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2

Two-Way Slabs: Direct Design Method

ACI318-2014 Chapter8

INTRODUCTION

Flat plates: are solid concrete slabs of uniform depths that transfer loads directly to the

supporting columns without the aid of beams or capitals or drop panels. Flat plates can be

constructed quickly due to their simple formwork and reinforcing bar arrangements. They

need the smallest overall story heights to provide specified headroom requirements, and

they give the most flexibility in the arrangement of columns and partitions. They also

provide little obstruction to light and have high fire resistance because there are few

sharp corners where spalling of the concrete might occur. Flat plates are probably the

most commonly used slab system today for multi-story reinforced concrete hotels, motels,

apartment houses, hospitals, and dormitories.

Flat plates: danger that the columns may punch through the slabs. As a result, it is frequently

necessary to increase column sizes or slab thicknesses or to use shearheads. Shearheads

consist of steel I or channel shapes placed in the slab over the columns. For heavy industrial

loads or long spans, however, some other type of floor system may be required.

Flat slabs include two-way reinforced concrete slabs with capitals, drop panels, or both.

These slabs are very satisfactory for heavy loads and long spans. Although the formwork

is more expensive than for flat plates, flat slabs will require less concrete and reinforcing than

would be required for flat plates with the same loads and spans. They are particularly

economical for warehouses, parking and industrial buildings, and similar structures

where exposed drop panels or capitals are acceptable.

Two-way slab with beam: It is used where its cost is less than the costs of flat plates or flat

slabs, or when beams are required to generate strong frames for lateral loads resistance.

Waffle slab: the floor is constructed by arranging square fiberglass or metal pans with

tapered sides with spaces between them. When the concrete is placed over and between

3

the pans, the waffle shape is obtained. The intervals or gaps between the pans form the

beam webs (rib webs). These webs are rather deep and provide large moment arms for

the reinforcing bars. With waffle slabs, the weight of the concrete is greatly reduced

without significantly changing the moment resistance of the floor system. As in flat

plates, shear can be a problem near columns. Consequently, waffle floors are usually

made solid in those areas to increase shear resistance.

Two-way slabs are reinforced in both directions by layers of bars that are perpendicular

to each other.

Actually, the fact that a great deal of stress redistribution can occur in such slabs at high

loads makes it unnecessary to make designs based on theoretical analyses. Therefore the

design of two-way slabs is generally based on empirical moment coefficients.The total

amount of reinforcement in a slab seems more important than its exact placement.

ACI Code Section 8.2.1 allows slabs to be designed by any procedure that satisfies both

equilibrium and geometric compatibility, provided that every section has a strength at

least equal to the required strength, and that serviceability conditions are satisfied. Two

procedures for the flexural analysis and design of two-way floor systems are presented

in detail in the ACI Code. These are the direct-design method—considered in this

handout — and the equivalent-frame design method.

The method, involves a single-cycle moment distribution analysis of the structure based

on (a) the estimated flexural stiffnesses of the slabs, beams (if any), and columns and

(b) the torsional stiffnesses of the slabs and beams (if any) transverse to the direction in

which flexural moments are being determined.

4

Equivalent Frame Method ACI 8.11

In this method a portion of a structure is taken out by itself. The same stiffness values

used for the direct design method are used for the equivalent frame method.

The panels are divided into column and middle strips and positive and negative

moments are estimated in each strip. Column strip is a slab with a width on each side of

the column centerline equal to one-fourth the smaller of the panel dimensions l1 or l2. It

includes beams if they are present.

Middle strip is the part of the slab between the two column strips.

5

DEPTH LIMITATIONS AND STIFFNESS REQUIREMENTS

Slabs without Interior Beams

The minimum thickness can be taken from Table 8.3.1.1 in the Code. The values selected

from the table, however, must not be less than the following values:

2. Thickness of those slabs with drop panels outside the panels 100 mm.

(ACI 8.2.4) To be classified as a drop panel, a panel must extend horizontally in each

direction from the centerline of the support no less than one-sixth the distance, center to

center, of supports in that direction andproject vertically below the slab a distance no less

than one-fourth the thickness of the slab away from the drop panel.

