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AB-INITIO COURSE

Vol. 3 of 3

For
Junior Executive Electronics
[Conforming to ICAO Doc 7192 (Part-E-2)]

Edition: 2015‐2016 
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AIRPORTS AUTHORITY OF INDIA 
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Civil Aviation Training College, Allahabad, India‐211012 
 

&
ICAO TRAINAIR PLUS FULL MEMBER 
 

 
Navigation Module
Vol. 3 of 3

Table of Contents

Chapter No Chapter Name Page Number

ILS
1. Overall principle and composition of an ILS
system 399

2. Function and Performance of ILS 409

3. Principle of Localizer 445

4. Principle of Glide path 473

5. Precision and Limitation of ILS/DME in airports 494

6. Principle and operational use of On-board system 511

7. Principle of MARKER 521

8. Principle of MLS 532

9. General awareness of Visual Navigation Systems 540

Annexure-1 ICAO Specifications 546

Flight Inspection
10. Legislation and Procedures 566

11. NAVAIDS Inspection 571

 
 

 
Chapter-01 Overall Principle and Composition of an ILS System
 
CHAPTER-01

OVERALL PRINCIPLE AND COMPOSITION OF AN ILS SYSTEM

1.1 GENERAL

The Instrument Landing System (ILS) provides a means for safe landing of aircraft
at airports under conditions of low ceilings and limited visibility. The use of the
system materially reduces interruptions of service at airports resulting from bad
weather by allowing operations to continue at lower weather minimums. The ILS
also increases the traffic handling capacity of the airport under all weather
conditions.

The function of an ILS is to provide the PILOT or AUTOPILOT of a landing aircraft with
the guidance to and along the surface of the runway. This guidance must be of very
high integrity to ensure that each landing has a very high probability of success.

Modern I.L.S. is the result of the evolution of landing aids leading from signal
strength monitors known as ISOPTENTIAL systems, through the LORENTZ and
STANDARD BEAM APPROACH (S.B.A.) SYSTEMS, to the present. Of course
evolution continues with MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEMS, known as M.L.S.

The present system saw its conception in the U.S.A. The carrier frequencies were
chosen to provide a reasonable aerial size with adequate performance .The “state
of the art “ at the time of development provided reasonable efficiency from
components at these frequencies. A system of tone modulation was chosen using
90 Hz and 150 Hz, both frequencies being directly derivable from the U.S. mains
frequency of 60 Hz . The harmonics of these frequencies are not interrelated until
450 Hz and the use of low modulating frequencies allows for close channel
spacing.

1.2 Principle of ILS

ILS employs amplitude modulation of a radio frequency carrier to provide the guidance
information. The modulating signals used in ILS are pure sine waves of 90 Hz and 150 Hz
frequency. This handout deals with the characteristic features of signals radiated by
Localizer and Glide Path.
Audio modulation frequencies of 90 and 150 Hz are used to provide right and left indication.
When approaching for a landing, the 150 signal predominates on the right-hand side of the
course and the 90 on the left,

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Chapter-01 Overall Principle and Composition of an ILS System
 
The system uses Amplitude Modulation and hence the aircraft receiver must measure the
difference in amplitudes of the detected tones to determine the aircraft position. This leads
to the term Difference in Depth of Modulation (DDM). When the DDM is zero, the aircraft is
correctly positioned. When a DDM exists, the pilot must correct the aircraft's position until
the DDM is zero. The pointer needles of the CDI instrument are driven by the DDM.

Audio modulation frequencies of 90 and 150 Hz are used to provide up and down
indication. When approaching for a landing, the 150 signal predominates below the
glide path and the 90 above.

ILS theory is founded on the concept of Difference in Depth of Modulation (DDM), which
applies both to Localizer course theory and to glide path theory. As already stated, the
intelligence of the radiated signal depends upon a comparison of the two frequencies,
90 and 150 Hz. By comparing the magnitude of these two frequencies, the aircraft
receiver can determine how far and in what direction the aircraft has deviated from a
prescribed Localizer course or Glide Path. There are two ways by which the relationship
between the two frequencies can be expressed; as a difference in magnitudes, or as a
ratio of the magnitudes. While the difference relationship is called the DDM, the ratio
relationship is called the Radio Frequency Clearance (RFC).
DDM is the standard that is used to evaluate an ILS facility, both in the air and on the
ground. However, RFC is of prime interest for monitoring purposes.

1.3 COMPOSITION / COMPONENTS OF ILS (GROUND EQUIPMENTS):

The basic philosophy of ILS is that ground installations, located in the vicinity of the
runway, transmit coded signals in such a manner that pilot is given information
indicating position of the aircraft with respect to correct approach path.

To provide correct approach path information to the pilot, three different signals are
required to be transmitted. The first signal gives the information to the pilot
indicating the aircraft's position relative to the center line of the runway. The
second signal gives the information indicating the aircraft's position relative to the
required angle of descent, where as the third signal provides distance information
from some specified point.

These three parameters which are essential for a safe landing are Azimuth
Approach Guidance, Elevation Approach Guidance and Range from the touch
down point. These are provided to the pilot by the three components of the ILS
namely Localizer, Glide Path and Marker Beacons respectively. At some airports,
the Marker Beacons are replaced by a Distance Measuring Equipment (DME).

This information is summarized in the following table.

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Chapter-01 Overall Principle and Composition of an ILS System
 

ILS Parameter ILS Component


a. Azimuth Approach Guidance Provided by Localizer
b. Elevation Approach Provided by Glide Path
Guidance
c. Fixed Distances from Provided by Marker Beacons
Threshold
d. Range from touch down point Provided by DME

Localizer:

The function of the Localizer unit is to provide, within its coverage limits, a vertical plane
o f c o u r s e , a l i g n e d with the extended center-line of the runway for azimuth
guidance to landing aircraft. In addition, it shall provide information to landing aircraft as
to whether the aircraft is offset towards the left or right side of this plane so as to enable
the pilot to align with the course.

The localizer unit consists of an equipment building, the transmitter equipment,


a platform, the antennas, and field detectors. The antennas will be located about
1,000 feet from the stop end of the runway and the building about 300 feet to the
side. The detectors are mounted on posts a short distance from the antennas.

Glide Path:

The function of the Glide Path unit is to provide, within its coverage limits, an inclined
plane aligned with the glide path of the runway for providing elevation guidance to
landing aircraft. In addition, it shall provide information to landing aircraft as to whether
the aircraft is offset above or below this plane so as to enable the pilot to align with the
glide path.

The Glide Path unit is made up of a building, the transmitter equipment, the
radiating antennas and monitor antennas mounted on towers. The antennas and
the building are located about 300 feet to one side of the runway center line at a
distance of approximately 1,000 feet from the approach end of the runway.

Marker :

The function of the marker beacons,/DME is to provide distance information from the
touch down point to a landing aircraft.

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Chapter-01 Overall Principle and Composition of an ILS System
 
The marker beacons, installed at fixed distances from the runway threshold, provide
specific distance information whenever a landing aircraft is passing over any of these
beacons so that the pilot can check his altitude and correct it if necessary.

The DME, installed co-located with the Glide Path unit, will provide a continuous distance
information from the touch down point to landing aircraft.

The function of locators, installed co-located with the marker beacons, is to guide aircraft
coming for landing to begin an ILS approach.

Three Marker Units are provided. Each marker unit consists of a building,
transmitter and directional antenna array. The system will be located near the
runway center line, extended. The transmitters are 75 MHz, low power units with
keyed tone modulation. The units are controlled via lines from the tower.

The outer marker will be located between 4 and 7 miles in front of the approach
end of the runway, so the pattern crosses the glide angle at the intercept
altitude. The modulation will be 400 Hz keyed at 2 dashes per second.

The middle marker will be located about 3500 feet from the approach end of the
runway, so the pattern intersects the glide angle at 200 feet. The modulation will
be a 1300 Hz tone keyed by continuous dot, dash pattern.

Some ILS runways have an inner marker located about 1.000 feet from the
approach end of the runway, so the pattern intersects the glide angle at 100
feet. The transmitter is modulated by a tone of 3000 Hz keyed by continuous
dots.

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME):

Where the provision of Marker Beacons is impracticable, a DME can be installed co-
located with the Glide Path facility.

The ILS should be supplemented by sources of guidance information which will provide
effective guidance to the desired course. Locator Beacons, which are essentially low
power NDBs, installed at Outer Marker and Middle Marker locations will serve this
purpose.

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Chapte
er-01 Overall Principle
P a
and Compo
osition of a
an ILS Systtem
 

Figure 1. Shows
s the typic
cal locatio
ons of ILS compone
ents

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er-01
Chapte Overall Principle
P a
and Compo
osition of a
an ILS Systtem
 
1.4 AIR
RBORNE COMPONE
C ENTS

Figure 2. Block
B Diag
gram ILS Airborne
A Re
eceiver

The bassic block diagram of IL


LS airborne e receiver is
i shown in
n Fig.2 The
e basic airb
borne
display unit
u appearrs as shown n in Fig. 3

The salient features of the airb


borne display unit are as below:

a) T
There are tw wo needless (vertical needle for localizer and a the horrizontal onee for
glide path).
b) There
T are twwo lines, veertical and horizontal, crossing each
e other at the centter of
th
he meter an nd graduate ed by a serries of dotss. There are e four dots above and four
below the ce entral dot on the verticcal line. Sim
milarly there
e are four dots left and
d four
dots right of the centrall dot on the
e horizontal line.
c) The
T Localiz
zer and Glide Path needles
n are
e driven byy the DDM M of respe ective
ra
adiation.

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er-01
Chapte Overall Principle
P a
and Compo
osition of a
an ILS Systtem
 

FIG 3 .LOC GL
LIDE SLOP
PE INDICAT
TOR AND RECEIVER
R

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Chapter-01 Overall Principle and Composition of an ILS System
 

GLIDE PATH BEAM

LOCALIZER BEAM

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Chapter-01 Overall Principle and Composition of an ILS System
 
1.5 ILS CATEGORIES

ICAO has stipulated ILS categories based on operational objectives in terms to allow
aircraft to approach a runway and be in a position to land are tabulated below:

Categor Decision Runway Visual


Remarks
y Height Range

I 200 feet 2400 feet

With touch down zone and Runway


I 200 feet 1800 feet
centre line lighting

Half the minimums of a standard


II 100 feet 1200 feet
Cat I Approach

Below 100
III-a 700 feet
feet

Between 700 &


III-b Below 50 feet
150 feet

No RVR
III-c No DH
Limitation

Aircraft ILS Component:

The Azimuth and Elevation guidance are provided by the Localizer and Glide Path
respectively to the pilot continuously by an on-board meter called the Cross Deviation
Indicator (CDI).Range information is provided continuously in the form of digital readout
if DME is used with ILS. However range information is not presented continuously if
Marker Beacons are used. In this condition aural and visual indications of specific
distances when the aircraft is overhead the marker beacons are provided by means of
audio coded signals and lighting of appropriate colored lamps in the cockpit.

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Chapter-01 Overall Principle and Composition of an ILS System
 
Summary
► NDB, VOR, DME, localize GP are the radio Nav-aid used in AAI. Localizer GP
are short range Navigational aid, however, NDB,VOR and OME can be used
an short / medium range Nav-aid depend upon the requirement.

► ILS is used for safe landing of A/C at the airports under the condition of Low
visibility. ILS is not a single equipment, but a system, consist of Localizer, GP,
DME and / or markers.

► Localizer provides azimuth approach guidance and is located approx 1200-1500


mtr away from the stop end of the runway.

► GP provides elevation approach guidance and is located approx 450ft left or


right from the touchdown point of centre line of the runway subject to suitable
right.

► DME provide distance from the touchdown point and is normally installed at GP
site.

► Makers provide fixed distance from the threshold. Inner maker located about
1000feet from the approach end of the runway at extended centre line. Middle
maker will be located about 3500 feet from the approach end of the rwy, however
outer maker will be located between 4-7 NM from the approach end of the rwy.

► Vertical needle in the CDI is used for LLZ and horizontal needle for GP. Using
respective radiation pilot simply follow the needle to align the A/C on centre line
and glide angle.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Chapter-02

Function and Performance of ILS


ELECTRONICS

MODULATION

2. Transmitter Modulation
Transmitter modulation produces the carrier sidebands, this section deals with the basic
concepts Amplitude Modulation.

2.1 General Amplitude Modulation Theory

The process by which the amplitude of a RF carrier is made to vary in accordance, with
some specified intelligence is called Amplitude Modulation (AM).

AM can be obtained by combining a carrier signal with a modulating signal in a


nonlinear device as shown in figure 1.4.

Fig 1.4

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

V= (Vc+Vm Sin ωm t) Sin ωc t

This expands to:


V= Vc Sin ωc t + Vm Sin ωm t Sin ωc t

And Since sinA Sin B= ½ Cos (A-B) ½ Cos(A+B)


V= V Sin ωc t + ½ Vm Cos (ωc - ωm) t – ½ Vm Cos (ωc - ωm)t
Carrier Lower Sideband upper sideband

It will be seen that amplitude modulation has resulted in the production of three
sinusoidal waves namely:

a) The carrier
b) The upper side band ; and
c) The lower side band

In practical terms given a radio frequency of 110 MHz and a modulation frequency of 90
Hz, the following three signals would be produced:

F (110 MHz) Carrier)


Fc + 90 Hz (110,000,090 Hz) Upper sideband.

Fc-90 Hz (109,999,910 Hz) lower sideband.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

A plot called a .frequency spectrum is sometimes made to indicate the relative


magnitudes of the frequency components of a complex waveform. Such a plot for the
AM waveform is show in figure 1.6.

It is frequently more convenient to show amplitude modulation as given by Equation 1.3


vectorially, as shown in the rotating vector diagram of figure 1.7.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

A Vector represents both Phase and Amplitude of an alternating signal. The length
represents the amplitude and the angle represents the phase. The vector must always
be referenced to a reference phase. The reference phase direction is defined to be
straight up.

Generally the carrier is considered the reference and therefore stationary, in which case
the upper sideband, being a higher frequency than the carrier rotates anti-clockwise at
the modulating frequency whilst the lower sideband rotates clockwise.

If Vm=Vc, the vector diagram shows that the complex AM wave varies In amplitude
between 0 and2V.

Modulation depth may, be defined as the fraction ratio of the differences & the sum of
the highest and lowest amplitudes encountered during one cycle of modulation. From
the foregoing definition it follows that the Modulation depth
(m) is given by the formula:

(Vc + Vm)- (Vc- Vm)


M=
(Vc+Vm) + (Vc-Vm)

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Alternatively, one may say:

Total Sideband amplitude


M=
Carrier amplitude

Modulation depth is frequently expressed as a percentage. M91 and m150 are the
symbols used to represent the 90 Hz and 150 Hz transmitter modulation factors
respectively. M90 is equal to m150 everywhere and the value of m is constant at all
azimuths.

3. Space Modulation

The same 90 Hz and 150 Hz audio navigation signals used to modulate the transmitter
output are generated into the radio spectrum with all carrier components removed. The
resultant signal is called Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC). Pure
sideband energies are produced when the carrier is suppressed. These sidebands are
radiated independently but may be considered to modulate the separately radiated
carrier at some point beyond the antenna array. This phenomenon is called Space
Modulation.

"s" is used to designate the Space Modulation Factor to differentiate it from the
Transmitter Modulation Factor" m". By definition, "s" is the ratio of the total sideband
component to the carrier component. If V is the total sideband component, V is the
carrier component and 'φ' is the phase angle between the two components. "s" is given
by the formula:

S= (Vs Cos φ)/Vc

S91 and S150 are the symbols used to represent the 90 Hz and 150 Hz space modulation
factors respectively.

PHASING

3.1 Space Modulation Misphasing

An examination of the above equation indicates that the space modulation factor will be
maximum when the phase angle is either 0° (in-phase) or 180° (out-of-phase), and will
be minimum when the phase angle is 90° (quadrature phase). Since space modulation
determines the aircraft instrument deflection, it should be clear that any amount of
Misphasing is undesirable.

Decreased space modulation causes broadening of the course and also reduces the
sensitivity of the aircraft instrument. This could cause an aircraft flying an ILS approach

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

to be too far left or right or too low, and fly into an area of obstructions. Hence proper
RF Phasing in ILS is critical.

FREQUENCIES

Localizer : 108 – 112 MHz

Glide Path : 328 – 336 MHz

DME : 960 – 1215 MHz

Markers : 75 MHz

ANTENNA ARRAY

An antenna array is an arrangement of several individual antennas so spaced and


phased that their individual contributions combine in one preferred direction and
cancel in undesired directions to get directivity. Thus an antenna array is a method
of combining the radiations from a group of similar antennas.

Localizer Antenna Array

The ILS Localizer antenna array consists of a number of antenna elements mounted in
line, at right angles to the runway and symmetrical with respect to the runway
centerline.

The practical ILS Localizer antenna array will consist of either 12 or 24 elements
depending on the local requirements. Figure shows a schematic diagram of a Localizer
array containing 12 antenna elements.

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Chapte
er-02 Function and Performance off ILS

Figurre 12 Element Loc


calizer Arra
ay

The anteenna eleme ents are tre eated as paairs. The antenna elem ments are numbered from
the centtre outward
ds and assigned a cod de of Yelloww (Y) or Blue (B) dep pending on their
position. Y is used for antenna elementss positioned d on the lefft of the run
nway centre
e line
as seen by a landinng aircraft and
a B is use ed for antenna elemen nts position
ned on the right.
r
Hence MBM form the e first pair, 2Y2B formm the next pair
p and so on. consists of a 12 or o 24
antennaa elements depending g on the local requirrements. The T spacing between n the
antennaa elements is of the ord der of 3/4 λ (0.75λ).

Glidepa
ath Antenna Array

The glid
de path ae erial system m provides the mean ns for transsmitting thee ILS eleva ation
guidance information. This is achieved by b transmittting combinations of glide path CSB
and SBOO signals inn the prope er amplitudee and phasse relation from
f two orr three radia
ating
elementts raised at critical heig
ghts abovee the groundd. These ellements aree mounted on a
common n mast , site
ed at safe distance
d fro
om the runw
way, adjace ent to touchdown.

There arre three typ


pes of Glide
e Path antenna arrays in use. The
ese are:

a. Null Re
eference Arrray

b. Side Band Refere


ence Array
c. M - arrray

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Chapte
er-02 Function and Performance off ILS

a. Null Refe
erence Arra
ay

b. Side Band
d Reference Array

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Chapte
er-02 Function and Performance off ILS

c. M - arra
ay

Phase errors
e (Pro
oximity Effe
ect):

In previoous discusssions of raddiation patterns, it wass assumed that the diistance from m an
antenna a array to points
p of recception was very mucch greater tthan the sp pacing betwween
the ante ennas in thee array. This justifies the assumption that the paths of o radiation from
antenna as in an arrray to a poiint of recepption in far field are pa
arallel and the distancce of
travel equal. In efffect, the array
a appe ears as a "point
" sourrce" antenn na with ennergy
radiatingg from one antenna. As A points o of receptionn are moved d closer to the array ((near
field), th
he "point source"
s alogy is no
ana o longer va alid. The physical
p sp
pacing betw ween
antenna as in the arrray become es more ap pparent and d the paths of radiation are no loonger
parallel. As a result, the dis stance of ttravel from m each anttenna of a pair beco omes
unequall and cause es the resuultant receiived energyy in near fiield to be misphased
m with
respect to the resu ultant in far field. Thiss misphasing is called proximity y error and is a
very norrmal effect in both loccalizers and d glide sloppes. As missphasing off signals occcurs
in near field, a w
widening off course or path results. This causes ins sensitive ccross
pointer indications
i and is potentially dan ngerous. This is not a serious co onsequencce for
a localizzer as an aircraft wo ould have llanded prio or to the nnear field point.
p Howe ever,
facility monitoring and ground checkking are performed in near field and this
necessittates an un nderstandin ng of proximmity error.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

As an aircraft lands in the glide slope near field, proximity error becomes a major
consideration and a method to control it for aircraft indications has been developed.
Proximity error can be compensated for by off setting antennas.

5.2 Rayleigh distance (Near and far field, Fresnel and Fraunhofer region)

Analysis

Figure 43.shows an antenna array with an aperture of length L and two receivers, one
of which (Rx1) is kept in the near field and the other (Rx2) in the far field.

Figure 43.

It can be seen in the case of RX1 , distance D1 is less than dl, implying that, if signals
are radiated from the center of the array and extremities of the array in phase, the
signal received at Rx1 from the center of the array will be different to that received
from the extremities. This could lead to distortion of the signal received at Rx1. In the
case of Rx2, D2 is almost the same distance as d2 so there will be only a very small
phase difference between the signals received. The greater the distance to the Receiver
from the array, the lesser will be the phase error. The distance at which the correct
signals may be received will depend on the size of the array and the operating
wavelength. The near field region where unrealistic signals are received is known as the
RAYLEIGH region. The distance from which correct signals are received is known as
the RAYLEIGH DISTANCE and can be found by:

D = L 2/ λ

Where L = Aperture Length

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

D = RAYLEIGH Distance

λ = Operating Wavelength

In the case of the NULL REFERENCE glide path system, the maximum height of the
antennas may be say 9 meters above the ground but the effective aperture is twice that
length i.e., 18 meters because of the image theory. Using the above formula we have:
D = L2/λ

=(18)2/0.9 = 360 Meters

From this distance CORRECT information is received. In the case of the M array glide
path system, the antenna height may be 13.5 meters, giving an effective aperture of 27
meters. Using the same formula we get:
D = L2/λ

= 729/0.9 = 810 Meters.

These distances are evidently unacceptable because, accurate glide path data is
required down on the runway to a distance of the order of 120 meters (400 feet) from
the transmitter. This means that the phase errors have to be minimized in the near field.

5.3. Phase error in a NULL REFERENCE glide path system and antenna offset:
Figure 44. shows an aircraft within the near field of a null reference glide path system.

