), palvarez@uvigo.es
2
INFN-Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
3
VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17
1090, Vienna (Austria)
4
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)
5
Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada (Spain)
Detailed chronologies for the last 50 kyr in marine environments are usually obtained by Accelerator
Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C. The great advantage of AMS techniques over other geochronological
tools resides in its high sensitivity, which allows us analyzing microsamples; this feature is of course
very important when the sample material is limited such as in deep marine settings. The most common
source of datable carbonates in these environments is represented by foraminifera tests, which need to
be hand-picked from the bulk sediment sample. Potential problems with this separation are related to
the presence of non-desirable materials that can interfere in the measurements, such as clays, dust,
secondary carbonates, detrital carbonates, organic matter and adsorbed atmospheric CO2 in the
foraminifera samples. Therefore, sample pretreatment is often performed before AMS dating by
cleaning foraminifera tests by physical or chemical procedures. These pretreatments are essentially
designed to remove secondary carbonates and organic matter by soaking in HCl, H2O2 or simply in
distilled water either alone or combined with ultrasonication. HCl leaching is the preferred method for
macrosample cleaning, such as bivalve shells, corals or travertine, and usually results in a 10-30%
dissolution of the sample. However, foraminifera tests are very thin, and although a mild HCl attack is
sometimes applied, the shells are usually very damaged. Therefore, baths in H2O2 or distilled water are
usually selected for foraminifera cleaning.
In this work distilled water, HCl and H2O2 combined with ultrasonication were tested for carbonate
cleaning previous to AMS dating in replicate samples. Different times and reactant concentrations
were considered. Monospecific foraminifera samples of about 10 mg from one sediment core
recovered at the Galicia Bank were analyzed. Procedural blanks and standards (IAEA materials) were
also produced. CO2 was released from the CaCO3 in the foraminifera tests by orthophosphate
hydrolysis in the VERA laboratory of Vienna or by combustion in an elemental analyzer in the
LABEC laboratory of Florence. Samples were carefully pretreated in order to avoid remaining organic
material that could interfere in the 14C results. CO2 was purified in a graphitization line, where it was
catalytically transformed to graphite. Targets were analyzed at the 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator
of the VERA facility or the 3MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory.
AMS-dating of these foraminifera samples allows us establishing a detailed age-depth model for the
last 17 cal kyr BP for the studied sediments and calculating sedimentation rates, which were usually in
the range of 10-50 mm kyr-1. The proposed chronology can be applied to the identification in the study
area of paleoclimatic events since the last glacial maximum widely reported in the literature.
170 Book of Abstracts

Upgrade of the radiocarbon sample preparation laboratory at LABEC


L. Caforio1,2, M.E. Fedi1, P. Alvarez-Iglesias3, M. Manetti1, F. Taccetti1
1
INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino (Fi), Italy, caforio@fi.infn.it
2
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
3
Departamento de Geociencias Marinas y Ordenación del Territorio, Universidad de Vigo, 36310
Vigo (Spain)
At LABEC in Florence, a sample preparation laboratory for radiocarbon dating has been in operation
since the installation of the Tandetron accelerator. Production of graphite samples is achieved using a
system composed by an elemental analyzer, to burn the chemically pre-treated organic samples, and a
graphitization line, to collect the CO2 and to convert it to solid carbon by reaction with hydrogen (and
iron powder as catalyst). After these years of continuous exercise of the line, we have experienced a
slight deterioration of the quality of some mechanical components, such as vacuum valves, which
might have affected the reproducibility of AMS-measured radiocarbon concentrations and background
values. For this reason, a new graphitization line has been designed and installed: volumes have been
optimized, new valves have been chosen. In addition, number of graphitization reactors has been
increased, to enhance measurements capabilities of the laboratory. In the following, the results of test
measurements on standards and blanks are presented: they have been satisfactory and have shown
good reproducibility for all reactors.
Our new preparation line especially dedicated to carbonates is also presented. The line is composed by
four reactors for the dissolution of the carbonate sample in H3PO4, a trap for H2O to purify the evolved
carbon dioxide and a tube to collect it. This tube can be then directly connected to the graphitization
line. First tests are here discussed; in particular, a comparison with carbonates samples prepared by
direct combustion in the elemental analyzer is presented.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 171

AMS radiocarbon dating and IBA compositional analysis of ancient


musical instruments: A study of ancient chordophones
L. Calcagnile, G. Quarta, M. D’Elia, L. Maruccio, A. Caramia
CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100,
Lecce, Italy, Corresponding author: Gianluca Quarta (gianluca.quarta@unisalento.it)
The use of the carapaces of terrestrial tortoise to construct, in ancient times, the sound boxes of
musical instruments (in particular of the bowl-lyre group) is testified in several ancient written sources
as well as in several pottery decorations. In particular very well preserved examples of these objects
are part of the collection of the “S. Castromediano” museum in Lecce and, more recently, tortoise
fragments attributed to ancient musical instruments, have been found in the archaeological excavations
carried out in Muro Leccese (Lecce, Southern Italy) by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the
University of Salento.
In this paper we present the results of the studies carried out on both the museum object and the
archaeological fragments at CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics) of the University of Salento,
Southern Italy. In particular the presence, in the same facility, of experimental beam lines for AMS
(Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating and IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) compositional
analyses, resulted in the possibility to develop a combined approach in which the compositional
information obtained on the still preserved metallic parts were integrated with the chronological
information as resulted from 14C dating of the carapaces.
AMS radiocarbon dating analyses carried showed that the samples are contemporary between them
and can be dated to the 4th-3rd century BC. At the same time IBA non destructive compositional
analyses, performed on the metallic parts of objects, allowed to obtain information about the use of
different copper and iron based alloys for the construction of the different part of the instruments.
172 Book of Abstracts

Studying the casting cores of the Riace Bronzes: AMS 14C-dating and PIXE-
PIGE results
L. Calcagnile1, G. Quarta1 , M. D’Elia1, A. Caramia1, V. Gaballo1, M. Vidale2
1
CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100,
Lecce, Italy, Corresponding author. Lucio Calcagnile (lucio.calcagnile@unisalento.it)
2
Istituto Centrale per il Restauro, Piazza San Francesco di Paola, 9, 00184, Rome, Italy
The two statues called the “Riace Bronzes”, were found under water along the Ionian coast in front of
the town of Riace in Calabria, Southern Italy, in 1972. The two statues, labeled as “Statue A” and
“Statue B” are of an extraordinary importance for the history of art of the greek-classical period, and
represent two bearded men, probably warriors or athletes. Since their discovery the two statues were
submitted to restoration and conservation campaigns first in Florence and then in Roma at ICR, The
Italian Central Institute for Restoration. In particular, during the restoration works in Rome the inner
cavities of the two masterpieces were investigated by using remote controlled systems and large
quantities of the original casting cores were extracted (72 and 56 Kg from the statue A and B,
respectively).
In this paper we present the results of the AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating
and IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) compositional characterization carried out on samples extracted from
the casting cores.
In fact the microscopic analysis of the casting cores revealed significant quantities of organic residues
such as charcoal, seeds and animal hairs which were handpicked at the optical microscope from the
material extracted from different portions of the statues to be submitted to AMS radiocarbon dating at
CEDAD. The methodological issues related to the selection and the definition of a proper protocol for
the chemical processing and AMS measurements of such low mass samples will be discussed. Overall
more than 30 absolute radiocarbon ages were obtained from the two statues. All the selected samples
gave calibrated ages consistent among them and their statistical combination allowed to date the two
bronzes to the 5th century BC, coherently with what was expected on the base of stylistic and
archaeological considerations. A particular care was also taken in the selection and analysis of the
organic residues from the right arm of the B statue which was supposed to be, on the base of stylistic
considerations and of the results of the compositional analysis of the metal alloy, not contemporary to
the rest of the statue. The results of the analysis of these samples will be also presented.
Furthermore 25 samples extracted from the casting cores were submitted to compositional analysis at
the IBA external beam line at CEDAD. The samples were crushed to powder, pressed in 13 mm
pellets and irradiated by using a 3.7 MeV proton beam, extracted in air through a 8 µm thick Kapton
foil. Characteristic X-rays and gamma-rays were simultaneously detected by a Si(Li) and a Ge
detector. Light elements (F, Na, Al and Si) and heavy elements (Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Rb,
Sr, Y, Zr, Pb) were detected by mean of the PIGE and PIXE signals, respectively. The quantitative
analysis carried out by using proper standards and the GUPIX software allowed to identify in the
samples traces of the metal alloy or of its corrosion products (Cu, Sn) and elements related to the long
permanence in a marine environment (Na, Cl). Nevertheless the comparison between the measured
compositions showed distinct features for the two statues and for the right arm of the B statue, both in
terms of the major and trace elements. Multivariate statistical analysis of the results was thus
employed to cluster the samples in different compositional groups. The results gave an important
contribution to the problem of the provenance and the manufacturing sites of the two artifacts.
The combined application of advanced accelerator-based methods, IBA and 14C AMS, supplied thus a
fundamental contribution to the understanding and the solution of two of the main problem associated
with these extraordinary artifacts: their dating and provenance.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 173

Extraction of CO2 and AMS-seawater dating at CEDAD


A. Caramia, M. D’Elia, V. Gaballo, G. Quarta , L. Calcagnile
CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100,
Lecce, Italy, Corresponding author: Gianluca Quarta (gianluca.quarta@unisalento.it)
A new line for the extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from seawater samples for AMS
(Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) 14C analysis has been developed at CEDAD, the Center for Dating
and Diagnostic of the University of Salento, Lecce, Italy, in the frame of an ongoing industrial
research project.
DIC is extracted from the sample as gaseous CO2 on a vacuum line almost entirely realized in glass
(Pyrex™) in order to minimize the parts to be replaced because of the corrosion processes due to salt
water vapor. The vacuum system consists of a diaphragm pump and a thermocouple vacuum gauge for
vacuum pressure monitoring. Seawater is sampled on site, poisoned and stored in glass bottles until
processing and laboratory analysis is performed in the laboratory.
The bottle is attached to a stripping probe which is then connected to the vacuum line. The process of
carbon dioxide extraction is carried out by acidification with phosphoric acid while a high purity
carrier gas (N2) is forced though the end of the stripping probe producing a stream of fine bubbles
throughout the seawater. The stripping process continues for some minutes and after that the carrier
gas is pumped away. During the stripping phase, N2 bubbles transport gaseous CO2 that is frozen into
a liquid nitrogen trap, while water vapors are frozen in a -80°C cold trap. The system has been
designed such that CO2 is extracted in a calibrated volume. The gas pressure extracted from the sample
is measured by pressure transducer. Gaseous CO2 is then transferred to the existing lines for the
catalytic reduction to graphite for AMS analysis.
Preliminary tests were carried out by processing seawater sampled at different locations along the
Ionian and Adriatic coast of the Salento Peninsula, Southern Italy and the system performances are
presented in terms of functionality, background and samples throughput.
174 Book of Abstracts

Progress in the actinides AMS at CIRCE


M. De Cesare1,3, Y. Guan1,4,6, N. De Cesare2,3, A. D’Onofrio1,3, L. Gialanella3, A. Palmieri1,
A. Petraglia1, F. Quinto1, V. Roca3,5, C. Sabbarese1 and F. Terrasi1,3
1
CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Università di Napoli , Caserta,
Italy, mario.decesare@unina2.it.
2
CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Università di Napoli , Caserta,
Italy.
3
INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli, Italy.
4
College of Physical Science and Engineering Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004,
China.
5
Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II , Napoli, Italy.
6
ICTP, Trieste, Italy
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement
of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and 239Pu. A new actinide line [1], based on a 3-MV AMS pelletron
tandem system, is operated at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental
Heritage (CIRCE) [2] in Caserta, Italy.
The best measurement conditions reached through beam emittance measurements will be discussed.
Using this actinide line an uranium concentration sensitivity of about 20 µg has been reached
measuring with a 16-strip silicon detector and a 239Pu concentration sensitivity background level of
about 0.1 fg of 239Pu has been reached for 500 ng of U in the cathode. Results on 236U/238U isotopic
ratio show that the background level of about 3×10−11 can be reached using a Time of Flight-Energy
(TOF-E) system in conjunction with the 16-strip silicon detector. Preliminary results on the
environmental and structural samples from the dismissed Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant are also
shown.
In this work we discuss the possible upgrade of the TOF system in order to push, as low as possible,
the abundance and concentration sensitivities.

References
[1] M. De Cesare et al., Nucl. Inst. and Meth. in Ph. Res. B 268 (2010) 779.
[2] F. Terrasi. et al., Nucl. Inst. and Meth. in Ph. Res. B, 259 (2007) 14.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 175

Assessment of 182Hf AMS measurements at VERA


O. Forstner1, H. Gnaser2, R. Golser1, D. Hanstorp3, M. Martschini1, A. Priller1, J. Rohlén3, P. Steier1,
Ch. Vockenhuber4, A. Wallner1
1
Universität Wien, Fakultät für Physik – Isotopenforschung, Währinger Straße 17, A-1090 Wien,
Austria, Oliver.Forstner@univie.ac.at
2
Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
3
Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
4
Institut of Particle Physics, ETH-Zürich, CH-8033 Zürich, Switzerland
AMS measurements of 182Hf performed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA), a
dedicated facility for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) based on a 3 MV tandem accelerator,
revealed a measurement limit of the 182Hf/180Hf ratio in the order of 10-11 [1, 2]. The main interference
is the stable isobar 182W, which cannot be separated from 182Hf with the beam energy achievable with a
terminal voltage of 3 MV. However, we have shown that 182W can be reduced by a factor of 6000 by
extracting HfF5– ions from the ion source [1] where the yield of HfFn– seems to increase with
increasing number of fluorine atoms whereas the yield of WFn– decreases for n≤5. This behavior is in
contradiction to theoretical calculations of the electron affinities of the WFn– ions [3]. Recent
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurements [4] as well as measurements at the negative ion
beam spectrometer GUNILLA (Göteborg University Negative Ion Laser Laboratory) [5, 6] support the
theoretical prediction of increasing electron affinity with increasing number of fluorine atoms. These
recent measurements were performed using tungsten powder mixed with either AgF2 or PbF2 as target
material. To shed light on this puzzle we re-measured the suppression of 182W against 182Hf at VERA
by extracting HfF5– out of HfF4 target material as well as out of various mixtures of hafnium and
tungsten powder mixed with PbF2. In the case of tungsten powder we could reproduce the production
yield of WFn– according to the theoretical estimations whereas in the case of HfF4 the suppression of
WF5– against HfF5– shows the same behavior as in [1]. This gives rise to the assumption that a
substantial part of our 182W background comes from the ion source and not from the target material
itself. To support our hypothesis we performed AMS measurements of 182Hf standard and blank
materials both from our old ion source as well as from our new ion source [7].
We will present the results of the suppression factor measurements as well as the comparison of 182Hf
AMS measurements from the two different ion sources.