Without Interior Beams (mm)

Without drop panels With drop panels

Interior Interior

Exterior panels Exterior panels

panels panels

Without Without

fy, MPa With edge With edge

edge edge

beams beams

beams beams

n n n n n n

280

33 36 36 36 40 40

n n n n n n

420

30 33 33 33 36 36

n n n n n n

520

28 31 31 31 34 34

6

In the table above:

- ln is the length of the clear span in the long direction of two-way construction,

measured face to face of the supports in slabs without beams, and face to face of

edge beams or other supports in other cases.

- Drop panels should satisfy ACI 8.2.4.

- Exterior panels shall be considered without edge beams if αf< 0.8.

With edge beams running around the perimeter of the building: the stiffness of slabs with

edge beams is expressed as a function of αf, which follows.

the slab (E cs I s ) whose width equals the distance between the centerlines of the panels on

each side of the beam.

If no beams are used, as for the flat plate, αf will equal 0.

EcbI b

αf = (8.10.2.7, b)

EcsIs

where

Ecb = the modulus of elasticity of the beam concrete

Ecs = the modulus of elasticity of the slab concrete

Ib = the gross moment of inertia about the centroidal axis of a section made up of

the beam and the slab on each side of the beam extending a distance equal to

the projection of the beam above or below the slab (whichever is greater)

but not exceeding four times the slab thickness.

Is= the moment of inertia of the gross section of the slab taken about the

centroidal axis and equal to h3/12 times the slab width, where the width is the

same as for αf.

7

EXAMPLE-1

Using the ACI Code, determine the minimum permissible total thicknesses required for the slabs

in panels 3 and 2 for the floor system shown in the figure below. Edge beams are used around

the building perimeter, and they are 300 mm. wide and extend vertically for 200 mm. below

the slab, as shown in the Figure. They also extend 200 mm. out into the slab as required by ACI

(8.4.1.8). No drop panels are used, and the concrete in the slab is the same as that used in the edge

beams. fy= 420 MPa.

SOLUTION:

For Interior Panel: (3)

αf = 0 (since the interior panels have no perimeter beams)

ln = 6 – 0.4= 5.6 m (clear distance between columns)

ln

Min h from Table 16.1 = = 0.169 m= 169 mm.

33

May not be less than 125 mm. , according to ACI8.3.1.1 Try 170 mm.

8

For Exterior Panel: (2)

Assume h = 170mm. and compute α with reference made to the Figure. Centroid of cross-

hatched beam section located by statics 161.5 mm. from top.

I b = (500 )(161.5) + (300 )(208.5) + (200 )(8.5)

3 3 3

= 1.61*109 mm.4

1

I s = (2550 )(170 ) = 1.04 × 10 9 mm 4

3

12

αf = =

(

EI b (E ) 1.61 × 109 )

= 1.55 > 0.8

(

EI s (E ) 1.04 × 109 )

n 6 − 0.4

Min h = = = 0.169m = 169mm. Therefore use 170 mm.

33 33

9

Slabs with Interior Beams

To determine the minimum thickness of slabs with beams spanning between their

supports on all sides, Section 8.3.1.2 of the Code must be followed. Involved in the

expressions presented there are span lengths, panel shapes, flexural stiffness of beams if they

are used, steel yield stresses, and so on. In these equations the following terms are used:

ln= the clear span in the long direction, measured face to face, of

(a) columns for slabs without beams and (b) beams for slabs with beams

β= the ratio of the long to the short clear span

αfm= the average value of the ratios of beam- to- slab stiffness on allsides of a panel

substituting into the equations to follow, which are given in Table 8.3.1.2. In the equations, the

quantity βis used to take into account the effect of the shape of the panel on its deflection, while

the effect of beams (if any) is represented by αfm. If there are no beams present (as is the case

for flat slabs),αfm will equal 0.