Figure 44.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

The RF radiated from the upper dipole B reaches the aircraft located at point C (on glide
path) through the path BC, whereas from dipole A, it is through path AC. The difference
in lengths of path will create a phase error as shown in figure 44. The phase error will
upset the phase relationship between RF radiated from antenna elements A and B,
when it reaches point C.
This Phase Error can be expressed as:

φ = (Hu )2 – (Hl )2

2D

For 3° Glide Path, Hu = 10λ and Hl = 5λ

Hence for 360° phase error φ= λ. Therefore the distance at which this happens is:

D = H u 2-H l 2 = (10λ) 2 - (5λ) 2 = 75λ2 = 37.5λ

2φ 2λ 2λ

By similar calculations, the values of D for different phase errors are determined and
tabulated in the following table:

S. No. Phase error Distance from the antenna

1 λ 37.5λ

2 3λ/4 50λ
3 λ/2 75λ
4 λ/4 150λ

Table

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

It can be seen from the above table that the phase error doubles as the distance is
halved from the receiving point. This means that when an aircraft approaches to land,
the phase error starts to increase from 0° to 360° and this process repeats as it comes
closer and closer.

It is interesting to consider what happens to the guidance information when certain


critical phase errors exist i.e. at critical distances from the transmitter. First consider a
point where the phase error is 0°, at this point there will be no change in the relative
phase, so the guidance information will be correct. Now consider what happens at the
point where the phase error is 90° or 270°. Here it is observed that the relative phase of
CSB and SBO has changed at the aircraft and by phaser addition of these signals it can
be established that 0 DDM results. Hence, we may say that at all points where phase
error is 90° or 270°, 0 DDM will result irrespective of aircraft's vertical position (either on
glide angle or above or below the glide angle). When phase error is 180°, an inverted
glide path results. It can be seen that an aircraft approaching the near field, will receive
consecutively correct guidance, 0 DDM, inverted guidance, 0 DDM and correct
guidance etc.
Hence the overall effect of the phase error is the widening of glide path. The
approaching aircraft instruments would appear less sensitive to changes in height. It
can also be proved that increase in the path width is very small at the Middle Marker
and is much larger at the Threshold. Hence for all practical purposes, the Middle Marker
can be used as the dividing point between the near field and far field.
The situation arising out of phase errors in the near field is obviously unsatisfactory as
the glide path will be UNFLYABLE at these close ranges. So modifications must be
carried out to minimize the phase errors. The method used to minimize the phase errors
on the runway centerline is called antenna offset.

Antenna Offset

It is clear that the phase error is caused by the sideband signals differing in phase with
the carrier signals. If a point is chosen directly opposite the glide slope array on the
runway center line, the conditions shown in figure 45.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Figure 45.

Proximity Phase Effects Opposite the Array

Referring to figure 45, if the signal path lengths were measured from the sideband
dipole and the carrier dipole to the runway centerline, it would be found that the
sideband signals have to travel a farther distance than the carrier signals. This would
cause the sideband signals to lag the carrier signals, as previously stated, resulting in
the phase error φ

If we were to move the sideband dipole laterally towards the runway while keeping the
carrier dipole centered on the tower, we could make the sideband and carrier signal
path lengths equal, thereby, eliminating the phase error on the runway centerline
opposite the array. This condition is depicted in figure 46.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

The distance we move the sideband dipole is defined as the antenna offset. At the
landing threshold the effect of the offset aerials is reduced. The result is that an aircraft
receives correct guidance from the coverage extremities down to the runway. The
antennas are offset in a similar manner for the side band reference and M - array glide
path systems.

5.4 Placement of Monitor Antennas (LLZ and GP)

The monitoring of ILS systems is mandatory. The monitor system must detect system
changes that would cause an unsafe condition to exist at a facility. If an equipment
parameter were to exceed a prescribed tolerance the monitor system must initiate an
equipment transfer or shutdown.

5.4.1 Glide Path Monitoring

The four main parameters that are monitored to prescribed tolerance in a glide path are
the glide angle, path width, RF level and Modulation percentage.
There are two methods of sampling the radiated signals for input to the monitor. They
are integral and near field monitoring. As the name implies, near field monitoring is
accomplished by placing a receiving antenna in the near field in front of the array.
Integral monitoring is accomplished by placing pickup loops or dipoles in very close
proximity to the radiating element.
In the early days of glide path, a monitor mast was positioned in front of the array and
one antenna was placed at a height that intersected the glide angle. This was the
method of monitoring the glide angle. Another detector antenna was then positioned at
a height not on the glide angle. This antenna was used for monitoring changes in path
width. The transmitter RF output, which equated to usable distance, and modulation
percentage was sampled off either or both the detector antennas.
The method of monitoring the glide angle has not changed, however, the method of
monitoring path width changes has been changed to integral monitor detection. Again
RF level and modulation percentage will be sampled and fed back to the monitor
system by either method or a combination of both.

Integral Width Monitoring


The path width of a null reference glide slope (NRGS) is a function of the sideband to
carrier ratio for various glide angles. This ratio is simply called the A ratio.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

In the integral width monitor network the carrier and sideband signals are sampled by
probes that are in close proximity to the antenna radiator, coupling factors of -25 dB
being typical.
The sampled signals are combined in a combining and phasing unit and fed to the width
detector through a double stub tuner. The double stub tuner is used to match the
impedance of the bridge port to the monitor input detector.

Near Field Monitoring


In order to monitor the glide angle it should be a simple matter to calculate the glide
angle height above ground at a certain distance by using the trigonometric expression
of:

(tanθ) (adjacent side) = opposite side

Where θ is the glide angle, the adjacent side is the distance from the Glide path
antenna, and opposite side would be the height of the monitor antenna. See following
example:
At Q = 3° the height of the glide angle in feet at a distance of 220 feet from the base of
an antenna array is (tan 3°)(220) = 11.53 feet.
So in order to monitor the glide angle it would appear that mounting the antennas at the
calculated height and distance from the array would be sufficient. However, in near field
we know proximity error exists directly in front of the array; we need to take this into
consideration.

Placement of the Field Monitor Antenna

The distances where the phase error due to the proximity effect is -360 degrees and -
180 degrees would be the most logical place to position the near field monitor pole. The
two positions duplicate the far field path width conditions. The only difference at 180
degrees phase error is reverse sensing.
Normally the monitor pole is positioned at the -180 degree phase error point, rather than
the -360 degree point, for stability in monitoring.
We can use quadrature phasing to locate the actual phase error position of an existing
monitor pole. We require this information so we can set the alarm points on the monitor.
If the monitor pole were not placed at exactly -180 phase error point then the 0.051
DDM figure must be modified by the cosine of misphasing.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

5.4.2 Localizer Monitoring

The localizer monitoring system must be stable, duplicate far field conditions and cause
an equipment transfer to standby equipment or a facility shutdown when prescribed
tolerances are exceeded.
The parameters that must be monitored in any localizer are course alignment, course
width, modulation percent, transmitter RF output level, and identification.
The early antenna arrays used two field detectors to monitor the on course and width
signals. The on course detector was located on centerline approximately 150 feet in
front of the array at an azimuth of 0°. The off course or width detector was also located
approximately 150 feet in front of the array, but at an azimuth of about + 5°. Localizer
radiated signals were received, detected to audio levels and fed back to the monitors.
The modulation percent, the transmitter RF output level, and identification level are
usually sampled from the on course detector signals. Since the detectors are only 150
feet from the antenna array, proximity error must be considered.

Modern antenna systems such as the traveling wave, dipole and log periodic array use
the integral monitor system. In the integral monitoring system, a sample of the
radiated energy is fed back to a monitor combining circuit and then to the monitor
equipment.

Course Alignment

In an ideal localizer system, transmitter modulation would be 20 percent each


frequency; also, the composite sideband null would be exactly on runway centerline.
Slight errors in the physical placement of the array and individual antennas will cause
the sideband null not to be exactly on runway centerline. Also, small differences in the
phase of antenna currents of a pair will cause the on course 0 DDM to be slightly
displaced off the runway centerline when the modulation factor m90 and m150 are
equal.
To correct for these slight differences the modulation equality of the m90 and m150 is
unbalanced. So the ILS receiver on centerline will indicate "0" DDM.

With the localizer centerline established, the monitoring of this parameter is of


considerable importance. Course alignment is the most important parameter
monitored and consequently if not closely checked could allow an aircraft to fly into an
obstruction. Course alignment for Category I localizers has a "standard" tolerance of
5% of the commissioned course width. In other words, a facility with a width of 5.0°
could have a maximum alignment change of ±. 25°.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Course Width

As stated previously all localizers will be tailored to a course width of 700 feet at
threshold as long as the angular width is between 3° and 6°.
Tolerance for course width is ± 17 percent of the normal width. Therefore, the tailored
course width at runway threshold will be 700 feet ± 119 feet and the edge of course
can shift ± 59.5 feet.

In the early localizer arrays the off course or width detector was located at about 150
feet from the array at an angle of + 5°. When integral monitoring was introduced, the
off course detector was simulated. In some systems the simulated DDM reading into
the monitor was set to 0.155/150 Hz, the same reading one would have if he had a
detector placed at the right edge of course.

Integral Monitoring

Integral monitoring (monitoring of unradiated signals) is used to sense out-of-tolerance


conditions in the radiated signals. A sample of the radiated RF signals from each
antenna are recombined to develop:
a. A course data signal that will sense changes in course alignment, RF level and
modulation.
b. A width data signal that will sense changes in course width.
Recombination circuits are used to combine the sideband and carrier signals from all
antennas. The outputs of the recombination circuits were routed to bridge circuits to
form the final output signals to the monitors

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Chapte
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Identtification

Type of Modulation
n : Class A2A
A
Modulattion tone : 1020Hzz

Depth off modulatio


on : 5 - 15
5%

Morse Code
C : 2 to
o 3 letters

Transmiission spee
ed : 7 wo
ords per min
n.

RAGE
COVER

2.3 Loc
calizer cove
erage ,Azim
muth and Elevation :

Azimuth
h:

The loca alizer shall provide sig


gnals sufficcient to allo
ow satisfacctory operattion of a tyypical
aircraft installation within the localizer and
a glide path
p covera age sectorss. The loca alizer
coverage sector shalls exten
nd from the center of o the loca alizer antenna system m to
distancees of:

46.3 km (25 NM) within


w plus or
o minus 10
0 degrees frrom the fron
nt course lin
ne;

31.5 km (17 NM) between 10 degrees an


nd 35 degre
ees from the front course line;

18.5 km (10 NM) outside of plus or minuss 35 degree


es if covera
age is provided;

except that,
t where e topograph hical featurres dictate or operatio
onal requirrements pe
ermit,
the limitss may be reeduced to 33.3
3 km (188 NM) within the plus or
o minus 10 0-degree se
ector
and 18.5 km (10 0 NM) witthin the re emainder of the co overage wh hen alternative
navigatioonal facilities provide
e satisfacto
ory coverag he intermediate appro
ge within th oach
area.

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Chapte Function and Performance off ILS

Elevatio
on:

The localizer signa als shall be


b receivab ble at the distances
d s
specified a and above a
at
height of
o 600 m (2 000 ft) abo e threshold, or 300 m (I 000 ft) above
ove the elevvation of the
the elevvation of th
he highest point within the intermediate and a final approach arreas,
whichevver is the higher. Suchh signals sh
hall be receeivable, to the
t distance es specified
d, up
to a surrface extennding outwa ard from th
he localizerr antenna and
a inclined at 7 deg grees
above thhe horizontaal.

FIIG.5 Loca
alizer cove
erage in re
espect to azimuth

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Chapte Function and Performance off ILS

2.3.1 Azimuth
A Co
overage

As state ed in the ILS


S specificattions, the Localizer
L azzimuth cove
erage is resstricted to ±35°.
±
It shouldd be mentio oned at this stage tha at one of th
he paramou unt problemms with LL.S. is
reflections, from ob bjects in arreas of High
h DDM, on n the runwaay centre lin
ne. This caan be
illustrate
ed using figure 6.

Fiigure 6. Efffect of Refflection on


n Localizerr Course.

One rea ason why cooverage is restricted to


o only ± 35
5° is to eliminate the efffects of ob
bjects
outside this area. However th here remains the problem of refflection from objects sited
he coverage
within th e area. To reduce thiss problem the
t coverag ge area is divided
d into
o two
areas naamely the COURSE
C and CLEARA ANCE area as.

COURS
SE area is defined
d as the area witthin ± 10 de
egree from the runwayy centre line
e.

CLEARA
ANCE area
a includes th
he area from
m ± 10° to ± 35°.

Signals in clearan nce areas are often transmitted d on a diffferent frequency or on


o a
differentt phase from
m course siignals to reduce the efffect of refle
ections.

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er-02
Chapte Function and Performance off ILS

I. Course
C Cov
verage.

Let us first
f consider Azimuthh guidance in course area. Thiss guidance is provide
ed by
g following two signalss:
radiating

a. CSB//CL (Carrierr with side b


band/coursse).

b. SBO//CL (Side band


b only/C
Course).

Across the
t length of al array the distribution
o the aeria n of CSB/CL signal givves a maximmum
in the ce
entre falling
g to minimuum at endss. The CSB B/CL signal is fed in RF
R phase to o the
required
d pairs. Th he idea off doing this is to ob btain the rrequired raadiation pa
attern
consistin
ng of singlee narrow major LOBE falling to zzero at 11.5 5° from the centre line
e and
having minimum
m side
s lobes. Radiation pattern due e to CSB/C
CL fed to various
v ante
enna
elementts as described above, is shown iin figure 8.

Figurre 7. CSB/C
CL Signal Distributio
on

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er-02
Chapte Function and Performance off ILS

Figure 8. CSB//CL Radiattion Patterrn

Since th
he depth off modulatio
on due to 150
1 Hz andd 90 Hz is set equal to 20 % in
n the
CSB/CLL signal, ZERO DDM will
w result evverywhere within
w the pattern.
p

SBO/CL L signal is fed


f to all siix pairs of aerials.
a The
e distributioon of SBO energy, accross
the lenggth of aerial array gives a maximum an either side of the centre c line with
minimum m in the cenntre and at both ends. Amplitude and RF fee ed of SBO//CL is as shhown
in figure 9.. Radiation pattern due to SBOO/CL is as shown
s in fig
gure 10.

Figurre 9. SBO/C
CL Signal Distributio
on

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Chapte
er-02 Function and Performance off ILS

Figurre 10. SBO


O/CL Radia
ation Pattern

If the CSB
C and SBO signalss are comb
bined, a po
olar diagram as show
wn in figure
e 11
results.

Figure 11.Combined CSB/C


CL and SBO/CL Radiation Patte
ern.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Because the signals are all in RF phase, the sidebands will add or subtract, depending
on the polarity to produce the tone predominance on each side of the runway. It can be
seen that patterns are very similar to those achieved with 3 elements localizer array
system except the signal is now concentrated in a smaller area and displacement
sensitivity is linear out to 18 °lo DDM. The same criteria which was applicable to the 3
element localizer also apply in this case.

a. The relative phase of SBO signals set the tone predominance.

b. The SBO power will set the displacement sensitivity.

II. Clearance Coverage.

The basic Course Coverage pattern suffers from two drawbacks:

a. Main lobe beamwidth does not provide the coverage specified by ICAO
(±35°at17NM).

a. The course pattern has side lobes which give false guidance information.

The objectives of clearance radiation are intended to overcome these difficulties. There
are three methods by which the Clearance coverage can be obtained. These are:

a. In Phase Clearance.
b. Two Frequency Clearance.
c. Quadrature Clearance.

In-Phase Clearance employs signals at the same frequency and in phase with the
course transmission, but fed only to the centre antenna elements so giving greater
coverage. In this case the antenna elements are highly directive, thus suppressing side
lobes.

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Chapte Function and Performance off ILS

Quadratture Clearaance emplo oys signals at the sam me frequency but at a audio and
d RF
phase q quadrature from
f the coourse transsmission, fe
ed to only the
t inner an
ntenna elem
ment
pairs. STTAN/GCEL L Localizer employs
e th is method of
o clearancee.

Two Freequency Clearance em mploys sign


nals displacced approxx. 10 KHz from
f the co
ourse
transmisssion fed to
t only the centre antenna
a elements. The
T NORMMARC Loca alizer
employss this metho
od of cleara
ance

2.3.2 Elevation
E Coverage
C

The elevation coverage of L


Localizer Antenna
A Arrray can be
e explained
d based on
n the
Image Antenna
A The
eory.

Image Antenna
A Th
heory.

er an isotrop
Conside pic horizonttally polariz
zed antenna
a above a perfectly co
onducting p
plane
wn in figure 12.
as show

Figu
ure 12. Ima
age Antenn
na Concep
pt

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

The electric field intensity received at any point will consist of two components namely:

a. that due to direct wave from the antenna and

b. that due to the reflected wave from the conducting surface.

Since the antenna is horizontally polarized, E field will reverse its direction upon
reflection. The same can be applied to any antenna placed above the ground. Ground
can be considered a perfect conducting plane for all practical purposes. Hence it
follows, from the simple geometry, that an antenna at a height H above the ground may
be considered as two radiating elements, A1 and A2 , spaced 2H, part and radiating in
antiphase. Now a maximum signal will be received when the signal from antennas A1
and A2 arrive at the receiver in phase. For this to happen, the path difference in the two
path lengths must be equal to λ/2. This results in the maximum radiation at an angle θ
which is related to the height H as given the formula:

E = A θsin (H sin θ)

Sin (λ Sin θ) = 1 = Sin λ/4

or λSin θ = λ/4

or Sin θ = 1/4

or θ = 14.5"

Our desired direction of radiation is typically 3° in elevation; at which localizer coverage


should be available; however to cater to such low elevation angles, the localizer
antenna array will have to be placed abnormally high, becoming a source of obstruction
for landing and take off aircrafts. For this reason, as a compromise between the
obstruction clearance and desired angle of radiation, the height of localizer antenna
array is usually kept as one wavelength, which is a height of approx. three meters at
localizer frequency.

The antenna and its image form an out of phase antenna pair spaced 2 λ apart, and
hence there will be an additional lobe at a higher angle.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Localizer Antenna :

The Localizer antenna array is mounted at a height λ above the ground and hence
maximum radiation occurs at 14.5 degrees with respect to ground. As aircraft approach
a runway typically at 3°, it can be seen that only the lowest portion of the lobe is used.
Now, the regulations state that the field strength in a section between 2000 feet and 7°
from the horizontal must be of useable amplitude. Therefore, the power of the
transmissions must be increased considerably. Of course, use of a reflector screen
helps but if the antenna elements are mounted in a 60° corner reflector, the following
two main results occur:

a. The energy is concentrated into one lobe at approximately 11.5° .


b. The gain increases to about 11 dB over an isotropic radiator.

2.4 Glide path Coverage :

The glide path equipment shall provide signals sufficient to allow satisfactory
operation of a typical aircraft installation in sectors of 8 degrees in azimuth on
each side of the center line of the ILS glide path, to a distance of at least 18.5 km
(10 NM) up to 1.75 θ and down to 0.45 θ above the horizontal or to such lower
angle, down to 0.30 θ, as required to safeguard the promulgated glide path
intercept procedure.

In order to provide coverage for glide path performance specified above, the
minimum field strength within this coverage sector shall be 400 micro volts per
meter (minus 95 dBW/m2). For Facility Performance Category I glide paths, this field
strength shall be provided down to a height of 30 m (100 ft) above the horizontal
plane containing the threshold. For facility Performance Categories II and III glide
paths, this field strength shall be provided down to a height of 15 m (50 It) above the
horizontal plane containing the threshold.

Note 1.- The requirements in the foregoing paragraphs are based on the assumption
that the aircraft is heading directly toward the facility.

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Chapte
er-02 Function and Performance off ILS

Fig
gure 13 Gllide path coverage.
c

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Localizer antenna feeding in NORMARC 3500 Series

PRECISION- Refer Annex – 10 volume 1 ILS Specs.

LIMITATIONS

The Instrument Landing System (ILS) has served as the standard precision approach
and landing aid for the last 40 years. During this time it has served well and has
undergone a number of improvements to increase its performance and reliability.
However, in relation to future aviation requirements, the ILS has a number of basic
limitations:

1. site sensitivity and high installation costs;


2. single approach path;
3. multi path interference; and
4. channel limitations - 40 channels only.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

ILS Categories

a. Introduction

While the Cat I ILS is just fine for most situations, auto landings made in
extremely low visibility require use of Cat III ILS procedures. As a practical matter — it's
expensive and difficult to qualify — Cat III auto land authority is really granted to airline
operators of large turbine aircraft only.

The higher the ILS category (I, II, or III), the lower the minimums that are allowed.
In the USA, approach minimums are based on reported visibility. In some countries and
for a few airports in the United States with unique terrain considerations, minimums are
expressed in terms of both a ceiling and a visibility. A ceiling minimum, where it exists,
should not be confused with a decision height [DH]. The ceiling minimum is simply the
lowest reported ceiling for which one can legally accept the approach. The DH is the
point at which a missed approach must be commenced, if certain approach lighting or
other runway environment references have not been visually acquired by the pilot.

b. Category Details

Cat I ILS, with which most instrument-rated pilots are familiar, utilizes a DH of not
less than 200 feet. Visibility minimums are usually one half mile or 2,400 feet runway
visual range and may be reduced to 1,800 feet RVR if operative touchdown zone and
centerline lights are available.

Cat II ILS has a DH of less than 200 feet, but not less than 100 feet, with visibility
minimums of between 1,800 RVR and 1,200 RVR. Use of a Cat II ILS requires certain
additional aircraft equipment, ground facilities, and pilot training. Any instrument-rated
general aviation pilot may seek Cat II authority from the FAA, although this has proved
to be something of a rarity. Mostly, it is airlines and some corporate flight departments
that do so.

