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Grade 9

GOP Textbook Funds

Grade 9 GOP – Textbook Funds Learner’s Material GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR SALE ALLOTTED TO District/
Grade 9 GOP – Textbook Funds Learner’s Material GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR SALE ALLOTTED TO District/
Grade 9 GOP – Textbook Funds Learner’s Material GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR SALE ALLOTTED TO District/

Learner’s Material

Grade 9 GOP – Textbook Funds Learner’s Material GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR SALE ALLOTTED TO District/

GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR SALE ALLOTTED TO

District/ School:

Division First Year of Use:

Source of Fund (Year included):

Department of Education Republic of the Philippines

Technology & Livelihood EducationGrade 9 Learner’s Material First Edition, 2013 ISBN:

Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties.

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.

Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, Ph.D. Assistant Secretary: Lorna Dig-Dino, Ph.D.

Development Team of the Learner’s Material

Consultant: Rosendo R. Rafael, Howard Mark N. Plete and Clodualdo V. Paiton

Authors:

Antonio Blanco Jr. Master Teacher I Olongapo City NHS

Roderick C. Verano Teacher I/Furniture Making NC II Community Vocational High School Calapan City

Editors: Lando T. Guzman

Reviewers: Edgar Salcedo, Dr. Fely Manuel, Joel Castillo, Arnel Anonical, Romeo Vicmudo, Allan Mazon, Dr. Orly Manuel and Merham Abelardo

Illustrators:

Subject Specialists: Albert Erni, James Julius M. Liquigan, Owen S. Milambiling

Management Team: Lolita M. Andrada, Jocelyn DR Andaya, Bella O. Mariñas and Jose D. Tuguinayo Jr.

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Printed in the Philippines by

Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd- IMCS)

Office Address:

2 nd Floor Dorm G, Philsports Complex, Meralco

Telefax:

Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines 1600 (02) 634-1054, 634-1072

E-mail Address:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

PECs…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Environment and Market…………………………………………………………………… Process and Delivery …………………………………………………………………………

19

20

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 20

Pre/diagnostic assessment LO1……………………………………………………………

21

Information sheet 1.1 ………………………………………………………………………….

21

Self-check 1.1 ……………………………………………………………………………………

22

Information sheet 1.2 ………………………………………………………………………….

22

Self-check 1.2 ……………………………………………………………………………………

28

Information sheet 1.3 ………………………………………………………………………….

28

Self-check 1.3 …………………………………………………………………………………

29

Pre/diagnostic assessment LO2 …………………………………………………………….

30

Information sheet 2.1 ………………………………………………………………………….

30

Self-check 2.1 ……………………………………………………………………………………

31

Activity sheet 2.1………………………………………………………………………………

32

Summative Assessment Quarter I ………………………………………………………

36

Pre diagnostic LO3 ……………………………………………………………………………

38

Information sheet 3.1 ………………………………………………………………….

39

Self-check 3.1 ……………………………………………………………………………

43

Information sheet 3.2 ………………………………………………………………….

43

Self-check 3.2 ……………………………………………………………………………

46

Activity sheet 3.1 ………………………………………………………………………………

46

Summative Assessment Quarter II ……………………………………………………….

54

Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………

56

Pre/ diagnostic LO1 ……………………………………………………………………………

57

Information sheet 1.1 ………………………………………………………………………….

57

Self-check 1.1 ……………………………………………………………………………………

58

Information sheet 1.2 ………………………………………………………………………….

58

4

Self-check 1.2 …………………………………………………………………………………

60

Pre/diagnostic LO2 …………………………………………………………………………….

60

Information sheet 2.1 ………………………………………………………………

61

Self-check 2.1 ……………………………………………………………………………………

61

Activity sheet 2.1…………………………………………………………………………………

62

Summative Assessment Quarter III ………………………………………………………

65

Pre diagnostic LO3 …………………………………………………………………

68

Information sheet 3.1 …………………………………………………………………………

68

Self-check 3.1 …………………………………………………………………………………….

69

Activity sheet 3.1 ………………………………………………………………………………

69

Activity sheet 3.2 ………………………………………………………………………………

72

Summative Assessment Quarter IV ………………………………………………………

74

Technical Terms

77

References

78

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PART I:

KNOW

LESSON1.

PERSONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES (PECS)

IMPORTANT ENTREPRENEURIAL TRAITS

The following are the fundamental characteristics of an entrepreneur:

1. Hard work: A lot of time and energy is necessary for the success of your business. If you are determined to run your own business, you must concentrate more on your work either as a producer or as a seller.

2. Self- Confidence: You must have strong faith in your ability despite the problems that you will encounter along the way.

3. Future-Oriented: Once you enter in a line of business, you must understand that you are in a non-stop contract that an entrepreneur should understand. It may take several years to build up a business to a reasonable standard. The goal for most successful business people is to build a secure job and stable income for themselves based on their own ability.

4. Profit-Oriented: When you enter into the world of business, obviously, you are looking for income because you know that this will be your bread and butter not only for you but also for your family. Therefore, you must see to it that the business can generate income. Another plan of action is to expand your own business through the use of your generated income.

5. Goal-Oriented: An entrepreneur is forward looking. You must have an advanced preparation for your business. You must set a long- term goal for the activities that are needed, an extensive preparation for the production process and procedures that you need to go through to acquire human and non-human resources. Everything in your business will have to be set clearly, organized, and planned depending on the goal you want to achieve.

6. Persistence: As an entrepreneur, you need this drive to continue to

do something or try to do something.

7. Copes with Failure: Learn from your mistakes. As an entrepreneur, you must learn how to deal with the frustrations and failures. Turn these into productive learning experiences.

8. Responds to Feedback or Open to Feedback: You must be concerned to know how well you are doing and keep track of your performance. You must obtain useful feedback and advice from others.

9. Take the Initiative: A successful entrepreneur takes the initiative. You must put yourself in a position where you personally are responsible for the failure or success of your business.

6

10.

Willing to Listen: Take time to listen to the advice, suggestions,

and recommendations of fellow entrepreneurs. It will help your business grow. 11.Set your Own Standards: This involves developing and using logical, step-by-step plans to reach the goals, or offering evaluation

alternatives, monitoring progress, and switching to successful strategies for the goal you want to achieve. To be a successful entrepreneur you must take into consideration that sales and production depend on your own standards. 12.Copes with Uncertainty: Pursue your vision to be a

successful entrepreneur. You should know how to handle unusual events that may happen in the business which include problems in managing the workers, problems on the delivery of goods and services, and the problems on demand and production. You must be patient in dealing with these uncertainties.

13. Committed: You should know that in your business, personal needs, attachment to your friends, families and relatives are set aside. You must separate the money for your business from the amount that you need to spend for your personal obligations and your lifestyle.

14. Builds on Strengths: Successful business people base their work on strengths. Use your manual skills, knowledge in creating products or services, knowledge in trade and industry, ability to make and use of a wide network of contacts to build your business.

15.Reliable and has Integrity: As an entrepreneur, you must build a good reputation, possess the courage to do the right thing, do what you say, walk your talk, be loyal, and be fair in dealing with the subordinates and customers. 16.Risk-Taker: Risks sometimes cannot be anticipated. When misfortunes happen, consider these as challenges, work them out and set good alternatives. Risks may result to loss of your business or even bankruptcy.

PROCESS: ACTIVITY 1: ALIGNING ONE’S PECS DIRECTIONS: Choose from the list below the characteristics and

PROCESS: ACTIVITY 1: ALIGNING ONE’S PECS DIRECTIONS: Choose from the list below the characteristics and traits that best describe your own personal entrepreneurial characteristics. Find ways on how to align them according to the personal entrepreneurial characteristics of an entrepreneur which were discussed earlier. Write your answers in the activity sheet provided.