References
[1] C. Vockenhuber, M. Bichler, R. Golser, W. Kutschera, V. Liechtenstein, A. Priller, P. Steier and S.
Winkler, 182Hf, a new isotope for AMS, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 223–224 (2004), 823
[1] C. Vockenhuber, C. Feldstein, M. Paul, N. Trubnikov, M. Bichler, R. Golser, W. Kutschera, A. Priller, P.
Steier and S. Winkler, Search for live 182Hf in deep-sea sediments, New Astr. Rev. 48 (2004), 161
[3] Kenneth G. Dyall, Bond Dissociation Energies of the Tungsten Fluorides an Their Singly Charged Ions: A
Density Functional Survey, J. Phys. Chem. A 104 (2000) 4077-4083
[4] H. Gnaser, R. Golser, Sputtered molecular fluoride anions: HfFn− and WFn−, Surf. Interf. Anal., in press.
[5] O. Forstner, P. Andersson, C. Diehl, R. Golser, D. Hanstorp, W. Kutschera, A. Lindahl, A. Priller, P.
Steier, A. Wallner, Isobar suppression in AMS using laser photodetachment, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266
(2008), 4565-4568
[6] A.O. Lindahl, P. Andersson, C. Diehl, O. Forstner, P. Klason, D. Hanstorp, The electron affinity of
tungsten, submitted for publication
[7] A. Priller, K. Melber, O. Forstner, R. Golser, W. Kutschera, P. Steier, A. Wallner, The new injection
beamline at VERA, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 268 (2010), 824-826
176 Book of Abstracts

AMS analysis of I-129 in aerosols from Austria


T. Jabbar1, P. Steier2, A. Priller2, G. Wallner1, N. Kandler1, Ch. Katzlberger3
1
Universität Wien, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien, Austria
2
Universität Wien, Fakultät für Physik – Isotopenforschung, Währingerstr. 17, A-1090 Wien, Austria
3
AGES Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, CC Radiation Protection and Radiochemistry,
Spargelfeldstr. 191, A-1226 Vienna, Austria, Tania.jabbar@univie.ac.at
Atmospheric concentrations of many elements have been significantly increased by man's activities.
The quantification of these changes and their effect on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is important
because of their potential adverse effects. The human nuclear activities, especially releases from the
spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, are presently the main source of 129I in the environment.
In this work, the concentration of 129I and the ratios of 129I/127I in aerosols collected from two sites in
Austria, Vienna and Sonnblick (3105 m a.s.l.), with monthly resolution during the year 2001 are
presented. Iodine is extracted from the aerosol filters with strong basic solution in iodide form
followed by separation from matrix elements using an anion exchange method. Finally, iodide is
precipitated as AgI for AMS measurement. The chemical yield of the procedure is determined by ICP-
MS. Measured 129I activities are then compared with those of 7Be, a cosmogenically produced
radionuclide.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 177

Recent advances in AMS of 36Cl with a 3 MV tandem


M. Martschini1, O. Forstner1, R. Golser1, W. Kutschera1, S. Pavetich1, A. Priller1, P. Steier1, M. Suter2,
A. Wallner1
1
VERA Laboratory, Fakultät für Physik – Isotopenforschung, Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria,
*
martin.martschini@univie.ac.at
2
Ion Beam Physics, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of 36Cl (t1/2 = 0.30 Ma) at natural isotopic concentrations
requires high particle energies for the separation from the stable isobar 36S and so far was exclusively
the domain of machines with at least 5 MV terminal voltage.
At VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) we had performed the first 36Cl exposure
dating measurement with a 3-MV tandem accelerator, operating our machine at 3.5 MV, using foil
stripping and a split-anode ionization chamber [1].
We evaluated the performance of various detectors for 36Cl [2]. With the ionization chamber and an
additional energy signal from a silicon strip detector, we now achieved an equally good 36S
suppression at 3 MV terminal voltage compared to 3.5 MV in our previous measurements. To further
increase the 36S suppression we investigated energy loss straggling in various counting gases and the
effect of “energy focusing” [3,4] below the maximum of the Bragg curve. Comparison of experimental
data with simulations and published data [4,5] yielded interesting insight into the physics underlying
the detectors. Energy loss, energy straggling and angular scattering determine the 36S suppression.
In addition, we improved ion source conditions, target backing materials and the cathode design with
respect to sulfur output and cross contamination. These changes allow higher currents during
measurement (35Cl− current ≈ 5 µA) and also increased the reproducibility. Since no degrader foil is
employed, we achieve an injector to detector efficiency for 36Cl-ions of 8% (16% stripping yield for
the 7+ charge state in the accelerator, 50% 36Cl detection efficiency), which compares favorable to
other facilities. We will demonstrate that 36Cl measurements, which are competitive to larger tandems,
are now possible.
Currently our blank value is 36Cl/Cl ≈ 3×10-15 when 10-11 samples are used in the ion source. We now
started a thorough investigation of the memory effect of our ion source to further reduce this blank
value.

References
[1] P. Steier, O. Forstner, R. Golser, W. Kutschera, M. Martschini, S. Merchel, T. Orlowski, A. Priller,
C. Vockenhuber, A. Wallner, Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 268 (2010) 744-747
[2] T. Orlowski, O. Forstner, R. Golser, W. Kutschera, M. Martschini, S. Merchel, A. Priller, P. Steier,
C. Vockenhuber, A. Wallner, Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 268 (2010) 847-850
[3] M. Suter, M. Döbeli, M. Grajcar, A. Müller, M. Stocker, G. Sun, H. A. Synal, L. Wacker,
Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 259 (2007) 165-172
[4] H. Schmidt-Böcking, H. Hornung, Z. Physik A286 (1978) 253-261
[5] L.C. Northcliffe, R.F. Schilling, Nucl. Data Tabl. A7 (1970) 233-463.
178 Book of Abstracts

How to get a new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility running:


The chemistry part
S. Merchel1,2, M. Arnold2, G. Aumaître2, D. Bourlès2, R. Braucher2
1
Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden, Germany, s.merchel@fzd.de
2
CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Université Aix-Marseille, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence, France
The AMS business is booming: Many low-energy (< 1 MV) facilities, which are fully dedicated for
14
C-analysis, are under construction or in funding status. Additionally, medium-energy accelerators
such as the British 5 MV-NEC machine at “SUERC” Glasgow, the French 5 MV-HVEE-machine
“ASTER” at Aix-en-Provence [2] and the two German 6 MV-HVEE-machines “DREAMS” at
Dresden [3] and “Cologne AMS” at Cologne [4] have been recently installed or are still in testing
mode in Central Europe. Of course, these bigger machines need not only experienced physicists and
technicians to get them running. It also seems to be advisable to have some experienced scientists
around, who knows how to prepare AMS targets for 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I measurements.
In contrast to the 14C-community, where e.g. round-robin exercises are routine business, the idea of
quality assurance and traceable standards has only been brought up lately for the other cosmogenic
radionuclides measurable at medium-energy AMS facilities. Thus, world-wide accepted standards
issued by metrology institutes are rare: NIST is selling two kinds of 129I/127I-standards, and the
Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) provides one set of 41Ca/40Ca solutions
having eight different ratios [5]. Unfortunately, the most commonly used 10Be/9Be standard provided
by NIST has been recently sold-out and will not be reissued. Other primary standard-type materials
(26Al,36Cl), which are not commercially available, have been prepared by diluting certified activities
and subsequent analysis within round-robin exercises [6-8]. After production of big quantities of in-
house secondary standards for all nuclides (Tab. 1), cross-calibration versus primary standard-type
materials has to be performed [2].
Table 1: Primary and secondary AMS standards in use at ASTER and DREAMS.
Primary standards Secondary (in-house) standards
10
Be NIST SRM 4325 (sold-out) NIST SRM 4325 (ASTER)
10
Be via 9Be(nth,γ)10Be (DREAMS)
26
Al MB04-A,B,C,D [6] SM-Al-10,11,12,13 [2]
36
Cl SM-Cl-11,12,13 [7,8] SM-Cl-11,12,13 [7,8]
41
Ca IRMM ERM®-AE701 [5] SM-Ca-10,11,12 [2]
Æ SM-Ca-P9,11,13 [2]
129
I NIST SRM 3231, Level II SM-I-9,10,11,12

Finally, as commercial 9Be contains intrinsic 10Be up to a level of 4x10-14 [9] sophisticated production
of in-house carriers, used as machine blanks and for samples, from Be-containing minerals such as
Be2SiO4 originating from deep mines, is needed. After production and measurement of all these
materials, the AMS facility is ready for routine measurements.
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to U. Herpers & E. Strub for providing 26Al-activity, to A. Wallner &
M. Bichler for performing the neutron-irradiation of 9Be, to C. Varajão for providing Be2SiO4 crystals, and to
R.C. Finkel, L. Benedetti, W. Möller, HVEE, the FZD-operator- & AMS-team for great cooperation.

References:
[1] S. Freeman et al., NIM B 259 (2007) 66.
[2] M. Arnold et al., doi: 10.1016/ j.nimb.2010.02.107.
[3] Sh. Akhmadaliev et al., this meeting.
[4] M. Klein et al., this meeting
[5] C. Hennessy et al., NIM B 229 (2005) 281.
[6] S. Merchel, W. Bremser, .NIM B 223–224 (2004) 393.
[7] S. Merchel et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73 (2009) A871
[8] S. Merchel et al., in prep. for NIM B.
[9] S. Merchel et al., NIM B 266 (2008) 4921.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 179

Progress with a gas-accepting ion source for


accelerator mass spectrometry
M.L. Roberts, K.F. von Reden, C.P. McIntyre, and J.R. Burton
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA
mroberts@whoi.edu
The National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility (NOSAMS) at the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution has developed an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) system designed
specifically for the analysis of 14C in a continuously flowing stream of carrier gas. A key part of the
system is a gas-accepting ion source. Recently, substantial progress has been made in the development
of a second-generation gas ion source that produces carbon currents from a stream of CO2 that rivals
currents typical of a traditional graphite source. Details of the gas source, including ion current
achieved, optimal flow rate, efficiency, and memory will be presented. Additionally, data obtained
from coupling the source to a gas chromatograph will be shown. Details about ion optics will be
presented is presented in a separate abstract [1].

References
[1] K.F. von Reden, M.L. Roberts, C.P. McIntyre, and J.R. Burton, Design and Reality: Continuous-
flow Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, these proceedings.
180 Book of Abstracts

Status report of the Jena 14C AMS facility


A. Steinhof
Max-Planck Institut für Biogeochemie, Hans-Knöll-Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany, steinhof@bgc-
jena.mpg.de
The AMS 14C at the Max-Planck Institut für Biogeochemie is portrayed in this status report. The
system is briefly described and the reached performance is presented. Technical developments during
the past years were concentrated on the 846 ion source to make it more reliable and to increase the
sample capacity.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 181

Accelerator mass spectrometry of 236U at low energies


Ch. Vockenhuber, M. Christl, J. Lachner, D. Meister, A. M. Müller1, H.-A. Synal1
Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstrasse 20, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
vockenhuber@phys.ethz.ch
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) systems based on terminal voltages below 1 MV have been in
operation since more than a decade now. The compact ETH-TANDY system is based on a 0.6 MV
accelerator and was the first AMS which could demonstrate that 14C measurements are possible at low
energies [1]. Subsequently, small AMS systems have been proven to be useful for measurements of
many radionuclides where no isobar separation is needed. Recently, we could demonstrate that even
10
Be measurements are possible at a level comparable to larger AMS systems with higher ion energies
[2].
Attempts to do AMS measurements of the actinides were performed early on since there are no stable
or abundant isobars that could interfere with rare radionuclides. For the measurement of Pu isotopes
this was quite successful [3]. In order to bend the accelerated heavy ions in charge state 3+, the
TANDY is running at around 300 kV. Despite the low terminal voltages stripping yields for charge
state 3+ as high as 15% have been observed, significantly higher than transmissions achieved with
other AMS systems operating at higher energies. The low ion energy of about 1.2 MeV makes high
demands on the detector. Only optimized ionization chambers equipped with very thin entrance
windows provide sufficient resolution to discriminate against background from ions in lower charge
states.
However, with the original setup of the TANDY AMS measurements of 236U were hindered by
background from insufficient suppression of the other U isotopes and detection limits at the level of
236
U/238U~10-9 had been achieved [4]. We recently upgraded the TANDY with a second high-energy
magnet. This additional filter element effectively separates isotopes that are still present after the first
high energy magnet and the ESA. First experiments with 236U standard materials demonstrate our
ability to measure 236U/238U-ratios in the ~10-11 range, which previously could only be obtained with
AMS systems equipped with time-of-flight detectors. Due to the lack of U material without 236U more
systematic background studies are needed to determine the actual detection limit.
The high stripping yield and the high suppression of stable isobars together with the simplified setup
makes the TANDY a competitive AMS system for all actinides. In this talk we will discuss the
advantages and limitations of 236U measurements at the low energies.

References
[1] Synal, H.-A., Jacob, S., Suter, M., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 172 (2000) 1
[2] Müller, A. M., Lachner, J., Christl, M., Suter, M., Synal, H. A., submitted to Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B
[3] Fifield, L. K., Synal, H.-A., Suter, M., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 223-224 (2004) 802
[4] Wacker, L., Chamizo, E., Fifield, L., Stocker, M., Suter, M., Synal, H., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005)
452
182 Book of Abstracts

Wiggle matching of AMS radiocarbon dates from wood samples of


historical buildings in high Asia
A. Scharf1, A. Bräuning2, W. Kretschmer1 , S. Gierl1 , K. Leichmann1, B. Wegner1, I. Burchardt2,
F. Darragon2
1
Erlangen AMS Laboratory, Physikalisches Institut Abt.IV, Erwin–Rommel–Str.1, Universität
Erlangen, 91058 Erlangen, Germany, c14@physik.uni-erlangen.de
2
Institute for Geography, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Kochstraße 4/4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
The historical tower buildings of Tibet are a special cultural heritage which has been sparsely studied
up to now. Because many of the towers are threatened by collapsing and deterioration there is the
effort to declare them to a UNESCO World Heritage site and so to provide a basis for the preservation
of these buildings. The knowledge of their exact age could help to understand better the cultural and
historical context of their development and their function. The only previously existing 14C dates of
theses building are not very significant due to several methodical errors. In the year 2004 we had the
opportunity to gather some wooden drill cores from towers from historic sites in the regions of
Kongpo and Danba in Eastern Tibet. By wiggle matching of the radiocarbon dates of several tree rings
from these drill cores a lot of these towers could now be dated. These dates could also contribute to
extend the existing tree ring chronologies of this region back to the 11th century and the medieval
climatic optimum, for which some indications of a monsoon change are existing. For this purpose we
have also gathered and dated wooden drill cores from old monasteries and other historical buildings in
Nepal and Central Tibet. Also the first results from this research will be presented.

Figure 1: Xiungba village in the Kongpo region with historical towers

References
[1] Darragon, F., “Secret towers of the Himalayas”, 2005, 156 p.
[2] Bräuning, A, “Tree-ring studies in the Dolpo-Himalya (western Nepal”). TRACE - Tree Rings in
Archaeology, Climatology and Ecology, Vol. 2: Proceedings of the DENDROSYMPOSIUM 2003, May
1st – 3rd 2003, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich. Reihe
Umwelt/Environment: 8-12.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 183

Modeling calculations for the


Woods Hole and Jena Tandetron AMS injectors
K. von Reden1, A. Steinhof2, I. Hejja2, B. Longworth1
1
Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution,Woods Hole, USA
2
Max-Planck-Institut für Biogeochemie, Jena, FRG
kvonreden@whoi.edu
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) benefits from a high ion efficiency of the sputter source and
unimpeded transmission of large ion currents through the injector of the system. The performance of
AMS injectors varies greatly, depending on the specific geometric layout of the ion optical elements
and whether sequential or simultaneous injection is used. Even two systems that are nominally equal,
like the Woods Hole and Jena Tandetron AMS installations with General IonX 846 type ion sputter
ion sources and recombinator injectors, display larger differences than might be expected from the
design alone. This work aims to assess the two injectors in detail by employing two different ion
optics modeling codes (CPO [1] and PBGUNS [2]) hoping to minimize any code related
discrepancies. Both codes include consideration of space charge, caused predominantly by several
hundred µA of Cs+ focused on the emitting surface of the sputter cathode. A better understanding of
the differences between the two systems is expected to lead to design improvements on both.

References
[1] CPO Ltd., Charged Particle Optics programs, (electronoptics.com).
[2] PBGUNS 5.04 by J. E. Boers (deceased), Thunderbird Simulations, now maintained by FAR-TECH, Inc.,
San Diego, CA, USA (far-tech.com).
184 Book of Abstracts

Development of radioactive 32P-implants for brachytherapy


W. Assmann1, M. Bader2, C. Schäfer3, R. Sroka4, S. Uschold1, P. Weidlich2, J. Schirra3
1
Ludwig Maximilians University, Garching, Germany, walter.assmann@lmu.de
2
Department of Urology, Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital, Munich, Germany
3
Medical Clinic II, Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital, Munich, Germany
4
Laser-Research-Unit, Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital, Munich, Germany
The local treatment of tissue by exposure to radiation-emitting material is a well established method,
called brachytherapy. If short-range radiation from a beta emitter is used, the dose is concentrated on
the target tissue adjacent to the source, while keeping the radiation damage to the healthy tissue to a
minimum. In this contribution, we report on a newly developed radioactive implant, based on a 32P
containing foil, for application in brachytherapy of benign diseases. For development of these implants
several nuclear physics techniques have been used such as Gamma-ray spectroscopy, liquid
scintillation counting and ion beam analysis.
Ionizing radiation has demonstrated effective suppression of excessive cell proliferation during wound
healing which often limits the clinical success of surgery. Glaucoma filtering surgery for control of
inner-ocular pressure, for example, has a failure rate of about 30 percent within 5 years due to Tenon
fibroblast proliferation. A biodegradable radioactive polymer foil was developed and loaded with 32P
ions, using an ion implantation process. Long term opening of the artificially created “valve” was
demonstrated on animals with this radioactive implant [1].
For applications in urology and gastroenterology, a thin polymer foil with a 31P component was
fabricated, which was activated by neutron irradiation before use as radioactive 32P implant. Benign
stenosis of endogenous tubular structures such as bile duct or urethra is a common problem, which can
be the consequence of the wound healing process after clinical interventions. Preclinical studies are
going on to avoid such a stenosis by insertion of the usual stent or catheter equipped with a radioactive
32
P-foil [2].