10

For panels with discontinuous edges, the Code 8.3.1.2.1 requires that edge beams be used,

which have a minimum stiffness ratio a equal to 0.8, or else that the minimum slab thicknesses,

as determined by ACI Equations must be increased by 10%.

The designer may use slabs of lesser thicknesses than those required by the ACI Code as

described in the preceding paragraphs if deflections are computed and found to be equal to or

less than the limiting values given in the ACI Table 24.2.2.

Should the various rules for minimum thickness be followed but the resulting slab isinsufficient

to provide the shear capacity required for the particular column size, column capitals will

probably be required. Beams running between the columns may be used for some slabs where

partitions or heavy equipment loads are placed near column lines, A very common case

of this type occurs where exterior beams are used when the exterior walls are supported

directly by the slab. Another situation where beams may be used occurs where there is

concern about the magnitude of slab vibrations. The following example illustrates the

application of the minimum slab thickness rules for a two-way slab with beams.

EXAMPLE-2

The two-way slab shown in next Figure has been assumed to have a thickness of 175 mm. Section

A-A in the figure shows the beam cross section. Check the ACI equations to determine if the slab

thickness is satisfactory for an interior panel. f’c = 28 Mpa, fy =420 Mpa..

SOLUTION

(Using the same concrete for beams and slabs)

1

= (6000 )(175) = 2.7 * 10 9 mm. 4

3

12

Ib = gross I of T beam section shown in next Figure about centroidal axis =7.1*109 mm.4

α1 = =

( )

EIb (E ) 7.1 * 10 9

= 2.63

( )

EIs (E ) 2.7 * 10 9

11

A two-way slab

Computing α2for short span of Interior Beams:

1

Is for 7.2 m wide slab = (7200 )(175)3 = 3.22 *10 9 mm 4

12

Ib = 7.1*109 mm4.

α2 =

(E )(7.1*109 ) = 2.2

(E )(3.22 *109 )

2α1 + 2α 2 2 × 2.63 + 2 × 2.2

Computingαfm: α fm = = = 2.42

4 4

αfm = 2.42 > 2

fy

n 0.8 +

1400

h=

36 + 9 β

lnlong = 7200 – 300 = 6900 mm.

lnshort = 6000 – 300 = 5700 mm.

β = 6900/5700 = 1.21

1400

h= = 161.87 mm. Use 170 mm. Slab

36 + (9 )(1.21)

12

SHEAR RESISTANCE OF SLABS

- For two-way slabs supported by beams or walls, one-way shears are calculated at a

distance d from the faces of the walls or beams.

- The value of ∅Vcis, as for beams, φ 0.17λ f 'c bw d

- For flat slabs and flat plates supported directly by columns, shear may be the

critical factor in design.

Two kinds of shear must be considered:

One-way (beam shear)

Two-way shears (punching shear)

For beam shear analysis, the slab is considered to act as a wide beam running between the

supports. The critical sections are taken at a distance d from the face of the column or

capital.

For punching shear, the critical sectionis taken at a distance d/2 from the face of the

column, capital, or drop panel, and VU≤∅VCshould be satisfied, where Vc is given next.

Maximum allowable nominal shear strength Vcof the section as required by the

ACI22.6.5.2 is the smallest of the values from:

2

Vc = 0.171 + λ f c' b0 d

β

longside

β=

of the column

shortside

α d

Vc = 0.083 2 + s λ f c' b0 d

b0

αs = 40 for interior columns

αs = 30 for edge columns

αs = 20 for corner columns

Vc = 0.33λ f c' b0 d

b0 = perimeter of the critical section

13

If VU>∅VC

2. Adding a drop panel

3. Adding a fillet or capital around the column

4. Adding shear reinforcement or a shearhead

5. Increasing the column size

ACI 22.6.6 If special shear reinforcement is provided, VU≤∅Vn, max where Vn,maxis the

maximum nominal shear strength.Vn, max cannot exceed:

Provided that the value used for Vc in the termVs = Vu/∅– Vcdoes not exceed:

Vc = 0.17λ f c' b0 d

If shear stresses are too large around interior columns, it is possible to increase the

shearing strength of the slabs by as much as 75% by using shearheads.

