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+ bac 2018......????
����� ������� �� ����� �������� ������ + ������ ������
1 - Comprehension :
A - WH Questions: .
Answer these questions :
-- ����� ��� ������ ���� ����� ��� ������
��� ��� ������ ���� � : Why ���� ������� Because ������ ����� �� so as to �����
����� �� ������ ����� �������
��� ��� ������ ���� � How �������� ���� � : By �� Adverb
��� ��� ������ ���� � Where �������� ����� ��� ��� ���� Place
��� ��� ������ ���� � What �������� ���� ���� ��� �� Thing
��� ��� ������ ���� � How many ��� ������� ���� ��� Number �� ���� ���� ����� a
lot, a few, several
��� ��� ������ ���� � When �������� ���� �������� ��� ��� �� ����� ��� ���� ��� ��.
B - True or False : ( Bilal_Chafi)
Are these sentences True or False ? Justify
- ����� ����� ������ ������ � ������� ������� ������ ���� ����� ����� ������� �����
- ��� ����� ������� ��� ������ ��� �������� " ".
C � Word Reference : (Bilal_Chafi)
What do the underlined words in the text refer to ?
��� ��� ���� :
I : ����� ���� ��� ������� ����� ���� �� ��� �� ���
He : ���� ��� ������ ������ ���� , Ahmed , Ali , Ibrahim , .....
She : ���� ��� ������ ������ , Khadija, Fatiha, Aya, Sara...
It : ���� ��� ��� ������ ������ ���� , Dog , Morocco, Casablanca, Ignorance...
They / Their: ���� ��� ����� ���� ������ �� ������ �� ������ , Students ,
Countries, Cities...
The Country : ���� ��� ���� �� , Morocco , Spain , United Emirates Arabia...
The year : ��� �� �� ���� , 1999, 2017 , 2034
Where : ���� ��� ������ , The Hospital , The House, the street...
The idea : ��� ���� ������ ������ ������ ���� ����� ���� ����
2 � Language :
A � Rewriting sentences : (Bilal_Chafi)
Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words given.
����� ������ �� ��� ������ ����� ���� ( Passive Voice - Conditionals - Reported
Speech ) :
1 - Passive Voice :
Passive and Active voice : ��� ���� ���� �� ��� ������� ��� ��� ����� ����� ��
������ ������� ��� �������� �� ���� .
������ :
Scientists have recently discovered a new vaccine for H1N1.
������ ���� ��� ��� ����� ��� :
=>> A new vaccine for H1N1.......
��� ����� ������ ��� ������ ������� �������� .
2 - Reported Speech :
��� ����� Reported Speech ��� ���� ���� ����� �� �����
�� ���� ������� ��������� ���� �� ���� ������ ������� :
- Ali said : " I learned English at a language center".
=>> Ali said.....
3 - Conditionals :
��� ���� ��� If �� ������ ����� ���� ����� �� Conditionals ��� ���� ������� ���� ��
Type three.
- Ali had a terrible accident because he didn't stop at the red light.
=>> If Ali....
B � Phrasal verbs : ( Bilal_Chafi)
��� ������ �� �� Phrasal verbs���� ����� �� ���������� ������� :
Stand for : means
Ex : WHO stands for Word Health Organization
Fill in : to complete
Ex : Fill in the gaps .
Look up : search a word in a dictionary
Ex : When I don�t know the meaning of a word, I look it up.
Apply for : to look for a job.
Ex : Ayoub has recently applied for a job, but he has turned off.
Look after : take care of sth
Ex: Look after your brothers until I get back home.
Take off : to fly ( planes )
Ex: the plane is going to take off at 7:45 am.
Turn down : to reduce the sound of sth
Ex: Could you turn down the music?.
Pick up : Learn smoothly
Ex: Egyptian language is easy to pick up.
Take up : Start doing sth regularly:
Ex : I have recently taken up Football.
Give up : abandon
Ex: Ali gave up smoking at a late age.
Make up : invent stories
Ex : Ibrahim made up a lie so as he could convince his friends about his absence.
Write down : take notes
Ex : The teacher always asks us to write down notes while studying.
Find out : discover
Ex : A new vaccine for H1N1 has been found out.
Keep on : continue
Ex : Why don�t you keep on working on that company although they don�t pay well.
Grow up : become adult
Ex : I grew up in a small village near El Jadida .
Log on : To connect
Ex : Everybody logs on his Facebook account at night.
Set up : Establish
Ex : Our school was set up in 2012.
Break down : Damage
Ex : My little brother broke down my phone but I didn�t punish him.
C � Irregular Verbs :
Be = Been
Get = Got /Gotten
Have = Had
Hear = Heard
Break = Broken
Grow = Grown
Send = Sent
Learn = Learned/learnt
Feel = Felt
Take = Token
Give = Given
Write = Written
Read = Read
See = Seen
D � Relative Clauses :: ( Bilal_Chafi)
Relative pronouns are
Subject : who which
Object : Whom - which
Possessive : whose
We use who and whom for people, and which for things
we may also use that for people or things
--------------------------------------
����� ������ relative pronoun �������� ��� ��� �����.
---------------------------
������
WHO
��� ��� ����� ������ � �� ����
subject
"The woman who came to the party yesterday was my aunt ".