References
[1] W. Assmann et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 257 (2007) 108.
[2] P. Weidlich, C. Adam, R. Sroka, I. Lanzl, W. Assmann, C. Stief, Urologe A 46 (2007) 1231.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 185

Next generation applications of ion beams


for improving biocompatible materials
D. Ila1, S. Ismet-Gurhan2, R. L. Zimmerman1, R. A. Minamisawa3 and M. G. Rodriguez4
1
Alabama A&M University, Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama USA, corresponding author,
ila@aamuri.aamu.edu
2
University of Ege, Department of Bioengineering, Izmir, Turkey
3
Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425, Sitz der Gesellschaft: Julich, Germany
4
Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Only relatively recently have high energy ion beams been used to modify and improve materials for
applications in medicine and biology. Our team has been among a few other pioneer research groups in
the ion beam community who have studied the interaction of an MeV ion in its track through many
biocompatible materials in order to tailor their properties for medical applications, control cell
adhesion, improved surface properties of polymers used for heart-valve, for hip-joint implants, for
fabrication of nano pores, as well as to change the surface properties of bio-compatible polymers for
controlled drug/medication delivery. We present here a review of the fundamentals of ion interactions
with materials, particularly polymers, and describe three examples among many studies of ion beam
modified biocompatible materials completed, or underway, at the Center for Irradiation of Materials of
AAMU. The permeability of glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) varies with heat treatment temperature
during preparation, and with the energy and specie of ion bombardment. By percolating a molten
lithium salt into the pores of GPC and using a proton ion beam Nuclear Analysis Technique (NRA),
we extensively studied GPC permeability and how to control it. Thus, the elution rate of lithium out
of GPC into a physiologic solution can be controlled. GPC is a candidate for designing lithium drug
delivery systems. With our molding and spraying techniques we can make layered samples with drug
concentration gradients appropriate to a specified time delivery of drugs other than lithium.
Producing structures in membranes at the nanometer scale can serve several applications, such as to
localize molecular electrical junctions and switches, to function as masks, and for DNA sequencing.
We have demonstrated the fabrication of nano scale pores in fluoropolymer films using scanned ion
beam bombardment. The process has advantages over chemical and etching processes. The pores
were produced using a feedback controlled gold ion beam system (patent filed) and were analyzed
using optical and atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses.
We have succeeded in enhancing the properties of the GPC used for the moving parts of carbon
replacement human heart valves by MeV ion implantation of silver. Potentially dangerous
accumulation of natural cells attached to the valve after installation has been eliminated. A small
amount of silver imbedded below the surface of the parts of a carbon heart valve exposed to the blood
flow completely inhibits cell growth. By steering the MeV silver ions appropriately patterns are made
such that normal cell attachment occurs within 100 microns of silver implanted areas. Although the
total amount of silver is not toxic, we have shown that the leach rate is so low that the cell inhibition
properties of a heart valve will not diminish in vivo.

Sponsors: Supported in part by the Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A&M University Research
Institute and by National Science Foundation under Grant No. EPS-0814103.
186 Book of Abstracts

Devvelopmentt of synch
hrotron coontrol for heavy-ioon medicaal accelera
ators
Y. Iwata1, K. Noda1, E.E Takada1, T.
T Shirai1, T. Furukawa
F 1
,
2 2 2
T. Kadowaki , H. Uchiyam ma , T. Fujimooto
1
Nationnal Institute of Radiologiical Sciencess (NIRS), 4-99-1 Anagawaa, Inage,
Chiba 263-85555, Japan., coorresponding g.author: y_iiwata@nirs.ggo.jp
2
Accelerator Engiineering Corp rporation (AEEC), 2-12-1 Konakadai,
K I
Inage, Chibaa 263-8555, Japan.
J
Tumor therapy
t usinng energetic carbon ionss, as provideed by the Heeavy-Ion Meedical Accellerator in
Chiba (H HIMAC) at the t National Institute of Radiologicaal Sciences (N NIRS), has bbeen perform med since
June 19994[1], and approximately
a y 5,000 patiients were trreated until now.
n With thhe successfuul clinical
results over
o more thaan ten years, we started to construct a new treatm ment facilityy at the NIRS S[2]. The
new treaatment facilitty has three treatment
t roooms; two of them have bothb horizonttal and verticcal fixed-
irradiatioon-ports, andd the other would
w be a rotating gan ntry-port. Foor all the porrts, a raster--scanning
w be applied.
irradiatioon method will
To fulfilll requirements of the raaster-scanninng irradiation n, we are deeveloping thhe accelerato or control
scheme of the HIMA AC synchrotrrons. The proposed contrrol scheme would w enablee us to proviide heavy
ions havving variable energies witthin a single synchrotron n-cycle[3]; naamely, the beeam energy wouldw be
changedd successivelyy within a sinngle synchrootron-pulse by b a certain energy
e step.
In the HIMAC
H syncchrotron, thyyristor-type power
p suppllies are empployed for thhe main ben nding and
quadrupoole magnetss of the synchrotrons. Inn such the power p suppllies, voltage patterns haave to be
providedd as well as thet current pattern for thee operation. ToT determine the voltagee patterns, paarameters
of a loadd for the powwer supplies, such as resisstance, inducctance and caapacitance foor all the mag gnets and
cables, have
h to be prrecisely deterrmined, becaause the prop posed controol scheme wiill employ th he current
patterns,, which wouuld have mulltiple flattopss as shown in i the figure 1, and thereefore, precise voltage
patterns have to be given
g for the stable operattion of the sy
ynchrotrons.
We will show the noovel techniquue to determiine the param meters of thee load, whichh enable us to o provide
precise voltage
v patteerns for the power
p supplies of the syynchrotrons. Furthermoree, we will prresent the
results of
o acceleratioons tests usinng the multiplle-flattops opperation.
1400
Ip
1200

1000
Current (A)

800

600

400

200

0
0 500 1000 1500 2
2000 2500 3000
0 3500 4000
C
Count

Figure 1:1 A multiplle-flattop currrent patternn for the maiin bending magnets
m of thhe synchrotrron (left),
and resuults of the beam accelerattion tests (rigght) using th
he pattern(beending patterrn [yellow], sextupole
s
pattern [pink],
[ beam
m current in the
t ring [bluue], and beam m current off extracted beeam [green])). One of
the 11 flattops was extended, andd the beam wasw extracted d during at thhe extended fflattop.

Referen
nces
[1] Y. Hirao et al., Ann.
A Rep. HIM
MAC, NIRS-M M-89/HIMAC C-001 (1992).
[2] K. Noda et al., Nucl.
N Instrum.. and Meth. inn Phys. Res. B 266, 2182 (22008).
[3] Y.. Iwata et al., A proceedings of 11th Euroopean Accelerrator Conferennce (EPAC08)) 1800 (2008)).
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 187

Investigation of production of the medical radioisotope 167Tm


at accelerators
B. Király1, F. Tárkányi1, A. Hermanne2, S. Takács1, F. Ditrói1, M. Baba3, H. Yamazaki3,
I. Spahn4, A.V. Ignatyuk5
1
Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI),
Debrecen, Hungary, tarkanyi@atomki.hu
2
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium
3
Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
4
Institut für Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany
5
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia
Objectives
167
Tm (T1/2 = 9.25 d) is a candidate medical radioisotope both for diagnostics and internal
radiotherapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate production routes for 167Tm by charged
particle induced reactions directly or through decay of 167Lu (T1/2 = 51.5 min) and 167Yb (T1/2 = 17.5
min).
Methods
This work reviews the results of recent experiments for reactions induced by protons on natEr, 167Er,
169
Tm and natYb, by deuterons on natEr and 167Er and by alpha-particles on 165Ho measured using the
activation method and the stacked target irradiation technique. Irradiations of metal foil targets and
sedimented oxide targets were performed at the external beams of CYRIC, VUB, and ATOMKI
cyclotrons. Activities of the irradiated samples were measured nondestructively with high resolution
gamma-ray spectrometry.
Results
Excitation functions of the 167Er(p,n)167Tm, 166Er(d,n)167Tm, 167Er(d,2n)167Tm, 169Tm(p,3n)167Yb,
nat
Yb(p,x)167Lu and 165Ho(α,2n)167Tm reactions were measured mostly for the first time. Theoretical
calculations were made by means of the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS nuclear reaction
model codes to predict the excitation functions. Integral yields for production of 167Tm were calculated
from the experimental cross section data. Radionuclidic purities and specific activities were deduced
for the investigated processes.
Conclusions
On the basis of the production yields, contaminants, the required target technology and accelerator
characteristics, the most promising reactions are: at low energies 167Er(p,n)167Tm, at medium energies
167
Er(d,2n)167Tm. At higher energies the natYb(p,x)167Lu→167Yb→167Tm route additionally becomes
important allowing simultaneous production of 167Tm and the therapeutic 169Yb.
188 Book of Abstracts

A fluorescent screen monitor for quality assurance of therapeutic scanned


ion beams
E. Takeshita, T. Furukawa, T. Inaniwa, S. Sato, T. Himukai, T. Shirai and K. Noda
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, JAPAN
*
eriuli@nirs.go.jp
A fluorescent screen monitor system has been developed to verify the performance of the scanned ion
beams at HIMAC. Reproducibility of 2D field produced by scanning, the position and the size of the
beam in each scan, is one of the vital issues in scanning irradiation. 2D relative dose distributions and
the flatness of the irradiation field were measured in a straightforward technique from the brightness
on screen. The position and the size of the beams were obtained from the results of centroid
computation on the luminance distribution. The alignment of the beams at iso-center was also
confirmed by the technique with a steel sphere as shown in Ref. [1]. This system has been proved to
perform its function in the bench test at HIMAC prototype scanning system. It is to be used for the QA
process of the new particle-therapy research facilities.

References
[1] J. Barkhof et al., Med. Phys. 25 (1999) 2429.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 189

Dose response evaluation of n-NIPAM gel dosimetry in linear accelerator


radiotherapy: Effect of photon energy and dose rate
J. Wu1, T.-Y. Shih1,2, B.-T. Hsieh1, Y.-L. Liu1, H.-H. Wu2 and T.-H. Wu3,*
1
Institute of Radiological Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan,
ROC
2
Department of radiology, Cheng Ching Hospital at Chung Kang, Taiwan, ROC
3
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University,
Taiwan, ROC, tung@ym.edu.tw
Nowadays, radiotherapy is aiming at giving complex 3D dose distribution with dose accuracy of 3-5%
[1], thus, 3-dimensional dose distribution with fine spatial resolution is essential. Polymer gel becomes
one of the most potential dosimeters for 3D dose verification. The common use of acrylamide as
monomer is neuro-toxic and could cause malformation of embryo [2]. Another potential monomer, N-
isopropyl-acrylamide (NIPAM) is low toxic and has the characteristics of high sensitivity and
reproducibility [3]. In this study, we developed an n-NIPAM gel dosimeter based on N-
isopropylacrylamide monomer and used computed tomography to evaluate the characteristics of n-
NIPAM.
The n-NIPAM was composed of 6% gelatin, 5% monomer, and 2.5% cross-linker and inserted with 5
mM THPC for deoxygenation. The gel was placed at the center of a 4-cm-thick acrylic phantom with
two 3-cm-thick solid water slab covered above and under the phantom (Fig. 1). The dose responses of
2 to 15Gy delivered by a linear accelerator were examined. The energy dependency and dose rate
dependency were evaluated as well.

Figure 1: Phantom and irradiation geometry of the n-NIPAM gel

The average sensitivity of n-NIPAM was 0.5518 ∆CTN/Gy with linear regression of 0.99. The
difference of dose response curves between 6 MV and 10 MV can be negligible with a mean square
error of 0.008. For the dose rate response, the sensitivity of 200 cGy/min and 400 cGy/min had a
difference of 14.01%. We conclude that the n-NIPAM has high linearity and high sensitivity.
Although the energy dependency is minor, the dose rate dependency slightly exists. It could be used in
clinical radiotherapy to increase the correctness of dose delivery.

References
[1] J.C. Gore, Y.S. Kang, R.J. Schulz, Physics in Medicine and Biology. 29 (1984) 1189.
[2] MSDS 2006 Material Safety Data Sheet acrylamide version 1.11, Sigma Aldrich Co.
(http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/)
[3] R.J. Senden, P.De Jean, Physics in Medicine and Biology 51 (2006) 3301.
190 Book of Abstracts

3D dose verification using Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters for


tomotherapy
T.-H. Wu1, Ch.-Y. Hsiao2, Ch.-H. Hsu2, G. Zhang3, Ch.-J. Tasi1, J.-A. Liang4, T.-Ch. Huang4, *
1
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University,
Taiwan
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taiwan
3
Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Florida, USA
4
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taiwan,
tzungchi.huang@mail.cmu.edu.tw
Tomotherapy has been widely used in image-guide radiotherapy clinically. The aim of this study is to
evaluate the feasibility of using megavoltage CT system as a near real-time measurement device in
verification of 3D dose distribution with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry. Research has indicated that
gels need to be exposed to oxygen for at least one week after irradiation to terminate their intrinsic
polymerization reactions when a multi-detector computed tomography is used as a reading device.
This is to avoid dose errors introduced by the extra dose from the CT imaging. Eleven vials were filled
with MAGAT-gel and irradiated with uniform doses of 0-8Gy respectively to generate dose response
curves. A gel-filled cylindrical phantom was irradiated in an treatment to a maximum dose of 4Gy.
After irradiation, a MVCT was used to perform the 3D dose measurement. In this study, two groups of
gel samples were irradiated and measured in two ways for comparison: near real-time measurement, in
which the gel phantom was read right after the irradiation, and delayed measurement, in which the
measurement was performed a week after the irradiation for the gel phantom to be exposed to oxygen.
Results showed the linear dose response curves for near real-time and delayed measurements were
1.48 ∆NCT·Gy-1 and 1.50∆NCT·Gy-1 respectively. In the phantom measurements, the agreement
between the near real-time reading and the treatment plan was within 3.0 mm for the 50% and 90%
isodose surfaces. Therefore, normoxic polymer gel dosimetry combined with cone-beam CT has been
shown a useful method for near real-time verification of 3D dose distribution. Moreover, dose
contribution from the MVCT imaging is about one percent of the total dose read from the gel
phantom, which is within the acceptable tolerance in clinical dose quality assurance.
110
100
90
80
70 1d
4hr
60
∆HU

50 30min
40
30 Real-time

20
10
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Dose (cGy)

Figure 1: Dose response with filter four different CT imaging time, including real-time, 30 min, 4 hr,
1 d. The horizontal axis is the absorbed dose in cGy, and the vertical axis is the CT numer difference,
∆HU.

References
[1] W.Y. Song, S. Kamath, S. Ozawa, S.A. Ani, A. Chvetsov, N. Bhandare, J.R. Palta, C. Liu, J.G. Li, Med.
Phys. 35 (2008) 480-486.
[2] M. Hilts, A. Jirasek, C. Duzenli, Phys. Med. Biol. 49 (2004) 2477-2490.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 191

Ionic liquids as passive monitors of an atmosphere rich in Hg


M.A. Martínez1, C. Solis1, I. Hernandez-Pavón1, E. Andrade1, M. A. Mondragón2, K. Isaac-Olivé3,
M.F. Rocha4
1
Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D. F,
corina@fisica.unam.mx.
2
FCentro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Juriquilla 76230, Querétaro México
3
Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesús
Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de México. ESIME
4
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, 07738 México D. F., México.
An ionic liquid (IL) is a compound which is in a dynamic equilibrium where at any time more than
99.99% of it is made up of ionic, rather than molecular, species. IL’s have gained considerable
attention during the past few years due to their extremely low vapor pressure, good electrolytic
properties and wide electrochemical window. Also, they remain liquid at a wide range of temperature.
IL’s are able to dissolve some non polar chemical species as well as some very polar ones. They start
to find use in environmental chemical and can be considered as environmentally benign solvents.
Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is found in the atmosphere, generally present in three
forms: elemental (Hg0), oxidized, and particulate-bound. This paper presents the results of a research
on mercury capture using ILs. The following IL’s were tested for Hg capture: 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-
Imidazolium-Hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [SCN]
and a combination of [SCN] and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl]. Known
amounts of IL and Nucleopore® filters (0.4µm pore) imbibed in a known amount of IL’s were
introduced to a 30 mL glass tube with a known amount of metallic Hg and sealed with a PTFE® cap.
The concentration of Hg in the IL was measured after 1 to 12 weeks of exposure.
Total Hg determination was performed by Particle X ray emission (PIXE). Hg speciation was
performed by cyclic voltamperometry (CV). Changes in the spectroscopic properties by the Hg
capture was followed by Raman and Infra red (IR) spectroscopy’s. The capture efficiency for the IL´s
under different experimental conditions is discussed.
192 Book of Abstracts

Validation of 4D dose calculations using optical flow method with 4D


phantom measurements
T.-Ch. Huang1, G. Zhang2, J.-A. Liang1,T.-H. Wu3, *
1
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taiwan
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Florida, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University,
Taiwan, tung@ym.edu.tw
Thoracic tumors move due to respiration. In treatment planning, this motion is covered by expanded
PTV or ITV, with an increased toxicity as a cost. The dose distribution, thus doses to specific points in
the treatment volume, may vary from the planned even a good coverage is obtained. A three-
dimensional (3D) deformable image registration computer program, optical flow (OF), was applied to
calculate the displacement matrixes between CT data of different simulated respiration phases of a
phantom. The matrixes were then used to map doses of all phases to a single phase image, and
summed in equal time weighting. The calculated dose should closely represent the dose delivered to
the 4D phantom if the displacement matrixes are accurately calculated. A CT compatible table was
made with a capability of programmable 1-dimensional motion for this study. The study is to
demonstrate through measurements that OF is accurate and practical in 4D dose calculations. Dose
deliveries to phantoms that were in motion were compared with OF calculations. The dose distribution
in a thoracic phantom recorded by film reasonably agreed with the 3D OF calculation. The 50%
isodose line was displaced 0.5 mm when compared with the path integrated 4D plan and 8.6 mm when
compared with the end expiration static plan. The agreement between the point-dose measurements by
an ion-chamber and the calculations was also good. For 3D plans, the agreement for the point doses
was within 1.5%, while for IMRT composite point-doses, the discrepancy between calculations and
measurements could be up to about 3%. The discrepancies included the phantom setup errors and
contributions from other factors that are discussed in details in this paper.