Cat III ILS, which includes subcategories a, b, and c, is in a class all its own. Cat
IIIa approaches may be flown to a 50-foot DH, with RVR as low as 700 feet. The minima
enables the crew to perform a safe missed approach, having fail passive equipment
installed. Cat IIIb minimums go even lower — down to 300 feet RVR, using fail operate

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

equipment and depending on the operator's particular level of authorization. Cat IIIc
approaches, which are not yet authorized and for which no aircraft is yet certified in the
USA, would have no RVR limitation — the first true completely "blind" approach and
landing procedure. One problem yet to be resolved is how to safely maneuver the
aircraft on the taxiways after landing when no outside visual reference exists. One
problem under these visibility conditions is the inability to safely taxi the aircraft.

Cat I and II ILS procedures differ from those of Cat IIIa in one important respect.
They require that the crew visually spot the approach lights — and, eventually, other
runway environment cues — in order to safely continue to a landing by visual
reference alone. In other words, the landing pilot must be able to properly judge the
flare point, make the landing, and execute the rollout visually.

Cat IIIa approaches, on the other hand, merely require that the pilot establish
sufficient visual reference with the touchdown zone lights to ensure that landing is
occurring in the touchdown zone. The pilot may never even see the approach lights.
Visual reference may be such that the pilot is unable to properly judge the flare point or
manually control the aircraft during the initial rollout. The autopilot will normally execute
the flare, landing, and rollout down to taxi speed. (In certain HUD-equipped aircraft, Cat
IIIa approaches can be hand flown without an autopilot. The HUD provides
maneuvering clues that are sufficient to guide the pilot through the flare, landing, and
rollout.)

Cat IIIb autolandings — the lowest currently certified — may occur before any visual
reference with the runway is established by the pilot. Since there is no "decision" to be
made based on visibility, the approaches employ an alert height (AH) instead of a DH.
The AH is merely a point above which a failure in certain required airborne or ground
equipment mandates a missed approach. If the equipment failure occurs below the AH,
the flare, touchdown, and rollout can still be safely accomplished by using redundant
Cat III autoland components. Rather than using outside cues to ensure that landing is
occurring in the touchdown zone, the crew may verify this by using onboard
instrumentation and warning systems.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Flying Technique and Crew Coordination

Cat I or II approaches may be flown single pilot in aircraft with the appropriate
equipment. The Cat III approach is a team effort, however, always played with a
complete flight crew. It requires use of "monitored approach" procedures. These are
designed to ease the flight crew's transition from IMC conditions to visual control of the
aircraft at some point during the approach, landing, or rollout. (Monitored approach
procedures are not reserved solely for Cat III operations. Many airlines mandate their
use during all ILS approaches whenever visibility is at or near minimums.)

During a monitored approach, the first officer normally controls the aircraft on
autopilot. The captain, meanwhile, makes required altitude call-outs and "monitors"
aircraft and systems performance. Approaching DH (Cat I, II, or IIIa), the captain
prepares to take control of the aircraft by looking outside. The first officer's attention
remains on the gauges. This allows the captain time to acclimate to the view outside
before actually taking over. If the captain has not assumed control upon reaching DH,
the first officer announces "Minimums, going around" and initiates the missed approach.
(These procedures are modified slightly for Cat III-b approaches using an AH.) A go-
around is mandated if the aircraft exceeds any one of numerous performance
parameters within the so-called "decision regime," from 500 feet AGL until flaring.
These include airspeed deviations of 5 knots or more, localizer deviations greater than
one-third dot, most instrument warning flags, a ground proximity warning system
activation, or a stabilized crab angle of 10 degrees or more (indicating an excessive
crosswind). Such exacting procedures and limitations are what make very low-visibility
Cat III auto landings routinely possible.

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

Categories of ILS Approaches

Categor Decision Runway Visual


Remarks
y Height Range

I 200 feet 2400 feet

With touch down zone and Runway


I 200 feet 1800 feet
centre line lighting

Half the minimums of a standard


II 100 feet 1200 feet
Cat I Approach

Below 100
III-a 700 feet
feet

Between 700 &


III-b Below 50 feet
150 feet

No RVR
III-c No DH
Limitation

Data from Aeronautical Information Manual, AIM

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Chapte
er-02 Function and Performance off ILS

S
Summary

► ILS employs amp plitude mod


dulation of a radio frequ
uency carrie
er by 150Hz and 90 Hz to
provid
de the guida
ance inform
mation.

When n approaching for a landing, the 15


50 signal predominates
s on the righ
ht-hand side
e of
the co
ourse and the
t 90 on th he left.

When n approaching for a landing, the 150


1 signal predominattes below th
he glide pa
ath
and the 90 abov
ve.

► Azimuth coverag
ge of LLZ :

M within ± 100 from the


25NM e front cours
se line

M from 10 to 35 ether side from th


17NM he front cou
urse line an
nd

M outside of
10NM o ± 35 degrree if covera
age is provvided.

► Eleva age of LLZ:


ation covera

evation the LLZ signal shall be receivable at the dist sp


In ele pecified at and
a above
heighht of 600m above
a the e
elevation off the threshold or 300m
m above the e elevation of
0
the highest point whicheve er is higher and upto 7 above the e horizontal from the LLZ
L
antennna.

► Azimuth coverag + 80 of the centre line


ge of GP is 10NM in +/- e. Elevation coverage
e of
the GGP is between 0.45 tto 1.75 , wherew is the glide a
angle. Norm
mally we can
n
selecct glide anglle between 20 to 40 ass per ICAO.
In +/--100 course
e coverage is provided d while 100 tto 350 CLR
R coverage is provided.

Z upto +/-100 course coverage


► In LLZ c iss provided while
w 100 to
o 350 CLR coverage
c is
ded.
provid
e radiated in
Four signals are n LLZ

CSB//CL(Carrier with sideba


ands/Coursse)

SBO//CL(Side ba
ands only/C
Course)

CSB//CLR(Carrie
er with side
ebands/Clea
arance)

SBO//CLR(Side bands onlyy/Clearance


e)

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Chapter-02 Function and Performance of ILS

DDM is the difference in depth of modulation between 150Hz tone and 90 Hz.

The relative phase of SBO signals set the tone predominance while the SBO power
set the displacement sensitivity.

► Requirement of Clearance signal:


The basic Course signal pattern suffers from two drawbacks

Main lobe beamwidth does not provide the coverage specified by ICAO
(±35°at17NM) and The course pattern has side lobes which give false guidance
information.

The objectives of clearance radiation are intended to overcome these difficulties.

There are three methods by which the clearance coverage can be obtained:

a) In Phase clearance b) Two frequency clearance c) Quadrature clearance.

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Ch
hapter-03

Principlle of Loca
alizer

ILS SIG
GNAL FORMAT

3.1 Loca
alizer :

3.1.1 LL
LZ signal format
f h reasoning of its re
with equirementt :

To obtaiin the required coverage for locallizer and Glide Path , two RF signals need to
t be
radiated. These twoo signals arre defined as:
a

a. CSB Signal;
S and
b. SBO Signal.
S

CSB Sig
gnal

This is an
a RF signaal in which the
t RF carriier is amplittude modulated simultaneously byy the
audio fre
equencies of
o 90 HZ and
a 150 Hzz. If VcSin ωct is the carrier
c signal, the resu
ultant
CSB signal is expre
essed by

This equation gives the following


f fre
equency com
mponents:

uency carrie
a. a radio frequ er fc,

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b. a 90Hz lower sideband fc - 90Hz,

c. a 90Hz uppe
er sideband fc + 90Hz,

d. a 150Hz lower sideband


d fc - 150Hzz and

e. a 150Hz upp
per sideband fc + 150H
Hz.

This signal, when viewed


v on a CRO, loo oks like the
e waveform shown in figure
f 14; when
w
viewed on
o a spectrrum analyze er looks like
e the diagra
am shown in figure 15; and the ve
ector
represen his signal is as shown in figure 16.
ntation of th

Figure
e 14.The waveform
w of CSB Sign
nal

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Figure
F 15. The
T Freque
ency Specttrum of CSB Signal

Figure 16. vector rep


presentatio
on of CSB signal

O Signal:
SBO

This is an RF sig gnal in whicch the RF carrier


c is am
mplitude mo odulated sim
multaneoussly by
the au
udio freque encies of 90 0 Hz and 15 50 Hz with the carrier component removed. If Vc
Sin wct is the carrrier signal, the resultant SBO sign
nal is expre
essed by:

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This equ
uation gives
s the following frequenccy compone
ents:
a. a 90Hz
z lower side
eband fc - 90Hz,

b. a 90Hz
z upper side
eband fc + 90Hz,

c. a 150H
Hz lower sid
deband fc - 150Hz,and

d. a 150H
Hz upper sid
deband fc + 150 Hzz
This signal, when viewed
v on a CRO, loo oks like the
e waveform shown in figure
f 17 ,w
when
viewed on
o a spectrrum analyze er looks like
e the diagraam shown in figure 18
8 and the ve
ector
represenntation of th
his signal is as shown in figure 19.

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Figure
e 17. The waveform
w o SBO sign
of nal

Figure : Th
he Frequen
ncy Spectru
um of SBO
O Signal

(c)

(a

(b

(d

Figure
F : The
e Vector Representat
R tion of SBO
O Signal

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Chapter-03 Principle of Localizer

ANTENNAS

The Log-Periodic Antenna

The log-periodic dipole array used in Localizer is a popular design. Referring to


Figure below, the dipole lengths increase along the antenna so that the included
angle a is a constant, and the lengths ‘l’ and spacing ‘s’ of adjacent elements are
scaled so that

Fig: Isbell log periodic frequency independent type of dipole array


of 7dbi gain with 11 dipoles showing active central region (left and right
ends)

ln+1/ln= sn+1/sn = k

where k is a constant. At a wavelength near the middle of the operating range,


radiation occurs primarily from the central region of the antenna, as suggested in
Fig. above. The elements in this active region are about λ/2 long.

Elements 9, 10 and 11 are in the neighbourhood of λ long and carry only small
currents (they present a large inductive reactance to the line). The small currents
in elements 9, 10 and 11 mean that the antenna is effectively truncated at the
right of the active region. Any small fields from elements 9, 10 and 11 also tend
to cancel in both forward and backward directions. However, some radiation may
occur broadside since the currents are approximately in phase. The elements at
the left (1, 2, 3, etc.) are less than λ/2 long and present a large capacitive

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Chapter-03 Principle of Localizer

reactance to the line. Hence, currents in these elements are small and radiation
is small.

Thus, at a wavelength λ, radiation occurs from the middle portion where the
dipole elements are λ/2 long. When the wavelength is increased the radiation
zone moves to the right and when the wavelength is decreased it moves to the
left with maximum radiation toward the apex or feed point of the array. At any
given frequency only a fraction of the antenna is used (where the dipoles are
about λ/2 long). At the short-wavelength limit of the bandwidth only 15 percent of
the length may be used, while at me long-wavelength limit a larger fraction is
used but still less than 50 percent.

Fig: Construction and feed details of log periodic dipole array.


Arrangement at (a) has 50- or 75-Ω coaxial feed, the one at
(b) has criss-crossed open-wire line for 300- Ω twin-line feed.

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Frequen
ncies
 

Frequen
ncy band :- 108--112 MHz

The loca
alizer shall operate in the band 108
1 MHz to 111.975 MHz. M Where e a single ra
adio
s used, the frequency tolerance shall
frequenccy carrier is s not excceed plus or
o minus 0.0 005
percent.. Where two o radio freq
quency carrriers are use
ed, the freq
quency tolerance shalll not
exceed plus or min nus 0.002 percent.

Form off the beam


m

Figurre Combined Radiation Patterrn

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Photo of the system

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Chapter-03 Principle of Localizer

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF LOCALIZER NM 7000

ANTENNA ARRAY CONCEPTS

An antenna array is an arrangement of several individual antennas so spaced and


phased that their individual contributions combine in one preferred direction and
cancel in undesired directions to get directivity. Thus an antenna array is a method
of combining the radiations from a group of similar antennas.

An antenna array is said to be linear if the individual antennas of the array are
equally spaced along a straight line. Individual antennas of an antenna array are
also called Elements of the antenna array. These elements can either be λ/2
antenna elements or any other complex radiating antenna elements like Log Periodic
Antenna Array.
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Chapter-03 Principle of Localizer

The total field produced by an antenna array system is equal to the vector sum of the
fields produced by individual antennas of the array system. Hence the amplitude and
phase of the signals fed to each of the elements of the array is of great significance
as it influences the total field produced.

The ILS antenna array consists of a number of pairs of antennas. In order to


understand the radiation pattern of these arrays, it is essential to consider the
radiation pattern produced by one pair of antennas and then the combined radiation
pattern is obtained by phasor addition. In this lesson we shall adopt some standard
notations, namely:

I = Im Sin (ωt+φ)

Since the antennas in given array will be supplied energy from a single RF source,
the term containing frequency (ωt) may be omitted when writing the polar form:

In the polar form, φ expresses the initial phase angle of the current and the bar
above I indicates that it is a phasor quantity.

The ILS antenna arrays can be easily analyzed on the basis of two specific types of
antenna pairs namely:

a. those fed currents of equal amplitude that are in phase (SIP); and

b. those that are fed currents with equal amplitude but of opposite phase (SOP).

Before going into the details of these, the effect of separation between antennas will
be discussed.

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The Effe
ect of Separation be
etween two
o Antennas
s

In generral, the effe


ect of increasing the separation
s between an
ntennas of an array iss two
fold:

a. th
he number of lobes in the patternn will increa
ase; and
b. th
he major lobe will deccrease in wiidth.

Since thhe array is considered d to be com mposed of isotropic raadiators, eaach lobe will be
of the sa
ame magniitude. It sho ould be notted that the
e pattern off figure 20 b.
b would no
ot be
adverseely affected d even if th
he radiatorss were com mposed of antenna elements. In n the
discussiion to follow
w, the lobe of this figu
ure is consid
dered the major
m lobe.

Fiigure 20. The


T Basic two Eleme
ent Antenn
na Array.

The Refference Arrray of Twoo Isotropic Radiators is shown in (a) and


d the Resu
ultant
Pattern is shown in
n (b) above
e.

Figure 21a.
2 extendds the separation bettween the antenna off the basic array to λ and
Figure21 b indicattes the ressultant radiation patte
ern Notice that the nuumber of lo
obes
has now
w increasedd to four, an
nd the majoor lobe has decreasedd in width.

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It is not necessary to solve for the resultant field intensity at all angles in order to
sketch a radiation pattern. A sketch, while not accurate at all points in the pattern;
does present the critical points (i.e. the maximum and nulls), which are usually the
main points of interest. The critical points of a pattern can usually be determined by
inspection of the array diagram, and furthermore, because of the symmetry of a
pattern, the critical points need to be determined only in one hemisphere.

Since these two antennas have equal current amplitudes and equal current phases
of 0°, it is apparent that the maximum resultant field intensity occurs on the reference
line (θ = 0°). As the point of observation is moved from the reference line (a change
in the angle θ) the individual antenna phasors rotate in opposite directions by an
amount given by the quantity (a sin θ). Since 90° of phasor rotation is required for an
oppositely phased condition between the two antenna phasors (remember, both
phasors rotate at the same rate, but in opposite directions) the angle θ at which the
out-of phase condition occurs in quadrant I can be determined as follows:

a Sin θ = Phasor rotation where a = λ /4 = 90°

a Sin θ =90°

or Sin θ = 90°/90° = 1,or θ = 90°

Therefore, the first maximum is at θ = 0° and the first null is at θ = 90°.

Refer again to Figure 21. The two diagrams are divided into quadrants I, II, III, and
IV. Since it is only necessary to determine critical points in one hemisphere,
quadrants I and IV are used, and furthermore, the 0° bisector of these two quadrants
becomes the reference line. After the radiation pattern for quadrants I and IV is
determined, quadrants II and III are drawn in as the minor image of I and IV.

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Figurre 21 A Variation
V in
n the Basic ment Array.
c Two-Elem

The Configuration of Figure 21(a) reprresents an n increased d separatio


on between n the
elementts of Figure
e 20(b). The resultantt pattern off the Array is shown in
n Figure 21
1(b).

Since th hese two anntennas haave equal current


c ampplitudes and equal current phase es of
°
0 . it is apparent
a th
hat the maxximum resu ultant field intensity occcurs on the
e reference
e line
(θ = 0°). As the po oint of obse
ervation is moved
m from
m the refereence line (a
a change in
n the
angle θ) the individual anten nna phasorrs rotate in n opposite directions by an am mount
°
given by b the qua antity (a siin θ). Sincce 90 of phasor rottation is re equired for an
opposite ely phasedd conditionn between the two antenna phasors p (re
emember, both
phasorss rotate at the
t same rate,
r n opposite directions) the angle θ at which
but in h the
out-of phase condiition occurss in quadrant I can be determine ed as follow
ws:

a sin θ = phasor rotatio


on where a = λ/2 or 18
80°

a sin θ = 90°

sin θ = 90°/180°

θ = sin-1.5

θ = 30°°

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The first critical point of quadrant 1 is located at θ = 30° and because the phasors are
diametrically opposed and of equal magnitude, this critical point is a null.

The maximum amount of phasor rotation possible in any quadrant is given by the
value of a. Since only 90° of phasor rotation has been considered so far (resulting in a
null) another 90° of rotation is possible, and of course will result in the phasors
returning to an in-phase condition.

The value of θ at which this occurs is again determined by:

a sin θ = phasor rotation

a sin θ = 180°

sin θ = 180°/180°

θ = 90°

Hence, the second critical point is a maximum and occurs at θ = 90°. Since θ = 90° is
the limit of quadrant I, there can be no other critical points in the first quadrant.

The critical points of quadrant IV are yet to be determined. To do so requires, first of


all, a return to the initial condition, or θ = 0°, and then an investigation of the critical
points in quadrant IV. Again, each phasor will rotate as the point of observation is
moved into quadrant IV. Since 180° of phasor rotation is possible, and both phasors
are initially in phase, there will be a null and a maximum in the fourth quadrant, just as
in the first quadrant. The astute observer will note, however, that the critical points of
quadrants I and IV occur at respective values of angle (B) only because the relative
phase of the exciting currents is 0°. Also, it should be noted that the minimums are
complete nulls only because the magnitudes of the exciting currents are equal.

In the final analysis, we can say that when the separation between the isotopic radiators
was λ/2. or 180°, there was one lobe in the I & IV quadrants, and the first nulls occurred
at ± 90°. As against this, when the separation was increased to I or 360°, there were
two lobes in the I & IV quadrants and the first nulls occurred at ± 30°. We can therefore
conclude that the effect of increasing the separation between antennas of an array is
two fold:

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a. the nu
umber of lo
obes in the pattern will increase; and
a

b. The major
m lobe will
w decreasse in width.

In-Phas
se Pair

Here, wew will discu uss a particcular type of antenna a pair, the Specific
S In--Phase, or SIP,
pair, i.e.., those fed
d currents of
o equal am mplitude tha
at are in ph
hase. We will
w be limiteed to
discussion of the horizontal ra adiation from
m SIPs.

F
Figure 22. SIP antenna pair

Figure 22
2 shows th
he SIP. The e resultant radiation
r at R due to antenna
a fee
eds of I Coss (ωt-
φ) at A and
a I Cos (((ωt+φ)) at B is:

IR ωt-φ )+ I Coss (ωt+ φ)


= I Cos (ω

From the above eqquations, th


he direction mum radiattions are always at θ = 0
ns of Maxim
and 180
0 degrees and
a also when:

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θ = Sin -1 (n*180
0/a)

The dire
ections of null will be:

θ = Sin -1(n*180+90
0)/a}

Thus we e can conclude that when


w the iso
otropic elem
ments of a two-elemen nt array aree fed
with sign
nals in phas
se, the tota
al field produuced will ha
ave the follo
owing chara
acteristics:

a. Maxim
mum field on
o the Centter Line.

b. Produ
uction of a number oof Lobes. The
T numbeer of lobess produced
d per
quadrrant will be equal to the nummber of wavelengths
w s of separaation
een the elements.
betwe

c. Altern
nate lobes are
a always in antiphasse.

For exammple aerialls spaced 2 λ apart, will


w produce
e two lobes per quadra
ant as show
wn in
figure 23
3.

F
Figure 23

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The Oppositely-phased Pair

Here, we
w will discu uss a particular type of antenna a pair, the Specific Out of Phase, or
SOP, pa air, i.e., tho
ose fed cu urrents of equal
e amplitude that are in pha ase. We wiill be
limited to discussio on of the ho
orizontal radiation from
m SOPs.

Fiigure 24 SOP ante


enna pair

Figure 24
2 shows the SIP. Th t antenna feeds of I Cos
he resultant radiation at R due to
(ωt-φ) att A and -I Cos
C (ωt+φ) at
a B is:

From the above eq


quations, th
he direction
ns of Maxim
mum radiations occurss at:

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θ = Sin -1
-
(n*180+90
0)/a}

The dire
ections of null
n will be at
a 0 and 18
80 degrees as well as at:

θ = Sin -1
-
{ (n*180)//a}

Thus wee may conclude that when the isotropic elements off a two element arrayy are
fed with
h signals in anti-phase, the total
t field produced will have e the following
characte
eristics:

a. Z
Zero radiatio
on on the Center
C Line..
b. Production
P of
o a numbe er of Lobess. The num
mber of lobe es produce
ed per quad
drant
w -be equa
will al to the number of wa avelengths of
o separatio on between
n the eleme
ents.
c. Alternate
A lob
bes are alwways in antipphase.
d. The
T phase of o radiation changes as the cente erline is crosssed.

For example aerials spaced λ apart, wiill produce one lobe per
p quadra
ant as show
wn in
figure 25
5.

F
Figure 25

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Chapter-03 Principle of Localizer

Combined Radiation from Two or more Antenna Pairs:

When an array contains two or more antenna pairs, and all the pairs are either fed in
phase or in phase opposition, the combined radiation pattern from such an array in a
particular direction could be obtained by simple algebraic addition of field strength
magnitudes due to individual pairs.