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Creative

Resourceful

Persistent

Organized

Independent

Confident

Risk taker

Observant

Competent

Trustworthy

Optimistic

Passionate

Flexible

Sensitive

Committed

Dynamic

Efficient

Hardworking

Decision-maker

Reliable

Knowledgeable

Persevering

Decisive

Strongminded

Courteous

Example:

Decisive Strong – minded Courteous Example: My PECs Try to design a concept map that indicates

My PECs Try to design a concept map that indicates your traits, characteristics and skills that you need to possess in order to become a successful entrepreneur.

   

Things to do to align with the

 

My PECs

My Simple Definition

PECs

of

a successful

 

entrepreneur

1.

Creative

   

2.

Organized

   

3.

Competent

   

4.

Observant

   

Activity 2. My PECs that need further improvement

Directions: At the center of the street are arrows where positive and negative characteristics and traits are written. Pick the positive PECs that you are already strong at, and write them down on the blank arrows on the left side. PECs written on the arrows at the right side are the negative characteristics that need to further improved.

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UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1: Strengthening your Identified PECs Guides on how to strengthen your own PECs:
UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1: Strengthening your Identified PECs Guides on how to strengthen your own PECs:

UNDERSTANDING:

LESSON 1: Strengthening your Identified PECs Guides on how to strengthen your own PECs:

1. React positively to criticisms and be open to feedback.

2. Always demonstrate a positive attitude to achieve a desired goal.

3. Always project a strong and well-balanced behavior.

4. Always exercise the assertive style in your work environment.

5. Avoid being too passive and being too aggressive.

6. Consider negative comments as challenges in improving your business.

7. Prioritize your business goals rather than personal goals in order to become a successful entrepreneur.

8. Acquire specific skills for creating and maintaining a conducive work environment.

9. Be responsible for everything you do in your business.

10. Always observe entrepreneurial ethics in putting up a business.

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ACTIVITY 1: MY TECHNIQUES TO STRENGTHEN MY PECS DIRECTIONS: From the given chart below, write at least six techniques on how you would strengthen your own PECs. Write the PECs that you feel that you still need to strengthen.

Example:

Self-confidence

that you still need to strengthen. Example: Self-confidence TRANSFER: PREPARATION OF AN ACTION PLAN CULMINATING ACTIVITY
that you still need to strengthen. Example: Self-confidence TRANSFER: PREPARATION OF AN ACTION PLAN CULMINATING ACTIVITY

TRANSFER:

PREPARATION OF AN ACTION PLAN

CULMINATING ACTIVITY

DIRECTIONS: Examine yourself once again. Make a short list of PECs that you need to strengthen. From this activity, prepare an action plan that requires further development. You may opt to follow the suggested format below. You may improve or change it as long as it suits your own plan of action.

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SAMPLE ACTION PLAN

Specific Purpose Statement: Developing self-confidence in furniture and sash factory business. (Or any business related to Civil Technology)

     

Measures

   

Reward/

Focus

Current

of Success

Actions

Time

Recognition

Area

Situation

Goal

Required

Frame

My PECs

I

need

to

-To exercise

-Achieve

 

-Selling

-During

-Earns

develop my

my own

100%

finished

culminating

expected

undefined

PECs

completion of

products

activities

income

characteris

during

development

derived

-After

-Outstanding

-tics

selling

and

of

my

own

from

learning

performance

necessary

producing

PECs through

culminating

the

in selling and promoting

for my

products/

selling

and

activities in

principles,

business.

services

production of

any

of

theories,

products

and

such

as:

-To become

products,

 

chosen

processes

services.

Furniture

proficient

proper

career.

and

of any

and

Sash

in

my

manner when

-Participate

chosen

factory.

chosen

dealing

with

in skills

career.

skill.

people.

competition

 

sponsored

by

NGO,

and GO

A. POST ASSESSMENT A. MATCHING TYPE DIRECTIONS: Column A lists the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur. Draw a line from the items in Column A that connects the correct definition of terms listed in Column B.

Column A

Column B

1. Hardworking

a.

Ability to set realistic targets.

2. Self-confident

b.

Interest in money generation.

3. Profit-oriented

c.

To succeed, one must believe in one’s self.

4. Goal-oriented

d.

Working diligently and industriously.

5. Persistent

e.

Being able to listen to the advice of others.

6. Responsive

f.

Obtaining useful feedback and advice from

 

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7. Willing to listen

 

others.

8. Committed

g. Being patient and strives to achieve the goal.

9. Reliable and has integrity

10. Risk-taker

h. Ability to take measured or calculated risks.

i. Being honest, fair and trustworthy.

j. A major priority in the entrepreneur’s life.

k.

Set aside things from the others

E.2 MULTIPLE CHOICE. DIRECTIONS: Read and study the situation that describes entrepreneurial

characteristics. Answer each question by writing the letter of your choice in your assignment notebook or in the provided answer sheet. Mr. Antonio Cinco opens up his own furniture and sash factory business. He knows that his personal entrepreneurial characteristics are insufficient to ensure a successful operation of the business that he has in mind. Your answers to the questions below will help him in developing his PECs.

1. What PECs must he possess if there are customers who complain about

the quality of his product?

A. Hardworking

B. Patience

C. Trustworthy

D. Versatile

2. Which of the following is NOT considered as a characteristic of an entrepreneur?

A. Copes with failure

B. Dependent

C. Opportunity seeker

D. Persistent

3. If he wants to ensure a profitable business, what characteristic will he

maintain?

A.

Commitment

C. Goal-oriented

B.

Futuristic

D. Profit oriented

4. Mr. Cinco follows the advice of a friend to be flexible especially if he

What PECs has

intends to open a furniture and sash factory business. been demonstrated by Mr. Cinco?

A. Open to feedback

B. Persistent

C. Reliable

D. Self-confidence

5. He tells his best friend that he has strong will and does not give up

finding a solution to a business problem. What PEC has been demonstrated

by Mr. Cinco?

A.

Hard work

C. Risk taking

B.

Persistence

D. Self-confidence

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KNOW:

LESSON 1

NEEDS AND WANTS OF PEOPLE Everyone has his or her own needs and wants. However, people have different concepts of needs and wants. Needs in business are important things that every individual cannot do without in a society. These include:

1. Basic commodities for consumption,

2. Clothing and other personal belongings,

3. Shelter, sanitation and health, and

4. Education and relaxation.

Basic needs are essential to every individual so he/she may be able to live with dignity and pride in the community. Focusing on these needs can help generate business ideas. Wants are desires, luxury and extravagance that signify wealth and an expensive way of living. Wants or desires are considered over and above the basic necessities of life. Some examples are fashion accessories, designer shoes and clothes; traveling around the world; eating in an exclusive restaurant; watching movies, concerts and plays; having luxurious cars; wearing expensive jewelry and perfume; living in impressive homes; and others. Needs and wants of people are the basic indicators of the kind of business that you may engage into because some other points that you might consider in business undertakings are the kind of people, their needs, wants, lifestyle, culture and tradition, and social orientation.

LESSON 2

GENERATING IDEAS FOR BUSINESS

Here are some ways by which you may generate possible ideas for business.

1. Examine the existing goods and services.

Are you satisfied with the product? What do other people, who use the product, say about it? How can it be improved? Are there still other ways of improving a product from the way it is made to the way it is packed and sold? You can also improve the materials used in crafting the product. In addition, you can introduce new ways of using the product, making it more useful and adaptable to the customers’ needs. When you are improving

the product or enhancing it, you are doing an innovation. You can also do an invention by introducing an entirely new product to replace the old one. Business ideas may also be generated by examining what goods and services are sold outside of the community. Very often, these products are sold in a form that can still be enhanced or improved.

2. Examine the present and future needs.

Look and listen to what the customers say or the institution and communities are missing in terms of goods and services. Sometimes, these needs are already obvious and felt at the moment. Other needs are not that obvious because they can only be felt in the future, in the event of certain

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developments in the community. For example, a town will have its

electrification facility in the next six months. Only by that time will the entrepreneur could think of electrically- powered or generated business such as photocopier, computer service and digital printing.