C C

Figure 1: Transverse views of the dose distributions of A. the static plan on the end expiration phase,
B. the OF path integrated dose over the 4D image set, and C. the measured. The film was parallel to
the direction of the beams and was inserted at at the middle plane of the ellipsoidal tumor insertion,
thus was well within the fields even with the motion of 2 cm in range. The relative dose distributions
were not very different.

References
[1] K.K. Brock, D.L. McShan, Med Phys 30 (2003) 290.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 193

Characterization of TiO2-based composite catalytic thin films using


synchrotron X-ray
G. S. Chen1, Y. D. Wang1, Y. C. Cheng1, H. Y. Lee2, H. Niu3
1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia Univ., Taichung 407, Taiwan,
gschen@fcu.edu.tw
2
National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
3
Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan

TiO2 photo-catalytic thin films are highly photo-chemical stabile and non-toxic, and also could yield a
unique super-hydrophilicity, when illuminated by solar radiation or indoor/outdoor lighting [1]. These
fascinating properties have generated applications such as self-cleaning, de-pollutant, anti-bacteria,
anti-fogging, etc [2, 3]. However, TiO2 coatings can only absorb ultraviolet radiation and do not have
sufficient mechanical properties to endure long-duration impact from external, harsh operating
environments.
We have developed an optical-emission monitor process for the reactive sputtering of various
semiconducting-oxide thin films with controlled degree of target poison, from which crystallinity,
composition and phase distributions, and electrical properties of various TiO2 and WO3 polymorphic
films have been obtained [4, 5]. Herein, TiO2 composite films doped with various amounts and types
of “hard” oxides (e.g., WO3, TaOx, or ZrO2) functioning as light-absorption and/or mechanical
strengthening medium will be fabricated; synchrotron x-ray and Rutherford backscattering
spectroscopy, along with catalytic and mechanical measurements, will be performed to characterize
the films, with the purpose of obtaining the optimum conditions for manipulating the composite films
into catalytic-sensitive phase(s) while extending the light-absorption range and yielding endurable
mechanical strength.
Figure 1 shows a series of x-ray diffraction patterns for the TiO2 and Ti-W-O composite films with the
overall composition of Ti20W10O70 and Ti11W17O72, as derived by Rutherford backscattering
spectroscopy. Clearly, the composite films would be converted into a WO3-dominated phase with
degraded catalysis and hydrophilicity as the dopant is over-dosed. On the other hand, catalysis and
hydrophilicity for some sorts of composite films can be significantly improved, as compared to those
of pure TiO2 films. Detailed results and the associated mechanism for the improvements will be
presented based on bonding-structure and phase-distribution analyses by the synchrotron x-ray at
NSRRC.

◆ WO3 △ R-TiO2
Figure 1: A series of X-ray diffraction
(a) patterns for sputter deposited TiO2 (a), TiO2-
WO3 [(b) and (c)] and WO3 (d) films,
Intensity (arb. units)

(b)
illustrating the increase of dopant amounts to
(c) impact the phase of the resultant films. For
reference, an x-ray diffraction pattern for
WO3 films is enclosed.
(d)

20 30 40 50 60

2θ (degree)

References
[1] R. Wang, et al., Nature, 388, 431 (1997)
[2] D. Dumitriu et al., Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 25, 83 (2000)
[3] K. Hashimoto et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 44, 8269 (2005)
[4] G. S. Chen et al., Thin Solid Films, 493, 301 (2005)
[5] G. S. Chen et al., Thin Solid Films, 516, 8473 (2008)
194 Book of Abstracts

Detailed studies of photocathodes based on Y thin films grown by PLD


technique
A. Lorusso1, L. Cultrera2, V. Fasano1, A. Perrone1
1
National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Physics Department, University of Salento, Via Arnesano,
73100-Lecce, Italy, email: antonella.lorusso@le.infn.it
2
National Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Institute of Frascati, Via e. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati,
Italy
The effects of laser fluence on the morphology and on properties of Y films in the regime
characteristic of multiple-pulse laser deposition were investigated by different diagnostic techniques.
Y thin films were deposited on Silicon and Copper substrates. The samples deposited on Silicon
substrate were used to deduce the morphology, the structure and the thickness of the films by using
scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. On the contrary, the samples deposited
on Copper substrate were tested as photocathodes in a DC photodiode cell [1,2]. The interest to realize
Y-based photocathodes is due to the low work function of this metal with the possibility to drive such
photocathode with a visible radiation in the radio-frequency photo-injector. This means more available
and stable laser energy and even a reduced thermal emittance of the photoelectron beam. The quantum
efficiency (QE) was measured for the first time by using a visible CW laser diode emitting at 406 nm.

Figure 1: trend of QE as a function of the time. The influence of the adsorbed gases on the
photoelectron performance of Y thin film-based photocathodes was also investigated.

References
[1] A. Perrone, L. Cultrera, A. Pereira, M. Rossi, S. Cialdi, I. Boscolo, F. Tazzioli, C. Vicario and G. Gatti,
Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. in Physics Research A, 554, 220, (2005)
[2] L. Cultrera, G. Gatti, P. Miglietta, F. Tazzioli, and A. Perrone, Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. in Physics
Research A, 587, 7, (2008).
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 195

Study of indium implanted GaN by means of NEXAFS and Raman


spectroscopies
M. Katsikini1, J. Arvanitidis2, E. C. Paloura1, S. Ves1
1
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece, *katsiki@auth.gr
2
Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Department of Applied Sciences, 57400 Sindos,
Greece
The effect of In implantation in n-type GaN is studied using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine
Structure (NEXAFS) and Raman spectroscopies. The implantations were performed at the University
of Jena with 700 keV In ions with fluences ranging from 5×1013 to 1×1016 cm-2. The N-K-edge
NEXAFS measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Radiation Storage Ring BESSY II of the
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie. The Raman spectra were excited with the
514.5nm line of an Ar+ laser and recorded in the backscattering geometry using a triple
monochromator equipped with a liquid nitrogen cooled charge coupled detector.
The main implantation effects on the NEXAFS spectra are: (a) a fluence-dependent broadening of the
NEXAFS peaks, (b) emergence of a pre-edge shoulder (RL1) that is attributed to N split-interstitials
and (c) appearance of a post-edge sharp peak (RL2) that is attributed to molecular N2 trapped in the
GaN matrix. The RL2 is characterized by fine structure due to vibronic transitions that result to a
change of the vibrational quantum number along with the electronic transition. The concentration of
the interstitials and the N2 molecules as well as the width of the NEXAFS peaks, have a sigmoidal
dependence on the logarithm of the ion fluence (Fig. 1).

1.2
area under RL (arb. units)

0.8

RL1
0.4

RL2
0.0
1E14 1E15 1E16
-2
fluence (cm )

Figure 1: Variation of the area under the implantation-induced pre-edge peaks as a function of the
fluence

In the Raman spectra recorded in the backscattering geometry only the E2;2 peak is resolved since the
A1(LO) is completely damped due to plasmon - phonon coupling. As the fluence increases, the
characteristic sharp peaks of the as-grown sample broaden due to relaxation of the q-selection rules
allowing phonons with q ≠ 0 to contribute in the Raman scattering. Furthermore, three additional
broad peaks are detected in the implanted samples even after implantation with the fluence of
5×1013 cm-2. They are ascribed to disorder activated Raman scattering or acoustic overtones (300 cm-1,
420 cm-1) and the formation of point defects (670 cm-1), respectively.
196 Book of Abstracts

Identification of oxygen related defects formed after implantation into GaN.


M. Katsikini1, F. Bosherini2, E. C. Paloura1
1
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece, *katsiki@auth.gr
2
Physics Department and CNISM, University of Bologna, viale C. Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna,
Italy.
The bonding environment of oxygen implanted in GaN is studied using Near Edge X-ray absorption
fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the O-K-edge. The implantation of 70keV oxygen ions in
GaN results in the formation of a 200 nm - thick subsurface layer that is highly defective or
amorphous depending on the implantation fluence which ranges from 1×1015cm-2 to 1×1017cm-2. The
NEXAFS spectra were recorded at the ALOISA beamline of the Synchrotron Radiation facility
ELETTRA in Trieste. The spectra were simulated using the FEFF8 code assuming models that
account for the formation of point defects as well as chemical effects such as the formation of various
polymorphs of Ga oxides and oxynitrides. The implantation induced lattice disorder is modelled by
displacing atoms from their equilibrium positions by adding to their Cartesian coordinates random
numbers that belong to normal distributions. The simulations reveal (Fig. 1) that when the fluence is
1×1015 cm-2, the O implants occupy interstitial sites preferentially in the empty channels aligned
parallel to the c - axis in the plane that contains the Ga atoms and/or in the columns that consist of Ga
and N atoms along the c-axis. When the fluence is equal to 1×1016cm-2 the O ions substitute for N
while at 1×1017cm-2 they participate in the formation of mixed GaOxNy phases.

Figure 1: Simulation of the O-K-edge NEXAFS spectra using the FEFF8 code.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 197

XAFS study of nanoporous Fe, Mn oxy-hydroxides used for removal of As


from drinking water
M. Katsikini1*, K. Simeonidis2, D. Papageorgiou1, S. Tresintsi2, M. Mitrakas2, F. Pinakidou1, E. C.
Paloura1
1
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece, *katsiki@auth.gr
2
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
The bonding configuration of Fe, Mn and As, in mixed Fe, Mn oxy-hydroxides is investigated using
X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopies. As is a toxic element found in natural waters,
mainly in inorganic solutions with +3 and +5 oxidation states. It is believed that Mn causes reduction
of As3+ to As5+ which is more efficiently adsorbed by the Fe hydroxides. The X-ray Absorption Near
Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra were
recorded at the µ-XAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source Synchrotron Radiation Facility of the Paul
Scherrer Institute. Fitting of the Fe-K-EXAFS spectra using appropriate structural models, reveals the
formation of FeO6 polyhedra that share a common edge and form chains by sharing two corners. The
bonding environment and oxidation state of Fe is not significantly affected by the Mn and Fe
concentration in the samples. Contrary to that the Mn XAFS spectra depend more strongly on the
composition. More specifically, the combined Mn-K-XANES and EXAFS analysis disclosed the
presence of Mn+4 and Mn+3 ions that form centrosymmetric MnO6 octahedra in the MnO2, Mn(OH)4
and (Fe,Mn)OOH phases.
The analysis of the As-K-edge spectra reveals that Mn reduces efficiently the As ions since only the
peak that corresponds to 1sÆ 4p transition of As+5 is resolved in the XANES spectra. After fitting the
EXAFS spectra using various bonding configurations of As, the binuclear Fe2As2O4 complex is found
to be the most appropriate (Fig. 1).
FT amplitude (arb. units)

experiment
3
fitting

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
R (Å)

Figure 1: Fitting of the Fourier Transform of the As-K-edge EXAFS spectrum using the model shown
in the right panel.
198 Book of Abstracts

A synchrotron-based characterization of urban particulate matter (PM2.5


and PM10) from Athens atmosphere, Greece
A. Godelitsas1, P. Nastos1, T.J. Mertzimekis2, K. Toli3, R. Simon4 and J. Göttlicher4
1
University of Athens, 15784 Zographou, Greece, agodel@geol.uoa.gr
2
Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, GR-15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Greece
4
Institute for Synchrotron Radiation (ISS), Synchrotron Radiation Source ANKA Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe
Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
Urban particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), collected in Athens atmosphere during normal days
without desert dust and/or other atmospheric episodes, was investigated using SR-based techniques in
the FLUO and SUL-X beamlines of ANKA (KIT, Germany). Previous works, based on conventional
bulk XRF, wet-chemistry methods, and PIXE [e.g. 1-6], reported the existence of various trace
elements in Athens atmospheric particulates. The elucidation of elements partitioning (solid-state
speciation) and the detection of anthropogenic or non-geological particles containing harmful elements
was the purpose of the present project. The SR micro-XRF study showed the presence of both
geological (e.g. Ca-Sr-K-Rb) and anthropogenic particles. In the latter case only Fe could be detected
in preliminary investigation by SEM-EDS. However, the SR study indicated particles containing
heavy metals such as Cu, Cr and Ni as well as certain types of particles characterized by the
simultaneous presence of Fe-Mn, Fe-Co, Fe-Co-Zn and Zn-V (Fig. 1).

Figure 1: SR micro-XRF investigation of Athens urban particulate matter


Moreover, it was revealed that very hazardous elements, such as Pb and As, are concentrated in
specific particles. The speciation of As (As3+ and/or As5+) in the solid particles was attempted to be
investigated by means of micro-XANES. A complementary high-resolution microscopic study using
TEM is being conducted in order to fortify the SR micro-XRF findings. It should be noted that,
according to the existing literature, this is the first non-bulk study with regard to the distribution and
partitioning of heavy metals in urban atmospheric particles from greater Athens rated as an alpha-
world city with a population of ca. 4 million people.

References
[1] G. Valaoras, J. Huntzicker and W. White, Atm. Environ. 22 (1988), 965.
[2] N. Thomaidis, E. Bakeas and P. Siskos, Chemosphere 52 (2003) 959.
[3] A. Valavanidis, K. Fiotakis, Th. Vlachogianni, E. Bakeas, S. Triantafyllaki, V. Paraskevopoulou and M.
Dassenakis, Chemosphere 65 (2006) 760.
[4] N. Manalis, G. Grivas, V. Protonotarios, A. Moutsatsou, C. Samara and A. Chaloulakou, Chemosphere
60 (2005) 557.
[5] A. Karanasiou, I. Sitaras, P. Siskos and K. Eleftheriadis, Atm. Environ. 41 (2007) 2368.
[6] E. Karageorgos and S. Rapsomanikis, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (2007) 3015.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 199

Spectroscopic investigation of thorium in Greek bauxite


P. Gamaletsos1, A. Godelitsas1, T.J. Mertzimekis2, J. Göttlicher3, R. Steininger3, S. Xanthos4,
S. Klemme5 and G. Bárdossy6
1
University of Athens, 15784 Zographou, Greece, platon_gk@geol.uoa.gr
2
Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Greece
3
Institute for Synchrotron Radiation (ISS), Synchrotron Radiation Source ANKA Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe
Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, AUTH, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
5
Institut für Mineralogie, Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
6
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1051 Budapest, Hungary
Greece is the 11th largest bauxite mine producer in the world (2.22×106 tons in 2008). The exploitation
of karst-type deposits in central Greece [1] is performed by three Greek mining companies
(Aluminium of Greece S.A., S&B Industrial Minerals S.A. and ELMIN Hellenic Mining Enterprises
S.A.) whereas there is also an Al industrial plant. The mineralogy of Greek bauxites is not particularly
variable. Diaspore and/or boehmite, hematite, magnetite, goethite, kaolinite, anatase and/or rutile are
the major phases. Typical iron-rich (red-brown) bauxite contains 57% Al2O3. Of special interest is the
high-quality Fe-depleted or “bleached” (white-grey) diasporic bauxite composed only of diaspore (in
some cases Fe-Cr-diaspore) and TiO2 polymorphs [2], containing 80% Al2O3. The chemical
composition of bauxite is rather complicated and, except major Al, Fe and Ti, almost all natural
elements are present in various concentrations including natural actinides (U and particularly Th). The
highest Th concentration, according to XRF and ICP-MS, corresponds to a Fe-depleted sample (62.75
ppm in bulk). Gamma-ray spectra (HPGe detector) revealed for Fe-depleted bauxite an average of 220
Bq/Kg corresponding to 228Ac (232Th-series), compared to 180 Bq/Kg for typical Fe-enriched bauxite.
Evaluation of the bulk geochemical data indicated that Th is correlated to LREE and U, particularly in
Fe-depleted bauxite. This is in line with previous implications about the potential relation of actinides
with REE minerals (e.g. [3]) and new SEM-EDS data proved the presence of Th (and U) in LREE
fluorocarbonate minerals. Moreover, Th is rather correlated to Fe in iron-rich bauxite, while there is no
evident bulk correlation to Ti for all bauxite samples. The presence of Th in Fe/Ti- and Ti-rich areas of
Fe-depleted bauxite pisoliths, revealed by synchrotron micro-XRF spectroscopy using the SUL-X
beamline of ANKA, is demonstrated for the first time in the literature. This can be explained on the
basis of the same +4 oxidation state of Th and Ti, despite the large difference in the ionic radius of 6-
coordinated Th4+ and Ti4+ to O-atoms (0.940 Å and 0.605 Å respectively). The recorded EXAFS
spectra may also give new insights into the mineralogy and geochemistry of Th in karst-type bauxites.
Previous works indicated the presence of Th in ilmenite and rutile occuring in sand deposits (e.g. [4]).
Significant quantities of Th must also be contained in detrital zircons dispersed into the AlOOH matrix
of bauxite.