All normally operating ILS antenna arrays consists of various combinations of in-phase
and oppositely phased pairs. If an array consists of an in-phase pair and an oppositely
phased pair, particular current phasing conditions must be chosen if the combined fields
from each pair are to add algebraically in all directions. It can be proved that if the
currents in one pair is in quadrature with the other pair, then the fields will add
algebraically. This fact is made use of in the Localizer array where the sideband
antenna pairs are fed currents with relative phase angles of 0 and 180 degrees while
the carrier pairs are fed currents at the relative phase angle of 90 degrees, so that the
effective radiation in any direction is readily obtained by simple algebraic addition of
the various combined fields.

Enhancing Radiation Pattern of Arrays - Principle of pattern multiplication:

If the isotropic antennas in an array are replaced by directional antennas like dipole,
the resultant radiation pattern of the array becomes more directional. The total field
pattern of an array of non-isotropic but similar sources is the product of the individual
source pattern and the pattern of an array of isotropic point sources each located at
the phase center of the individual source and having the same relative amplitude and
phase, while the total phase pattern is the sum of the phase patterns of the individual
source and the an-ay of isotropic point sources.

As discussed earlier, by feeding equal signals to all the elements of an array, in


addition to the principal or major lobe, secondary or minor lobes are also produced.
The minor lobes are usually undesirable, because not only considerable amount of
power is wasted in the directions of the minor lobes but also unnecessary interference
is caused in these areas.

By using a reflector behind the aerials, the back radiation will be eliminated and the
forward radiation is enhanced.

All these techniques are employed in the design of ILS antennas.

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Chapter-03 Principle of Localizer

3.1.2. LOCALIZER ANTENNA ARRAY

The ILS Localizer antenna array consists of a number of antenna elements mounted in
line, at right angles to the runway and symmetrical with respect to the runway
centerline.

To understand the Localizer antenna array's basic principle of working, a simple three-
element array is discussed first.

3.1.2.1 Three Element Localizer Array

Figure 26. shows the configuration of a three element Localizer antenna array.

Aerial B is located at the extended centerline of runway. Where as aerial A and C are
displaced by an equal distance from aerial B.

Aerial B radiates CSB signal while aerial A radiates + SBO and aerial C radiates-SBO
signal. The vector representation of these signal are shown in the figure 26.

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Fiigure 26. Three-elem


T ment Localiizer antenn
na array.

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If an aircraft is located in Blue Sector (which falls right side of runway while
approaching) say at point R1, then it receives three signals (CSB, +SBO and -SBO)
through three different paths (AR1 , BR1 and CR1).

Since the path lengths are not equal, the relative phases of the signals at point R1 will
not be the same as it was at points A, B and C. The phase of the +SBO signal will
advance in phase with respect to CSB signal at point R1 because of shorter path length
( AR1 < BR1 ). Similarly the phase of the -SBO signal will retard in phase with respect to
CSB signal at point R1 due to longer path length ( CR1 > BR1). Advancing in phase of
SBO signal is shown as a rotation in anti-clockwise direction and phase retarding of -
SBO signal is shown as clockwise rotation in the figure 26. If, we now add all these
three signals vectorially, we may observe that 150 Hz sideband is strengthened where
as 90 Hz sideband is reduced. This creates difference in depth of modulation where 150
Hz tone is greater than 90 Hz tone.

At any point (say O) at the extended centre line of the runway, the path traveled by SBO
(AO) and -SBO (CO) are equal in length and are greater than the path traveled by CSB
(BO) signal by the same amount. Thus SBO signal and -SBO signal are phase retarded
by the same amount and hence are 180° out of phase at point O. Hence SBO signals
are cancelled out and only CSB signal remains present at point O. As the depth of
modulation by 150 Hz and 90 Hz are equal in CSB (20 percent each), 0 DDM results at
any point on the centre line of runway.

By similar arguments and vectorial addition of SBO, -SBO and CSB signals in Yellow
Sector, it can be proved that the difference in depth of modulation of 90 Hz tone is
greater than 90 Hz tone.

From the above discussion, the following important points emerge:

I. CSB is the only signal existing on the centre line because SBO signals cancel.
Hence at all points on the centre line of runway DDM ( Difference in depth of
modulation) is zero.
II. 150 Hz tone modulation predominates in Blue Sector.
III. 90 Hz tone modulation predominates in Yellow Sector.

This, so far presents to us qualitative analysis of tone predominance at various places.


But it is quite evident from the vectorial addition of CSB, -SBO and +SBO signals that
the resultant signal will have depth of modulation by 150 Hz and 90 Hz which depends
upon relative strength of SBO signals with respect to CSB signal and also on angle of

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Chapter-03 Principle of Localizer

phase advance or phase retard. From the above we may say that value of DDM
depends upon:

a. Relative strength of SBO with respect to CSB signal.

b. Azimuth angle (where DDM is being measured). DDM increases if azimuth


angle increases. 15.5% DDM is adjusted at 105 meters from the runway
centre line at the landing threshold in order to meet specification of
displacement sensitivity. This can be achieved by adjusting SBO Power.

While discussing earlier we have assumed that SBO signal, CSB signal and -SBO
signal are being radiated from aerials, A, B and C respectively. In other words, we may
say that signal with specific phase relationship is being radiated from various antenna
elements. Imagine what would have happened if SBO signals were interchanged.
Certainly then tone predominance is Blue sector and Yellow sector would also have
changed in a manner where 90 Hz > 150 Hz in BLUE SECTOR and 150 Hz > 90 Hz in
YELLOW SECTOR, which is totally undesirable. Hence, we may state that the correct
tone predominance is set by proper phasing of the SBO signals relative to CSB.

3.1.3 . Limitations of Three elements- use of 12 and 24 elements

The basic concept of localizer with the help of three aerial system, does not,
unfortunately provide required coverage and displacement sensitivity. Also it does not
remain linear out to 18% DDM. CSB signal fed to dipole B (in fig.26), located on the
extended centre line of runway provide excess coverage and reflections due to objects
like tall building, hills and bridges located in this wider coverage area may create
complications in localizer radiation (such as course bending etc.). Hence practical
Localizer antenna array system consists of more number of antenna elements. These
antenna array systems not only restrict the localizer azimuth coverage within the
specified limit but also meet the requirement of displacement sensitivity.

Practical Localizer Antenna Array

The practical ILS Localizer antenna array will consist of either 12 or 24 elements
depending on the local requirements. Figure 27shows a schematic diagram of a
Localizer array containing 12 antenna elements.

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Chapterr-03 Princip
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Figure
e 27 12 Element
E Lo
ocalizer Arrray

The anteenna eleme ents are tre eated as paairs. The antenna elem ments are numbered from
the centtre outward
ds and assigned a cod de of Yelloww (Y) or Blue (B) dep pending on their
position. Y is used for antenna elementss positioned d on the lefft of the run
nway centre
e line
as seen by a landinng aircraft and
a B is use ed for antenna elemen nts position
ned on the right.
r
Hence MBM form the e first pair, 2Y2B formm the next pair
p and so on. consists of a 12 or o 24
antennaa elements depending g on the local requirrements. The T spacing between n the
antennaa elements is of the ord der of 3/4 λ (0.75λ).

3.1.4 Ty
ypical radiation patttern of LLZ
Z antenna, Back Beam
m.

If the CSB
C and SBO signalss of course
e radiation are comb
bined, a po
olar diagram
m as
shown inn figure 28 results.

Figure 28
2 Comb
bined CSB/CL and SB
BO/CL Rad
diation Patttern.

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Because the signals are all in RF phase, the sidebands will add or subtract,
depending on the polarity to produce the tone predominance on each side of the
runway. It can be seen that patterns are very similar to those achieved with 3
elements localizer array system except the signal is now concentrated in a smaller
area and displacement sensitivity is linear out to 18 % DDM. The same criteria which
was applicable to the 3 element localizer also apply in this case:

¾ The relative phase of SBO signals set the tone predominance.


¾ The SBO power will set the displacement sensitivity.

When CSB and SBO signal of Clearance radiations are combined together with the
radiation of course signals a radiation pattern of figure 29 results.

Clearance radiation employs signals displaced approx. 10 KHz from the course
transmission fed to only the centre antenna elements. The NORMARC Localizer
employs this method of clearance.

During radiation a back beam is also formed which is shown in the combined radiation
pattern of figure 29. By using Log Periodic Antenna the back radiation can be reduced.

Figure 29 Combined Radiation Pattern of course and clearance.

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3.1.5 Requirement of clearance system :

The basic course pattern, developed by radiation of course CSB and SBO signal suffers
two drawbacks.

a. A main lobe bandwidth does not provide the coverage specified by ICAO
(± 35° at 17 NM)
b. The course pattern has side lobes which gives false guidance
information.

The objects of clearance radiation are therefore intended to overcome these difficulties.

In NORMARC ILS two frequency clearance system are employed. In this system the
course and clearance transmissions are separated by 10 KHz, each being displaced by
5 KHz from the assigned frequency .The aircraft receiver uses the well known capture
effect to lock into larger signal. This can be demonstrated as follows;

a. Detector output on right hand side of runway,

no interfering clearance signal . .

10 KHz beat between carriers

b. Detector output on right hand side of runway,

with interfering clearance signal.

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The aircraft a.f. circuits will reject the beat provided it is above 4KHz. It can be
seen that it is important that the tolerances, of the two transmitters are strictly
controlled, for if the frequency difference is too large the transmissions may
interfere with the adjacent channels and if it is too small the beat frequency will
pass through the aircraft receiver circuits and upset the DDM -measurements.
The tolerance for the transmitters, in this case is ± 0.002% instead of ± 0.005%
allowed for signal frequency system.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
Chapter-04

Principle of Glide path


3.1 GLIDE PATH

3.2.1. Glide Path Signal Format with reasoning of its requirement:

Glide path operates in the UHF band on a predetermined frequency between 328 MHz
and 336 MHz. As in the case of Localizer, the glide path radiation pattern is formed by
an antenna array. Some of the typical antenna arrays used are the Null Reference, Side
Band Reference and M-array. The antenna systems are dependent upon ground
reflections for forming the course structure, which means that the terrain in front of the
facility must be reasonably level.

Figure 30. Basic Glide path Coverage

Frequencies

Frequency band :- 328-336 MHz

The glide path shall operate in the band 328.6 MHz to 335.45 MHz. Where a single
radio frequency carrier is used, the frequency tolerance shall not exceed plus or minus
0.005 percent. Where two radio frequency carriers are used, the frequency tolerance
shall not exceed plus or minus 0.002 percent.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 

ANTENNAS

Glide path antenna array:

The glide path aerial system provides the means for transmitting the ILS elevation
guidance information. This is achieved by transmitting combinations of glide path CSB
and SBO signals in the proper amplitude and phase relation from two or three radiating
elements raised at critical heights above the ground. These elements are mounted on a
common mast , sited at safe distance from the runway, adjacent to touchdown.

The following are the basic specifications for an ILS glide path:

Carrier frequency: predetermined between 328 MHz and 336 MHz

Navigation tones: 90 Hz AND 150 Hz, modulated on the RF carrier at


40 % each tone on the glide path. Offset, one tone
must predominate. The 150 Hz tone modulation
predominates below the glide angle and the 90 Hz
above the glide angle.
Glide angle (θ): Set at a predetermined value between 2 degrees and 4
degrees.

Displacement Sensitivity: The DDM should be 0.0875 (8.75%) at ± 0.12 θ and


0.175 (17.5%) at ± 0.24 θ

Coverage, Azimuth: 10 NM AT ± 8 degrees from the course line .

Coverage, Elevation: 10 NM between 1.75 θ and 0.45 θ or to such low angles


as 0.3 θ if required as per the promulgated ILS let down
procedures.

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There are three types of Glide Path antenna arrays in use. These are:

a. Null Reference Array

b. Side Band Reference Array


c. M - array
The principle of operation of a Glide path array can be explained using the Null
Reference Array.

Null Reference Array


The principle of operation of a null reference array is based on the Image Antenna
theory. Based on the Image theory, a dipole placed at a height of H above the ground
can be considered as an antiphase antenna pair with a spacing of 2H. If the distance 2H
is made equal to λ then one lobe of radiation is produced in the quadrant above the
ground and the radiated field is proportional to:
sin (H sin θ) ; [E = Ao Sin (H Sin θ)]

where θ is the elevation angle. Hence it can be easily seen that the maximum
radiation occurs at the angle θ given by the formula:

θ = sin - 1 (λ/4H)

Conversely, for a given elevation angle of maximum radiation, the height of the antenna
above ground H is given by the formula:

H = λ /(4 sin θ)
From the above equation, it can be easily shown that for three degree elevation angle of
maximum radiation, the height of the antenna above ground H is 5λ.In this case
although there will be ten lobes of radiation (because 2H = 10λ), the first lobe will have
a maximum radiation at three degrees as shown in figure 31.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 

Figure 31

By similar argument, if the antenna is kept at the height of 10λ, there will be twenty
lobes and the first two lobes will be so formed that there will be a null at 3 degrees as
shown in figure 32. (Amplitude of signal fed to upper antenna is much less as compared
to lower antenna).

Figure 32

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
A combination of the above two radiation patterns will result in the null reference glide
path. This is achieved by the antenna array consisting of two antennas placed above
the ground as shown in figure 33.

Figure 33

The lower antenna is placed at a height H above the ground and radiates the CSB
signal. The upper antenna is placed at a height 2H above the ground and radiates the
SBO signal. The CSB signal will have carrier and sidebands in phase and the
modulation depth of each tone is 40%. The SBO signal is having sidebands in anti-
phase. The combination of the two signals will produce a glide path as shown in figure
34.

Below glide angle , the vector addition of CSB and SBO signal will result in difference in
depth of modulation where 150 Hz is greater than 90 Hz. At glide angle only CSB signal
exists hence DDM will be zero as depth of modulation in CSB signal by 150 Hz and 90
Hz are equal (40% each). Above glide angle 90 Hz is greater than 150 Hz.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
Figure 34 illustrates the radiation pattern in rectangular coordinates. Examination of the
situation at 3 θ will reveal that a false glide angle exists having reversed guidance
information.

Figure 34

The configuration discussed so for is known as the NULL REFERENCE GLIDE PATH.
It is, perhaps, the simplest option and easiest to maintain as the height of the top
aerial determines the glide angle (assuming CSB is set to 0 DDM ). Electrical
adjustment of the glide angle can be made by adjusting the DDM of the CSB signal
but this is not recommended as it complicates maintenance. Additionally, the
displacement sensitivity may be adjusted by means of the SBO power, as in the case
of the localizer. Increasing the SBO power increases sensitivity and reduces the half
sector width, is the angle between θ and the angle where 8.75 % DDM is achieved.
Reducing the SBO power does first the reverse.

The fact that false glide angle information is given at 3 θ should not concern aircraft
operators because the aircraft normally approaches an airfield below θ ( due to the
range ). Therefore the receiver will capture the lowest lobe. For a glide angle of 2.5°
and a height of 2000 to 5000 feet, the range at which this occurs is about 10 Nautical
miles. The false glide angle will have a height of 4000 to 5000 feet, at this range the
aircraft will therefore only uses the lowest (correct ) lobe for guidance. If the second
lobe is captured the guidance information is reversed. So it will not be "flyable". The

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
null reference glide path requires rather special circumstances for optimum operation.
Firstly, there is the subject of aerial height. Typical value for 3°.

Height of lower antenna H = 5 λ = 4.5 meters.

Height of upper antenna 2H = 10 λ = 9.0 meters.

It can be seen that aerial mast requirement for this case, is at least 9 meters. In many
cases a mast of this height is an unacceptable obstruction, so an alternative system
must be used. additionally, because of the aerial height, it requires reasonably flat
ground free from modules out to at least 360 meters and thereafter no substantial
obstruction out to ± 10 ° each side of the course line. Obstructions will create
reflections resulting in distortion of the elevation guidance information (beam bends).
It is therefore required that an alternative system should have lower aerials and some
immunity from reflectors. This has resulted in the development of two more glide path
antenna systems namely:

a. Sideband Reference System; and

b. Quadrature clearance or M array system.

Sideband Reference System

In the sideband reference system the antenna heights are h/2 and 3h/2 thereby
resulting in a reduction of about 2.25 meters from the null reference mast working with
the same value of H. Since the heights of the aerials are lower, the effects of
irregularities in ground level are more pronounced but the area required for beam
formation is less than that for the null reference system.

The sideband reference system employs two transmitting aerials, mounted one above
the other at h/2 and 3h/2

where h = λ

4Sin θ

If h = 5λ provides a maximum at 3 ° , then h/2 = 2.5λ will provide a maximum at 6°.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
2.5λ = λ

4Sin θ

Sin θ = λ = 1

4 * 2.5 λ 10

θ=6°

So if a signal is fed to an aerial of height 2.5λ (h/2) the lobe maximum will be at
approximately 6 °.

Consider an aerial at 3h/2 .For each lobe produced from an aerial at h/2; there will
be three lobes produced from the aerial at 3h/2.

FIG. 35

I f C . S . B & S . B . O . i s f e d to the lower aerial and S.B.O. to the top aerial phased
as shown:

FIG . 36

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a glide path will result at θ as shown in Figure 37(a) & (b). It will be noted that
maximum carrier exists at 2θ, so there is le signal on the glide path. There is
correspondingly less signal glide path so there is less to reflect from obstructions. In
fact the reduction of signal on the glide path is in the order of -6dB and the
immunity from reflections is of the order of -2.3 dB over the null reference system.
The coverage and DDM and predominance specifications are met *

Because the top aerial is at 3h/2, it can be seen that the mast height is now of the
order of

3 x 4.5m = 6.75m.

taking h = 4.5m.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 

FIG. 37(a)

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FIG.

This gives a reduction of 2.25m from the null reference mast, working with the same
value of h. Since the aerials are lower , the affects of irregularities' in ground level
are More pronounced but the area required for beam - forming is less than that for
the null reference system. The sideband reference system is therefore often used
where the ground. falls away beyond the landing threshold.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
3.2.4 M Array System

Some sites require a system which provides a very high immunity from reflections,
even at the expense of other factors. The answer for this is the Quadrature clearance
or M array system which is widely used with Normarc Installations.

This array consists of three aerial elements mounted vertically one above the other at
heights H, 2H and 3H above the ground as shown in figure 38.

Figure

Each element is fed with the proportions of course CSB, course SBO and clearance
CSB signals in order to transmit the glide path radiation pattern with the minimum of
interference from the obstructions and rising ground lying directly in the glide path field.
The clearance radiation is phase advanced 90° on the course radiation to create a
crossover region at ± 0.66 about the angle of elevation 9, and also being modulated to a
depth of 60 % with 150 Hz tone and 20 % with 90 Hz tone, ensures high values of FLY
UP DDM at low elevations.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 

Here

λ = Operating Wavelength

θ = Glide Angle

The array offers a potential improvement of 27.5 dB over the null reference array, with
regard to glide path interference, assuming an overall reflection factor of 10%.

The DDM is linear throughout the glide path width, being 17.5% at ± 0.24 θ.

The amplitude and phases of the various drives to the aerials of the array are detailed
in the following table.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
COURSE CSB RADIATION :

The course CSB/CL is fed to the lower and middle elements, so that the lower element
signal is twice as great as, and in RF antiphase with, the middle element signal. The
Course CSB radiation pattern is shown in figure 39.
The height H is calculated from the equation
H = λ/ (4 sin θ)

where θ is the required glide path angle.


The lower course CSB signal has a sinusoidal distribution, the field strength being
given by the equation
F ∞ sin (H sin (φ)

The middle course CSB signal has sinusoidal distribution at twice the frequency , the
field strength being given by the equation.

F ∞ -1/2 sin ( 2H sin ( φ)

Figure

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
The resultant CSB distribution , obtained by vectorial addition of the two CSB signals
has low values at low elevations and rises to maximum at about 1.3 θ , the DDM
distribution being linear within the glide path width angle ± 0.24θ.

COURSE SBO RADIATION :

The course SBO signal is fed to all three aerial elements, so that the upper and the
lower elements signals are half the amplitude of, and in R.F. antiphase with , the middle
element signal. Figure 40 shows the Course SBO radiation.

Figure

The lower course SBO signal has sinusoidal distribution the field strength being given
by the equation
F∞ -1/2 sin ( H sin (φ )

The middle course SBO signal has sinusoidal distribution at twice the frequency of the
lower SBO signal, the field strength being given by equation
F∞ sin(2Hsin(φ)

The upper course SBO signal has sinusoidal distribution at the three times the
frequency of the lower SBO signal, the field strength being given by the equation
F ∞ -1/2 sin ( 3H sin φ)

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The resultant course SBO pattern is obtained by vectorial addition of the lower, middle
and upper SBO distribution and has low values at low elevations, the first lobe
maximum occurring at about 0.7θ.The resultant has a null at the glide angle and rises to
a second lobe maximum at about 1.6 θ. The distribution through the glide path width of
± 0.24 θ is linear.

CLEARANCE CSB RADIATION

The clearance CSB is fed to the upper and lower aerial elements at a relative signal
level of 30 % of the course CSB signal, and in quadrature with it. Figure 41 shows the
clearance CSB radiation.

Figure

The clearance CSB signal applied to the lower aerial element has sinusoidal
distribution , the distribution being given by the equation

F ∞ 0.3sin(H sinφ)

The clearance CSB signal applied to the upper aerial element has a sinusoidal
distribution at three times the frequency of the lower element , the distribution being
given by the equation
F ∞ 0.3sin(3Hsinφ)

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The distribution of the resultant CSB/CLR signal is symmetrical about the glide path
angle, giving a null on the glide path angle and having maxima at 0.4 θ and 1.6 θ.
The resultant clearance CSB signal being modulated to 60 % depth with 150 Hz tone
and to 20 % with 90 Hz tone gives a depth of 40 % DDM indication at the aircraft
receiver at lower angles than the cross-over angle of 0.6θ . This signal therefore
produces a full scale FLY UP indication at the aircraft receiver as required. At the
cross-over angle, the relative amplitude of the course CSB carrier and the clearance
CSB carrier become equal, but are phased in quadrature. Because of the high rate
of change of the course CSB and clearance CSB through the cross-over region, the
aircraft receiver will capture the stronger signal, ensuring that spurious indications
are completely eliminated.