3. Examine how the needs are being satisfied.

Needs for the products and services are referred to as market demand. To satisfy these needs is to supply the products and services that meet the demands of the market. The term market refers to whoever will use or buy the products or services and these may be people or institutions such as other businesses, establishments, organizations, or government agencies. There is a very good business opportunity when there is absolutely no supply to a pressing market demand. Businesses or industries in the locality also have needs for goods and services. Their needs for raw materials, maintenance, and other services such as selling and distribution are good sources of ideas for business.

4. Examine the available resources around you.

Observe what materials or skills are available in abundance in your area. A business can be started out of available raw materials by selling them in raw forms and by processing and manufacturing them into finished products. For example, in a copra-producing town, there will be many coconut husks and shells available as “waste” products. These can be collected and made into coco rags/doormat and charcoal bricks and sold profitably outside the community. A group of people in your neighborhood may have some special skills that can be harnessed for business. For example, women in the Mountain Province possess loom weaving skills that have been passed on from one generation to the next generation. Some communities there set up weaving businesses to produce blankets, as well as decorative items and various souvenir items for sale to tourists and lowland communities. Business ideas can come from your own skills. The work and experience you may have in agricultural arts, industrial arts, home economics, and ICT classes will provide you with business opportunities to

acquire the needed skills which will earn for you extra income, should you decide to engage in income-generating activities. With your skills, you may also tinker around with various things in your spare time. Many products were invented this way.

5. Read magazines, news articles, and other publications on

new products and techniques or advances in technology. You can pick up new business ideas from reading materials such as Newsweek, Reader’s Digest, Business Magazines, Go Negosyo, KAB materials, Small- industry Journal and other publications. The Internet serves as a library where you may browse and surf on possible businesses. It will also guide you on how to put the right product in the right place, at the right price and at the right time. A listing of possible businesses to set

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up in an area may also be available from banks or local non-government organizations.

LESSON 3

SELECTING THE RIGHT IDEA Once you have embarked on identifying the business opportunities, you will eventually see that there are many possibilities that are available for you. It is very unlikely that you will have enough resources to pursue all of them at once. Which one will you choose? You have to select the most promising one from among hundred and

one ideas. It will be good to do these in stages. In the first stage, you screen your ideas to narrow them down to about five choices. In the next stage, trim down the five choices to two options. In the final stage, choose between the two and decide which business idea worth pursuing. In screening your ideas, examine each one in terms of the following factors:

1. How much capital is needed to put up the business?

2. How big is the demand for the product? How many people need this product and will continue to need it for a long time?

3. How is the demand being met? Who are producing the products to meet the need? How much of the need is now being met (current level of supply)?

4. Do you have the background and experience needed to run this particular business?

5. Will the business be legal, not going against any existing or foreseeable government regulations?

6. Is the business in line with your interest and expertise?

7. Your answers to these questions will be helpful in screening which ones from among your many ideas are worth examining further and worth pursuing.

LESSON 4 ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING There is a need to conduct environmental scanning to identify the needs of the people, to niche for your business mission, and to give attention to trends and issues. This may also serve as an evaluation of the type of the entrepreneurial activity appropriate in the community. Environmental scanning is defined as a process of gathering, analyzing, and dispensing information for tactical or strategic purposes. The environmental scanning process entails obtaining both factual and subjective information on the business environments in which a company is operating. Environment in the community can be viewed according to its technological, political, economic, and social aspects. Some people in a community do not use computers but with the transmission of development

15

in terms of technology they look forward for changes to satisfy their needs and wants. As a future entrepreneur, you must be well-versed in this kind of advancement and progression of your environment particularly in technology so as to secure the success of your future business. Always think of something new, something novel, authentic, reinvent the existing ones, and create your new version of goods/products, and services. For instance, your own hair straightening is herbal, while in the other salons it is made of synthetic chemicals. This kind of changes being made will affect the existing principles in business and industries that can be easily adapted to the changes in producing the products/services to meet the needs and wants of people in the community.

to meet the needs and wants of people in the community. PROCESS: In generating business ideas,

PROCESS:

In generating business ideas, you should first identify what type of business is suited to your business idea. You should analyze and scan the potential environment, study the marketing practices and strategies of your competitors, analyze the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and the Threats (SWOT) in your environment to ensure that the products/goods and services you are planning to offer will be patronized within the easy reach by your target markets/consumers. Bear in mind these simple rules for successful SWOT analysis.

Be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses of your business when conducting SWOT analysis.

SWOT analysis should distinguish between where your business is today, and where it could be in the future.

SWOT should always be specific. Avoid any gray areas.

Always apply SWOT in relation to your competition i.e. better than or worse than your competition.

Keep your SWOT short and simple. Avoid complexity and over analysis

SWOT is subjective.

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UNDERSTANDING: People keep on searching for new things, new trends, and new issues. For this

UNDERSTANDING:

People keep on searching for new things, new trends, and new issues. For this reason, an entrepreneur must quickly respond. As generations come and go, another set of new trends will come or will exist. In order to adapt to the rapid changes in the business environment, the existing industries need to improve their products and services. But how can you generate business ideas with those strong competitors? There are three main sets of decisions that you need to make - what to produce, how to produce, and how to share or sell out the product to the market.

ACTIVITY 1: MINI SURVEY Directions: Conduct a mini survey in your immediate community. Gather pertinent data on the population across age bracket as suggested in the matrix below. Opposite each age group, indicate their probable needs and wants.

Age Bracket

Population

Needs

Wants

 

Example:

35

Toys, coloring books, pajama

Wooden

toys,

glossy

coloring

books,

5 years old and below

 

fashionable pajama

6- 10 years old

11-15 years old

     

16-20 years old

21-25 years old

     

26-35 years old

35-45 years old

     

46-55 years old

56-65 years old

     

66 and above

ACTIVITY 2

SCREENING BUSINESS IDEAS

Directions: After filling out the chart above, try to list down all the probable business opportunities which you may wish to venture in. Remember to consider the ideas and suggestions discussed in Lesson 3. Use the suggested matrix below to indicate your choice. Write your answers in your notebook.

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Example: Wooden toys

Positive Factors

Negative Factors

Strengths

Opportunities

Weaknesses

Threats

Strengths Opportunities Weaknesses Threats TRANSFER Now that, you have all the information, are you

TRANSFER

Now that, you have all the information, are you ready to test your ability to generate your own business idea? If your answer is yes, start studying the sample vicinity map of a community with a population of two thousand people. A new housing project will be constructed adjacent to Daang Hari St, close to Old Molino St., its main road. This housing project targets the homeowners who are young couples with two kids.

targets the homeowners who are young couples with two kids. In this activity, you need to

In this activity, you need to answer the questions that may lead to the generation of a probable business. Your answers to these questions will serve as the bases in formulating your own business ideas.

1. Who do you think are your target consumers/markets?

2. Where is the most ideal location to situate your business?

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3.

Which products or services would appeal to your target consumers/markets?

4. Can you say that you have seized the most feasible business opportunity?

POST-ASSESSMENT ENVIRONMENT AND MARKET

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

DIRECTIONS: Select the letter of the best answer. Write your answers in your activity notebook.

1. The following are examples of peoples’ basic needs, except:

a.

Clothing

b.

Food

c.

Recreation

d.

Shelter

2. Which of the following should be considered first by a prospective entrepreneur in choosing the right location for his/her business?

a. Access of the target customers

b. The attractiveness of the shop layout

c. The prevailing prices of goods in the area

d. Types of merchandise

3. Tony plans to put a “digi-print” studio in their locality. Which of the

following will help him determine a successful plan for setting up his business?

a. Checking for similar business to avoid competition

b. Conduct a SWOT analysis

c. Getting feedback on the quality of service

d. Survey of consumer associations

4. John Paul

studies the population in his immediate community. He

is doing this to

a. determine whom to sell his product or service.

b. identify his would be “suki”.

c. predict his biggest buyer.

d. select his favorite customers.