-------------------------
������
WHOM
��� ��� ����� ������ � ����� ��
object
"The person whom you invited yesterday was rude."
--------------------------
������
WHICH
���� ������
��� ��� ����� ���� �� ������
subject and object
"Hicham didn't like the car which he bought two weeks ago."
---------------------------
������
WHOSE
��� ��� ��� �� �� ����� ������
Possessive
"The woman whose dress is white is my sister."
----------------------------------
������
WHERE
��� ��� ����� ���� �� ����
Place :
"The house where we live is nice ."
------------------------
������
WHEN
��� ��� ����� ��� ��� ������
Time :
" I still remember the day when I had that bad accident "
------------------------
������
WHY
������� ��� ��� ��
Reason :
" I don't know the reason why he has divorced his wife."
E � Functions : ( Bilal_Chafi )
��� �������� ���� ������ ���
**********************************************
= Asking for advice ��� �����
.
.
What should I do?
What do you advise me to do?
What ought I to do?
Do you think I should �?
Would you advise me to �?
----------------------------------
= Giving advice ����� �����
.
.I think you should (not) �.
I�d advise you (not) to �
You ought (not) to �
You�d better (not) �
*****************************************************************
= Agreeing �������� ��� ��� / ��� ��
.
.
I entirely agree.
I couldn�t agree more.
That�s a good point.
You�re absolutely right.
----------------------------------
= Disagreeing ��� ��������
.
.
I�m not sure I quite agree.
I�m afraid I don�t agree.
I see what you mean, but �
I don�t think so.
*******************************************************************
= Giving opinions ����� ���
.
.
I think/believe (that) �
In my opinion, �
In my view, �
As I see it, �
**********************************************************************
= Making a request ����� ���
.
.
Can you � please?
Will you � please?
Would you mind �ing?
Could you possibly �?
I would be grateful if you could �
I wonder if you could �
----------------------
= Accepting ���� �����
.
.
Sure/Certainly.
Of course.
With pleasure
By all means.
------------------------------
= Refusing ��� �����
I�m sorry I can�t.
I�m afraid I can�t.
I�d love to, but �
***************************************************************************
= Responding to good news ���� ��� ����� �����
.
.
That�s great/fantastic/wonderful news!
What great/splendid/wonderful news!
Congratulations
------------------------
= Responding to bad news ���� ��� ����� ��� �����
.
.
That�s awful/terrible!
I�m so sorry to hear that.
You poor thing! What hard luck!
***************************************************************************
= Complaining ����� ����
.
.I�m sorry to have to say this but �
I hate to mention this, but �
I�m sorry to bother you , but �
I�m afraid I have a complaint.
***************************************************************************
= Apologising ����� ������
.
.
I�m awfully/terribly/so sorry.
I didn�t mean to.
I really don�t know what to say.
I apologise; I didn�t do it on purpose.
***************************************************************************
DEFINING = definition = ����� �����
.
.
refer to / by.....we mean / is referred to as / is / are / etc
.
.
Examples
** The gender gap refers to the differences between men and women.
** The gender gap is referred to as being the differences between men and women.
** By gender gap we mean the differences between men and women.
.
.**************************************
CONTRAST = ������� ��� �����
.
.
but - however - yet - nevertheless - although - even though - despite - in spite of
- whereas - etc.
.
.
Examples
Our district has been short of water for about four months now. . However / But /
Yet , nothing has been done about it so far.
Karim takes after his father whereas Rachid takes after his mother.
In spite of / Despite his old age; my grandfather is attending a literacy night
school.
****************************************
CAUSE and EFFECT = ����� � �������
.
.
As/Because/Since / Therefore / So / Thus / Consequently / Because of this / As a
result / results in / leads to / causes / etc.
.
** The old man has tripped over a stone. As a result, he has cut his head very
badly.
******************************************
EXPRESSING PURPOSE =������� �� ��� �����
.
.
so as to / in order to / to / so that / in order that / so as not to / in order not
to
.
** He left early so as to / in order to / to avoid traffic jam
** She gave up fatty food so as not to / in order not to put on weight.
** He did his best so that / in order that his parents would be proud of him
.
************************************************
ADDITION = �������
.
.
And - in addition (to) � as well as � moreover � what�s more � not only�but also �
furthermore � besides � also � too � then � etc .
Example :
To be proficient in a foreign language, you need to master its grammar and
vocabulary. In addition to this, you need to gain insight into the culture of the
people who speak that language.
***********************************************
= Asking for clarification / Expressing misunderstanding ��� ����� / ������� �� ���
��� ��� ��
.
Excuse me.
I�m afraid ....
I�m sorry But I don�t really don�t understand whet you mean.
I�m not sure I understand what you mean.
Can you explain more what you are aiming at
********************************************
EXPRESSING REGRET = ������� �� ��� � ���
.
.
I wish / if only I had worked hard
I should have worked hard.
**********************************************
EXPRESSING CERTAINTY = ������� �� ���� ������
.
.
I am sure/ certain our team will win the football match tomorrow.
There is no doubt our team will win the football match tomorrow.
Our tea� will certainly / undoubtedly / surely win the football match tomorrow.
************************************************