FORM OF THE BEAM

COMBINED RADIATION PATTERN OF M-ARRAY:

The combined radiation pattern of the M-Array is given in the figure

Figure Combined Radiation Pattern

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3.2.5. Comparison of different GP system:

Sr.No System Advantages Disadvantages

1 Null ly stable 1.Aerial height of order of 9m.


reference
2.Suffers from reflections from
objects

3.Requires flat foreground out to


360m.

2 Sideband 1.Reduced aerial height 1.Glide angle depends on


reference (now of order of 6.75 m). electrical balance between signal
from two aerials.
2.Some freedom from
reflections, 2.Ground flatness more critical.

3.Foreground requirement
reduced to 300 m.

3 Type M 1.Freedom from reflections. 1.Aerial very high (of order of


13.5m).

2.Increased foreground
requirement .

3.Glide angle depends on


electrical balance between 3
aerials .

Glideslope

It provides guidance to the aircraft to remain in a slant plane containing a line passing
through the touchdown point of the runway and perpendicular to the runway centreline,
and making angle Ѳ with the extended centerline.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
RADIATION PATTERN AND DDM

Localizer Course Width

Localizer receivers CPI are calibrated such that 150 μa, FSD corresponds to a DDM
value of 0.155. The area between the two edges-of-course is defined as the localizer
course sector.

Localizer course widths are adjusted according to runway length. This is referred to as a
"tailored course width". The course width is adjusted to be 700 feet wide at the runway
threshold. It should be apparent that the longer the runway, the smaller the angular
course width.
There are limits on initial localizer course widths. They can be no wider than 6° and no
narrower than 3°. If the runway length is long enough that the angular course width
calculates to less than 3° when using 700 feet at the runway threshold. The course
width is set for 3°. If the tailored width calculates to more than 6°, the course width is set
for 6°, on a short runway.

Course Width vs. RF Phase


Proper RF phasing cannot be over emphasized. It is a very important concept that must
be understood. It has been discussed before. It must be remembered that for maximum
space modulation the rf phase of the separate sideband must be correct. Any change
from optimum will cause DDM to decrease and cause the course width to widen.

Glide Path Width

Glide path receiver CPI are calibrated such that 150 microampere of deflection current
corresponds to a value of DDM equal to 0.1775. The edge-of-path is defined as a point
where the cross pointer current is exactly 150 microamperes. Therefore, a DDM value
of 0.178 also corresponds to the edge-of-path. There are two angles where DDM is
0.178, one above the glide angle and the other below the glide angle. The area between
these angles is defined as the glide path sector. The path sector is always adjusted for
an angular sector width of 1.4 degrees.
Another term, path envelope, is used to define a path sector that is 0.7 degree wide,
which is one half of the sector width previously described.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
Summary

► To obtain the required coverage for LLZ and GP, two RF signal need to be radiated
– CSB & SBO.

In CSB signal RF carrier is amplitude modulated simulaneously by the audio


frequencies of 90Hz and 150Hz. CSB signal consists of fc , fc ±90Hz and fc ±150Hz
whereas SBO signal consists of fc ±90Hz and fc ±150Hz only.

► An antenna array is an arrangement of several individual antennas so spaced


and phased that a combining radiation pattern can be achieved from them.

► If the Separation between the antennas of an array is increased the number of lobes
will increase and the width of major lobe will decrease.

► SIP: If current fed to the antenna pair are in phase with equal amplitude, maximum
field will develop on the centre line, the lobes produced per quadrant will be equal to
the number of wave lengths of separation between the elements. Also alternative
lobes are always in anti phase.

► SOP: If current fed to the antenna pair are in opposite phase with equal amplitude,
zero radiation on the centre line, the number of lobes produced per quadrant will be
equal to the number of wave lengths of separation between the element. Also
alternate lobes are always in anti phase and phase of radiation changes as the
centre line is crossed.

► The practical localizer antenna array will consist of 12 or 24 elements.

► In GP three types of antenna arrays are used, these are (i) Null Reference Array
(ii)Side band Reference Array (iii) M Array.

► In Null Reference antenna Array one antenna is installed at height H (5λ for 3o glide
angle) above the ground and radiates the CSB signal, another antenna is installed
at 2H height above the ground and radiates the SBO signal. Pattern of this antenna
is stable but suffers from the reflection from objects.

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Chapter-04 Principle of Glide path 
 
► In side band Reference Array one antenna is installed at H/2 height above the
ground in which CSB and SBO both are fed while another antenna is installed at
3H/2 height above the ground in which only SBO is fed. This antenna array is free
from reflections also foreground requirement is only 300m but ground flatness more
critical.

► M-Array is having 3 antennas, lower one is installed at H height above the ground,
middle antenna height is 2H above the ground and upper antenna height is 3H
above the ground. The advantage of M-Array antenna is: free from reflections so it
can be used where surface is irregular / Hilly areas.

► As per ICAO specifications localizer course width can be adjusted between 30 to


60. The sector width in GP is always adjusted for an angular width of 1.4θ on both
sides. The half sector width of GP is 0.7θ .

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
CHAPTER-05
Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME

DME Precision & Limitation

DME is extremely accurate. It does not suffer from night effect, static,
thunderstorm effect, refraction, site error or propagational errors.

DME Precision :

For DMEs installed after 1989, at distances of from zero to 370 km (200 NM) from the
transponder, dependent upon the particular service application, the total system error,
excluding reading error, should be not greater than ±370 m (0.2 NM) or ±0.25% of
distance measured, whichever is the greater, at least 95 percent of the time.

Note: This system accuracy is predicated upon the achievement of an airborne


interrogator error contribution of not more than ±310m (0.17 NM).

DME Limitation: Choice of Frequency

As early as 1946 many organisations in the West took an active part in the development
of DME system. The Combined Research Group (CRG) at the Naval Research
Laboratory (NRL) designed the first experimental L band DME in 1946.

The L band, between 960 MHz and 1215 MHz was chosen for DME operation mainly
because:

a. Nearly all other lower frequency bands were occupied.

b. Better frequency stability compared to the next higher frequencies in


the Microwave band.

c. Less reflection and attenuation than that experienced in the higher


frequencies in the microwave band.

d. More uniform omni directional radiation pattern for a given antenna height
than that possible at higher frequencies in the microwave band.

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
Accuracy of Range

The distance measurement taken by the aircraft DME receiver is from Air-to-Ground,
DME records Slant Ranges which are greater than the actual distance between the
ground facility and the ground position of the aircraft. The difference between the slant
and actual range is dependent on the relationship of the aircraft height and distance
from the ground equipment. Unless the aircraft is 5000 feet or more, close to the ground
transponder, then the discrepancy is small and can, for all practical purposes, be
ignored.

DME transmission, like those of its complementary aid VOR, is “line of sight “. The pulse
travels in straight lines, so that range at low altitude is limited by the curvature of the
earth. As with the VOR, the maximum range to be expected from DME is about 200
Nautical Miles (Obtainable at altitude above about 25000 feet).

When overhead, there is a small cone of silence but the range indications will continue
to operate on A/C Rx memory.

DME is extremely accurate. It does not suffer from night effect, static thunderstorm
effect, refraction, site errors or propagation errors.

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
Limitation for Maximum Number of Aircraft

Airborne DME receivers require a minimum number of random pulses to ensure its correct
operation by providing appropriate AGC signal. However, unless sufficient interrogating
aircraft are present, the airborne receiver may not receive the required minimum pulse
rate. To ensure this requirement, the DME transponder will generate extra pulses in a
random fashion at a minimum pulse rate of 700 Hz (for THALES DME it is 800 ± 50 pps or
2700 ± 90 pps). These extra random pulse-pairs are called Squitter.

1. At the time when no aircraft is interrogating, only the squitter is being transmitted, at an
average rate equal to the minimum pulse rate. However, as the number of authentic
aircraft interrogations increase, the squitter rate is reduced, and becomes zero when
the aircraft interrogation rate reaches the minimum pulse rate or above.
2. Minimum and Maximum Reply Rate
As the pulse rate of the interrogations increases, a limit is reached above which the
Transponder will not allow any further interrogations to be serviced. This limit is
reached at a reply rate of about 2700 Hz or 4800 Hz (for new DME models, say
Thales DME 435), above which the transponder would become overloaded. To
avoid overloading, the Transponder detects the high rate of replies and causes
the receiver automatic gain control to limit the gain of the receiver until the
weaker, more distant, aircraft are excluded from the transponder, thus lowering
the Transponder loading. Should the system reply rate still exceed the 2700 or 4800
limit, video output pulses are randomly suppressed to limit the maximum reply rate to
2700 or 4800 Hz.
3. Because of this limitation, in heavy traffic the aircraft may not receive 100 percent
replies to their interrogations. In DME system operation it is assumed that on an
average 95 percent of aircraft interrogating a ground transponder at any given time will
be in the track mode and 5 percent will be in search mode. So for 200 aircraft the total
interrogation rate of the ground transponder will be:
4. (30 pps X 190 aircraft) + (150 pps X 10 aircraft) = 7200 interrogations per second.

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As the maximum reply rate of the transponder is limited to 4800 pulse pairs per second,
the ratio of replies to interrogations is 67 percent. However, the airborne DME

1. receiver is designed to operate safely with a reply ratio as low as 65 percent. Hence
providing a safe margin of operation.
2. In the extreme case, when 200 aircraft are using the DME and the ground equipment
fails, all aircraft will be in the search mode and will produce a total of 30000 (200 X
150) interrogations per second. When the ground transponder returns to normal
service, its receiver gain will drop until only the 4800 strongest interrogations are
serviced. This means that replies will be provided to the 32 or so aircraft, which are
likely to be nearest to the ground transponder. Once these aircraft enter the track
mode, their interrogations will drop from 150 to 30 pulse pairs per second, thus
gradually relieving the ground transponder of about 3840 interrogations and allowing it
to increase its sensitivity and reply to more distant aircraft.

Note: DME ground station (transponder) can respond to a maximum of 100


airplanes (for DMEs having maximum reply rate 2700 PPPS) at one time before
reaching saturation. Whereas Latest DME transponder can respond up to a
maximum of 200 aircrafts at a time.

Low visibility procedure

Low Visibility Procedures: Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) are instructions for the
safe and efficient operation of aircraft and vehicles during CAT II/CAT IIIA/CAT IIIB
operations and Low Visibility Take-offs.

Low Visibility Take-Off: Low Visibility Take-off is a departure carried out when the
Runway Visual Range is less than 500M.

Runway Visual Range: The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centerline of
a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or
identifying its centerline.
Safeguarding Procedures: Safeguarding Procedures (SP) are instructions for relevant
airport departments and airside operators to prepare ground services and facilities for
low visibility operations, in order that when LVP are implemented all SP are complete
and airport is configured for CAT II/CAT IIIA/CAT IIIB operations and Low Visibility
Take-offs.

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
Decision Height: A specified altitude or height in the precision approach at which a
missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the
approach has not been established.

CAT II/CAT IIIA/CAT IIIB OPERATIONS AT IGI AIRPORT, DELHI

Category I (CAT I) operation : A precision instrument approach and landing with a


decision height not lower than 60m (200 feet) and with either a visibility not less than
800m, or a runway visual range not less than 550 meters.

Category II (CAT II) operation : A precision instrument approach and landing with a
decision height lower than 60M (200 feet) but not lower than 30M (100 feet), and a
runway visual range not less than 350 meters.

Category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation : A precision instrument approach and landing with:
a)a decision height lower than 30M (100 feet), or no decision height; and
b) a runway visual range not less than 200 meters

(NOTE : AT IGI, Delhi Airport, DH-15M and RVR-200M has been specified for Cat
IIIA operations)

Category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation : A precision instrument approach and landing with:
a)a decision height lower than 15M (50 feet) or no decision height ; and
b)a runway visual range less than 200M but not less than 50M.
(NOTE : AT IGI, Delhi Airport, no DH and RVR-50M has been specified for Cat IIIB
operations)

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
4.6 VOR-ILS/DME procedure RWY 08

4.6.1 : VOR (112.5 CCB)


Holding Procedure One minute left hand pattern, inbound
track 238 Deg M. Minimum holding
altitude 3000 feet.

4.6.2 :
ILS Procedure
4.6.2.1 : Leave VOR (CCB) on track 246 Deg
VOR M/R-246 for Cat A/B and on track 238
Deg M/R-238 for Cat C/D until 8 DME
(VOR DME) descending to 1800 feet.
Commence level base turn right to
intercept localizer (111.1 CAA)
inbound track 078 Deg M. Descend
on glide path to DA/H.

4.6.2.2 From ATS route : After crossing SOMAX (13 DME) turn
right to intercept 11 DME arc
G-473 (R-300) descending to 2000 feet. Crossing
lead radial 269 turn left to intercept
SOMAX 2 arrival localizer (111.1 CAA) inbound track
078 Deg M descending to 1800 feet.
Descend on glide path to DA/H.

4.6.2.3 From ATS route : From NDB (293 BR) turn left proceed
on track 059 Deg M to intercept
R-416 E (R-252) localizer (111.1 CAA) inbound track
078 Deg M descending to FL65.
BR 2 Arrival Passing 24D (ILS) descend to 1800
feet to cross 10D (ILS) at or above
2000 feet Descend on glide path to
DA/H.

4.6.2.4 From ATS route : From NDB (298 PJ) proceed on track
348 Deg M descending to FL65. After
B425/W20 crossing R-210 descend to 2000
feet. Crossing lead radial 247 turn
PJ 2 Arrival right to intercept localizer (111.1 CAA)
inbound track 078 Deg M descending
to 1800 feet. Descend on glide to
DA/H.

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
4.6.2.5 : IF - 10 D (ILS)
Altitude at IF - 2000 feet
Glide Path angle - 3 degrees
Altitude at 4D (ILS) - 1305 feet

Altitude at 1D (ILS) - 345 feet

ILS RDH - 50 feet

4.6.2.5 OCA : Straight in

Cat A/B - 285 feet

Cat C/D - 285 feet

Visual Circling

Cat A/B - 550 feet

Cat C/D - 750 feet

4.6.2.6 Glide Path in- : FAF - 5D (ILS)


operative (LLZ only)
procedure Altitude at FAF - 1600 feet

Descent gradient - 5.2%

MAPt - 1DME (ILS)

4.6.2.6 OCA : Straight in - 400 feet

Visual Circling

Cat A/B - 550 feet

Cat C/D - 750 feet

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 

4.6.2.7 Ground Speed and Rate of Descent Information:-

Ground Speed 80 100 120 140 160 180


(KT)

Rate of 420 525 630 735 840 950


descent
(Ft/Min)

4.6.2.8 Distance (ILS/DME) /Altitude information:

Distance 5DME 4DME 3DME 2DME

(NM)

Altitude/ 1600 1295 975 660

Height (1578) (1273) (943) (628)


/Ft.

4.6.2.9 M A Procedure
: Climb straight ahead to 2000 feet and
turn left to join VOR holding at 3000 or as
instructed by ATC.

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Chapterr-05 Use Pre
ecision and
d Limitatio DME 
ons of ILS/D
 
Basic IL
LS Orientation

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 

Critical Area

ILS Critical Area: An area of defined dimensions about the localizer and glide path
antennas where aircraft and vehicles are excluded during all ILS operations. The critical
area is protected because the presence of vehicles / or aircraft insight its boundaries will
cause unacceptable disturbance to the ILS signal-in-space.

ILS Sensitive Area: An area extending beyond the ILS critical area where the parking
and/or movement of vehicles, including aircraft, is controlled to prevent the possibility
of unacceptable interference to the ILS signal during ILS operations. The sensitive
area is protected to provide protection against interferences cause by large moving
objects outside the critical area but still normally within the airfield boundary. 1.2. LLZ
Critical Area:- The area bounded by:

i. A line 300meter in the direction of approaches from localizer antenna and


perpendicular to the runway.
ii. A line 60m from the centerline of localizer antenna on either side and parallel to
the runway.
iii. A line containing the centerline of localizer antenna and perpendicular to the
runway.
iv. Area within a circle of 75 meter radius with center at middle of antenna system.

1.3. LLZ Sensitive Area:- The typical LlZ sensitive area for 12 and 14 elements
directional dual frequency LLZ antenna system which are used in AAI are as
given below for a 3000m runway.

The area bounded by:

Category I ILS:- An area of 600M X 60M from center of llZ array towards
approach end of runway.

Category II ILS:- An area of 1220M X 90M from center of LLZ array towards
approach end of runway.
Category III ILS:- An area of 2750M X 90M from center of LLZ array towards
approach end runway.

1.4. GP Critical Area :- The area bounded by


i. A line 300meter in the direction of approach from tile glide path facility
and perpendicular to the runway.
ii. A line containing glide path antenna and perpendicular of runway
iii. Near edge of runway from glide path.
iv. A line 30 meter in the directions away from the antenna and parallel to
it.

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
1.5. GP Sensitive Area :- the area bounded by
a) For Category I ILS:

i. A line 900 meter in the direction of approach from the glide path facility and
perpendicular to the runway.
ii. A line containing glide path antenna and perpendicular of runway
iii. Near edge of runway from glide path including runway towards direction of
approach.
iv. A line 300 meter in the directions away from the antenna and
parallel to it.

b) CATEGORY II/III ILS:

i. A Iine 976 meter In the direction of approach from the glide path facility and
perpendicular to the runway.
ii. A line containing glide path antenna and perpendicular of runway.
iii Near edge of runway from glide path including runway towards direction of
approach.
iv. A line 300 meter in the directions away from the antenna and parallel to it.

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
SERVICE VOLUME

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Chapter-05 Use Precision and Limitations of ILS/DME 
 
Summary

► The near field region where unrealistic signals are received is known as the
RAYLEIGH region. The distance from which correct signals are received is known
as the RAYLEIGH DISTANCE and can be found by:

D = L 2/ λ Where L = Aperture Length

► In the case of the NULL REFERENCE glide path system Rayleigh distance is 360
Meters.

► In the case of the M-Array glide path system Rayleigh distance is 810 Meters.

► Phase Error due to antenna array can be expressed as:

φ = (Hu )2 – (Hl )2

2D

► The situation arising out of phase errors in the near field is obviously unsatisfactory
as the glide path will be UNFLYABLE at these close ranges. The method used to
minimize the phase errors on the runway centerline is called antenna offset.

► Localizer monitoring NF antenna is located on centerline approximately 150 feet in


front of the array at an azimuth of 0°.

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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 
Chapter-06

Principle and Operational Use of on-board system

1. On Board equipment

A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a
pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern cockpits are enclosed, except on some small
aircraft, and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin.
From the cockpit an aircraft is controlled on the ground and in the air.

List of on-board equipment

In the modern electronic cockpit, the flight instruments usually regarded as essential are

i) MCP,
ii) PFD,
iii) ND,
iv) EICAS,
v) FMS/CDU and
vi) Back-up instruments.

MCP

A mode control panel, usually a long narrow panel located centrally in front of the pilot,
may be used to control heading, speed, altitude, vertical speed, vertical navigation and
lateral navigation. It may also be used to engage or disengage both the autopilot and
the auto throttle. The panel as an area is usually referred to as the "glare shield panel".
MCP is a Boeing designation (that has been informally adopted as a generic name for
the unit/panel) for a unit that allows for the selection and parameter setting of the
different auto flight functions, the same unit on an Airbus aircraft is referred to as the
FCU (Flight Control unit).

PFD

The primary flight display is usually located in a prominent position, either centrally or on
either side of the cockpit. It will in most cases include a digitized presentation of the
attitude indicator, air speed and altitude indicators (usually as a tape display) and the
vertical speed indicator. It will in many cases include some form of heading indicator
and ILS/VOR deviation indicators. In many cases an indicator of the engaged and
armed auto fight system modes will be present along with some form of indication of the
selected values for altitude, speed, vertical speed and heading. It may be pilot
selectable to swap with the ND.
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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 
ND

A navigation display, which may be adjacent to the PFD, shows the current route and
information on the next waypoint, current wind speed and wind direction. It may be pilot
selectable to swap with the PFD.

EICAS/ECAM

The Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (used for Boeing) or Electronic
Centralized Aircraft Monitor (for Airbus) will allow the pilot to monitor the following
information: values for N1, N2 and N3, fuel temperature, fuel flow, the electrical system,
cockpit or cabin temperature and pressure, control surfaces and so on. The pilot may
select display of information by means of button press.

FMS

The flight management system/control unit may be used by the pilot to enter and check
for the following information: flight plan, speed control, navigation control, and so on.

Back-up instruments

In a less prominent part of the cockpit, in case of failure of the other instruments, there
will be a set of back-up instruments, showing basic flight information such as speed,
altitude, heading, and aircraft attitude.

The flight instruments are visible on the left of the instrument panel

Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot
with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, speed and
direction. The flight instruments are of particular use in conditions of poor visibility, such
as in clouds, when such information is not available from visual reference outside the
aircraft.

The term is sometimes used loosely as a synonym for cockpit instruments as a whole,
in which context it can include engine instrument, navigational and communication
equipment.

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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 

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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 

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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 

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Chapter-06 Principle and Op stem 
perational Use of on--board sys
 
Working
g principle
e of on-boa
ard equipm
ment

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Chapter-06 Principle and Op stem 
perational Use of on--board sys
 
The bassic block diagram of IL
LS airborne e receiver is
i shown in
n Fig.1 The
e basic airb
borne
display unit
u appearrs as shown n in Fig. 2

The salient features of the airb


borne display unit are as below:

a) T
There are tw wo needless (vertical needle for localizer and a the horrizontal onee for
glide path).
b) There
T are twwo lines, veertical and horizontal, crossing each
e other at the centter of
th
he meter an nd graduate ed by a serries of dotss. There are e four dots above and four
below the ce entral dot on the verticcal line. Sim
milarly there
e are four dots left and
d four
dots right of the centrall dot on the
e horizontal line.
c) The
T Localiz
zer and Glide Path needles
n are
e driven byy the DDM M of respe ective
ra
adiation.