References
[1] I. Valeton, M. Biermann, R. Reche, F. Rosenberg, Ore Geol. Rev. 2 (1987), 359.
[2] P. Gamaletsos, A. Godelitsas, A.P. Douvalis, T. Kasama, R.E. Dunin-Borkowski, J. Göttlicher, N.
Church, G. Economou, T. Bakas, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73 (2009) A409.
[3] M. Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, K.M. Ochsenkühn, Eur. Microscop. Anal. (1995), 13.
[4] R.F. Garrett, N. Blagojevic, Z. Cai, B. Lai, D.G. Legnini, W. Rodrigues, A.P.J. Stampfli, Nucl. Instr.
Meth. A 467-468 (2001), 897.
200 Book of Abstracts

Modification of a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator to a medium-energy


ion accelerator for TOF-RBS application
D. Suwannakachorn1, P. Junphong2, L.D. Yu1,3*, S. Singkarat1,3
1
Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty
of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Phrao Road, Sansai,
Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand
3
Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education,
328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand, *yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th
The first drift-tube neutron generator in Thailand, developed during 1980s with thorough support from
the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), was a 150-kV deuteron-ion accelerator based 14-
MeV fast neutron generator. The accelerator was featured with a nanosecond pulsing system
consisting of a beam chopper and a beam buncher in combination. Along with the rapid development
of ion beam technology and increasing needs for material applications in the laboratory, the
accelerator has been upgraded and modified in a large extent into a medium-energy ion accelerator, as
shown in Figure 1, for time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (TOF-RBS) application
in material analysis. The modification of the beam line included changing the ion source, accelerating
tube and mass-analyzed magnet, upgrading the pulsing system, and installing a TOF-RBS detecting
system. The present new accelerator is capable of applying 400-keV He-ion beam with ns-pulses to
nano-layered material analysis. This paper provides technical details of the modification work.

Figure 1: Whole view photograph of the medium-energy ion accelerator, modified from a pulsed 150-
kV deuteron-ion accelerator based 14-MeV fast neutron generator, for TOF-RBS analysis at Plasma
and Beam Physics Research Facility (formerly Fast Neutron Research Facility), Chiang Mai
University.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 201

External-beam PIXE analysis of the ink from the Mexican codex 1548
E. Andrade1, C. Solis1, M.F. Rocha2, E.P. Zavala1, O. de Lucio1
1
Instituto de Física, Departamento de Física Experimental, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, México
2
ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P. ALM, G.A. Madero, México D.F. 07738, México.
PIXE analysis has been an invaluable technique to provide complementary information in studies of
historical documents, because it allows a high sensitive and non destructive material characterization.
It is especially useful to analyze painting or hand drawing on organic materials such as paper or
leather because of the low background. In this study, external beam PIXE was applied to analyze the
Codex Escalada, also called the Codex 1548. This famous codex supposed to date from 1548, is a
manuscript-picture on pork skin. This document pictographically describes the apparition of the Virgin
of Guadalupe to Juan Diego, a man newly converted to Christianity, on the hill of Tepeyac in México.
The document of 20 x 13 cm, is supposed to date from 1548 and is considered as the “oldest document
on the Virgin Guadalupe apparition”, but its authenticity has been disputed by a number of
researchers. Several studies of this codex have been performed at the Institute of Physics of the
National University of Mexico, such as: photography, infrared and external beam PIXE. This
document has the signature attributed to Bernardino de Sahagún, a historian Franciscan Friar and
the numbers 1548 related about the year this document was made. The main PIXE objective of the
PIXE work was to determine if the ink of the signature and the 1548 numbers was the same ink
compares to others figures in the Codex.
202 Book of Abstracts

Characterization of mercury gilding art objects by external proton beam


V. Corregidor1,2, L.C. Alves1,2, N.P. Barradas1,2, M.A. Reis1,3, M.T. Marques4,5,
J. A. Ribeiro4,5
1
Unidade de Física e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém, Portugal
2
CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
3
CFAUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
4
Casa-Museu Anastácio Gonçalves, Av. 5 de Outubro, 6-8 1050-055 Lisboa, Portugal
5
IMC, Palácio Nacional da Ajuda, 1349 – 021 Lisboa, Portugal
The fire gilding method is one of the methods used by the ancient goldsmiths to obtain a rich, metallic
glow and durable golden appearance in ornamental objects. This layer is characterized, among others,
by its thickness (normally more than 5 µm), a diffusion profile due to the high temperatures achieved
during the process and a Hg content (between 0–21 wt%). The fire gilding method consisted in
depositing an amalgam of gold and mercury on the surface to be gilded and then volatilizing the
mercury by heat application to leave the gold alloyed to the surface of the metal. According to the
temperatures achieved during the process and the phase diagram Au-Hg, different Hg content can be
found on the gold layer (called α-gold).
Gilded sacred art objects dated from the XVI to the XVIII centuries, belonging to the Casa-Museu
Anastácio Gonçalves Collection (Lisbon) were analysed using the external ion microprobe at Nuclear
and Technological Institute, Lisbon (Portugal), Figure 1.
Due to the diffusion profile considering the objects as multilayered samples with some elements
present in several layers at different concentrations, the traditional GUPIX software can not be easily
used. For the challenge of data analysis the NDF9.2 [1] including the open source LibCPIXE [2]
library capabilities were used. The RBS and PIXE spectra from the same point were collected
simultaneously during the experiences and later analyzed together in order to find self-consistent
solutions. Preliminary analysis showed different Hg/Au contents in the objects, probably due to the
different gilding workshops. Variation of Cu, Sn and Zn contents were also observed related with the
casting, as well as a variety of impurities (Figure 2). The obtained results will be presented and
discussed.

1
2
3

Figure 1. Experimental setup at ITN (Reliquary Figure 2. One of recorded PIXE spectra .
CMAG 1194 Collection); 1. X-ray detector; 2.
camera; 3. beam extraction; 4. RBS detector with
He atmosphere.

References
[1] N.P. Barradas, C. Jeynes, R.P. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (1997) 293
[2] C.Pascual-Izarra, N.P. Barradas, M.A. Reis, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B 249 (2006) 820
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 203

Late European bronze artefacts studied by PIXE


P.C. Gutiérrez Neira1, A. Zucchiatti1, I. Montero2, R. Vilaça3, C. Bottaini3, and A. Climent-Font1,4
1
CMAM, University Autónoma Madrid, Campus Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.
2
CCHS-CSIC, Albasanz 26-28, E 28037 Madrid, Spain. acf@uam.es
3
University of Coimbra, Largo da Porta Férrea, 3000-447 Coimbra, Portugal.
4
Dep. Applied Physics, University Autónoma Madrid, Campus Cantobalanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain,
The sites of metallic objects belonging to the late European bronze period can be interpreted
differently depending on the nature and composition of the artefacts. Thus, a homogeneous set of
objects will generally indicate a votive offer while a heterogeneous set will indicate that the site is the
resulted of an accumulation of objects.
PIXE analysis has been done in nine items from the site of Freixanda in Portugal belonging to the late
bronze period, comprising four socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and remains of
casting. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace
elements of interest like, As and Ag has been determined with the ion beam technique.
204 Book of Abstracts

A painting studied with integrated PIXE and image analysis


E. Kajiya1, M. A. Rizzutto2, V. Pagliaro2, S.I. Finazzo2, P. R. Pascholati2
1
Mattos & Kajiya Ltda, Conservação e Restauro, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, elizabethkajiya@uol.com.br
2
Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, Brasil,
rizzutto@if.usp.br
The chemical and physical non-destructive analyses are increasingly used in scientific studies of
characterization and investigations of art and archaeological objects. The research on the cultural
heritage objects need details inspection and several diagnostic techniques are being widely
used to characterize those objects giving different and complementary results. The carefully
inspection can give an accurate diagnoses of the type of materials used by the artist, as well as
their techniques applied in the creation of objects. Knowing the composition of materials and
technology used in the manufacture of cultural heritage objects, it is possible to develop
means and methods to better conservation of the work [1]. The present work deals with some
image inspection analysis integrated with elementary PIXE characterization. The diagnostic
imaging used different wavelengths bands as near-infrared reflectography (NIR), fluorescence of
ultraviolet radiation (UV), light tangential and visible light. The elemental analysis was
realized with atomic-nuclear technique PIXE, which gives information of the chemical
elements present in the pigments used in the canvas painting. These integrated techniques make
available a powerful process for mapping hidden features, alterations performed and element
characterization in an oil painting on canvas of 40 x 76 cm, named “Landing and Combat” of the XIX
century, belonging to the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo collection (RM0139). The image data
with IR provided underlying drawings carried out by the artist, the light grazing bring out all
the roughness of the surface, deformations and also reveal the way of painting of the artist. The
image with ultraviolet radiation possibility observe mainly the regions of touches and cracks
in polychrome, moreover, it was possible see clearly the areas of restoration interventions and
the region with the original pigment. The PIXE measurements in the blue color have elements
as Pb, Hg, Fe and Cu. The high quantity of Cu in this point, in comparison with the other blue
shades, suggest the pigment Azurite (2CuCO3.Cu (OH)2). The presence of this pigment helps
to confirm the expected date of this work, which is the nineteenth century since this pigment
had been used since the antiquity until the XIX century.

References
[1] D.I Tellechea, “Pintura en restauro”. São Paulo: Instituto Domingo Tellechea, 1998. v.2.
[2] J.M. P. Cabral, “Exame científico de pinturas de cavalete” Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1995.
<http://zircon.dcsa.fct.unl.pt/dspace/handle/123456789/214>.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 205

Non-destructive analysis of a Belgian Tratatum of the 17th century


H. Calvo del Castillo1, A. Cervera-Xicotencatl1, F.P. Hocquet1, S. Fievet1,2, F. Mathis1,
C. Oger1,2, B. Gilbert3, D. Strivay1
1
Centre Européen d’Archéométrie – I.P.N.A.S, Université de Liége, Allée 6 Août, Bât. B15, Sart
Tilman 4000-Liège, Belgium, hcalvo@ulg.ac.be
2
Bibliothéque générale de Philosophie et Lettres, Université de Liège, Place Cockerill 1, 4000-Liège,
Belgium
3
Chimie analytique et électrochimie, Université de Liège, Allée de la Chimie, Bât. B6, Sart Tilman
4000-Liége, Belgium
The Tractatus Primus, Secundus, Tertius Instrumentorum Mechanicorum Levini Hulsii, is a 17th
century book consisting of a black-ink printed text and detailed hand-coloured engravers of different
sizes. Though its state of conservation can be described as good, some green pigments applied to the
drawings have apparently caused the appearance of some brownish degradation stains on adjacent
pages, which are the main concern for the restorer (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Image of a couple of pages of the Tractatus. On the left page we can see a painted engraver.
On the right page, dark stains appear when in contact with the green pigments. An inter-living has
been placed in order to stop further degradation of the paper.
We have been provided with some pages appertaining to the different parts of the treaty in order to
determine the origin of the above-mentioned stains as well as to characterise the palette used on the
engravers. For this purpose, visual and microscope inspection has been done and Colorimetry, PIXE
and micro-Raman analysis have followed.
In this paper we present the results of this study, highlighting the importance of the use of non-
invasive complimentary techniques as a compulsory procedure to study Cultural Heritage artefacts,
stressing the fact that none of the techniques applied can work without the critical eye of the expert in
order to yield pertinent results.
206 Book of Abstracts

Development of a µ-PIXE system using tapered glass capillary optics


J. Hasegawa, S. Jaiyen, and Y. Oguri
RLNR, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, jhasegaw@nr.titech.ac.jp
The tapered glass capillary has been attracting much attention as a compact beam-focusing optics for
MeV ions [1]. By adopting it to micro beam production, we developed a compact µ-PIXE system for
two-dimensional elemental mapping of small samples. The aim of this study is to evaluate the
performance of the system and compare it with conventional µ-PIXE systems. Figure 1 shows a setup
of µ-PIXE analysis in our system. A tapered glass capillary with an outlet diameter of 10-20 µm is
located at the end of the beam line. Samples are mounted 1-2 mm downstream from the capillary tip
and irradiated by 2-MeV proton micro beam. Two-dimensional scanning of the sample is realized by
controlling the two-axis motorized stage that supports the sample holder. X-rays emitted from the
sample are detected by a Si-PIN X-ray detector located at 135º. To evaluate the system performance,
MeV-proton transport in the tapered glass capillary was examined under various capillary conditions.
From the energy spectra of the protons, we revealed that the micro beam generated by the capillary
consists of two components, core and halo. The core component had an almost monochromatic energy
spectrum and a small divergence angle of several milliradians, showing that it contains mainly the
protons passing through the capillary without interactions. On the other hand, the energy spectrum of
the halo component was relatively broad and its spatial distribution had a hollow structure. This result
indicates that the halo component is composed from protons scattered by the capillary inner wall and
the beam-focusing ability of the tapered glass capillary is due mainly to this component. To examine
the transport mechanism of the halo particles in the capillary, numerical simulations using an original
Monte-Carlo code was also performed. The simulations well reproduced the experimental results.
Based on these experimental and numerical investigations, we discuss the potential of the µ-PIXE
system using the tapered glass capillary optics.

Figure 1: A setup for µ-PIXE analysis.

References
[1] J. Hasegawa, S. Shiba, H. Fukuda, and Y. Oguri, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 266 (2008) 2125-2129.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 207

Analyses of U and Pu K-lines induced in radioactive particles by PIXE


M.C. Jiménez-Ramos 1,2, J. García López 1,2, I. Ortega-Feliu 1,2, R. García-Tenorio1,2
1
Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla, Spain,
mcyjr@us.es
2
Applied Nuclear Physics Research Group, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012-
Sevilla, Spain
More than 40 years ago, owing to the occurrence of an aircraft accident which involved the destruction
of two nuclear weapons in the surroundings of the village of Palomares (Spain), transuranic
contamination was released. A significant portion of the remaining contamination is present in the
form of high activity concentration particles, also called “hot particles”.
In previous works, radioactive particles from Palomares area have been studied with the 3 MV
Tandem accelerator of the National Accelerator Centre (CNA) in Seville. By Particle Induced X-ray
Emission (PIXE), the L-lines of the main components in the particle, U and Pu, were analyzed, using 3
MeV protons with a SiLi detector [1]. However, the K-lines spectra are better to measure elemental
ratios and concentration of transuranic elements, as there is not overlapping between the main peaks.
In this work different experiments have been carried out to induce U and Pu K-lines in hot particles by
PIXE. The main idea was to use higher energy protons to increase the K-lines X-ray production cross
section together with a LEGe detector with high efficiency in the 100 keV energy range. Analyses
with 6 MeV protons have been performed with the 3 MV Tandem aforementioned, and measurements
with 18 MeV protons have been done with the Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system. The experiments with
the cyclotron have been carried out in a new external beam recently installed. The advantages and
drawbacks of both energies in terms of produced K-line yields and gamma-ray background will be
discussed.