EXAMPLE-3

Check the Shear for an interior flat plate for the structure shown in the figure.

Assume a service live load equal to 3.83 kN/m2, and a service dead load equal to 5.27 kN/m2

(including slab weight),

14

SOLUTION

Using d for shear equal to the estimated average of the d values in the two directions, thus,

using a clear cover of 20mm and rebars N.13, we obtain:

wu= 1.2 x 5.27 + 1.6 x 3.83 = 12.45 kN/m2

15

Vu1 = (2.64x1)(12.45) = 32.87 kN for a 1m width strip

φVc = 0.75 * 0.17 21 *1000 *157.3 = 91.9kN .

400 + 157.3 300 + 157.3

Vu 2 = (6 )(4.8) − (12.45) = 355.4kN .

1000 1000

2

∅𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐 = 0.75 ∗ 0.17 ∗ �1 + � ∗ �𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′ ∗ 𝑏𝑏0 ∗ 𝑑𝑑 = 466.2 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘.

𝛽𝛽

400

𝛽𝛽 = = 1.333

300

𝛼𝛼𝑠𝑠 ∗ 𝑑𝑑

∅𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐 = 0.75 ∗ 0.083 ∗ �2 + � ∗ �𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′ ∗ 𝑏𝑏0 ∗ 𝑑𝑑 = 464.4 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘.

𝑏𝑏0

𝛼𝛼𝑠𝑠 = 40 Interior Column

16

THE DIRECT DESIGN METHOD (ACI 8.10)

8.10.1.3 Circular or regular polygon-shaped supports shall be treated as square supports with

the same area.

R8.10.1.3 If a supporting member does not have a rectangular cross section or if the sides of

the rectangle are not parallel to the spans, it is to be treated as a square support having the

same area, as illustrated in Fig. R8.10.1.3.

2. Successive span lengths measured center-to-center of supports in each direction

shall not differ by more than one-third of the longer span.

3. Panels shall be rectangular, with the ratio of longer to shorter panel dimensions,

measured center-to-center of supports not to exceed 2.

4. Columns offset shall not exceed 10% of the span length in the direction of the offset

from either axis between center-lines of successive columns.

5. All loads must be due to gravity only and must be uniformly distributed over an entire

panel.

6. Unfactoredlive load shall not exceed two times the unfactoreddead load.

7. For a panel with beams between supports on all sides, the following equation shall be

satisfied for those beams in the two perpendicular directions.

17

α f 1 22

0.2 ≤ ≤ 5.0

α f 2 12

EcbI b

Where αf1 and αf2 are calculated by: α f =

EcsIs

1- The total moment Mo = sum of the maximum positive and negative moments in the

span. For a uniform load:

M0 =

(qu l2 )(l1 )

2

l1 is the span length, center to center, of supports in the direction in which moments are

being taken and l2 is the length of the span transverse to l1, measured center to center

of the supports.

l1 is replaced with l n the clear span measured face to face of the supports in the

direction in which moments are taken. The Code states that l n may not be taken to

be less than 65% of the span l1 measured center to center of supports. If l1 is

replaced with l n , the expression for M o , which is called the static moment, becomes

M0 =

(qu l2 )(ln )2

8

When the static moment is being calculated in the long direction, it is written as Mol

and in the short direction as Mos.

2- It is next necessary to know what proportions of these total moments are positive and

what proportions are negative. If a slab was completely fixed at the end of each panel,

the division would be as it is in a fixed-end beam, two-thirds negative and one-third

positive, as shown:

18

ACI Code provides a set of percentages for dividing the total factored static moment

into its positive and negative parts in an end span.