Course deviation indicator

A cours se deviation indicator (CDI) is an a avionics instrument used in airrcraft navigation


to deterrmine an aircraft's
a latteral positio
on in relation to a tra ack. If the location off the
aircraft is to the leftt of course, the needle o the right, and vice ve
e deflects to ersa.

Use

The insttrument sho urse deviations. Correction


ows the dirrection to stteer to corrrect for cou
is made
e until the needle
n he aircraft is on course. The pilo
centters, and th ot then resu
umes

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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 
the course heading. The deflection of the needle is proportional to the course deviation,
but sensitivity and deflection vary depending on the system being used.

When used with a GPS it shows actual distance left or right of the programmed course
line. Sensitivity is usually programmable or automatically switched, but 5 nautical miles
(9.3 km) deviation at full scale is typical for en route operations. Approach and terminal
operations have a higher sensitivity up to frequently .3 nautical miles (0.56 km) at full
scale.

When used with a VOR or VORTAC the course line is selected by turning an "Omni
bearing selector" or "OBS" knob usually located in the lower left of the instrument. It
then shows the number of degrees deviation from the desired course to the navigational
aid (navaid), and is used to intercept and fly to or from any of the 360 compass "radials"
that emanate from the navaid. Deflection is 10° at full scale, with each dot on the CDI
representing 2°. (See using a VOR for usage during flight.)

When used for instrument approaches using a LDA or ILS the OBS knob does not
function, since the course line is usually the runway heading, and is determined by the
ground transmitter. Many CDI's also incorporate a second, horizontal, needle. This is
used to provide vertical guidance when used with a precision ILS approach, and the
descent course line or glide slope (usually 3 degrees) is also determined by a
transmitter located on the ground.

A CDI is normally not used with an automatic direction finder (ADF), which receives
information from a normal AM radio station or an NDB. An ADF indicator or radio
magnetic indicator (RMI) is used instead, both of which provide direction or heading
information.

Operation

CDI's were originally designed to receive a signal from a VOR, LDA or ILS receiver.
These receivers outputted a signal composed of two AC voltages. A converter decoded
this signal, and by determining the desired heading or radial from a resolver connected
to the OBS knob, provided a control voltage to drive the needle left or right. Most of the
older units, and many newer ones, contain the converter in the CDI. Generally, CDI
units with an internal converter are not compatible with GPS units.

More modern units generally provide the converter within the radio, although it
occasionally is a separate unit. In either case, the resolver position is sent to the
converter, and the converter outputs a 150mv control signal to the CDI to drive the
needle left or right. Most recently, the desired position of the needle is transmitted via a
serial ARINC 429 signal from the radio or GPS unit, making the CDI design independent
of the radio or GPS type.

It is often known as ILS meter, the vertical needle being used for V.O.R. and
Localizer purposes. The needle is centered, when the aircraft is on the selected
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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 
course and when aircraft is "Off Course", the C.D.I. shows "Fly left" or "Fly right"
indication. The rule is to follow the needle and bring it to Centre position to regain
the selected course by making the Magnetic Heading of the aircraft in RMI and the
OBS selection in general agreement, with "TO-FROM" reading as "TO". Full needle
deflection from the Centre position to either side indicates that the aircraft is 10
degree off course from the selected course as the horizontal line has 4 dot or 5-dot
scale on either side of the vertical line. The Horizontal pointer is connected to the
Glide Path Rx.

Figure 8.2; A MECHANICAL VOR DISPLAY

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Chapter-06 Principle and Operational Use of on-board system 
 
Summary

• Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide
the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude,
speed and direction. The flight instruments are of particular use in conditions of
poor visibility, such as in clouds, when such information is not available from
visual reference outside the aircraft.

• List of on-board equipment

vii) MCP,
viii) PFD,
ix) ND,
x) EICAS,
xi) FMS/CDU and
xii) Back-up instruments.

• A course deviation indicator (CDI) is an avionics instrument used in aircraft


navigation to determine an aircraft's lateral position in relation to a track. The
instrument shows the direction to steer to correct for course deviations.

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 
Chapter-07

Principle of MARKERS
Principle

En-route marker beacons identify a particular location along an airway and are
generally associated with low frequency and VHF radio ranges. A 75 MHz signal
modulated by 3 000 Hz is radiated from the ground equipment in a narrow beam
directed upwards. This is received by aircraft flying overhead and an audible and
visible indication is given to the pilot. On some beacons, the modulating tone is keyed
to provide identification coding.

Two types of en-route marker beacons are in general use. Fan or F markers are used
to identify locations along airways, have an approximately elliptical coverage shape at
a given altitude, and are generally located some distance from the navigation aid
defining the airway. Station location or Z markers are used to identify the location of a
navigation aid on an airway, have an approximately circular coverage at a given
altitude, and are installed close to the station.

PICTORIAL VIEW OF MARKERS

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 

SYSTEM ON BOARD

Marker Beacons

The markers are pre-tuned to their 75MHz frequency and illuminate when overflown.
The marker tone can also be heard if selected on the ACP.

Frequency

The marker beacon shall operate at 75 MHz with a frequency tolerance of plus or minus
0.005 percent

PROCEDURE

En-route marker beacons identify a particular location along an airway and are generally
associated with low frequency and VHF radio ranges. A 75 MHz signal modulated by 3
000 Hz is radiated from the ground equipment in a narrow beam directed upwards. This
is received by aircraft flying overhead and an audible and visible indication is given to
the pilot. Accurate distance along the approach path from the runway over two points -
outer and middle markers generally - is provided by respective beacons during an
approach to land. Low powered NDB – compass locator may be co-located for tacking
in/ out of marker. A DME transmitter may be associated with localizer to render the
marker redundant

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 

Ground Transmitter

The ground equipment consists of a 75 MHz transmitter . an antenna system usually


consisting of a dipole or array of dipoles over an elevated counterpoise, and, in the
usual case, a monitor to detect out-of-tolerance conditions. 11le transmitter generates
a continuous carrier amplitude modulated approximately 95 per cent by a 3 000 Hz
tone. The modulating tone may be keyed with dots and dashes to provide coded
identification. Since the marker system depends on the measurement of a radio
frequency signal level for its operation, the power output varies according to the
marker's operational use.

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 

Antennas

Identification

Ground equipment for the marker is a VHF transmitter of fixed frequency of75
MHz. It is modulated by 400 Hz tone and coded as:
dah dah .... dah .. for the outer marker and with 1300 Hz tone coded as . dit-dah..dit-
dah..ditdah for the middle marker. For the inner marker, if installed, the audio
modulation is at 3000 Hz and coded as dit... dit... dit.....

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Chapter-07 e of MARKERS 
Principle
 

Location of Marke
ers

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Chapter-07 e of MARKERS 
Principle
 
Marker beacon

A marrker beaco on is a particular type of


o VHF radio beacon usedu in avia
ation, usua
ally in
conjuncttion with an
n instrumennt landing syystem (ILS), to give piilots a means to determine
position along an established
e route to a destination
d such as a runway.

There are
a three ty ypes of ma arker beaco
ons that ma
ay be insta
alled as part of their most
commonn applicatio
on, an Instru
ument Land
ding System
m:

• 1 Outer marrker
• 2 Middle ma
arker
• 3 Inner mark
ker

Outer marker
m

Blue Ou
uter Marker indicator

The Outter Marker, which normally identtifies the fin nal approacch fix (FAF)), is situate ed on
the samme line with the localizzer and the runway ce enterline, 4 to 7 nauticcal miles be efore
the runwway threshoold. It is typically locateed about 1 NM (2 km) inside the point where e the
glideslop
pe interceppts the interrmediate alltitude and transmits a 400 Hz to one signal on a
low-powwered (3 wa atts), 75 MH Hz carrier frequency.
f Its antenna a is highly directional, and
is pointe
ed straight up. The va alid signal area is a 2,400
2 ft (73
30 m) × 4,2 200 ft (1,2880 m)
ellipse (as
( measurred 1,000 ft f (300 m) above
a the antenna.) When the aircraft pa asses
over thee outer ma arker anten nna, its ma arker beacoon receiver detects the t signal. The
system gives the pilot
p a visua al (blinking blue outerr marker lig ght) and au ural (continuous
series of
o audio to one morse code-like 'dashes') in ndication. Some
S coun ntries, such as
Canada, have abandoned ma arker beaco ons comple etely, replaccing the ou uter markerr with
a non-diirectional be
eacon (NDB), and mo ore recently with GPS fixes.
f In thee United Sta ates,
the outeer marker has often been combined with an NDB to t make a Locator Outer O
Marker (LOM).
( Somme ILS app proaches have no navvigation aid d at all situa
ated at the final
approacch fix, but use othe er means, such as VOR radia al intersecctions, dista ance
measuring equipme ent (DME), GPS, or ra adar fixes, to
t identify th he position.

Middle marker
m

Amber Middle
M Mark
ker indicato
or

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Chapter-07 e of MARKERS 
Principle
 
A middlle marker works on the same principle as an outer marker.. It is norm mally
positione ed 0.5 to 0.8 nautica al miles (11 km) beforre the runw way thresh hold. When n the
aircraft is above the middle marker, th he receiverr’s amber middle
m marrker light starts
s
blinking,, and a reppeating patttern of audible Morse code-like dot-dashes
d at a frequency
of 1,3000 Hz in the headset. This
T alerts the pilot th
hat the CATT I missed approach point
(typicallyy 200 feet (60 m) aboove the gro ound level on
o the glidee slope) haas been passed
and sho ould have already initia
ated the misssed appro oach if one of several visual cuess has
not been n spotted.

M
Middle Markker Antenna
a at ONT

Inner marker
m
White In
nner Marke
er indicator

Similar to the oute


er and midddle markers; located at the beginning (th hreshold) off the
runway on some ILS I approaach systems (usually Category II I and III) having
h deccision
heights of less tha
an 200 feett (60 m) AG
GL. Triggerrs a flashing white ligh
ht on the same
s

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 
marker beacon receiver used for the outer and middle markers; also a series of audio
tone 'dots' at a frequency of 3,000 Hz in the headset.

The inner marker is used only for Category II operations.

Indications a pilot receives when passing over a marker beacon.

MARKER CODE LIGHT SOUND

400 Hz
OM ___ BLUE
two dashes/second

1300 Hz
MM ._._._ AMBER
Alternate dot and dash

3000 Hz
IM .... WHITE
only dots

BC .. .. WHITE

Notice above that the sound gets "quicker" and the tone "higher" as the aircraft moves
towards the airport—first dashes, then dots and dashes, finally just dots

Back Course(BC) : Most, but not all, airports with an ILS also offer guidance on the back
course. The BC marker identifies the FAF for the back course. A Back-Course approach
is non-precision since there is no glide path associated with it.

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 
Tx ground equipment

MARKER BEACON BLOCK DIARAM

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 
The NM7050 consists of twoTX1373A transmitters. The main transmitteris connected to
the antenna while the standby transmitter is connected to dummy load. A falure in the
main transmitter will cause an automatic changeover to the standby transmitter.The
moniter and transmitter control function is based on software.The system is based on
modern technology with extensive remote monitering and maintenance capabilities and
very high reliability and integrity.

On-board equipment

Working principle

Ground equipment for the marker is a VHF transmitter of fixed frequency of75 MHz.
It is modulated by 400 Hz tone and coded as: dah dah dah for the outer marker
and with 1300 Hz tone coded as . dit-dah..dit-dah..ditdah for the middle marker. For the
inner marker, if installed, the audio modulation is at 3000 Hz and coded as dit... dit...
dit.....

In the aircraft, the VHF marker receiver gives output of 400, 1300 or 3000 Hz audio
which is heard through the AIS.
In addition, outer marker modulation triggers a lamp of purple colour and middle marker
modulation triggers lamp of amber colour. Inner marker, if available, drives a white
tamp.

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Chapter-07 Principle of MARKERS 
 
Summary

• The marker beacon shall operate at 75 MHz with a frequency tolerance of plus or
minus 0.005 percent.
• The ground equipment consists of a 75 MHz transmitter, an antenna system
usually consisting of a dipole or array of dipoles over an elevated counterpoise.
• There are three types of marker beacons

• Outer marker
• Middle marker
• Inner marker

Civil Aviation Training College, India Page 531


 
Chapter-08 Principle of MLS 
 
Chapter-08

Principle of MLS

Microwave landing system

A microwave landing system (MLS) is an all-weather, precision landing system


originally intended to replace or supplement instrument landing systems (ILS). MLS has
a number of operational advantages, including a wide selection of channels to avoid
interference with other nearby airports, excellent performance in all weather, a small
"footprint" at the airports, and wide vertical and horizontal "capture" angles that allowed
approaches from wider areas around the airport.

It is a GPS-based systems, allowed the expectation of the same level of positioning


detail with no equipment needed at the airport. GPS dramatically lowers the cost of
implementing precision landing approaches,

Principle:

MLS employs 5GHz transmitters at the landing place which use passive electronically
scanned arrays to send scanning beams towards approaching aircraft. An aircraft that
enters the scanned volume uses a special receiver that calculates its position by
measuring the arrival times of the beams.

Ground Equipment:

A system of ground equipment which generates guidance beams at microwave


frequencies for guiding aircraft to landings; it is intended to replace the present lower-
frequency instrument landing system.

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Chapter-08 Principle of MLS 
 
An aircraft landing-guidance system that operates at microwave frequencies and
provides deviations from the landing runway centerline using time-referenced scanning
beam (TRSB) technology..

The operating frequencies for MLS lie in a portion of the C-band (5030–5091 MHz)
designated for use in aeronautical telecommunications. This frequency choice allows a
12-ft (3.6-m) antenna to generate the 1° beam width pattern needed to exclude most
reflections.

As with ILS, the MLS equipment is sited near the primary runway, with the azimuth
transmitter and distance-measuring equipment (DME) transponder located near the
runway stop end, and the elevation transmitter located alongside the runway near
landing threshold. With this geometry, the approach course and glide path, generated
by the ground equipment, are monitored at the landing runway. Also, the aircraft lateral
and vertical displacements due to guidance errors become vanishingly small as the
runway is approached and the angular guidance converges to its origin. Unlike ILS, the
50-times higher frequency of the MLS allows generation of narrow beams by relatively
small equipment. Because of this 50:1 scale factor, a 1° beam width antenna for MLS
requires a 12-ft (3.6-m) antenna, while for ILS a 600-ft (180-m) antenna would be
required..

The large coverage volume of MLS is provided by scanning the narrow beams
clockwise then counterclockwise for azimuth functions and up then down for elevation
functions. This scanning is electronically controlled at a precise rate of 20,000°/s and
fills a lateral sector of 60° (maximum) on each side of the runway center line and a
vertical sector of 30° (maximum). The angular position of the aircraft is decoded by the
airborne receiver, which measures the time elapsed between successive passages of
azimuth or elevation beams.

The antennas typically used are phased arrays where beam scanning is accomplished
by a stored set of commands which, at the appropriate time in the transmission
sequence, are directed to variable signal-delay devices (phase shifters) associated with
each radiating element of the array..

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Chapter-08 Principle of MLS 
 

An MLS azimuth guidance station with rectangular azimuth scanning antenna with DME
antenna at left.

Compared to the existing ILS system, MLS had significant advantages. The antennas
were much smaller, due to using a higher frequency signal. They also did not have to be
located at a specific point at the airport, and could "offset" their signals electronically.
This made placement at the airports much simpler compared to the large ILS systems,
which had to be placed at the ends of the runways and along the approach path.

Another advantage was that the MLS signals covered a very wide fan-shaped area off
the end of the runway, allowing controllers to vector aircraft in from a variety of
directions or guide aircraft along a segmented approach. In comparison, ILS could only
guide the aircraft down a single straight line, requiring controllers to distribute planes
along that line. MLS allowed aircraft to approach from whatever direction they were
already flying in, as opposed to flying to a parking orbit before "capturing" the ILS signal.
This was particularly interesting to larger airports, as it potentially allowed the aircraft to
be separated horizontally until much closer to the airport. Similarly in elevation, the fan
shape coverage allows for variation in approach angle making MLS particularly suited to
aircraft with steep approach angles such as helicopters, fighters and the space shuttle.

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Chapter-08 Principle of MLS 
 

An MLS elevation guidance station.

Unlike ILS, which required a variety of frequencies to broadcast the various signals,
MLS used a single frequency, broadcasting the azimuth and altitude information one
after the other. This reduced frequency contention, as did the fact that the frequencies
used were well away from FM broadcasts, another problem with ILS. Additionally, MLS
offered two hundred channels, making the possibility of contention between airports in
the same area extremely remote.

Finally, the accuracy was greatly improved over ILS. For instance, standard DME
equipment used with ILS offered range accuracy of only +/- 1200 feet. MLS improved
this to +/- 100 ft in what they referred to as DME/P (for precision), and offered similar
improvements in azimuth and altitude. This allowed MLS to guide the extremely
accurate CAT III approaches, whereas this normally required expensive ground-based
high precision radar.

Similar to other precision landing systems, lateral and vertical guidance may be
displayed on conventional course deviation indicators or incorporated into multipurpose
cockpit displays. Range information can also be displayed by conventional DME
indicators and also incorporated into multipurpose displays.

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Chapter-08 Principle of MLS 
 
On-board Equipment

CONCEPTS

The equipment concepts were designed so the equipment could be retrofitted into
existing aircraft with minimum modifications to other airborne equipment. The MD-80
series of aircraft was used as a model. The conceptual design was used only to identify
the crew interface, procedures, and workload. It did not consider any of the
requirements for installing MLS antennas and receivers, structural changes to the
aircraft, or interfaces with other avionics equipment. Interfaces with the digital flight
guidance and control system, the flight instruments, and the capability to switch from
ILS to MLS operations would be required.

The two concepts ( Centerline Approach and Segmented Approach )used a


microprocessor built into the MLS receiver to provide guidance algorithms for capturing
the runway centerline or approach path. Figure 2 shows the system block diagram and
interconnections with the other systems. The MLS receiver’s CDU was the crew
interface for selecting the channel, approach path, and capture mode, and for verifying
the approach path. An ILS/MLS mode-select switch was located on the glare shield for
selecting the MLS mode. The MLS was engaged by the same autopilot mode switches
as the ILS. The receiver’s output provided steering signals and mode annunciation to
the digital flight guidance computer and flight instruments. Figure 3 shows the
relationship of these various components in the MD-80 cockpit.

FIGURE BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR AIRBORNE MLS SYSTEM

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Chapter-08 Principle of MLS 
 
FREQUENCIES

Frequency of operation: - 5031 to 5091 MHz

SEGMENT

Provision of all-weather coverage up to ±60 degrees from runway centerline, from


0.9 degree to 15 degrees in elevation, and out of 20 nautical miles (NM);

ILS LIMITATIONS

The Instrument Landing System (ILS) has served as the standard precision approach
and landing aid for the last 40 years. During this time it has served well and has
undergone a number of improvements to increase its performance and reliability.
However, in relation to future aviation requirements, the ILS has a number of basic
limitations:

1. site sensitivity and high installation costs;


2. single approach path;
3. multi path interference; and
4. channel limitations - 40 channels only.

MLS ADVANTAGES

As previously mentioned, ILS has limitations which prohibit or restrict its use in many
circumstances. MLS not only eliminates these problems; but also offers many
advantages over ILS including:

1. elimination of ILS/FM broadcast interference problems;


2. provision of all-weather coverage up to ±60 degrees from runway centerline, from
0.9 degree to 15 degrees in elevation, and out of 20 nautical miles (NM);
3. capability to provide precision guidance to small landing areas such as roof-top
heliports;
4. continuous availability of a wide range of glide paths to accommodate STOL and
VTOL aircraft and helicopters;
5. accommodation of both segments and curved approaches;
6. availability of 200 channels - five times more than ILS;
7. potential reduction of Category I (CAT l) minimums;
8. improved guidance quality with fewer flight path corrections required;
9. provision of back-azimuth for missed approaches and departure guidance;
10. elimination of service interruptions caused by snow accumulation; and
11. lower site preparation, repair, and maintenance costs.

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POSSIBILITIES:

Although some MLS systems became operational in the 1990s, the widespread
deployment initially envisioned by its designers never became a reality. GPS-based
systems, notably WAAS, allowed the expectation of the same level of positioning detail
with no equipment needed at the airport. GPS/WAAS dramatically lowers the cost of
implementing precision landing approaches, and since its introduction most existing
MLS systems in North America have been turned off. GPS/WAAS-based LPV 'Localizer
Performance with Vertical guidance' approaches provide vertical guidance comparable
to ILS Category I and FAA-published LPV approaches currently outnumber ILS
approaches at US airports.

MLS continues to be of some interest in Europe, where concerns over the availability of
GPS continue to be an issue. A widespread installation in the United Kingdom is
currently underway, which included installing MLS receivers on most British Airways
aircraft, but the continued deployment of the system is in doubt. NASA operated a
similar system called the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System to land the Space
Shuttle.