References
[1] J. García López, M.C. Jiménez-Ramos, M. García-León and R. García-Tenorio, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B
260 (2007) 343.
208 Book of Abstracts

Chemical speciation of chlorine in particulate matter by wavelength-


dispersive PIXE technique
S. Wonglee, T. Tada*, H. Fukuda, J. Hasegawa and Y. Oguri
Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology,
2-12-1-N1-14, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
wonglee.a.ss@m.titech.ac.jp
*Present address: Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University,
Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578, Japan
Chemical speciation of chlorine in particulate matter was performed by using a wavelength-dispersive
PIXE spectrograph [1] based on high-resolution measurement of Cl-Kβ emission. Samples of
atmospheric dust as well as particles emitted from burning of chlorine compounds were collected by
filtration and impaction techniques. Glass microfiber filters were used for the filtration method.
Aluminum foils were applied as substrates for the impaction sampler. The experimental setup has so
far been tested using standard samples of NaCl with low concentrations down to 1000 ppm. To
prepare these standard samples, NaCl reagent was mixed and diluted with cellulose powder and
pressed to a pellet with a diameter of 10 mm. The target position was precisely adjusted by a 2D laser
displacement sensor to achieve high detection efficiency [2]. These samples were irradiated with 2-
MeV protons from a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The beam current was 300 nA. The proton dose
was 0.1 µC for the measurement of each spectrum. During the irradiation, the target was cooled with
liquid nitrogen to avoid the evaporation of chlorine. The measured spectra clearly showed Cl-Kβ X-
ray lines composed of the Kβ diagram line, Kβx satellite line, and Kβ5 satellite line. From the
measured X-ray yields, we found that the minimum chlorine concentration needed for the chemical
speciation was about 1000 ppm, which is comparable to chlorine concentrations in the fine fraction of
atmospheric particulate matter [3]. Applicability of the above method to the chemical speciation of
low-concentration chlorine in actual environmental samples is discussed.

References

[1] J. Hasegawa, T. Tada, Y. Oguri, M. Hayashi, T. Toriyama, T. Kawabata, and K. Masai, Rev. Sci. Instrum.
78 (2007) 073105.
[2] S. Wonglee, T. Tada, H. Fukuda, J. Hasegawa and Y. Oguri, submitted to Intern. J. PIXE, 2010.
[3] Y. Oguri, T. Yamashita, A. Ebihara, N. Kanbe and J. Hasegawa, Intern. J. PIXE, 10, (2000) 127.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 209

PIXE identification of fine and coarse particles of aerosol samples from


Beirut
M. Roumié1, N. Saliba2, B. Nsouli1, M. Noun1
1
Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific
Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut, Lebanon, mroumie@cnrs.edu.lb
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut,
Lebanon
The Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most controversial regions for aerosol transportation
due to its location at the intersection of air masses circulating among the three continents. It is obvious
from the few studies conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean region that Particulate Matter (PM)
levels are much higher than in other regions, even when compared to the Western Mediterranean.
High PM background levels in most Eastern Mediterranean cities could be attributed to several
factors, among them the lack of rules and regulations concerning PM levels. This study is the first
national attempt to assess the levels of PMs in Beirut city and consequently to understand air pollution
distribution. Three PM samplers were installed at three locations lying along the North-Eastern
direction over Beirut. The sampling of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 was done during a period extending from 30
October 2009 till 19 December 2010. The collection of the particles was carried out on Teflon filters,
for a 24-hour basis and 6 days a week.
The characterization of the elemental content of the two fraction mode, fine and coarse particles, were
analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This later has proven to be a very powerful
tool for the compositional analysis of atmospheric aerosols, which was one of the early and most
successful applications of PIXE [1]. The use of 75 µm of Kapton filter, as x-ray absorber, with a 3
MeV proton beam delivered by the 1.7 MV Tandem-Pelletron accelerator of the LAEC facility,
allowed the simultaneous determination of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb.
However, the use of 1 MeV proton beam allowed the determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si and P.

References
[1] S.A.E. Johansson, J.L. Campbell, K.G. Malmqvist, Particle-Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry, John
Wiley & Sons (1995).
210 Book of Abstracts

PIXE character
c rization of ancient blue coloored glass beads:
Suraat Thani sites,
s south
hern Thaailand
1 2
K. Won-in
W , T. Kamwanna
K , P. Dararutaana1,3
1
Department of Eaarth Sciencess, Faculty of Science, Kassetsart Univeersity, Bangkkok 10900 Thhailand
2
Thailand of Exceellence in Phhysics, Comm mission of Hiigher Educattion, Bangkook 10400 Tha
ailand
3
The Royal Thai
T Army Chhemical Deppartment, Bangkok 109000 Thailand, ppisutti@emaiil
Ancient glass beadd is one of the most important i arrchaeologicaal artifacts tthat contain ned more
informattion, especially the glass trading and the glass maaking technoology spreadding. Non-deestructive
and non-sampling methods
m weree used to annalyze the gllass composiition. In thiis work, bluee colored
glass bead fragmentts excavated from two difference
d archaeologicall sites (Laem m Pho and Baan B Tha
Muang)aat Surat Thhani Provincce, southernn Thailand were characcterize by the PIXE method.
SEM/ED DX was also used to anallyze the glasss compositio ons. Initials findings
f sugggested that thhere were
number of differencee in shade. TheT results shhowed that the t glass com mpositions w were found to o be both
sodium- and potassiuum-silica glaasses, and coolored by cop pper and/or cobalt,
c influeenced by the presence
of iron and
a manganeese. The resuults demonsttrated that th heir glass prooductions weere at differeence sites
and the use of chem mically raw materials.
m Tittanium, commmon impurity in sand, w was all preseent in the
glass beaad samples. SEM
S microggraph showedd more corro oded and flakked microstruucture. Somee samples
showed a high valuee of MnO/Fe2O3 ratio. It can be suggeested that maanganese waas intentionallly added
as a decoolorant. Furtthermore, thiis type of glaass almost sppread over thhe various siites in this reegion that
demonsttrated the long distance or exchange connection ns. Finally, PIXE has bbeen proved to be an
efficientt technique too analyze thee archaeologiical objects.

B
BPR2 BPR3 BPR4 BT
TM2 B
BTM3 BTM6
(a) Laeem Pho (b) Baan Tha Muang
Figure 1:
1 Blue colorred ancient glass
g bead samples from Surat Thani Province
Acknow
wledgementss
The reseaarch was parttly funded by Kasetsart Unniversity Reseearch and Devvelopment Insstitute. The works
w have
been deveeloped withinn the activities of the Gemm mology and Miineral Sciencees Special Ressearch Unit off Kasetsart
Universitty, the Glass and
a Glass Prooducts Researcch and Develo opment Laborratory of Chiaang Mai Univ versity and
the Plasm
ma and Beam Physics
P Faciliity at Faculty of Science off Chiang Mai University. C
Coax Group Co orporation
Ltd. (Thaailand) is thankked for providding the SEM//EDS apparatu us for analysis.

Referen
nces
[1] C. Chaivari,
C M. Martini,
M E. Sibbilia and M. Vandini.
V Quateernary Sci. Reev., 20 (2001) 967.
[2] D. B
Barilaro, G. Barone, V. Cruupi, D. Majolinno, P. Mazzoleni, M. Triscaari and V. Vennuti. Vibration
nal
Speectroscopy, 422 (2006) 381.
[3] L. Dussubieux,
D e al., Archaeoometry, 50 (20008) 797-821.
et
[4] M.EE. Hall, L. Yabblonsky, Journnal of Achaeoological Science, 25 (1998) 1239-1245.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 211

Field measurement system for CYCHU-10 cyclotron magnet


J. Yang1, K. Liu1, B. Qin1, K. Liu1, D. Li1, Y. Xiong1, T. Yu1
1
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn
A 10MeV H- compact cyclotron (CYCHU-10) is under construction in Huazhong University of
Science and Technology (HUST).
A magnetic field measurement system for the cyclotron magnet has been developed. The measurement
system bases on a Hall probe and a granite x-y stage. Unlike the traditional polar system, Cartesian
mapping will be adopted. The motion control and data acquisition system for the magnetic field
measurement consists of Group3 DTM151 Teslameter and MPT141 Hall probe, Panasonic
servomotors, a motion control card, Renishaw optical linear encoder systems and an industrial PC. The
magnetic field will be automatically scanned by this apparatus.

Figure 1: Concise view of the magnetic field measurement system. a: the alignment support; b: the
reference plane; c: x-axis plane; d: y-axis plane; e: Hall probe carrier; f: supporting rod; g: Hall probe;
h: y-axis motor; i: y-axis ball screw; j: y-axis guide rail; k: x-axis motor; l: x-axis ball screw; m: x-axis
guide rail.
There measured field data in Cartesian coordinates will be converted into the field data in the polar
coordinates for the equilibrium orbit calculation. A 2-D interpolation program has been developed to
process the magnetic measurement data.
Based on the magnetic measurement, an iteration method will be used for isochronous and harmonics
field shimming. After the adjustment of the cyclotron magnetic field, the quality of the field will be
acceptable and ensure the cyclotron runs well.

References
[1] B. Qin, J. Yang, et al., “Main Magnet and Central Region Design for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron CYCHU-
10”, Proceeding of Particle Accelerator Conference, Canada, 2009, in process
[2] K.H. Park, et al., “Field mapping system for cyclotron magnet”, Nuclear Instrument and methods in
Physics Research A, 545 (2005) 533-541
[3] M. Fan, et al., “Measurement and adjustment of CIAE medical cyclotron magnet”, Proceeding of the
Particle Accelerator Conference, 1993, 2841-2843
[4] A. Papash, T. Zhang. “Field Shimming of Commercial Cyclotrons”, Proceeding of 17th International
Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, 2004, Tokyo, Japan.
212 Book of Abstracts

Fabrication of polymer with the three-dimensional structure by ion beam


graft polymerization method
A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama, A. Kitamura
Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe Univ.,
5-1-1 Fukaeminami-machi, Higashinada-ku, Kobe 658-0022, Japan
taniike@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp
We find many kinds of industrial products made of graft polymers everywhere; for example, a
deodrizer, a paper diaper, and so on. Adsorbent which can recover rare metals dissolved in
environmental water is also a product using radiation graft polymerization method. Generally,
electron beams are utilized for this method. In our laboratory, we carry out radiation graft
polymerization with ion beams. Because ions have large LET compared with electrons at the same
energy, stopping range of the ions at 1 MeV, for example, in a polymer substrate is as small as several
ten µm. When a substrate is irradiated with the ion beam, radicals are generated in the near-surface
region around the range. After graft polymerization graft chains are then expected to be localized in
the near-surface region.
Ion beams were generated by the tandem accelerator (model 5SDH-2, NEC) at Kobe University. A
high density polyethylene film (sample) was set at a target holder in a vacuum chamber, and irradiated
with H+ beams, at energy of several hundred keV. In irradiation another polyethylene film with holes
(mask) was covered the sample, as shown in figure 1(a). Ions through the mask holes generated
radicals in the near-surface region of the sample. After irradiation the sample was taken out from the
vacuum chamber, and immersed in monomer solution, e.g. acrylic acid, to become a sample grafted by
new polymer chains.
In the present paper, we propose a method to fabricate polymers having three-dimensional structure of
graft chains; multiple ion beam graft polymerization (IBGP). We have demonstrated production of a
polymer film with three-dimensional structure, as shown in figure 1(b), by repeated application of the
above procedure. Although the polymer has single adsorbent property at present, by using some
monomer solutions with different functional bases, production of high-performance three-dimensional
polymers with complex functions would be possible.

H+

mask

sample

multiple ion beam


graft polymerization

(a) Irradiation (b) After multiple IBGP


Figure 1: Multiple graft polymerization for fabrication of 3D polymers. Figure 1(a) shows ion beam
irradiation of a sample PE film covered with mask PE film, and 1(b) shows cross sectional view of a
3D polymer film after multiple IBGP.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 213

Beam intensity upgrade of a synchrotron for heavy ion therapy


T. Shirai1, T. Furukawa1, Y. Iwata1, K. Noda1, K. Mizushima2, C. Sekine2, T. Fujimoto3
1
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan, t_shirai@nirs.go.jp
2
Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
3
Accelerator Engineering Co., Chiba, Japan
For a heavy ion therapy, an increase of the beam intensity is required from two reasons. One is a
requirement from a scanning irradiation. Because the beam utilizing efficiency of the scanning
irradiation is high, one treatment can be finished with only one injection, if the beam intensity can be
increase by a few times. It leads to the reduction of the treatment time and the improvement of the
uniformity of the dose distribution. The second reason is a recent development of a compact
accelerator for the heavy ion therapy. Because the stored beam intensity is proportional to the ring
circumference, an increase of the beam intensity is required for a compact synchrotron.
We have carried out the tune survey at HIMAC synchrotron and measured the correlation between the
beam intensity, the beam profile and the betatron tune. It was found that the major reason of the beam
intensity limitation is an incoherent space charge tune shift. The second and third order coupling
resonances play the major roles in the process of the beam loss and the beam profile distortion. The
optimization of the betatron tune was effective to increase of beam intensity. The correction of the
coupling resonance was also effective. We confirmed the effect of the resonance correction for the
third order coupling resonance.
214 Book of Abstracts

Spreading of heavy ion beam with dual-ring double scattering method


T. Himukai1, T. Furukawa1, E. Takeshita1 , T. Inaniwa1, K. Mizushima1, K. Katagiri1
and Y. Takada2
1
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan, himukai@nirs.go.jp
2
Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba
A beam wobbling method [1] for heavy ion beam spreading has been used to form a flat field in the
biological beam line at HIMAC. There arises a need for forming a large flat radiation field for physical
and biological experiments in physical beam line in which the wobbling system is not installed. A
simple method is required to satisfy the need.
A dual-ring double scattering method has been used for proton therapy [2]. The system consists of the
1st scatterer and 2nd dual-ring scatterer. We can form the flat field easily by placing only two
scatterers in the beam line. Then we have developed a carbon-ion beam spreading system using the
dual-ring double scattering method. We have verified flatness of the radiation field with
measurements. Energy loss of the carbon beam was found to be much larger than that with the beam
wobbling method since more scattering power was required for the double scattering system.

References
[1] T. Kanai et al, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44(1999) 201
[2] Y. Takada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33(1994) 353
10th Europpean Conferencce on Acceleratoors in Applied Research
R and Technology,
T Athhens, Septemberr 2010 215

Recent progress
p o new treeatment research
on r p
project att HIMAC
K. Nodda, T. Furukaawa, T. Inaniwwa, Y. Iwataa, M. Kanazaawa, S. Minoohara, K. Mizzushima, S. Mori,
M T.
M
Murakami, N Sakamoto, S. Sato, T. Shirai,
N. S E. Takkada, Y. Takkei
National Institute off Radiologicaal Sciences, Chiba,
C Japann, noda_k@nnirs.go.jp
On the basis of moore than tenn years of exxperience off the carbonn-ion radiothherapy with HIMAC
(Heavy-IIon Medical Acceleratorr in Chiba), we w have carrried out a neew treatmennt research prroject for
“adaptivve cancer theerapy” with HIMAC sinnce April 20 006. In this project, 3D D fast raster--scanning
method with gated irradiation
i w patient’ss respiration has been suuccessfully ddeveloped, in
with n order to
realize adaptive
a canccer therapy in
i both the moving
m and fixed
f targets.. In this methhod, we havve studied
on threee subjects inn order to increase thee scanning speed s withoout any distuurbance of the dose
distributtion: 1) Devvelopment of a new treeatment plan nning, 2) Exxtended flatttop operatio on of the
HIMAC synchrotronn and 3) Design and connstruction off fast scanniing-magnet ssystem. As shown s in
Fig. 1, we
w constructeed a beam-teest port in thee HIMAC faacility to veriify its perforrmance. As a result of
experimeents, we obtaained good dose
d distribuutions as expected under the scanningg speed of 10 00 m/s in
horizonttal direction and that off 50 m/s in the vertical one. We haave construccted a new treatmentt
i order to appply the 3D fast raster-scanning dev
facility in ment for the adaptive
veloped to prractical treatm
cancer thherapy. Thiss facility, whhich is connnected with the HIMAC C acceleratorr, has three treatment
t
rooms: two
t rooms eqquipped withh horizontal and vertical beam-deliveery systems and one roo om with a
rotating gantry. The building connstruction off the new treatment faciliity was comppleted at Maarch 2010
and treattment of 1st patient is schheduled at March
M 2011. We
W will repoort the recentt progress on
n the new
treatmennt research prroject at HIM
MAC.