Slab with Slab without beams

beams between interior supports Exterior

Exterior edge

between all Without With edge edge fully

unrestrained

supports edge beam beam restrained

Interior negative

0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.65

factor moment

Positive factored

0.63 0.57 0.52 0.50 0.35

moment

Exterior negative

0 0.16 0.26 0.30 0.65

factored moment

3. The next step is to estimate what proportion of these moments is taken by the column

strips and what proportion is taken by the middle strips.

19

Sample moments for a flat plate with no edge beams.

ACI Code states that the column strip shall be proportioned to resist the percentages of the total

interior negative design moment given in Table 8.10.5.1.

In the table, αf1is again the ratio of the stiffness of a beam section to the stiffness of a width of

slab bounded laterally by the length of the adjacent panel, if any, on each side of the beam and

equals EcbIb/EcsIs.

ACI Code states that the column strip is to be assumed to resist percentages of the exterior

negative design moment, as given in Table 8.10.5.2. In this table βtis the ratio of the torsional

stiffness of an edge beam section to the flexural stiffness of a width of slab equal to the span

length of the beam center to center of supports.

ACI Code states that the column strip is to be proportioned to resist the portion of the

positive moments given in Table 8.10.5.5.

20

Table 8.10.5.1–Portion of interior negative Mu in column strip.

2

0.5 1.0 2.0

1

α f 1 2

=0 0.75 0.75 0.75

1

α f 1 2

≥1 0.90 0.75 0.45

1

Linear interpolations shall be made between values shown.

2

0.5 1.0 2.0

1

=0

1 β t ≥ 2.5 0.75 0.75 0.75

≥1

1 β t ≥ 2.5 0.90 0.75 0.45

Linear interpolations shall be made between values shown.

E cb C x x3 y

βt = C = ∑ 1 − 0.63

2 E cs I s y 3

The constant C for T- or L-sections shall be to be evaluated by dividing the section into

separate rectangular parts, as defined in 8.4.1.8, and summing the values of C for each part.

y is the longer overall dimension of a rectangular part of a cross section

different configurations. The configuration

that gives the greatest value of C shall be used.

Where supports consist of columns or walls extending for a distance equal to or greater than

3 used to compute M0, negative moments shall be considered to be uniformly distributed

4 2

across l2.

21

Table 8.10.5.5- Portion of positive Mu in column strip

2

0.5 1.0 2.0

1

α f 1 2

=0 0.60 0.60 0.60

1

α f 1 2

≥1 0.90 0.75 0.45

1

Linear interpolations shall be made between values shown.

The Code requires that the beam be allotted 85% of the column strip moment if

αf1(l2/l1)>1.0. Should αf1(l2/l1) be between 1.0 and zero, the moment allotted to the beam

is determined by linear interpolation from 85% to 0%.

8.10.5.7.1 Beams between supports shall resist the portion of column strip Muin accordance

with Table 8.10.5.7.1.

αf1ℓ2/ℓ1 Distribution coefficient

0 0

≥1.0 0.85

Note: Linear interpolation shall be made between values shown.

moments caused by factored loads applied directly to the beams, including the weight of the

beam stem above and below the slab.

The part of the moment not given to the beam is allotted to the slab in the column strip.

Finally, the Code requires that the portion of the design moments not resisted by the column

strips as previously described is to be allotted to the corresponding half middle strip. The

middle strip will be designed to resist the total of the moments assigned to its two half middle

strips.

22

Factored Moments in Columns and Walls (ACI 8.10.7)

If there is an unbalanced loading of two adjoining spans, the result will be an additional

moment at the connection of walls and columns to slabs. The Code provides the approximate

equation listed at the end of this paragraph to consider the effects of such situations. This

particular equation was derived for two adjoining spans, one longer than the other. It was

assumed that the longer span was loaded with dead load plus one-half live load and that only

dead load was applied to the shorter span.