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Chapter-08 Principle of MLS 
 
Summary

• A microwave landing system (MLS) is an all-weather, precision landing system


originally intended to replace or supplement instrument landing systems (ILS).
• MLS employs 5GHz transmitters at the landing place which use passive
electronically scanned arrays to send scanning beams towards approaching
aircraft.
• The operating frequencies for MLS lie in a portion of the C-band (5030–5091
MHz) designated for use in aeronautical telecommunications. This frequency
choice allows a 12-ft (3.6-m) antenna to generate the 1° beam width pattern
needed to exclude most reflections.
• The antennas typically used are phased arrays where beam scanning is
accomplished by a stored set of commands.
• MLS signals covered a very wide fan-shaped area off the end of the runway,
allowing controllers to vector aircraft in from a variety of directions or guide
aircraft along a segmented approach.
• Frequency of operation: - 5031 to 5091 MHz

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Chapte
er-09 A  
Visual Aids
 
Ch
hapter-09

Gene
eral awarreness off Visual Navigatio
N n System
ms
Visual Approach
A Slope
S Indic
cator Syste
em (VASIS
S)

Descrip
ption

A night-llanding aid placed at the


t beginning of a flarre path or ru
unway. It diisplays diffe
erent
colored lights, depeending on the
t angle frrom which it is viewed d by a pilot approachin ng to
land
A visual approach h slope ind dicator systtem is a system
s connsisting of four light units
situated on the leftt side of th
he runway ini the form
m of two win ng bars refferred to ass the
upwind and downw wind wing bars.
b The aircraft
a is on
o slope if the
t upwind bar showss red
and the downwind bar shows white, too high if both h bars showw white, andd too low if both
bars shoow red. Soome aerodrromes servving large aircraft
a havve three-bar VASIS, which
w
provide two visual glide
g paths (GP) to the
e same run
nway.

2-BAR VASI
V (V1 and
a V2)

The 2-BBAR VASI (V1 and V2) consists of o four lightt units situa
ated on thee left side of
o the
runway in the form of a pair of
o wing barss, referred to
t as the up pwind and downwind wing
bars. Th
he wing barrs project a beam of white
w light in
n the upperr part and a red light in
n the
lower pa
art.

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Chapter-09 Visual Aids 
 
• On the approach slope, the upwind bar will show red and the downwind bar will
show white.
• Above the approach slope, both upwind and downwind bars will show white.
• Below the approach slope, both upwind and downwind bars will show red.
• Well below the approach slope, the lights of the two wing bars will merge into one
red signal.

3-BAR VASI (V3)

The 3-BAR VASI (V3) is basically a 2-BAR VASI (V2), with one light unit added to form
an additional upwind bar. This provides a greater threshold wheel clearance for aircraft
with a large EWH (a wide body). The system then consists of three wing bars:

• upwind bar (added);


• middle bar (upwind bar of V2); and
• downwind bar of V2.

Wide-bodied aircraft use the upwind and middle bars to provide safe wheel clearance,
and conventional aircraft (up to 7.5 m [25 ft] EWH) use the middle and downwind bars,
as with V2.

Where VASI is provided on a precision approach runway, it will be turned off in weather
conditions of less than 500 ft ceiling and/or visibility less than one mi., unless

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Chapter-09 Visual Aids 
 
specifically requested by the pilot. This is to avoid possible contradiction between the
precision approach and VASI glide paths.

Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)

The VASI and PAPI have the same purpose of descent indication with respect to an
approach corridor, but are of a different pattern of light units

Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) consist of four sets of lights in a line
perpendicular to the runway, usually mounted to the left side of the runway. These have
a similar purpose to basic visual approach slope indicators, but the additional lights
serve to show the pilot how far off the glide slope the aircraft is.

PAPI consists of four light units situated on the left side of the runway in the form of a
wing bar.

• On the approach slope, the two units nearest the runway show red, and the two
units farthest from the runway show white.
• Slightly above the approach slope, the one unit nearest the runway shows red
and the other three units show white.
• Further above the approach slope, all four units show white.
• Slightly below the approach slope, the three units nearest the runway show red
and the other units show white.
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Chapter-09 Visual Aids 
 
• Well below the approach slope, all four units show red.

Rotating Beacon
An aerodrome beacon or rotating beacon is a beacon installed at an airport or
aerodrome to indicate its location to aircraft pilots at night.
An aerodrome beacon is mounted on top of a towering structure, often a control tower,
above other buildings of the airport. It produces flashes not unlike that of a lighthouse.

Airport and heliport beacons are designed in such a way to make them most effective
from one to ten degrees above the horizon; however, they can be seen well above and
below this peak spread. The beacon may be an omni-directional flashing or it may
rotate at a constant speed which produces the visual effect of flashes at regular
intervals. Flashes may be of just a single color, or of two alternating colors.

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Chapter-09 Visual Aids 
 

Rotating Aerodrome Beacon

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Chapter-09 Visual Aids 
 
Summary

• A visual approach slope indicator system is a system consisting of four light units
situated on the left side of the runway in the form of two wing bars referred to as
the upwind and downwind wing bars.
• The aircraft is on slope if the upwind bar shows red and the downwind bar shows
white.
• Above the approach slope, both upwind and downwind bars will show white.
• Below the approach slope, both upwind and downwind bars will show red.
• Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) consist of four sets of lights in a line
perpendicular to the runway, usually mounted to the left side of the runway.
• An aerodrome beacon is mounted on top of a towering structure, often a control
tower, above other buildings of the airport.

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SPECIFIC
CATIONS FO
OR RADIO NA
AVIGATION AIDS
A

S
SPECIFIC
CATIONS FOR RAD
DIO NAVIIGATION AIDS

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F igure C-I. Categori es II and III localize


er course and
a glide path
p maxim
mum
b end amplittude criterria

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Figure C -2. Evalua


ation of co
ourse/path bend amp litude

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Figure C--7. I,ocalizzer coverag


ge in respecct to azimutth

Figur e C-8. Lo calizer cove


erage with respect to elevation
e

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F igure C-9. Difference


e in depth of
o modulatio
on and disp
placement sensitivity
s

gure C-10. Glide path coverage


Fig

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Figure C-11. Glide path


h - Differencce in depth of
o modulatio
on

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Figure C-1
12. Glide pa
ath monitorin
ng provisions

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Chapter-10 Legislation and Procedures 

Chapter-10

Legislation and Procedures


1. Purpose of Flight Inspection

1.1 Flight Inspection of Radio and Visual 'Navigation aids’ involves flight
evaluation and certification of the signal-in-space. The evaluation process utilizes
specially equipped instrumented aircraft, which carries out specific flight
maneuvers. Data acquired thus on the quality of signal in space, is analyzed to
arrive at the specific performance Parameters. These parameters, in turn,
determine the certification of facility status. Flight inspection is mandatory as per
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 10, Volume I and DOC
8071.

1.2 The organization owns a fleet of three flight inspection aircraft. It consists
of two Dorniers DO-228 and one King Air B-350. All the aircraft are equipped with
fully automatic computerized flight inspection systems (AFIS – 200). All types of
Navigation Aids including CAT-III ILS can be inspected with the system available.
Directorate of CNS (Planning) & Directorate of (FIU) coordinates for scheduling
of flight inspection of newly installed facilities and for trans-installed facilities.

1.3 In the planning for flight inspection, a major role is played by the hours,
which are available with the flight inspection aircraft that is being released for
purpose. A maximum of 50 flying hours is generally released with the Dornier
aircraft that is being used for flight inspection purpose. So the Plan is made in
such a way that aircraft is able to return to the base after completing the planned
tasks within allotted 50 hours.

1.4 The FIU plans flight inspection of facilities as per the specified periodicity.
The same is intimated to concerned stations in advance by Fax / Phone. The
stations are expected to be ready with site preparation, ground measurements
and necessary tools and equipments for use during flight inspection

1.5 The flight check profiles required for calibration for various parameters of

navigation facilities are included at the end.

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Chapter-10 Legislation and Procedures 
2. Legal Requirement and Procedure

Type of Inspection

2.1 As needed the flight inspection team may be required to undertake any of
the following five types of inspection.

1. Site Evaluation

2. Engineering Support

3. Commissioning / Re-commissioning

4 Routine

5. Special

Site Evaluation Inspection: Site Evaluation flight inspections are carried out to
determine the suitability of a site for installation of a nav-aid. .

Engineering Support Inspection: Engineering support inspection is done


towards evolving an engineering solution to the imperfect installation site. It may
involve, for example, modification to the Antenna system of Glide Path or minor
improvement in the site for optimizing “a within tolerance” performance.

Commissioning / Re- Commissioning: Commissioning / Re- Commissioning


inspection is a comprehensive check designed to obtain complete information
regarding all aspects of performance of a nav-aid. The facility cannot be declared
operational before this check.

Routine Inspection: Routine inspection is carried out to ensure that nav-aid


facility is maintained within tolerance limits in spite of the inherent drift in the
equipment. Routine inspections do not normally involve major adjustments
unless the performance is observed to have drifted either close to, or beyond the
applicable tolerance limits.

Special Flight Inspection: Special flight inspection is made on special request


to confirm satisfactory performance. It may follow a major maintenance on the
equipment especially the antenna system. Special Flight Inspection may also be
carried out for investigation purpose after any incident or accident.

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Chapter-10 Legislation and Procedures 

Periodicity of Flight Inspection

The establishment of generally applicable check interval depends on:

a. The checking method used.


b Reliability of ground equipment.
c Extent and fidelity of monitoring capability.
d Proficiency of maintenance personnel.
e Extent of correlation established between ground check and Flight check.

A new facility requires shorter interval than a proven one. Valve type
equipment and those involving mechanical sub-system need more frequent
check than solid state equipment.
Following are the periodicities being followed by AAI

Facility Periodicity
a. ILS 150+ 30 days
b. DVOR 720+ 60 days
c. CVOR 240+ 30 days
d. DME As per the associated facility.
e. NDB As and when required
f. Radar As and when required
g. VGSI (VASI/PAPI) As and when required

Maintenance team can draw a schedule for flight inspection as per the
data above. In case the established intervals are exceeded because of weather
or other factors the facility status (Certification) shall not be changed for the sole
reason that the inspection could not be carried out within the maximum allowable
intervals. The facility may continue to remain in service, provided the ground
checks indicate normal performance.

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Chapter-10 Legislation and Procedures 

Pre-Flight And Post Flight Procedures:

Pre Flight Inspection Preparations: Following are the points to be


observed during Preflight Inspection Preparation:

a. Ensure that the result of all possible ground calibration and checking of
equipment are satisfactory.
b. Competent Maintenance personnel should be available to make corrections
and adjustments during flight inspection.
c. The DGPS and LT Platform should be constructed, as advised by the FIU,
along with a suitable Power Point. Such positions should be maintained properly
for subsequent Flight Checks. The position of LT reference reflector or its bracket
should also be maintained properly.
d. Availability of dedicated transport for equipment and personnel should be
ensured during the entire course of flight check.
e. Ensure all special tools and instruments are available at the site.
f. Availability of last Flight Inspection Report.
g. Any requirement of special investigation during flight inspection must be
intimated in advance and followed up with FIU during flight inspection.
h. In case the facility is not expected to be ready as per the regular scheduled
inspection, FIU must be advised accordingly.
i. NOTAM action for withdrawal of facility during Flight Inspection must be taken
without fail.

In-Flight Inspection Action by the Ground Personnel:

During the inspection Flight Inspector, will advise maintenance personnel of


observed conditions which require adjustment of ground equipment. Request for
adjustment will be specific and readily understandable by ground personnel.
Normally the Flight Inspector is not expected to diagnose the fault, but will furnish
sufficient information to enable the maintenance team to make the corrective
adjustment, when the aircraft is airborne. Record the adjustments done, for post
analysis. Take down relevant measurements on ground for establishing a
meaningful correlation with the flight check results after each run.

Post - Flight Inspection Action by the Ground Personnel:

Ground maintenance, personnel will complete the following actions:


a. Take action as per the advice of Flight Inspector.
b. Take down relevant measurements on ground for establishing a meaningful
correlation with the flight check results.
c. implement the suggestions contained in the remarks column of “Flight
Inspection Report”.
d. intimate FIU and all concerned regarding any major change in the facility
performance (NOTAM action)

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Chapter-10 Legislation and Procedures 

Summary

• Flight Inspection of Radio and Visual 'Navigation aids’ involves flight


evaluation and certification of the signal-in-space.
• The FIU plans flight inspection of facilities as per the specified periodicity.

• The flight check profiles required for calibration for various parameters of

navigation facilities are included at the end.

• There are five types of inspection-


• Site Evaluation
• Engineering Support
• Commissioning / Re-commissioning
• Routine
• Special

• NOTAM action for withdrawal of facility during Flight Inspection must be


taken without fail.

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Chapter-11 NAVAIDS INSPECTION 

Chapter-11

NAVAIDS INSPECTION
2.1.a Flight Inspection Procedure of ILS

1. Localizer Flight Inspection:

Following are the various Flight Inspection Checks carried on the Localizer
equipment:
1. Identification Coding Checks
2. Mod-Balance and Mod-Depth Checks
3. Course width and Clearance Check
4. Course Structure, Course Alignment and Flyability Check
5. High angle clearance check
6. Alignment Monitor Alarm check
7. Width Monitor Alarm check
8. Coverage and Power Monitor Alarm Check
9. Polarization Check
10. Course width Symmetry Check.

In case of Routine / Periodic inspections, adjustments are normally carried out on


one of the transmitters and then:

i. All the monitors are adjusted to "zero".


ii. Transmitter is changed over.
iii. Controls of this transmitter are adjusted to obtain similar readings on
the monitor.
iv. A confirmatory air check is made for this transmitter. It saves time and
ensures that both the transmitters are balanced on monitors.

This procedure is also employed in glide path calibration.

1.1 Identification Coding Check: Ident should have no effect on Cross Pointer.
Ident level is adjusted to 10% Modulation.

1.2 Mod Balance and Mod-Depth Check

1.2.1 Purpose: To confirm that mod balance and mod depth are set properly. On
centre line of LLZ the DDM should be zero and Mod sum should be 40%.

1.2.2 Flight Procedure: Park the aircraft at Runway Threshold on Centre-line


(C/L). Ground staff asked to Adj. Mod Bal. & Mod Depth controls

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Chapter-11 NAVAIDS INSPECTION 

Mod. Balance adjusted for 0 ± 5 µ amps (cross pointer current in the FIS console)
Mod. Depth adjusted for 40% ± 4% (CAT I & II)
40% ± 2% ( CAT III)
Final adjustments of Mod Balance and Mod depth are carried out during
approaches.

1.3 Course Width and Clearance check:


1.3.1 Purpose:
i. To ensure Course Width is satisfactory.
- During Commissioning / Annual flight checks the Course width is
adjusted for nominal value.
- During Routine - flight checks, it is ensured that the course width is
within tolerance

ii. To check off-course clearance (in the sector 10°-35° either side of C/L)

1.3.2 Flight Procedure: Calibration aircraft flies an arc about Runway centre line at
approx 5 NM from LLZ & 1500'AGL (Above Ground Level) as shown in fig 1

1.3.3 Ground Facility Adjustment: Ground staff is required to adjust Course


Width control as advised by the Flight Inspector.

An increase in width DDM monitored on INT Width Mon socket will result in a
decrease in Course Width values. In case of Normarc ILS, SBO Power
control is adjusted. A clockwise rotation increases the attenuation and thereby
increases the course width. In-sufficient clearance may be caused due to:-

i Imperfect Phasing
ii High VSWR in the RF Feeder / Dipoles.
(It should be re-checked and corrected)

1.3.4 Desired Result / Tolerances:

COURSE WIDTH (W) = W ±17% CAT I, II & III

Course width adjustment:

Adjustment = DDM(SBO) X Measured CW


Required CW

Adjustment(db) = 20Log10 (Required CW/ Measured CW)

i Clearance current should increase linearly to 175 µ Amps (18% DDM) from

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centre line and must not fall below this value up to 10° azimuth either side of C/L.

ii Minimum Clearance current should be 150 µ Amps (15.5% DDM) in ±10° to ±


35° sector
During routine check, if width is found outside CW ± 4% , it is adjusted for CW ±
1% value.

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1.4 Course Structure, Alignment and Fly ability Check

1.4.1 Purpose:

i. To check the alignment of electronic centre line with the physical runway centre
line

ii. To check that the quality of course signals is satisfactory. Course bends,
Roughness, scalloping (all combined together) should be within tolerance limits
of the applicable category

iii. Fly ability is checked to ensure it is satisfactory that an aircraft following the ILS
can fly smoothly "manually" as well as on its "auto pilot".

1.4.2 Flight Procedure

i. Calibration A/C carries out ILS approaches inbound from 8 NM up to


R/W Threshold on LLZ and on Glide Slope (as shown in fig 2) for CAT-I & II
facility.

ii. Calibration A/C carries out ILS approaches inbound from 8 NM and then
follows the LLZ approach 50´ above the RWY upto Reciprocal Threshold for
CAT-III facility.

1.4.3 Laser Tracker / DGPS


When approaches are made the positional (aircraft position w.r.t. threshold) data
correction is given by DGPS automatically. Calibration Aircraft is automatically
tracked by DGPS / Laser Tracker.

In-the case of Tracker, continuous azimuth deviation data of the A/C position gets
automatically transmitted to the console through RTT UHF up-link and course
structure is calculated by the computer immediately after the completion of the
exercise. The Laser Tracker is controlled by the Flight Inspector/AFIS-200 system
depending on the chosen exercise.

1.4.4 Ground Adjustment: Normally no adjustment is carried out for above


exercise. However light adjustment of MOD BAL & MOD DEPTH may be
required to optimize the far field performance, and get acceptable alignment
value.

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1.4.5 Desired Results and Tolerances

1.4.5.1 Alignment
ILS Category Periodic Commissioning
CAT I + 14.6 µA ± 1.5µA
CAT II + 10.5 µA ± 1.1µA
CAT III + 04.2 µA ± 0.5µA

1.4.5.2 Structure

a. Usable distance to ILS point 'A' 30 micro Amps


b. ILS Point ‘A’ to ' B' - CAT I Linear decrease from
30micro
amps to 15 micro amps.
CAT II Linear decrease from
30micro
amps to 5 micro amps.

c. CAT I - ILS Point B to C maintain 15 micro amps

CAT II - ILS Point B to Threshold 5 micro amps

CAT III - ILS Point B to D 5 micro amps.

CAT III - ILS Point D to E Linear increase from 5 to


10 micro amps

This data is illustrated in fig 3 and 4

1.4.5.3 Flyability - Must be Satisfactory, subjective assessment of the


pilot.

1.4.5.4 ILS Points


ILS Point A - On extended C/L, on G/P - 4 NM from (7.5 Km) from
threshold

ILS Point B - On extended C/L, on G/P - 3500' (l050M) from


Threshold

ILS Point C - On extended C/L. Downward extended straight portion


of G/P
where it crosses 100 ft above horizontal plane containing threshold

ILS Point T - A point at a specified height located above the

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intersection of the runway centerline and the threshold and through


which downward extended straight portion of the ILS glide path passes

ILS Point D - A point 4 m (12’) above the runway centre line and 900
m (3000’) from the threshold in the direction of Localiser

ILS Point E - A point 4 m (12’) above the runway centre line and 600
m
(2000’) from the stop end of runway in the direction of the threshold

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Figure 3: Localizer course and Maximum Bend Amplitude Criteria

Figure 4: Evaluation of course/path bend amplitude

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1.5 High Angle Clearance

1.5.1 Purpose:

The Combination of ground environment and antenna height can cause nulls or false
courses. These may not be apparent at normal instrument approach altitudes.
High Angle Clearance should therefore be investigated upon in case of:

a. Initial Commissioning

b. Change in location of Antenna

c. Change in height of Antenna

d. Installation of a different type of Antenna

1.5.2 Procedure:

This check is similar to clearance check described earlier in para 5.1.3 except that
a/c flies the arc at 4500' above the AGL or max service altitude of LLZ in use.

1.6 Alignment of Monitor Alarm Check

Monitor alarm limits are cross-checked. Ground maintenance personnel actuate


alignment monitor alarm condition with Mod-Balance control. Calibration aircraft
detects the deviation to confirm that the deviation is within the tolerance limits.

1.7 Width Monitor Alarm Check

1.7.1 Purpose: To confirm that adjustment of Width, Monitor Alarm is Satisfactory.

1.7.2 FLT Procedure: This exercise is conducted similar to that of CW check.


Ground procedure is different.

1.7.3 Width wide Alarm Check: This check ensures that even during wide width
condition, clearance current does not reduce below the minimum. In this
check off- Course Clearance must not fall below 160 micro Amps in the Zone
± 10° & 135 micro Amps in the Zone +10° to + 35°.

1.7.4 Ground Procedure: Inspection of width alarm is carried out on one Tx only.
Decrease in SBO power simulates wide alarm condition. For narrow alarm
condition, increase the SBO power till monitor gives alarm. FIU checks the air
performance under this condition. During narrow alarm under the advice of
FIU, the alarm limits may be required to be adjusted.
Return the control to earlier position to obtain original value of width DDM.at

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the end.

1.7.5 Permissible course width (Displacement Sensitivity) change for each


category:

CAT I & CAT II + 17%


CAT III ± 10%

1.8 Coverage & Power Monitor alarm Check

1.8.1 Purpose:

To confirm that Localizer provides coverage to the defined service volume even
when operating at Half Power (Monitor Alarm).

1.8.2 Flight Procedure:


The FIU aircraft carries out exercise as shown in the fig 5.

1.8.3 Ground Facility Adjustment

The field strength of the LLZ signal is measured on course at greatest distance at
which it is expected to be used (But not less than 18 NM) while operating with
50% of normal power. If the field strength is less than 5 micro volts, the power
will be increased to provide at least 5 micro volts and monitor limit adjusted to
Alarm at that level. Normalize the power output to the original value after the
check is done.

1.8.4 Desired Result –


Throughout the coverage volume:

Minimum field strength


40 µv/m throughout the coverage volume

90 µv/m for CAT-I (from 10 Nm to Point B)


100 µv/m to 200 µv/m for CAT-II (from 10 Nm to Threshold )
100 µv/m to 200 µv/m for CAT-III
(from 10 Nm to 20´ above threshold), above100µv/m at 12´

Minimum AGC 5 µv
Minimum SDM 36%
Maximum SDM Below 95%

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1.9 Polarization Check

1.9.1 Purpose:
To confirm that no adverse effect will be encountered while flying on LLZ course due
to undesired vertical polarization component.The desired polarization of LLZ is
Horizontal

1.9.2 FLT Procedure:


Calibration A/C flies in-bound on Localizer at 1500' AGL between 6-10 NM. The A/C
is made to Bank 20° each side while remaining on centre line as shown in fig 6.