Figure 1: Beam-test
B port of 3D fast raster-scannning method.
216 Book of Abstracts

The characteristics of the beam injection system


in an electron linac
N. Bălţăţeanu1, A. Gheorghiu1, M. Jurba2, E. Popescu2
1
Hyperion University and Hyperion Research and Development Institute Bucharest,
169 Calea Călăraşilor, Bucharest 3, CP 030615, Romania
2
Electro Optic Components SRL, 171A Atomiştilor (Ilfov), Bucharest, CP 077125, Romania
This paper presents the main electrical and optoelectronic characteristics of an electron beam injection
system used for injecting and focusing electron beam into an acceleration structure of a 10 MeV linear
electron accelerator.
The beam injection system consists of a Pierce convergent diode type electron gun and a thin axially
symmetric magnetic lens, which provides an electron beam with the following parameters:
• Electron injection energy: 80 keV
• Pulse current: 1A
• Pulse duration: 2.5 µs
• Pulse repetition rate: 100-300 Hz
The perveance and the efficiency coefficient were optimized by the analogical resistors network. For
experimental investigations of the beam density distribution in a cross-section a simple and fast
method was applied.
This type of an injection system was used in the linear electron accelerators: ALIN-3 MeV, ALIN-10
MeV and ALID-8 MeV, constructed at NILPRP, Bucharest, ROMANIA.
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 217

Mixing of Cr and Si atoms induced by noble gas ions irradiation of Cr/Si


bilayers
S. Tobbeche1,*, A. Boukhari1, R. Khalfaoui2, A. Amokrane3,4, C. Benazzouz5, A. Guittoum5
1
Faculté des sciences, Université El-Hadj Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria
2
Faculté des sciences, Université M. Bougara, Boumerdès 35000, Algeria
3
Faculté de Physique, USTHB, B. P. 32 El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar 16111, Algeria
4
Ecole Nationale Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingéniorat, Route Nationale, Rouiba, Algeria
5
Centre de recherche nucléaire d'Alger, 02, Boulevard Frantz Fanon,
B.P.399 Alger-Gare, Algeria
Cr/Si bilayers were irradiated at room temperature with 120 keV Ar, 140 keV Kr and 350 keV Xe ions
to fluences ranging from 1015 to 2x1016 ions/cm2. The thickness of Cr layer evaporated on Si substrate
was about 400 Å. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is used to investigate the atomic
mixing induced at the Cr-Si interface as function of the incident ion mass and fluence. We observed
that for the samples irradiated with Ar ions, RBS yields from both Cr layer and Si substrate are the
same as before the irradiation. There is no mixing of Cr and Si atoms, even at the fluence of 2x1016
ions/cm2. For the samples irradiated with Kr ions, a slight broadening of the Cr and Si interfacial edges
is produced from the fluence of 5x1015 ions/cm2. The broadening of the Cr and Si interfacial edges is
more pronounced with Xe ions particularly to the fluence of 1016 ions/cm2. The interface broadening
was found to depend linearly on the ion fluence and suggests that the mixing is like a diffusion
controlled process. The experimental mixing rates are determined and compared to values predicted by
ballistic and thermal spike models. Our experimental data are well reproduced by the thermal spikes
model.
218 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 219

AUTHOR INDEX
220 Book of Abstracts
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 221

G. ∙ 178  P. ∙ 103  L. ∙ 73, 103 


Axiotis  Bordas  Cassimi 
A  M. ∙ 15, 19  E. ∙ 62  A. ∙ 57 
Ayzatskiy  Borka  Cereceda 
Abriola  N. I. ∙ 149  D. ∙ 121  F. ∙ 74 
D. ∙ 17, 131  Bosherini  Cervera‐Xicotencatl 
Abs  F. ∙ 196  A. ∙ 205 
M. ∙ 63  B  Botelho  Châabane 
Adam Rebeles  M. L. ∙ 109  N. ∙ 62 
R. ∙ 92  Baba  Bottaini  Chacha 
Added  M. ∙ 93, 94, 187  C. ∙ 203  J. ∙ 83, 104, 137 
N. ∙ 40  Bader  Boudra  Chamizo 
Adelmann  M. ∙ 184  N. ∙ 140  E. ∙ 74 
A. ∙ 165  Bailey  Boukhari  Chatzitheodoridis 
Agarwal  M. J. ∙ 22, 101, 102  A. ∙ 217  E. ∙ 111 
A. ∙ 141  Balanzat  Bourlès  Chau 
Ager  E. ∙ 57  D. ∙ 178  L. P. ∙ 54 
F. J. ∙ 118  Bălțățeanu  Braucher  Chavan 
Akhmadaliev  N. ∙ 216  R. ∙ 178  S. T. ∙ 96 
Sh. ∙ 66  Barbosa  Bräuning  Chaves 
Alegria  M. D. L. ∙ 40  A. ∙ 182  F. ∙ 118 
F. ∙ 156  Bardelli  Briand  Chekirine 
Almeida  L. ∙ 103  E. ∙ 101  M. ∙ 129 
A. de ∙ 90  Bárdossy  Brijs  Chen 
Aloupi‐Siotis  G. ∙ 199  B. ∙ 26, 101, 102  G. S. ∙ 193 
L. ∙ 15  Barradas  Budak  Y. Z. ∙ 126 
Alram  N. P. ∙ 17, 101, 102,  S. ∙ 60, 83, 97, 104,  Chêne 
M. ∙ 38  109, 202  137  G. ∙ 34, 36, 151 
Altarelli  Barrera  Burchardt  Cheng 
M. ∙ 31  M. ∙ 113  I. ∙ 182  Y. C. ∙ 193 
Alvarez‐Iglesias  Becagli  Burton  Chhay 
P. ∙ 169, 170  S. ∙ 105  J. R. ∙ 72, 179  B. ∙ 60 
Alves  Beck  Chiari 
E. ∙ 101, 102, 156  L. ∙ 35  M. ∙ 17, 39, 86, 105 
L. C. ∙ 202  Beckhoff  C  Cho 
Ammi  B. ∙ 32, 33  I. C. ∙ 106 
H. ∙ 129  Bejjani  Caccia  Choudhury 
Amokrane  A. ∙ 41  M. ∙ 153  R. K. ∙ 129 
A. ∙ 140, 217  Beltrán‐Hernández  Caciolli  Christl 
An  R. I. ∙ 27  A. ∙ 86  M. ∙ 181 
Sh. ∙ 163, 164, 165,  Benazzouz  Čadež  Ciceri 
167  C. ∙ 217  I. ∙ 138  G. ∙ 77 
Andrade  Benzeggouta  Caforio  Clar 
E. ∙ 27, 125, 191,  D. ∙ 101  L. ∙ 73, 169, 170  M. ∙ 151 
201  Berec  Cai  Climent‐Font 
Andrianis  V. ∙ 121  Y. ∙ 167  A. ∙ 59, 86, 112, 113, 
M. ∙ 15, 33  Bergmaier  Calcagnile  203 
Andrzejewski  A. ∙ 61, 101  L. ∙ 77, 122, 171,  Cloots 
R. ∙ 24  Bhoraskar  172, 173  R. ∙ 117 
Aoki  V. N. ∙ 100  Calvo del Castillo  Coimbra 
T. ∙ 49  Biswas  H. ∙ 205  R. ∙ 169 
Arnold  D. C. ∙ 129  Calzolai  Colonna 
M. ∙ 178  Blaum  G. ∙ 39, 86, 105  N. ∙ 55 
Arstila  K. ∙ 64  Capano  Colson 
K. ∙ 26  Bogdanovic‐Radovic  M. ∙ 75  P. ∙ 117 
Arvanitidis  I. ∙ 17, 56, 91, 101  Caramia  Constantinou 
J. ∙ 195  Bol  A. ∙ 171, 172, 173  Ch. ∙ 128 
Ashley  J.‐L. ∙ 63  Carlile  Corniani 
S. F. ∙ 15  Bols  C. J. ∙ 53  E. ∙ 107 
Assmann  S. ∙ 36  Carlsson  Corregidor 
W. ∙ 61, 184  Bonanni  P. ∙ 53  V. ∙ 202 
Aumaître  L. ∙ 86, 105  Carraresi  Cruz 
J. ∙ 108, 125 
222 Book of Abstracts

Cui  Z. E. ∙ 25  Geralis  D. ∙ 175 


T. ∙ 167  Fadel  Th. ∙ 15  Harissopulos 
Cultrera  E. ∙ 41  Gheorghiu  S. ∙ 15, 19, 87, 89 
L. ∙ 194  Fanourakis  A. ∙ 216  Hasegawa 
G. ∙ 15  Gialanella  J. ∙ 206, 208 
Fasano  L. ∙ 174  Hattori 
D  V. ∙ 194  Gierl  T. ∙ 160 
Fedi  S. ∙ 182  Hayano 
D’Elia  M. E. ∙ 73, 169, 170  Gihwala  H. ∙ 159 
M. ∙ 77, 122, 171,  Fellenberger  D. ∙ 116  Hayashizaki 
172, 173  F. ∙ 64  Gilbert  N. ∙ 160 
D’Onofrio  Fichtner  B. ∙ 205  Heidary 
A. ∙ 174  P. F. P. ∙ 25  Gnaser  K. ∙ 83, 104, 137 
Dahiwale  Fievet  H. ∙ 175  Heilmann 
S. ∙ 100  S. ∙ 205  Godelitsas  M. ∙ 54 
Dararutana  Finazzo  A. ∙ 111, 198, 199  Heinze 
P. ∙ 210  S. I. ∙ 204  Golser  S. ∙ 78 
Darragon  Fleming  R. ∙ 71, 175, 177  Hejja 
F. ∙ 182  M. I. D'A. ∙ 40  Gómez‐Tubío  I. ∙ 183 
De Cesare  Fonseca  B. ∙ 118  Heller 
M. ∙ 174  M. ∙ 108, 109  Gotoh  R. ∙ 66 
N. ∙ 174  Forstner  Y. ∙ 99  Henrist 
Delhalle  O. ∙ 71, 175, 177  Gottdang  C. ∙ 117 
R. ∙ 117  Forton  A. ∙ 78  Hermanne 
Dellinger  E. ∙ 63  Göttlicher  A. ∙ 92, 93, 94, 187 
F. ∙ 71  Foteinou  J. ∙ 198, 199  Hernandez‐Pavón 
Demetriou  V. ∙ 15, 19, 87, 89  Grande  I. ∙ 191 
P. ∙ 15  Froese  P. L. ∙ 25, 127  Heuskin 
Dewald  M. ∙ 64  Grassi  A.‐C. ∙ 50, 153 
A. ∙ 78  Fujimoto  N. ∙ 103  Himukai 
Dewalque  T. ∙ 152, 186, 213  Greene  T. ∙ 188, 214 
J. ∙ 117  Fujita  J. ∙ 136  Hippler 
Dhole  H. ∙ 26  Grieser  R. ∙ 23 
S. D. ∙ 96, 100  Fukuda  M. ∙ 64  Hirose 
Diakaki  H. ∙ 208  Grlj  M. ∙ 120, 123 
M. ∙ 128  Furukawa  N. ∙ 138  Hnatowicz 
Dikiy  T. ∙ 154, 158, 186,  Guan  V. ∙ 58, 100 
N. P. ∙ 149  188, 213, 214,  F. ∙ 167  Hocquet 
Ditrói  215  Y. ∙ 174  F. P. ∙ 205 
F. ∙ 93, 94, 107, 187  Furuyama  Guerra  Holland 
Döbeli  Y. ∙ 110, 212  M. ∙ 38  L. R. ∙ 60 
M. ∙ 67, 119  Guillou  Hsiao 
Dovbnya  T. ∙ 35  Ch.‐Y. ∙ 190 
A. N. ∙ 149  G  Guittoum  Hsieh 
Dubreuil  A. ∙ 217  B.‐T. ∙ 189 
O. ∙ 117  Gaballo  Gurbich  Hsu 
Dupuis  V. ∙ 172, 173  A. F. ∙ 17, 18  C. H. ∙ 106 
T. ∙ 34, 36, 151  Galaviz  Gutiérrez  Ch.‐H. ∙ 190 
D. ∙ 108  C. ∙ 113  J. Y. ∙ 114 
Gamaletsos  Gutiérrez Neira  Hu 
P. C. ∙ 203  W. ∙ 167 
E  P. ∙ 199 
Gutiérrez‐Neira  Huang 
García López 
J. ∙ 207  P. C. ∙ 112  J. W. ∙ 114 
Eckstein  R. T. ∙ 114 
W. ∙ 20  García‐León 
M. ∙ 74  T.‐Ch. ∙ 190, 192 
Elliman 
R. ∙ 57, 102  García‐Tenorio  H  Huszank 
R. ∙ 207  R. ∙ 15, 139 
Escudero 
C. ∙ 113  Garnir  Hadjidimitriou 
H. P. ∙ 34, 36  A. ∙ 98 
H.‐P. ∙ 151  Hahn  I 
Garraffo  R. von ∙ 64 
F  S. ∙ 37  Hanna  Ibarra‐Palos 
Geets  S. M. ∙ 47  A. ∙ 125 
Fabrim  J.‐M. ∙ 63  Hanstorp  Ignatyuk 
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 223

A. ∙ 92, 93, 94, 187  A. ∙ 66  M. ∙ 53 


Ila 
K  Komatsu  Liu 
D. ∙ 60, 97, 104, 137,  K. ∙ 120  K. ∙ 211 
185  Kadowaki  Konstantinopoulos  Y.‐L. ∙ 189 
Imai  T. ∙ 186  Th. ∙ 15, 19, 87, 89  Loizou 
K. ∙ 120  Kafkarkou  Kotrotsou  V. ∙ 128 
Inaniwa  A. ∙ 88  A. ∙ 128  Longoria 
T. ∙ 188, 214, 215  Kajiya  Krantz  L. C. ∙ 27 
Inoue  E. ∙ 204  C. ∙ 64  Longworth 
H. ∙ 45  Kamwanna  Kretschmer  B. ∙ 183 
Isaac  T. ∙ 210  W. ∙ 182  Lopes 
K. ∙ 27  Kanazawa  Krishnan  J. ∙ 156 
Isaac‐Olivé  M. ∙ 152, 215  R. ∙ 96  Lopez 
K. ∙ 191  Kandler  Krupinski  C. ∙ 27 
Ishida  N. ∙ 176  R. ∙ 23  Lorenz 
T. ∙ 26  Kanjilal  Kuroda  K. ∙ 109 
Ishikawa  D. ∙ 141  R. ∙ 155, 159  Lorusso 
J. ∙ 99  Kantarelou  Kutschera  A. ∙ 194 
Ismet‐Gurhan  V. ∙ 15  W. ∙ 71, 177  Loveland 
S. ∙ 185  Karim  Kuwahara  W. D. ∙ 136 
Iwata  A. A. ∙ 22  Y. ∙ 24  Lowery 
Y. ∙ 152, 154, 186,  Karlušić  B. ∙ 83, 137 
213, 215  M. ∙ 161  Lu 
Karydas 
A. G. ∙ 15, 33 
L  Y. ∙ 162, 167 
Lucarelli 
Kashiwagi 
J  H. ∙ 160  Lachner  F. ∙ 39, 86, 105 
J. ∙ 181  Lucas 
S. ∙ 159  S. ∙ 50, 153 
Jabbar  Katagiri  Lagoyannis 
T. ∙ 176  A. ∙ 15, 19, 33, 87,  Luce 
K. ∙ 154, 158, 214  F. P. ∙ 25 
Jaiyen  Katsikini  88, 89, 98, 128 
S. ∙ 206  Laitinen  Lucho‐Constantino 
M. ∙ 195, 196, 197  C. A. ∙ 27 
Jaksic  Kavčič  M. ∙ 26 
M. ∙ 56, 91, 161  Lama  Lucio 
M. ∙ 138  O. de ∙ 201 
Jech  Kawasaki  L.S. del ∙ 90 
M. ∙ 107  Lambrou  O. G. de ∙ 125 
S. ∙ 45  Luís 
Jesus  Keinonen  M. ∙ 128 
A. P. ∙ 108, 109  Lange  H. ∙ 108, 109 
J. ∙ 76  Lyashko 
Jeynes  Khalfaoui  M. ∙ 64 
C. ∙ 17, 57, 101, 102  Laux  Yu. V. ∙ 149 
R. ∙ 217 
Jezeršek  Király  F. ∙ 64 
D. ∙ 138  B. ∙ 93, 94, 187  Lavrentiev 
Ji  V. ∙ 58  M 
Kitamura 
B. ∙ 164, 167  Lee 
A. ∙ 110, 212 
Jia  H. T. ∙ 115  Mahmoud 
Kleeven 
X. ∙ 164, 167  H. Y. ∙ 193  R. ∙ 41 
W. ∙ 63 
Jiang  Leichmann  Majid 
Klein 
X. ∙ 162, 168  K. ∙ 182  A. ∙ 130 
M. ∙ 78 
Jiménez‐Ramos  Leray  Makino 
Klemme 
M. C. ∙ 207  S. ∙ 16  S. ∙ 120 
S. ∙ 199 
Johnson  Li  Mallepell 
Kobayashi 
R. B. ∙ 83, 104, 137  D. ∙ 211  M. ∙ 67, 119 
T. ∙ 24 
Joho  M. ∙ 162, 163, 164,  Mandò 
Kochur 
W. ∙ 165  165, 167  P. A. ∙ 73, 103 
A. G. ∙ 33 
Jones  Z. ∙ 167  Manetti 
Koike 
B. ∙ 22  Zh. ∙ 65  M. ∙ 73, 170 
M. ∙ 155 
Jongen  Liang  Manso‐Silván 
Kojima 
Y. ∙ 63  J. H. ∙ 126  M. ∙ 59 
H. ∙ 99 
Junphong  J.‐A. ∙ 190, 192  Mara 
Kokkoris 
P. ∙ 200  Lima  E. ∙ 128 
M. ∙ 17, 19, 87, 88, 
Jurba  S. C. ∙ 40  Marchal 
89, 111, 128 
M. ∙ 216  Lin  A. ∙ 34, 36, 151 
Kolbe 
C. M. ∙ 126  Markelj 
M. ∙ 33 
J. ∙ 162, 167  S. ∙ 138 
Kolitsch 
Lindroos  Markina 
224 Book of Abstracts