5. When an entrepreneur improves and alter a product to make it more

of the

appealing to target consumers, he/she is doing an -------- product.

a. alteration

b. improvisation

c. innovation

d. invention

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Process and Delivery

Content Standard

 

Performance Standard

The

learner

demonstrates

The learner independently prepares materials and stake out building lines in carpentry based on construction standards.

understanding

in

staking

out

building lines.

 

QUARTER I

LESSON: Prepare stakeout building lines

Time Allotment: 40 Hours

I. INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the Learners Module in “Carpentry NC II TLE Grade 9This module contains training materials and activities for you to complete. The unit of competency “Prepare Stake-out Building Lines”contains the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for a Carpentry NC II TLE Grade 9 course. You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each of the learning outcomes of this module. In each learning outcome there are Information Sheets and Activity Sheets. Follow these activities on your own and answer the Self-Check at the end of each learning activity.

II. LO1: PREPARE TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS FOR STAKEOUT BULDING LINES

Identify tools and materials for stakeout building lines

Prepare

building lines.

tools,materials

and

necessary

permit

for

stakeout

Select appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

III. PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Directions: Match column A with column B. Write your answers on your notebook.

A

1. Falling objects

2. Objects that could puncture the skin

3. Objects that could roll over the worker’s feet

4. Radiation

5. Toxic chemicals

6. Excessive noise

7. A requirement in constructing a building

8. It is used to check the verticalness

9. It is used to check squareness

10. It is used to drive and pull out nails

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B A. Safety shoes B. Hard hat C. Goggles D. Respirators E. Gloves F. Ear muff G. Plumb bob H. Steel square I. Claw hammer J. Building permit

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1 TYPES AND USES OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

The use of protective clothing and equipment is not the only solution for preventing accident. It is most important to understand that the primary protection against accidents is to identify possible hazards and take the necessary safety measures to eliminate the hazard. When necessary, workers should be provided with protective clothing and other personal protective equipment.

protective clothing and other personal protective equipment. Types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 1. Eye and
protective clothing and other personal protective equipment. Types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 1. Eye and

Types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

1. Eye and face protection Goggles and face protection must be worn to protect workers from flying particles, liquid chemicals, acids, chemical gases or vapors. Workers must also be protected from radiation during welding, touching, soldering, brazing and other operations that emit light.

2. Head protection Hard hats must be worn where there is danger of falling objects. Specialized hard hats are required to reduce electrical shock hazards.

3. Foot protection Safety shoes with impact protection are required in work areas where heavy objects or tool could be accidentally dropped on the feet. Safety shoes with puncture protection are required when working around nails, wires, tacks, scrap metal and other objects that could pierce the feet.

4. Hand protection Gloves are required to protect workers from cuts, scrapes, punctures, burns, chemical absorption or extreme temperature

21

5.

Hearing protection Appropriate ear muffs or ear plugs should be worn to lessen the noise in the workplace.

6. Respirators: Appropriate respirators must be worn as a last resort if it is not possible to ventilate the work area properly.

SELF-CHECK 1.1 TYPES AND USES OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

Directions: Match column A with column B. Write your answers on your notebooks

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

A Falling objects Objects that could roll over the worker’s feet Heat Radiation Toxic chemicals Excessive noise

B a. Safety shoes b. Hard hats c. Goggles d. Respirator e. Gloves f. Ear muff

INFORMATION SHEET 1.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS USED FOR STAKING-OUT BUILDING LINES

It is very important to know the names and proper use of each of the various tools we need in our works. In addition, application on their proper care and maintenance will give the following advantages: efficiency of the work, quality speed, accomplishment, and accuracy.

Tools and Materials

1. Claw hammer is used for driving and pulling out nails.

speed, accomplishment, and accuracy. Tools and Materials 1. Claw hammer is used for driving and pulling

22

2. Water hose level is used to determine the horizontal levelness of batter boards, and parts of the building such as beam, floorings and others.

parts of the building such as beam, floorings and others. 3. Bar Level or Spirit Level

3. Bar Level or Spirit Level is a tool used to test the horizontal levelness of

the sufaces of material. It is framed in aluminum or wood.

the sufaces of material. It is framed in aluminum or wood. 4. Plumb bob is a

4. Plumb bob is a cone shaped metal suspended on a string and is used to

check the verticalness of post or column and other.

used to check the verticalness of post or column and other. 5. Nylon string is used
used to check the verticalness of post or column and other. 5. Nylon string is used

5. Nylon string is used to indicate the sides of the building.

to check the verticalness of post or column and other. 5. Nylon string is used to

23

6.

Steel square is L-shaped with one arm forming a perfect right angle to

the other. It used to check the squareness of the corner of a particular object.

check the squareness of the corner of a particular object. 7. Ripping/Wrecking bar is used to

7. Ripping/Wrecking bar is used to pull out long nails. This may be

straight or gooseneck. It has a nail slot for pulling out spikes and wedging apart nailed boards.

slot for pulling out spikes and wedging apart nailed boards. 8. Pull-push rule is used for

8. Pull-push rule is used for laying out measurements. This is a flexible

strip of metal provided with the scale of the English and Metric Systems of

measurements. It is rolled in a case.

24

9. Try square looks like the steel square and is used to check the flatness

9. Try square looks like the steel square and is used to check the flatness and squareness of a small piece of stock or lumber.

looks like the steel square and is used to check the flatness and squareness of a

25

10.

Cross cut saw is used for cutting lumber across the grain of wood.

10 . Cross cut saw is used for cutting lumber across the grain of wood. 11

11. Bolo is used to cut pegs for stake-out.

10 . Cross cut saw is used for cutting lumber across the grain of wood. 11

26

12. Sledge hammer is used to drive pegs for stake-out

12 . Sledge hammer is used to drive pegs for stake-out 13 . Lumber is a

13. Lumber is a milled or processed piece of wood ready for use.

is a milled or processed piece of wood ready for use. 14. Chalk line is used

14. Chalk line is used to mark straight line on a long piece of stock or lumber.

piece of wood ready for use. 14. Chalk line is used to mark straight line on

27

SELF-CHECK 1.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS USED FOR STAKING-OUT BUILDING LINES.

Directions: Identify the tool/material being defined. Write your answers in your notebook.

1.

It is used to drive pegs for stake-out.

2.

A cone-shaped metal suspended on a string used to check the verticalness of post or column and other.

3.

A tool rolled in a case and is used to layout measurements.

4.

It is bigger than try square and used to check squareness of a wider or bigger object.

5.

It is used to drive and pull out nails.

6.

It is used to check the horizontal levelness of the surface material.

7.

It is used to cut pieces of lumber across the grain.

8.

It is used to indicate the sides of a building.

9.

It is used to cut pegs for stake-out.

10.

It is used to mark straight line on a long piece of stock or lumber.

INFORMATION SHEET 1.3 CONSTRUCTION COMPANY RULES AND REGULATIONS

To avoid problems and unnecessary expenses, make sure that all necessary permits are secured from local authorities concerned before conducting activities in the construction site. 1. A type of authorization must be granted by a government or other regulatory body before the construction of a new or existing building can legally occur. 2. Relocate the boundaries of the construction, especially lots without existing reference point or adjoining structures. This job is to be given to a geodetic engineer. 3.Clear all sites of any existing structures, trees and elements that will obstruct the construction activities. Cutting of trees requires permit from the Department of Enervironment and Natural Resources (DENR).

4. Allocate space for warehousing, workers’ quarter and construction office which are usually requirements in the construction embodied in the specification contract.

5. Apply and secure temporary electric power connections and water supply.

6. The site of the construction must be securely fenced to protect the construction activities from onlookers and passersby and to also protect the materials from pilferage both from the outside and the inside.