[

M SC = 0.07 (q Du + 0.5q Lu ) 2 2n − q ' Du '2 ('n )

2

] (8.10.7.2)

In this expression q’Du, l’2 and l’n are for the shorter spans. It will be noted that qDuand

qLuare factored Dead Load and factored Live Load, respectively. The resulting approximate

value should be used for unbalanced moment transfer by gravity loading at interior columns

or walls unless a more theoretical analysis is used.

For Edge columns, the moment to be transferred between the slab and column shall not be

less than 0.3MO.

These unbalanced moments should also be used in the design of the columns after they are

divided for columns above and below the slabs in proportion to the columns flexural

stiffnesses, 4EI/l.

8.5.4.1 Openings of any size shall be permitted in slab systems if shown by analysis that all

strength and serviceability requirements, including the limits on deflections, are satisfied.

8.5.4.2 As an alternative to 8.5.4.1, openings shall be permitted in slab systems without beams

in accordance with (a) through (d).

(a) Openings of any size shall be permitted in the area common to intersecting middle

strips, but the total quantity of reinforcement in the panel shall be at least that required

for the panel without the opening.

23

(b) At two intersecting column strips, not more than one eighth the width of column strip

in either span shall be interrupted by openings. A quantity of reinforcement at least

equal to that interrupted by an opening shall be added on the sides of the opening.

(c) At the intersection of one column strip and one middle strip, not more than one-fourth

of the reinforcement in either strip shall be interrupted by openings. A quantity of

reinforcement at least equal to that interrupted by an opening shall be added on the sides

of the opening.

(d) If an opening is located within a column strip or closer than 10h from a concentrated

load or reaction area, 22.6.4.3 for slabs without shearheads or 22.6.9.9 for slabs with

shearheads shall be satisfied.

8.8.1 General

8.8.1.1 Nonprestressed two-way joist construction consists of a monolithic combination of

regularly spaced ribs and a top slab designed to span in two orthogonal directions.

8.8.1.2 Width of ribs shall be at least 100 mm. at any location along the depth.

8.8.1.3 Overall depth of ribs shall not exceed 3.5 times the minimum width.

8.8.1.4 Clear spacing between ribs shall not exceed 750 mm.

8.8.1.5 Vcshall be permitted to be taken as 1.1 times the values calculated in 22.5.

8.8.1.6 For structural integrity, at least one bottom bar in each joist shall be continuous and

shall be anchored to develop fyat the face of supports.

8.8.1.7 Reinforcement area perpendicular to the ribs shall satisfy slab moment strength

requirements, considering load concentrations, and shall be at least the shrinkage and

temperature reinforcement area in accordance with 24.4.

8.8.1.8 Two-way joist construction not satisfying the limitations of 8.8.1.1 through 8.8.1.4

shall be designed as slabs and beams.

8.8.3.1 If slab filler is made of a material with a strength less than fc’ of the slab concrete or

if no filler us used, cover slab thickness shall be at least the greater of one-twelfth the

clear distance between ribs and 50 mm.

24

8.6.1 Minimum Flexural Reinforcement

Table 8.6.1.1—As,minfor non-prestressed two-way slabs

Reinforcement

fy, Mpa As,min,mm2

type

Deformed bars < 420 0.0020Ag

Greater Ag

or welded wire ≥ 420 fy

of:

reinforcement

0.0014Ag

tension face in the direction of the span under consideration

longitudinal reinforcement shall not

exceed the lesser of 2h and 450mm. as

stated in ACI 8.7.2.2

slabs shall be in accordance to ACI 8.7.3

shall be in accordance to ACI 8.7.4

25

26

Minimum size of drop panels (ACI318-14 - 8.2.4)

27

Location of critical shear perimeters

28

Critical shear perimeters for columns near openings

or edges

29

Critical sections in slab with drop panels.

30

Critical sections and tributary areas for shear in flat plate.

31

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