E. ∙ 115  R. A. ∙ 185  T. ∙ 157  V. ∙ 204 


Marques  Minohara  Narumi  Palitsin 
M. T. ∙ 202  S. ∙ 215  K. ∙ 58  V. ∙ 22 
Mars  Miro  Nassisi  Palmieri 
J. A. ∙ 116  S. ∙ 62  V. ∙ 83, 134, 135  A. ∙ 174 
Martin  Miró  Nastos  Palonen 
H. ∙ 62  C. ∙ 74  P. ∙ 198  V. ∙ 76 
Martínez  Misaelides  Nava  Paloura 
M. A. ∙ 191  P. ∙ 19, 87, 88, 98  S. ∙ 39, 86, 105  E. C. ∙ 195, 196, 197 
Martínez‐Carrillo  Mitrakas  Neskovic  Paneta 
M. A. ∙ 27  M. ∙ 197  N. ∙ 121  V. ∙ 15, 88, 128 
Martín‐Marero  Mizushima  Neve  Papageorgiou 
D. ∙ 59  K. ∙ 154, 158, 213,  S. ∙ 124  D. ∙ 197 
Martinotti  214, 215  Nikiforov  Pappalardo 
V. ∙ 77  Mochizuki  V. I. ∙ 149, 150  G. ∙ 37 
Martín‐Palma  T. ∙ 160  Ninomiya  L. ∙ 37 
R. J. ∙ 59  Mody  S. ∙ 49  Pascholati 
Martschini  J. ∙ 22  Niu  P. R. ∙ 204 
M. ∙ 71, 175, 177  Mohamed  H. ∙ 106, 193  Passariello 
Maruccio  K. ∙ 169  Niwa  I. ∙ 75 
L. ∙ 122, 171  Mohammadi  O. ∙ 120  Pastuovic 
Maruyama  A. ∙ 94  Noda  Z. ∙ 56 
T. ∙ 160  Moignard  K. ∙ 152, 154, 158,  Pastuović 
Marzaioli  B. ∙ 35  186, 188, 213,  Z. ∙ 161 
F. ∙ 75  Möller  215  Patil 
Masubuchi  W. ∙ 66  Noli  B. J. ∙ 96 
S. ∙ 157  Momota  F. ∙ 98  Paulenova 
Masuda  S. ∙ 160  Noun  A. ∙ 136 
A. ∙ 159  Mondragón  M. ∙ 209  Pavetich 
Mathis  M. A. ∙ 191  Nourreddine  S. ∙ 177 
F. ∙ 34, 36, 117, 151,  Montero  A. ∙ 140  Pelicon 
205  I. ∙ 112, 203  Nsouli  P. ∙ 101, 138 
Matsumoto  Morel  B. ∙ 41, 209  Pellegrino 
H. ∙ 120, 123  A. ∙ 57  Nuttens  S. ∙ 62 
Matsuo  Moreno‐Suárez  V. ∙ 63  Peng 
J. ∙ 49  A. I. ∙ 118  N. ∙ 57 
Mayer  Moretto  Perrone 
M. ∙ 17, 20, 115  Ph. ∙ 44  O  A. ∙ 194 
McIntyre  Mori  Peruchena 
C. P. ∙ 72, 179  S. ∙ 215  Ogbara  J. I. ∙ 74 
Medeiros‐Romao  Mous  K. ∙ 83, 104, 137  Petchevist 
L. ∙ 63  D. J. W. ∙ 78  Oger  P. C. D. ∙ 90 
Meister  Mücklich  C. ∙ 205  Pethe 
D. ∙ 181  A. ∙ 61  Oguri  S. N. ∙ 96 
Melcher  Muller  Y. ∙ 206, 208  Petraglia 
M. ∙ 38  M. ∙ 33  Ohsawa  A. ∙ 174 
Mello  Müller  D. ∙ 120  Petrovic 
C. B. ∙ 83, 132, 133  A. M. ∙ 67, 119, 181  Oliveira  S. ∙ 121 
Melo  Muntele  R. M. ∙ 133  Philippe 
R. ∙ 109  C. ∙ 60, 83, 104, 137  V. S. ∙ 83, 132, 133  M. ∙ 34 
Menk  C. I. ∙ 97  Ontalba‐Salamanca  Pichon 
S. ∙ 64  Murakami  M. A. ∙ 118  L. ∙ 35 
Merchel  T. ∙ 215  Orlov  Pinakidou 
S. ∙ 66, 178  D. A. ∙ 64  F. ∙ 197 
Mertzimekis  Ortega‐Feliu  Pinilla 
T. J. ∙ 15, 19, 198,  N  I. ∙ 118, 207  E. C. ∙ 74 
199  Podlech 
Meusel  Nagayama  H. ∙ 54 
O. ∙ 54  Pongrac 
T. ∙ 45  P  P. ∙ 138 
Michiels  Nakagawa 
C. ∙ 50, 153  J. ∙ 160  Popescu 
Pacheco de Carvalho  E. ∙ 216 
Migliori  Nakamura  J. A. R. ∙ 95  Priller 
A. ∙ 103  M. ∙ 120, 123  Pagliaro  A. ∙ 71, 175, 176, 
Minamisawa  Nakanishi 
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 225

177  Roca  J. ∙ 184  P. ∙ 99 


Provatas  V. ∙ 174  Schmidt  Song 
G. ∙ 15, 19, 87, 89,  Rocha  L. PH. H. ∙ 124  G. ∙ 167 
128  J. ∙ 156  Schoemers  Sortica 
Pugh  M. F. ∙ 125, 191, 201  Ch. ∙ 154  M. A. ∙ 25, 127 
M. ∙ 83, 104, 137  Rodrigues  Schreiner  Spahn 
Punzón‐Quijorna  M. ∙ 38  M. ∙ 38  I. ∙ 187 
E. ∙ 59  Rodriguez  Schütze  Spronck 
Puurunen  M. G. ∙ 185  M. ∙ 124  G. ∙ 117 
R. ∙ 26  Rohlén  Seki  Srncik 
J. ∙ 175  T. ∙ 49  M. ∙ 71 
Romano  Sekine  Sroka 
Q  F. P. ∙ 37  C. ∙ 213  R. ∙ 184 
Romero‐Nunez  Serruys  Stamatelos 
Qiang  A. ∙ 125  Y. ∙ 62  N. ∙ 111 
Z. ∙ 57, 101, 102  Rossi  Servais  Steier 
Qin  M. ∙ 26  T. ∙ 63  P. ∙ 71, 169, 175, 
B. ∙ 211  Roumié  Shevchenko  176, 177 
J. ∙ 167  M. ∙ 41, 209  V. A. ∙ 149  Steinhof 
Quarta  Rubio  Shi  A. ∙ 180, 183 
G. ∙ 77, 122, 171,  B. ∙ 169  L. ∙ 17  Steininger 
172, 173  Rupnik  Shibuya  R. ∙ 199 
Quinto  Z. ∙ 138  S. ∙ 160  Stichelbaut 
F. ∙ 174  Shih  F. ∙ 63 
T.‐Y. ∙ 189  Stiebing 
S  Shirai  K. E. ∙ 124 
T. ∙ 152, 154, 158,  Stocquert 
R  186, 188, 213,  J. P. ∙ 140 
Saad 
I. ∙ 41  215  Strivay 
Radtke  Shornikov  D. ∙ 34, 36, 117, 151, 
C. ∙ 127  Sabbarese 
C. ∙ 174  A. ∙ 64  205 
M. ∙ 38  Siciliano  Sugahara 
Ramos  Sadi 
S. ∙ 136  M. V. ∙ 83, 134, 135  K. ∙ 45 
A. R. ∙ 17  Sieber  Suni 
Ratzinger  Sajavaara 
T. ∙ 26  T. ∙ 64  T. ∙ 26 
U. ∙ 54  Sigg  Suter 
Reden  Sakamoto 
N. ∙ 215  P. ∙ 165  M. ∙ 67, 70, 177 
K. F. von ∙ 72, 179,  Siketic  Suwannakachorn 
183  Sakaue 
K. ∙ 159  Z. ∙ 56, 91, 101  D. ∙ 200 
Redondo  Silva  Suzuki 
L. ∙ 156  Saliba 
N. ∙ 209  G. ∙ 83, 132, 133  T. ∙ 159 
Reis  Silva Jr.  Synal 
A. D. ∙ 95  Salomon 
J. ∙ 38  A. R. ∙ 83, 132, 133  H.‐A. ∙ 67, 70, 181 
M. A. ∙ 202  Simeonidis  Szikra 
Repnow  Sampaio 
F. G. A. ∙ 90  K. ∙ 197  D. ∙ 139 
R. ∙ 64  Simon  Szilágyi 
Respaldiza  Sanchez 
D. F. ∙ 25  A. ∙ 101, 102  E. ∙ 101, 102 
M. A. ∙ 118  R. ∙ 198  Szilasi 
Rey  Sato 
H. ∙ 99  Singkarat  S. Z. ∙ 139 
D. ∙ 169  S. ∙ 200 
Ribeiro  S. ∙ 154, 158, 188, 
215  Skukan 
J. P. ∙ 108  N. ∙ 56  T 
Ribeiro‐Pacheco  Saxena 
N. ∙ 141  Šmit 
C. F. F. P. ∙ 95  Z. ∙ 138 
Schäfer  Tacceti 
Riquier  Smith 
C. ∙ 184  F. ∙ 169 
H. ∙ 50, 153  A. J. ∙ 57 
Scharf  Taccetti 
Rivière  C. ∙ 83, 104, 137 
A. ∙ 182  F. ∙ 73, 170 
J.‐P. ∙ 98  R. W. ∙ 107, 161 
Schempp  Tada 
Rizzo  Sokaras 
A. ∙ 54  T. ∙ 208 
F. ∙ 37  D. ∙ 15, 33 
Rizzutto  Schiettekatte  Takács 
F. ∙ 20  Solis  S. ∙ 92, 93, 94, 107, 
M. A. ∙ 40, 204  C. ∙ 27, 125, 191, 
Schindel  187 
Roberts  201 
N. ∙ 38  Takada 
M. L. ∙ 72, 179  Sommani 
Schirra  E. ∙ 186, 215 
226 Book of Abstracts

Y. ∙ 214  Y. ∙ 49 
Takatomi 
U  Wallner 

T. ∙ 159  A. ∙ 71, 175, 177 
Takei  Uchiyama  G. ∙ 71, 176  Yamada 
Y. ∙ 215  H. ∙ 186  Walter  H. ∙ 49 
Takeshita  M. ∙ 152  P. ∙ 35  K. ∙ 155 
E. ∙ 154, 158, 188,  Udisti  Wang  T. ∙ 99 
214  R. ∙ 105  Ch. ∙ 162, 164, 166,  Yamazaki 
Takeuchi  Ueda  168  H. ∙ 94, 187 
T. ∙ 160  M. ∙ 83, 132, 133  Y. D. ∙ 193  Yang 
Taniike  S. ∙ 45  Washio  F. ∙ 65, 162, 164, 
A. ∙ 110, 212  Urakawa  M. ∙ 159  165, 167 
Tárkányi  J. ∙ 159  Watson  J. ∙ 162, 163, 164, 
F. ∙ 92, 93, 94, 107,  Uschold  P. R. ∙ 136  165, 167, 211 
187  S. ∙ 184  Webb  Yao 
Tasi  Utsumi  R. ∙ 22  H. ∙ 166 
Ch.‐J. ∙ 190  H. ∙ 120  Wegner  Yazbi 
Temst  Uvarov  B. ∙ 182  F. ∙ 41 
K. ∙ 57, 101, 102  V. L. ∙ 149, 150  Wei  Yin 
Tenishev  S. ∙ 163, 164, 167  Z. ∙ 164, 167 
A. Eh. ∙ 149  Weidlich  Younes 
Terrasi  V  P. ∙ 184  G. ∙ 41 
F. ∙ 75, 174  Weinrich  Yu 
Terunuma  Vacik  U. ∙ 46  L. D. ∙ 200 
N. ∙ 159  J. ∙ 58, 100  Wen  T. ∙ 211 
Terwagne  Van Klinken  L. ∙ 167  Y. C. ∙ 114 
G. ∙ 101, 102  G. J. ∙ 15  Wéra 
Thomas  Vandervorst  A.‐C. ∙ 50, 153 
J. P. ∙ 41  W. ∙ 57, 101, 102  Whitlow  Z 
Tikkanen  Vantomme  H. J. ∙ 26 
P. ∙ 76  A. ∙ 57, 101, 102  Wiesner  Zahraman 
Tilley  Vaubaillon  C. ∙ 54  K. ∙ 41 
R. ∙ 104  S. ∙ 62  Wild  Zaremba 
Tobbeche  Vavpetič  E. M. ∙ 169  S. ∙ 63 
S. ∙ 129, 217  P. ∙ 138  Winn  Zarkadas 
Toda  Velardi  A. ∙ 101  Ch. ∙ 33 
S. ∙ 24  L. ∙ 134, 135  Wolf  Zavala 
Toli  Ves  A. ∙ 64  E. P. ∙ 125, 201 
K. ∙ 198  S. ∙ 195  Wonglee  Zhang 
Torres‐Costa  Vettier  S. ∙ 208  G. ∙ 190, 192 
V. ∙ 59  Ch. ∙ 53  Won‐in  T. ∙ 65, 162, 163, 
Tosaki  Vickridge  K. ∙ 210  164, 165, 166, 
M. ∙ 120, 123  I. ∙ 17, 101  Wopelka  167, 168 
Toulemonde  Vidal  T. ∙ 107  X. ∙ 167 
M. ∙ 61  V. ∙ 74  Wu  Zhen 
Toussaint  Vidale  H.‐H. ∙ 189  X. ∙ 167 
C. ∙ 117  M. ∙ 172  J. ∙ 189  Zheng 
U. von ∙ 20  Vilaça  L. ∙ 167  X. ∙ 168 
Trautmann  R. ∙ 203  T.‐H. ∙ 189, 190, 192  Zhong 
C. ∙ 61  Vilas  J. ∙ 162, 163, 164, 
Tresintsi  F. ∙ 169  165, 166, 167 
S. ∙ 197  Vlachoudis  X  Zier 
Trindade  V. ∙ 21  M. ∙ 57, 101, 102 
G. F. ∙ 40  Vlastou  Xanthos  Zimmerman 
Tripathi  R. ∙ 88, 128  S. ∙ 199  R. L. ∙ 60, 97, 185 
A. ∙ 61  Vockenhuber  Xia  Zinkann 
Trocellier  Ch. ∙ 175, 181  L. ∙ 165  G. ∙ 136 
P. ∙ 62  Xiao  Žitnik 
Tsinganis  Z. ∙ 60  M. ∙ 138 
A. ∙ 128  W  Xing  Zou 
Tsuji  J. ∙ 167  J. ∙ 168 
H. ∙ 99  Wahl  Xiong  Zouros 
U. ∙ 48  Y. ∙ 211  Th. J. M. ∙ 15 
Wakamatsu  Zschau 
10th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Athens, September 2010 227

H.‐E. ∙ 124  Zucchiatti  A. ∙ 112, 113, 203