28

7. Determine the building set back from the road line. Install the stake on the ground at a reasonable spacing that will fit into the length of the batter board available.

Types of permit that are necessary to secure before constructing a building.

1. Building permit

2. Electrical permit

3. Sanitary and plumbing permit

4. Zoning clearance

5. Fencing permit

6. Permit to cut trees

7. Water installation permit

8. Excavation and ground preparation permit

9. Enclosure permit

10. Mechanical permit

11. Scaffolding permit

12. Sidewalk construction permit

SELF-CHECK 1.3

CONSTRUCTION COMPANY RULES AND REGULATIONS Direction: TRUE or FALSE. Write the word TRUE if the statement is correct and write the word FALSE if the statement is wrong.

1. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources issues a permit

to cut trees. 2. The person who has the authority to relocate the bounderies of the

costruction when there is no existing reference point is the geodetic engineer.

3. Determining the building set back from the road line is not necessary.

4. The site of the construction must be securely fenced to protect the

construction activities.

5. Allocating a space for warehousing, workers’ quarter and construction office is not usually required in the construction.

IV. LO2: STAKE OUT AND SET BATTER BOARDS

Set out stakes from pre-determined building lines

Measure, lay-out and cut batter board according to specification

Set stakes at 0.75 1.00 meter away from the pre-determined building lines

Secure batter boards with tolerance for dimensions at +/- 5mm, and levelness of +/- 3mm.

Use PPE according to job requirements

29

V. PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Directions: Multiple choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. A horizontal board placed when laying out a building.

b. Batter board

2. What is the distance between the stakes in laying out a building?

a. Facia board

c. Panel board

d. None

a. 2 feet

b. 3 feet

c. 4 feet

d. 5 feet

3. When constructing a different height of foundation, how do you set the

height of the batter board?

a. according to the height of shortest foundation

b. according to the average height of the foundation.

c. according to the height of the tallest foundation.

d. both A and C

4. The term used to mark stake for the batter board?

a. grade stake

b. level stake

c. stake

d. All of these

5. Where do you start leveling for the batter boards?

a.

center stake

b. Between the corner and center stake

c.

corner stake

d. Both A and C

INFORMATION SHEET 2.1 TYPES OF BATTER BOARD

Batter boards are the horizontal boards placed at the corner and at the sides of the projected building when final layout takes place. The reference for the foundation is marked on these boards. Two Types of Batter Boards 1. Batter boards for foundation posts may be either joined by continuous pieces surrounding the site of foundation or by individual piece for each foundation. 2. Batter boards for the foundation walls are either single or double batter boards which are placed at corner.

30

The batter boards should be set as high as the desired height of the foundation.
The batter boards should be set as high as the desired height of the foundation.

The batter boards should be set as high as the desired height of the foundation. In constructing with different heights of foundation, the tallest foundation is set as the height of batter boards.

SELF-CHECK 2.1 TYPES OF BATTER BOARDS

Answer Briefly: Write your answers in your notebook.

1. What do you call the horizontal boards that are placed when laying out a building?

2. The term is used to mark a stake for the batter board?

3-4.What are the two types of batter boards? 5. When constructing a different height of foundation, how do you set the

height of the batter board?

31

ACTIVITY SHEET 2.1 PROCEDURE IN SETTING BATTER BOARD

Procedure:

1. Determine the height of the foundation at any of the four corners of the

proposed building. Set the stakes at 0.75 to 1 m away from the pre- determined building lines, preferably where the grade stake is.

building lines, preferably where the grade stake is. Fig.1 Determining the height of the foundation. 2.

Fig.1 Determining the height of the foundation.

2.

In this corner, drive

foundation.

a stake

as

high as the desired height of the

foundation. a stake as high as the desired height of the Fig.2 Putting up the stake

Fig.2 Putting up the stake for foundation

3. Drive in set of posts for the batter boards 3 feet away from the corners

and along the sides. string.

Align these posts with a

Drive in the posts firmly.

32

Fig.3 Set of post for the batter boards and the distance of the string on

Fig.3 Set of post for the batter boards and the distance of the string on it.

4. Move the height of the foundation from the stakes to the corner post of

the batter board. This is done by stretching a string, leveled with spirit level or level bar from the stake to the post.

with spirit level or level bar from the stake to the post. Fig.4 Transferring the height

Fig.4 Transferring the height of the foundation from the stake to the corner post.

5. From the mark of this post, stretch out a string going around the corners of the building and passing at the side of the batter board posts.

6. Level this string with a spirit level or level bar. Stretch the string tight. Start leveling from the corner stake where the height of the foundation is established. Recheck the levelness.

33

Fig.5-6 Transferring the height of the foundation from the corner post to all batter board

Fig.5-6 Transferring the height of the foundation from the corner post to all batter board post aroud the building layout.

7. Mark batter board posts along the line just leveled. These marks are places for the top of the batter boards.

8. Nail the batter boards in place, the straight side up and at the marks of the posts.

boards. 8. Nail the batter boards in place, the straight side up and at the marks

Fig. 7 A Batter board

34

Assessment Criteria:

1. Batter boards are set away from the building line excavation.

2. Batter boards are properly secured with tolerance for dimension at

+ 5mm, and levelness of + 3mm.

3. Unexpected situations are responded to in line with company rules

and regulations.

4. Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulation. Rubrics in Assessing the Performance/Output

Operation: Procedure in setting batter boards

Criteria

 

Percentage

5

4

3

2

1

Average

 

1.Proper handling of tools and equipment.

20%

           

2.Accuracy

 

of

25%

           

measurement.

3.

Skills and Knowledge on

25%

           

work.

 

4. Safety

 

15%

           

5. Work ethics

 

15%

           

Total

 

100%

           
 

Criteria

5

 

4

 

3

2

 

1

 

Proper

     

No attempt to work or incomplete work performance.

handling of

All tools were properly used.

1-2 tools were improperly used.

3-4 tools were improperly used

Almost all of the tools were improperly used

 

tools and

equipment.

     

Accuracy of

100% of batter boards are properly set with tolerance for dimension of +5mm, and levelness of + 3mm.

75% of batter boards are properly set with tolerance for dimension of +5mm, and levelness of + 3mm.

50% of batter boards are properly set with tolerance for dimension of +5mm, and levelness of + 3mm.

25% of batter boards are properly set with tolerance for dimension of +5mm, and levelness of + 3mm.

No attempt to work or incomplete work performance.

measurement.

 

Learners perform

Learners perform the procedure completely with only 1 help from the teacher.

Learners perform the procedure completely with 2 help from the teacher.

Learners attempted to work but were not able to finish the job.

 

Skills and

Knowledge on

work.

the procedure

completely and

independently.

No attempt to work.

 

Safety

Learners used complete PPE according to job requirements.

Learners did not use 1 of the required PPE.

Learners did not use 2 of the required PPE.

Learners did not use 3 of the required PPE.

All of the required PPE were not used during work.

 

Learners finished

     

Work ethics

the job

completely

without

destruction/

damage.

Learners finished

the job

completely with

1-3 destruction/

damage.

Learners finished

the job

completely with

4-6 destruction/

damage.

Learners finished

the job

completely with

7-9 destruction/

damage.

Learners attempted to do the job but not completely finished.

35

V. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR QUARTER 1

Multiple choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. A type of authorization that must be granted by a government or other regulatory body before the construction of a new or existing building can legally occur.

a. Fencing permit c. Construction materials

b. Building permit d. Tools and equipment needed

2. A personal protective equipment worn to lessen the noise workplace.

in

the

a.

Hearing protection

b. Respirators

c.

Foot protection

d. Eyes and face protection

3. These must be worn as a last resort if it is not possible to ventilate the work area properly.

a.

Hearing protection

b. Respirators

c.

Foot protection

d. Eyes and face protection

4. A tool used to test the horizontal levelness of the sufaces of material.

a.

Plumb bob

b. Nylon String

c.

Spirit level or level bar

d. Steel square

5. This is used to indicate the sides of the building.

a.

Plumb bob

b. Nylon String

c.

Spirit level or level bar

d. Steel square

Identification: Answer the following statement. 6 What do you call the horizontal boards placed at the corners and at the

sides of the projected building when final layout takes place?

7. It is a flexible strip of metal provided with the scale and used for laying out measurement.

8. This protection is worn to protect the worker from radiation.

9. What do you call to marked stake for the batter board?

10. Where do you start leveling for the batter boards?

Fill in the blanks: Supply the blanks with the correct word or group of words to complete the sentence. PROCEDURE IN SETTING BATTER BOARD

at any of the four corners of

A. Determine the

11

the proposed building, Set the stakes at 0.75 to 1m away from the pre- determined building lines, preferably where the grade stake is.

as a high as the desired

B. On one of the corners, drive a height of the foundation.

C. Drive in set of posts for the

12

3 feet away from the

corners and along the sides. Drive in the posts firmly. Align these posts

with a

13

14

.

D. Move the height of the foundation from the stakes to the

15

of

the batter board. This is done by stretching a string, leveled with spirit level or level bar from the stake to the post.

36

E. From the mark of this post,

16

a string going around

the corners of the building and passing at the side of the batter board posts.

. Stretch the string

from the corner stake where the height of

the foundation is established. Re-check the levelness.

tight. Start

F. Level this string with a

18

17

G.

H.

19

batter board posts along the line just leveled.

marks

are places for the top of the batter boards.

These

20

the batter boards in place, the straight side up and

the marks of the posts.

at

Performance Test: Execute the Procedure in Setting Batter Boards.

Note: Students are grouped with a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 5 persons in each group. Assessment Criteria:

1. Batter boards are set away from the building line excavation.

2. Batter boards are properly secured with tolerance for dimension at

+ 5mm, and levelness of + 3mm.

3. Unexpected situations are responded to in line with company rules and regulations.

4. Housekeeping is performed according to safety regulations.

Rubrics in Assessing the Performance/Output

Operation: Procedure in Setting Batter Boards

Criteria

 

Percentage

10

8

6

4

2

Average

1.Proper

handling of tools

20%

           

and equipment.

 

2.

Accuracy

of

25%

           

measurement.

3.

Skills and Knowledge on

25%

           

work.

 

4. Safety

 

15%

           

5. Work ethics

 

15%

           

Total

 

100%

           

Criteria

5

4

3

2

1

Proper

handling

of tools

and

equipment

.

All tools are properly handled and used.

1-2 tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

3-4 tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

Most of the tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

No attempt to work or Incomplete work performance

37

Accuracy

100% of batter boards

are properly set with tolerance for dimension of +5mm, and levelness of + 3mm.

75%

of batter

50%

of

batter

25%

of

batter

No attempt to work or Incomplete work performance

of

measurem

are

properly set with

boards

boards

properly

set

are

with

boards

properly

set

are

with

ent.

tolerance

for

tolerance

for

tolerance

for

dimension

of

dimension

of

dimension

of

 

+5mm,

and

+5mm,

and

+5mm,

and

levelness of

levelness of

levelness of

+ 3mm.

+ 3mm.

+ 3mm.

 

.

Skills and

Learners

Learners perform the procedure completely with minimal help from the teacher.

Learners perform the procedure completely with more help from the teacher.

Learners will attempt to work but they will not finish the job.

Learners did not attempt to do the job.

Knowledge

perform the

on work.

procedure

completely and

 

independently.

 

Safety

Learners will

1 of the required PPE is not used during work.

2 of the required PPE are not used during work.

3 of the required PPE are not used during work.

All of the required PPE are not used during work.

use complete

PPE according

to job

       

requirements.

Work

Learners finished the job completely without destruction/ damage.

Learners finished

Learners finished the job completely with 4-6 destruction/ damage.

Learners finished the job completely with 7-9 destruction/ damage.

Learners attempted to do the job but not completely finished.

ethics

the job

completely with

1-3 destruction/

damage.

QUARTER II

LESSON: Prepare stakeout building lines

Time Allotment: 40 Hours

I. LO3: FIX BUILDING LINES

Square building lines with end tolerance of +/- 3mm

Measure and set building lines

Use PPE according to job requirements

II. PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Multiple choice: Choose the letter that corresponds to the correct answer.

1. A type of drawing that shows the layout of a building taken at a level plan through windows and doors approximately 1 meter from the floor.

d. Details

2. It is a written document prepared by an architect which serves as a set of instructions or guidelines with a working drawing.

d. Layout

3. This plan essentially shows the location of a building or house site.

d. Details

a. Floor plan

a. Floor plan

a. Floor plan

b. Site plan

b. Site plan

b. Site plan

c. Elevation

c. Specification

c. Elevation

4. It is a cone-shaped metal suspended on a string used to check or to obtain a vertical line.

d. Plumb bob

a. Steel square

b. Plastic hose

c. Level bar

5. These pertain to lines representing the side of the building passing through the center of the foundation post.

a. Building lines

b. Plane lines

38

c. Center lines

d. None

INFORMATION SHEET 3.1 BLUEPRINT READING

A blueprint is a type of paper-based reproduction usually of technical

drawing, documenting done by architecture or an engineering design. Generally, the term "blueprint" refers to any detailed plan of a building.

A working drawing is a type of technical drawing, which is part of the

documentation needed to build an engineering product or architectural

plan.

Building plans and Specifications form part of the working drawings needed in any construction project.

A working drawing should include the following:

1.

Site Plan essentially shows the location of a building or house

site. It includes the following:

lot number

distance of the house from the site boundaries

name of the road on which the site is located

actual size of the site

compass direction

position and size of the casement

scale of the drawing

39

2. Floor Plan is a drawing showing the layout of a building taken at a

2. Floor Plan is a drawing showing the layout of a building taken at a level plan through windows and doors approximately one meter up from the floor. It shows the following:

arrangement and names of the rooms

location of all external and internal walls

room sizes

length and width dimensions

position of doors and windows

built-in furniture

sectioning lines and labels in alphabetical order

eaves lines

roof structure as shown by broken diagonal lines to represent hips and valleys.

40

41

41

3.

Elevation is a scaled drawing of the front, rear or side of a

building. It includes dimensions that cannot be shown on a floor plan such as the height dimension.

be shown on a floor plan such as the height dimension. Most working drawings are drawn
be shown on a floor plan such as the height dimension. Most working drawings are drawn
be shown on a floor plan such as the height dimension. Most working drawings are drawn
be shown on a floor plan such as the height dimension. Most working drawings are drawn

Most working drawings are drawn to the scale of 1:100,

which is rather small. It is not always possible to show important shapes, positions for assembly, and dimensions of specific parts of a building. A separate drawing is made using the larger scales of 1:5 or 1:10.

4. Details

42

5. Specification is a written document prepared by an architect which serves as a set

5. Specification is a written document prepared by an architect

which serves as a set of instruction or guidelines that accompanies a working drawing. It describes how certain aspects of building construction are to be done and which materials are to be used. It also describes their

desired quality and the expected standard of work. Knowing how to read and interpret a working drawing saves time, money and effort in the construction of the building.

SELF-CHECK 3.1 BLUEPRINT READING

Based on a given blueprint plan, answer the following questions

1 Explain the use of a working plan.

2 Enumerate the components of a blueprint plan.

3 What does the elevation plan show?

4 What particular dimension is found in an elevation plan?

5 What is the importance of a detailed drawing?

6 What is the vital aspect of specification?

7 What are the names of different rooms in the floor plan?

8 What is the area of bedroom no. 1, no. 2?

9 How long is the building?

10 How wide is the building?

11 What is the floor area of the building?

INFORMATION SHEET 3.2 TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND USES OF TESTING TOOLS

Good carpentry work demands accuracy in measurement. This could be done only with the aid of various testing tools to accomplish a precise and quality work. It is important to know the various testing tools and how to use them properly. They may cause accidents if proper care and use are not observed. Using proper tools in the proper job can prolong their use.

43

Types of Testing Tools and Their Uses 1. Square is a 90 o standard right angle sometimes called try square used for testing squareness of work.

Types of Squares:

A. Try square is a square with blade ranging from 6 inches to 12 inches.

is a square with blade ranging from 6 inches to 12 inches. B. Miter square is

B. Miter square is a square with blade permanently set at 45 o.

C. Combination try and miter square is a combination of 45 o and 90 o in one set.

D. Combination square is similar in appearance to try square only that the head can be slide and clamped at any desired distance from the blade. It is also provided with a meter and level guide.

head can be slide and clamped at any desired distance from the blade. It is also

44

E. Sliding T-bevel is like a try square with sliding and adjustable blade that could be set any angle.

sliding and adjustable blade that could be set any angle. F. Framing or steel square is

F. Framing or steel square is used effectively on various framing works.

steel square is used effectively on various framing works. Parts of Framing Square: A. Body is

Parts of Framing Square:

A. Body is the longer and wider part

B. Tongue is the shorter and narrower part of the square

C. Face is the side visible when the square is held by the tongue with the left hand and the body pointing to the right.

D. Heel is the point at which the tongue and body meet on the

outside edge.

2. Level bar is used for both guiding and testing the work to a vertical or

horizontal position.

on the outside edge. 2. Level bar is used for both guiding and testing the work

45

3.

Plastic hose with water is one of the best and accurate tools for

guiding work in establishing a horizontal level.

tools for guiding work in establishing a horizontal level. 4. Plumb bob is a cone-shaped metal

4. Plumb bob is a cone-shaped metal suspended on a string used to check or obtain a vertical line.

on a string used to check or obtain a vertical line. SELF-CHECK 3.2 TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND

SELF-CHECK 3.2 TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND USES OF TESTING TOOLS

Direction: Match column A with column B. Write your answers in your notebook.

Column A

Column B

1. A square made of flat steel throughout

a. framing square

2. A square with sliding and adjustable blade that could be set to any angle.

b. plastic hose

c. combination square

3. Used for both guiding and testing the work to a vertical or horizontal position

d. tongue

e. level bar

4. A combination of 45 o and 90 o in one set

f. combined try and

5. The most accurate tool for guiding work in establishing a horizontal level.

miter square

g. plumb bob

6. A square with blades ranging from 6-12”

h. sliding T-bevel

7. A metal used to check or obtain a vertical line

i. miter square

j. body

46

8. A square with blades permanently set at

 

45

o

k.

try square

9. The shorter and narrower part of the framing square

 

10. A square whose head can be slided and clamped at any desired distance from the blade.

ACTIVITY SHEET 3.1 LAYING OUT BUILDING LINES

Building lines pertain to lines representing the side of the building passing through the center of the foundation posts. The final laying-out is done on the batter board. Before the builder can start the layout, he has to decide which among the building lines he is going to use.

Procedure in Laying out the Foundation Lines:

1. Transfer the oriented line to the top of the batter boards. This is done by hanging a plumb bob to the oriented line, and by making the corresponding point on the batter board.

and by making the corresponding point on the batter board. Fig. 1 Transferring Orientation line to

Fig. 1 Transferring Orientation line to top of batter boards.

47

2.

Locate the center of the foundation from the orientation line at the

opposite batter boards. kerf.

Then mark these two points with nails or a saw

Fig. 2.a. Locating the center of the foundation.
Fig. 2.a. Locating the
center of the foundation.
or a saw Fig. 2.a. Locating the center of the foundation. Fig.2.b. Marking the point with

Fig.2.b. Marking the point with nail.

3. Stretch string No. 1 on these two marks. Anchor it to the batter boards.

This line should never be moved during the process of squaring lines.

48

Fig.2 Locate center line of foundation from orientation line
Fig.2 Locate center line of foundation from orientation line
Fig.2 Locate center line of foundation from orientation line Fig. 3 Stretching of string and anchoring

Fig. 3 Stretching of string and anchoring it on the batter boards.

4. Tie a cord to this line to indicate the original corner A. Align this cord to

the corner stake with a plumb bob.

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Fig.3 Locating corner at string 1
Fig.3 Locating corner at string 1

5. Measure the length of the side that falls on line 1, starting from the original corner, and tie another cord to mark this corner B.

2 Fig.4 Four sides of a building laid out
2
Fig.4 Four sides of a building laid out

6. Sketch line No. 2 square or perpendicular to line 1, passing through the

cord tied at the original corner A. Tie line 2 to nails on the batter boards.

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7.

From the intersection of lines 1 and 2 at the original corner A. Measure

the length of the side of the building that falls on string 2. Tie another cord to mark this corner C.

8. Through this corner just mark, stretch string 3 square to string 2.

9. Measure the length of the side that falls on line 3, and tie a cord to mark

corner D.

10.

Through corner D, stretch line 4 to the adjacent corner B on line 1.

Check the squareness of these two lines.

Note: Through the four sides of the building are completely laid out there is a

need to check squareness by the use of the Framing square

or diagonal.

squareness by the use of the Framing square or diagonal. Fig.6-10a. Squaring the four corners of

Fig.6-10a. Squaring the four corners of the building using a framing or carpenters’ square.

51

Fig.6-10b. Squaring of the four corners of the building using a diagonal.

Fig.5 A layout square
Fig.5 A layout square
Fig.6 How to use the layout square
Fig.6 How to use the layout square

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Fig.7 3:4:5 Measured on stakes.
Fig.7 3:4:5 Measured on stakes.
Fig.8 A Trapezoid
Fig.8 A Trapezoid

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

1. Stake-out building lines are properly secured for references in excavating building foundation.

lines with

2. Marking lines are squared and plumbed from the batter board

tolerance of + 3mm all measurement.

3. Worksite is cleaned and kept in safe state according to OSHC regulations.

4. Daily work report is accomplished in accordance with company rules and

regulations.

53

Rubrics in Assessing the Performance/Output Operation: Laying Out Building Plans

Criteria

 

Percentage

5

4

3

2

1

Average

1.Proper handling of tools and equipment.

20%

           

2.

Accuracy

of

25%

           

measurement.

3.

Skills and Knowledge on

25%

           

work.

 

4. Safety

 

15%

           

5. Work ethics

 

15%

           

Total

 

100%

           

Criteria

5

4

3

2

1

Proper

All tools are properly handled and used.

1-2 tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

3-4 tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

Most of the tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

No attempt to work or Incomplete work performance

handling

of tools

and

equipment

         

.

Accuracy

100% of details of building

75% of details of building plans are properly lay out with correct measurement.

50% of details of building plans are properly lay out

25% of details of building plans are properly lay out

No attempt to work or Incomplete work performance

of

measurem

plans

are

ent.

properly lay out with correct measurement.

with

correct

with

correct

measurement.

measurement.

 

Skills and

Learners will

Learners will perform the procedure completely with minimal help of teacher.

Learners will perform the procedure completely with more help of teacher.

Learners will attempt to work but they will not able to finish the job.

Learners did not attempt to do the job.

Knowledge

perform the

on work.

procedure

completely and

 

independently.

Safety

Learners will

1 of the required PPE is not used during work.

2 of the required PPE are not used during work.

3 of the required PPE are not used during work.

All of the required PPE are not used during work.

use complete

PPE according

to job

       

requirements.

Work

Learners finished the job completely without destruction/ damage.

Learners finished

Learners finished the job completely with 4-6 destruction/ damage.

Learners finished the job completely with 7-9 destruction/ damage.

Learners attempted to do the job but not completely finished.

ethics

the job

completely with

1-3 destruction/

damage.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR QUARTER II

I. Multiple choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. A type of drawing that shows the layout of a building taken at a level plan through windows and doors approximately 1 meter from the floor.

d. Details

2. It is a written document prepared by an architect which serves as a set of

a. Floor plan

b. Site plan

c. Elevation

54

instructions or guidelines that accompanies a working drawing.

a. Floor plan

b. Site plan

c. Specification

d. Layout

3. This plan essentially shows the location of a building or house site.

a. Floor plan

b. Site plan

c. Elevation

d. Details

4. It is a cone-shaped metal suspended on a string used to check or obtain

a vertical line.

a. Steel square

b. Plastic hose

c. Level bar

d. Plumb bob

5. This pertains to lines representing the side of the building passing

through the center of the foundation post.

II.Identification: Identify what is being referred to in the follwing

statements:

6.It is a scaled drawing of the front, rear or side of a building. It includes dimensions that cannot be shown on a floor plan such as the height dimension.

7. It is the shorter and narrower part of the square.

8. A square with blade ranging from 6 inches to 12 inches.

9. It is one of the best and accurate tools for guiding work in establishing a horizontal level.

10. A type of paper-based reproduction usually of a technical drawing, documenting an architecture or an engineering design

III.Fill in the blank: Fill in the blanks with a word or group of words to complete the sentence. Procedures in Laying out the Foundation Lines

11. the oriented line to the top of the batter boards. This is done

by hanging a plumb bob to the oriented line, and by making the corresponding point on the batter board.

12. the center of the foundation from the orientation line at the

opposite batter boards. Mark these two points with nails or a saw kerf.

13. Stretch string No. 1 on these two marks. Anchor it to the batter boards.

This line should never be moved during the process of

lines.

14. Tie a cord to this line to indicate the original corner A. Align this cord

to the

 

with a plumb bob.

15.

the length of the side that falls on line 1,

starting from

the original corner, and tie another cord to mark this

to line 1, passing through

the cord tied at the original corner A. Tie line 2 to nails on the boards.

of lines 1 and 2 at the original corner A.

Measure the length of the side of the building that falls on string 2.Tie another cord to mark this corner C.

batter

corner B.

16. Sketch line No. 2 square or

17. From the

18. Through this corner just mark,

19. Measure the

string 3 square to string 2.

of the side that falls on line 3, and tie a cord to

mark corner D.

55

20. Through corner D, stretch line 4 to the

line1. Check the squareness of these two lines. Through the four sides of the building are completely laid out there is need to check squareness by the use of the diagonal.

corner B on

a

Performance

Test: Execute

Foundation Lines

the

Procedure

in

Laying

out

the

Note: Students are grouped at a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 5 persons in each group.

Assessment Criteria:

1. Stake-out building lines are properly secured for references in

excavating building foundation.

2. Marking lines are squared and plumbed from the batter board

lines with tolerance of + 3mm all measurement.

3. Worksite is cleaned and kept in safe state according to OSHC

regulations.

4. Daily work report is accomplished in accordance with company

rules and regulations

Rubrics in Assessing the Performance/Output Operation: Procedure in Laying out the Foundation Line

Criteria

 

Percentage

10

8

6

4

2

Average

1.Proper handling of tools and equipment.

20%

           

2.

Accuracy

of

25%

           

measurement.

3.

Skills and Knowledge on

25%

           

work.

 

4. Safety

 

15%

           

5. Work ethics

 

15%

           

Total

 

100%

           

Criteria

 

5

 

4

3

2

1

Proper

All tools are properly handled and used.

1-2 tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

3-4 tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

Most of the tools are improperly handled and not properly used.

No attempt to work or Incomplete work performance

handling

of tools

and

equipment

         

.

Accuracy

100% of details and measurement

75%

of

details

50% of details and measurement of building plans are properly lay-out.

25% of details and measurement of building plans are properly lay-out.

No attempt to work or Incomplete work performance

of

and measurement of building plans are properly lay- out.

measurem

ent.

of

building

plans

are

     

properly lay-out.

56

Skills and

Learners will

Learners will perform the procedure completely with minimal help of teacher.

Learners will perform the procedure completely with more help of teacher.

Learners will attempt to work but they will not able to finish the job.

Learners did not attempt to do the job.

Knowledge

perform the

on work.

procedure

completely and

 

independently.

Safety

Learners will

1 of the required PPE is not used during work.

2 of the required PPE are not used during work.

3 of the required PPE are not used during work.

All of the required PPE are not used during work.

use complete

PPE according

to job

       

requirements.

Work

Learners finished the job completely without destruction/ damage.

Learners finished

Learners finished the job completely with 4-6 destruction/ damage.

Learners finished the job completely with 7-9 destruction/ damage.

Learners attempted to do the job but not completely finished.

ethics

the job

completely with

1-3 destruction/

damage.

Content Standard

Performance Standard

The learner demonstrates understanding of the concepts and underlying principles in fabricating formworks.

The learner independently performs fabrication of formworks based on construction standards.

QUARTER III

LESSON: Fabricate Formworks

Time Allotment: 40 Hours

I.

INTRODUCTION

This module contains information and suggested learning activities on Carpentry NC II TLE Grade 9. It includes instruction and procedure on how Fabricate Formworks. Completion of this module will help you better understand the succeeding module on Installing Formwork Components. This module consists of 3 learning outcomes. Each learning outcome contains learning activities supported by instruction sheets. Before you perform the instructions, read the information sheets and answer the self- check and activities provided to ascertain to yourself and your teacher that you have acquired the knowledge necessary to perform the skill portion of the particular learning outcome. Upon completing this module, report to your instructor for assessment to check your achievement of knowledge and skills requirements of this module. If you pass the assessment, you will be given a certificate of completion.

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II.

LO1: PREPARE TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS FOR FABRICATING FORMWORKS ACCORDING TO JOB REQUIREMENTS

Identify tools and materials for fabricating formworks

Prepare tools and materials for fabricating formworks

Select appropriate PPE

III. PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Direction: Multipe choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. A tool used to drive and pull out nails.

b. Claw hammer

a. Pull-push rule

c. Ball peen hammer

d. Pencil

2. A term applied to wood after it is milled or sliced into boards, planks,

flitch for commercial purposes.

a. Lumber

b. Plywood

c. Hardboard

d. Log

3. This tool is used for marking straight line.

a.Steel square

b. Cross cut saw

c. Chalk line d. Try square

4. Find the number of board feet of 6pcs. 2’’x2’’x9’ lumber.

a. 3 bd.ft

b. 6 bd.ft.

c. 12 bd.ft.

d. 18 bd.ft.

5. Compute for the number of board feet of 3’’x4’’x144’’ lumber.

a. 3 bd.ft

b. 6 bd.ft.

c. 12 bd.ft.

d. 18 bd.ft.

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1 TOOLS, MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT FOR FABRICATING FORMWORK

A. Tools:

1. Claw hammer is used to drive and pull out nails.

2. Pencil is an instrument containing lead or carbon used for marking purposes.

3. Pull-push rule is a measuring tool made of flexible steel rolled in a case and used for taking and laying out dimensions.

4. Steel square is a highly accurate tool made of flat steel throughout its body used to check the squareness of the foundation and other parts of the building.

5. Try square is smaller than the steel square and is used to test the squareness of small pieces of work.

6. Cross cut saw is used to cut wood across the grain.

7. Chalk line is used for marking straight line on a long piece of lumber or wood.

B. Equipment:

1. Proper foot protection. Wear footwear of an appropriate type at the places where there are falling objects, sharp-edged tools, nails, abnormally wet surface or slippery surfaces.

2. Hand protection. Wear suitable gloves or guantes when working at places where the hands may be exposed to injuries from sharp or rough points, edges or surface objects.

58

C. Materials