1.9.3 Desired Result

No appreciable deflection of Cross Pointer on Banking.

Tolerance in cross pointer current (DDM)

CAT I + 15 micro amps


CAT II + 8 micro amps
CAT III + 5 µ amps

1.10 Course Width Symmetry Check

1.10.1 Purpose:

To confirm that course width an either side of centre line is SYMMETRICAL within
prescribed limit.

1.10.2 Flight Procedure

Fig 7. Shows the flight procedure for the Course Width Symmetry Check. The
calibration A/C flies in-bound from Outer Marker to Runway threshold at half width
(75 + µAmps -offset) point an either side of the LLZ Centre line.

Pilot flies with the help of FIS-CDI. The A/C is tracked automatically by LT.

1.10.3 Desired Result:

Symmetry (half width on 90 Hz side compared to width on 150 Hz side) must be


within 10% of the total Sector Width. -

This check is done only during commissioning. After the flight Inspection is
completed the ground staff should ensure that both the TX’s are Balanced On
Monitors.

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2. Glide Path Flight Inspection

Following are the various Flight Inspection checks.


1. Antenna NULL Check
2. Phasing Check
3. Sector width and Glide Angle Check
4. Glide angle and Course Structure Check
5. Monitor Checks
i. Position Alarm
ii. Width Alarm
6. Azimuth Coverage

2.1 Antenna Null Checks

2.1.1 Purpose:
To confirm and correct (if required) the height of G/P Antenna elements above
ground. This check is performed during commissioning or after major maintenance
of antenna.

2.1.2 Flight Procedure:


The calibration aircraft flies at 1000'/1500' AGL on LLZ, from a distance of 8 NM to a
point overhead G/P antenna. The a/c positional information is provided by PDGPS
(Positional Reference System) as shown in Fig. 8

2.1.3 Ground Facility Adjustment


Dummy load the SBO signal in the Coaxial Distribution Unit /Antenna Changeover
Unit. Feed CSB signal to antenna being checked (one antenna at a time). Adjust
antenna height appropriately to get correct nulls. Antenna should be raised to
decrease the NULL ANGLE and V1CE VERSA.

2.1.4 Desired Results

a. Null Reference System


Upper Antenna - θ, 2θ
Lower Antenna - 2θ, 4θ

b. Side Band Reference System


Upper Antenna - 4θ/3, 8θ/3
Lower Antenna - 4θ, 8θ

c. M-Array
Upper Antenna - 2θ/3, 4θ/3
Middle Antenna - θ, 2θ
Lower Antenna - 2θ, 4θ

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2.2 Phasing Check

2.2.1 Purpose:

To establish that correct quadrature phase relationship between CSB and SBO
signals exists.

2.2.2 Flight Procedure:

Fig 9 shows the flight procedure for Phasing' Check. The calibration A/C flies
inbound on Centre line at 1000’ AGL (Level Run). The exercise is started at 10 NM
from Runway threshold and is terminated at 1 NM before Outer Marker.

2.2.3 Ground Facility Adjustment:


In case of Normarc Glide Path equipment air phasing is seldom required. Necessary
phasing adjustments are made in the Antenna Distribution Unit on ground itself. The
details given below pertain to STAN/GCEL ILS. However it is required to know the
RF adjustments, which constitute the phasing procedure.

1. Terminate SBO O/P on Dummy load at Antenna Changeover Unit & radiate only
CSB. Adjust MOD BAL Control as advised by flight inspector to attain zero cross
pointer current in the a/c Console.

2. Insert quarter wave-length (λ / 4) cable in SBO feeder and radiate, both CSB and
SBO signals.

a. Null Reference

For proper phasing the ground staff should always be quick and alert to
monitor and act on instruction received on VHF R/T set. After radiating CSB and
SBO, if the CP current is not zero then Flight Inspector will inform CP current on
VHF R/T, to carry out required adjustment in the Side Band Phaser Control.

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After phasing, remove λ/4 cable and give normal radiation.

b. Side Band Reference

Put upper antenna on Dummy Load before flying is started Adjust power ratio
Control on ADU to achieve equal SBO power to both Antennas.

Put the SBO feed on Dummy Load & radiate only CSB, Check with a/c if CP current
is zero. Feed SBO with λ/4 cable. Adjust 'Side Band Phaser' control to attain CP
current = 0.
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Remove Dummy Load from Antenna feeder and adjust upper ant phase control on
ADU as advised by FIU to get CP current as zero. Remove λ/4 cable and normalize
the feeds.

c. M-Array

Adjust various power ratio controls on ADU as prescribed. Put the Middle and Upper
Ant on D/Load. Insert λ/4 cable in SBO feed and put it on D/Load. Radiate only CSB
and check for Zero CP current. Radiate SBO also with λ/4 cable. Adjust phase Side
Band Control to attain CP current zero. Remove D/Load from Middle Ant and adjust
Middle antenna phaser to attain CP current zero. Remove D/Load from Upper Ant
and adjust upper antenna phaser to achieve CP current = zero. Finally remove λ/4
cable and NORMALISE the equipment.

While doing phasing by SBO phaser if zero CP current can not be attained, then
insert about 3" (3 inch) of extra length in SBO feeder. If phasing comes proper then
CSB cable may be cut equal to extra length (3 inch in this case). Extra length of
cable can be put in CSB cable also if required to get zero CP current. In this case
SBO cable may be cut.

It is advisable to carry out the phasing of M-Array Glide Path system on ground
without any requirement of flying the FIU Aircraft.

2.3 Glide Angle and Sector Width check

2.3.1 Purpose: To determine the Glide angle, sector width and adjust glide path
equipment, if necessary

2.3.2 Flight Procedure:


The calibration acft flies in-bound on extended centre line (level run) at 1500′ AGL
from 10 NM to MM. the acft receives positional information from the PDGPS
positional reference system.

2.3.3 Ground Facility Adjustment

a. Angle:

If the angle is out of tolerance and MOD BAL setting is correct, antenna height will
have to be adjusted, Minor adjustment of Mod Bal can be made as advised by of
Flight Inspector. During the adjustment, put the FTS on CSB course socket. In case
the DDM is on 90 side the G/P angle is low and if DDM is on 150 side then G/P
angle is High. To increase the glide path angle, obtain a higher DDM predominant
on 150Hz and vice versa. .

(For 0.01 deg adjustment change DDM on path by 0.24 % or by 2.08 µA)

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b. Width:
Adjust SBO power attenuator. To increase the sector-width reduce the SBO power
(or increase the attenuation and vice versa).Carry out adjustment of SBO Power
control as per advice of Flight Inspector.

2.3.4 Desired Results

Glide Angle θ (Selected)

Lower 1/2 Sector Width 0.12 θ


Upper 1/2 Sector Width 0.12 θ

Tolerances

Glide angle

i. Commissioning - No tolerances allowed

ii. Routine

Glide Angle - ± 7.5% of θ for CAT I & II


± 4% of θ for CAT III
Half Sector Width

CAT I - Lower Half Sector Width 0.07 θ to 0.14θ


CAT II & III - Lower Half Sector Width 0.10 θ to 0.14 θ
(Please refer table)

2.4 Glide Angle & Path Structure check

2.4.1 Purpose:

i. To determine the computed (actual) Glide Angle.

ii To confirm that the G.P. bends, roughness and scalloping are within
tolerance.

2.4.2 Flight Procedure

The calibration Acft flies inbound on G/P on extended centre line from 10 NM up to
threshold. The pilot follows glide path. The acft is continuously tracked by PDGPS
system/Laser Tracker. The Path Structure is computed automatically. The

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processed results are displayed by the system, on the screen.

2.4.3 Ground Facility Adjustment

No adjustment is required in ground equipment for path structure but the averaged
path angle may be required to be adjusted as given above. If structure results are
not up to the mark the facility may be down – Categorized or restricted. Site
improvements may solve an out-of-tolerance structure situation.

2.4.4 Desired Result

The Computed Glide Angle (average of the samples collected between A to B)


should be within Tolerance and Path deviations must meet the following
criterions/tolerances.

2.4.4.1 Tolerances

Path Structure: Should not exceed

CAT I up to 'A' - ± 30 micro amps


A-B - ± 30 micro amps
B-C - ± 30 micro amps

CAT II & III up to A - ± 30 micro amps


B A-B - Linear decrease from ± 30 µA at A to ± 20
µA at B
B-T - ±20 micro amps

2.4.4.2 Desired Results and Tolerances on Glide Angle and Sector Width

As given in the preceding para.

2.5 Monitor Checks

2.5.1 Angle Alarm

2.5.1.1 Purpose:

To confirm that the Angle Alarm is adequately sensitive to detect a change of Glide
Angle. This check is carried out using one Tx only.

2.5.1.2 Flight check procedure

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It is generally carried out during normal Acft approach wherein it flies ILS from 8 NM,
to point C or T.

2.5.1.3 Ground Facility Adjustment

Connect the FTS to course CSB socket in the changeover unit and note the DDM.
On request from FlU A/C, move MOD BAL in one direction till both Monitor 1 and
Monitor 2 just at the threshold of alarm condition. Keep an eye on the C/L DDM
display on the monitor. On advice of the flight inspector move the MOD Balance
control in the other direction to achieve alarm condition as above. Afterwards, on
advice of Flight Inspector, restore the control to obtain original value of DDM on
FTS.

Figure 10: Glide Path course and Maximum Bend Amplitude Criteria

2.5.1.4 Desired Results

The change in Glide Angle obtained by calibration A/C must be within ± 7.5% of θ.

2.5.2 Width Alarm

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2.5.2.1 Purpose: To confirm that width alarm is adequately sensitive to


detect an out-of tolerance change in sector width value.

2.5.2.2 Flight Procedure

A/C flies 1000 ft. AGL (level run) along the extended C/L from 10 NM to 2 NM.

2.5.2.3 Ground Adjustment

Set Monitor display for DS DDM and note the value. Actuate width (DS) Wide alarm
condition on both monitor 1 and monitor 2 by increasing SBO power attenuator. On
advice of flight inspector move the attenuator on the other side to obtain narrow
alarm condition. Finally, as advised, restore the control and reconfirm by obtaining
the original value of DS DDM.

2.5.2.4 Desired Results

For CAT I lower half sector width, within ± 0.037 θ.


For CAT II & III lower half sector width, within 25% of nominal
value.
of displacement
sensitivity.

2.6 Azimuth Coverage

2.6.1 Purpose: To confirm that usable signal is available in the ± 8° azimuth zone
(With the extended centre line as the reference).
This check is carried out only during commissioning or after major
maintenance of the antenna.

2.6.2 Flight Procedure

A/C flies in arc at 1500 ft ± 8° of the extended centre line.

2.6.3 Ground facility adjustment

None.

2.6.4 Desired Results

Glide path signal should have minimum signal strength of -92 dBm/m2, minimum 150
µA flyup current and SDM/Mod sum more than 48 %.

2.7 Generation of Flight Check Reports:

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2.7.1 The Result of flight inspection is given to maintenance personnel at the station
itself. AFTN Signal/FAX message to the effect is given to ED (FIU), GM (Region),
OIC Station, GM (N&S).

2.7.2 The final flight inspection report is prepared after return to the base and is
generally sent to the concerned offices within seven days. The data collected during
flight inspection are archived in our records along with the report.

3. Table for Flight Inspection Profiles

S. recording
result
No Flight profile Parameters paramete Remarks
evaluation
. rs

Localizer

Width &
CLR 1.Deviatio
Ground eqpt is to be
Crossover at 1.Normal n current Width, Proper
set for nominal CW,
1 1500’ AGL at 5 2.Wide 2.Modsu Modsum and
wide alarm CW and
NM alarm m AGC
Narrow alarm CW
3.Narrow 3. AGC
alarm
Normal ILS
Approach Ground eqpt is to be
establishing on Alignment, Path structure set for nominal
LLZ at 7 NM & Modsum & 1. value for alignment and shifted
continuing upto Path Deviation Different right/left for position
100’ AGL for Cat Structure current Zones, alarm under
2
I, upto 50’ AGL Polarization 2. Modsum on instruction.
for Cat II & upto check, Modsum path, AGC on Aircraft to bank 20° on
the reciprocal Position 3. AGC Path & either side on path for
Threshold at 50’ alarm. alignment polarization check
AGL along the during commissioning.
rwy for Cat III.
Ground Eqpt to be set
for
1.
± 35° Crossover Power alarm condition.
Deviation
at 2000’ AGL at Proper For a change of -3 dB
AGC and current
3 17 NM under clearance and (50%) for single
clearance 2.
power alarm AGC frequency Localizer-
Modsum
condn. and – 1 dB (80%) for
3. AGC
dual frequency
Localizer.

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Ground Eqpt to be set


for
1.
± 10° Crossover Power alarm condition.
Deviation
at 2000’ AGL at Proper For a change of – 3 dB
AGC and current
4 25 NM under clearance and (50%) for single
clearance 2.
power alarm AGC frequency Localizer-
Modsum
condn. and -1 dB (80%) for
3. AGC
dual frequency
Localizer.

± 35° Crossover
Proper
at 6000’ AGL at 8 AGC and
5 clearance and
NM (High clearance
AGC
angle clearance).

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Glide Path

a. Only CSB to be
radiated by resp
a. AGC Nulls
.ant(dummy other
b. Phasing
a. Ant height ant.) for null chks
c. Sector
evaluation b. Phasing as per
Width & Max 1.Deviation
Level run at 1500’ b. LHSW, Gnd eqpt using
Flyup current
1 AGL from 10 NM UHSW, AGC, prescribed cable
1. Normal 2.Modsum
to 1 NM Max Flyup & and procedure.
2. Wide 3. AGC
above path C. Ground eqpt is
alarm
clearance. to be set for
3. Narrow
nominal SW, wide
alarm
alarm SW and
Narrow alarm SW
Path
Normal ILS
structure
Approach Approach
value for Ground eqpt is to
establishing on angle,
1.Deviation Different be set for nominal
GP at 5 NM & Modsum &
current Zones, GP angle and
2 continuing upto Path
2.Modsum Modsum on shifted up/down
100’ AGL for Cat Structure,
3. AGC path, AGC on for position alarm
I, upto 50’ AGL Position
Path & under instruction.
for Cat II & alarm.
approach
Cat III.
angle.
Ground eqpt to be
set for power
alarm condition.
± 10° Crossover
1.Deviation For a change of –
at 2000’ AGL at Proper AGC
current 3 dB (50%) for
3 10 NM under AGC & Flyup and
2.Modsum single frequency
power alarm Clearance.
3. AGC Glide Path- and –
condn.
1 dB (80%) for
dual frequency
GP
Pilot is to
Gnd eqpt to
advise on
ILS approach at a radiate under
1.Deviation encountering
minimum of Below path Wide alarm
current reduced
4 180µa or 150µa Obstruction condition for the
2.Modsum obstacle
flyup from 5 NM clearance check to be done
3. AGC clearance
to Threshold at 150µa flyup
during the
condition..
approach.
Markers

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For operationally
usable signal
Ident code, Marker AGC(on under power
Proper AGC
Normal ILS Tone freq, low sensitivity), alarm condition of
1 and Ident
approach Flythrough code & ground point. For
code.
distance, frequency a change of-3 dB
(50%) in Carrier
Power
For operationally
usable signal
under power
±150μa Offset LLZ Marker AGC(on
Proper AGC alarm condition of
approach on GP Azimuth low sensitivity),
2 and Ident ground
from beyond OM to Coverage code &
code. equipment. For a
threshold. frequency
change of-3 dB
(50%) in Carrier
Power

4. Table for Acceptable Limits


Ideal
value/
S.N Lower Resul Upper
o. Parameter limit t limit Remarks
Localizer
For Cat I (in-
1 Alignment - in micro amps 8 0 -8 house limits)
For Cat II(in-
5 0 -5 house limits)
For Cat III(in-
4 0 4 house limits)
2 Mod Sum 36% 40% 44% On path
On path, For
Cat III(in-house
38% 40% 42% limits)
Off course
Modsum for
installations
after year
36% 40% 95% 1999.
0.96* (in-house
3 Coarse Width W W 1.04*W limits)

Minimum clearance 150 side,


4 clearance Sector 150

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Minimum clearance 90 side,


clearance Sector -150
Minimum clearance150 side,
course Sector 175
Minimum clearance 90 side,
course Sector -175
5 Path Structure -- in micro amps
…upto pt. A 30
Linear
...between pt. A and B --- for decrease from
Cat I 15 30 to 15
Linear
--- for Cat decrease from
II & III 5 30 to 5
...between pt. B and pt. C -- for
Cat I 15
...between pt. B and pt. T -- for
Cat II 5
...between pt. B and pt. D -- for
Cat III 5
...between pt. D and pt. E -- for linear increase
Cat III 10 from 5 to 10
20 Deg acft
Polarization check ( micro amps bank on
6 ) course.
15 0 -15 Cat I
8 0 -8 Cat II
5 0 -5 Cat III
Sat AGC. CP
current & Mod
7 Usable distance in NM 25 sum.
Subjective
assessment for
proper keying
and no
interference on
8 Identification SAT DDM
9 Course Width symmetry-150 : 90 40 50 60
Checked under
pwr alarm
10 Coverage condition.
- Sat AGC. CP
84dBm current & Mod
…LLZ at 17 NM +/- 35 Deg W/m2 SAT sum.
…LLZ at 25 NM +/- 10 Deg - SAT Sat AGC. CP

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84dBm current & Mod


W/m2 sum.
Sat AGC. CP
current & Mod
11 High angle clearance 150µa SAT sum.
12 Monitor check
Alignment shift 90 side alarm -15µa Cat I
-10.7µa Cat II
-8.4µa Cat III
Alignment shift 150 side alarm 15µa Cat I
10.7µa Cat II
8.4µa Cat III
0.85
Course Width narrow alarm W
1.20
Course Width wide alarm W
….Minimum clearance, Under wide
clearance Zone 135µa CW alarm
….Minimum clearance, course Under wide
Sector 160µa CW alarm
SAT coverage
and
performance
for a single
…Power monitor 50% frequency LLZ.
SAT coverage
and
performance
for a dual
80% frequency LLZ.
SAT approach
13 Performance on stby supply on stby supply.

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Ideal/
Nomi
S.N Lower nal Upper
o. Parameter limit value limit Remarks
Glide Path
1 Glide angle 0.925*θ θ 1.075*θ For Cat I & II
0.96*θ θ 1.04*θ For Cat III
0.48
2 Sector Width (Nominal) *θ
...Upper half Sector Width Cat 0.12*
I & II 0.07*θ θ 0.14*θ
...Upper half Sector Width Cat 0.12*
III 0.10*θ θ 0.14*θ Value to be
...Lower half Sector width Cat 0.12* Adjusted
I 0.07*θ θ 0.14*θ During
...Lower half Sector width Cat 0.12* commissioni
II & III 0.10*θ θ 0.14*θ ng

Sector Width (maintained within)


(for both LHSW & UHSW)
0.8*No 1.33*No Value to be
Cat I m Nom m verified and
0.84*N 1.25*No adjusted
Cat II om Nom m within during
0.87*N 1.17*No Routine
Cat III om Nom m checks
Max Fly up current in micro
3 amps 190
must not fall
Above path Clearance in micro below 150
4 amps 150 until 1.75*θ
5 Mod Sum 75% 80% 85%
6 Path Structure -- in micro amps
…upto pt. A Cat I,II
&III 0 30
...between pt. A and pt. B --- for
Cat I 30
Linear
decrease
--- for Cat II & III 20 from 30 to 20
between pt. B and pt. C -- for
Cat I 30
between pt. B and pt.T -- for Cat
II & III 20

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- Sat AGC and


Azimuth coverage right/left of 65dBm Fly-up +/- 8
7 rwy W/m2 SAT deg of rwy
Sat Obs clr
at 180μA
Obstruction Clearance check on flyup
8 approach SAT condition.
Sat
Approach on
9 Performance on stby supply SAT stby supply
10 Monitor check
1.10*θ
…High angle alarm
…Low angle alarm 0.925*θ
LHSW-
0.0375*
…LHSW narrow alarm θ Cat I
0.8*No
m Cat II & III
LHSW+0.
…LHSW wide alarm 0375*θ Cat I
1.33*No
m Cat II & III
Max Fly up current under wide
alarm condition. 180
SAT
coverage
and
performance
for a single
frequency
11 Power monitor 50% SAT GP.
SAT
coverage
and
performance
for a dual
frequency
80% SAT GP.
Outer Marker
1 Pass through distance in meter 400 600 800
2 Keying SAT da-da-da-dah
3 Performance on stby supply SAT
4 Tone frequency ( in Hz ) 390 400 410

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SAT
coverage
Azimuth coverage 150 μA under alm
5 right/left of rwy(LLZ) SAT condn.

Middle Marker
1 Pass through distance in meter 200 300 400
2 Keying SAT di-dah-di-dah
3 Performance on stby supply SAT
4 Tone frequency ( in Hz ) 1268 1300 1332
SAT
coverage
Azimuth coverage 150 μa under alm
5 right/left of rwy(LLZ) SAT condn.

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2.1.b Flight Inspection of DME & NDB

1. DME Flight Inspection


All DME Checks are carried out in conjunction with checks on their associated
facilities (VOR & ILS) .

1.1 Parameters Checks Results and Tolerances:

1.1.1 Identification: The identification code should be clear and correct through
out the area of coverage. The ID Code frequency should be 1350 Hz. The ID should
be properly synchronized with that of the associated facility.

1.1.2 Distance accuracy: The indicated Slant range distance must be within the
limits

1.1.3 Coverage: The area of coverage of the DME will be at least that of its
associated facility (VOR & ILS)

1.1.4 Signal Strength (AGC): The signal strength must be at least –82 dBm
throughout the area of coverage.

1.1.5 Squitter Rate: The normal squitter rate should be 2700 ± 90 pps. On certain
type facilities, rates as low as 700 pps are normal.

1.1.6 False replies : No false replies should be present which could result in
false locks-ons. Within the area of coverage. This may occur at any location
especially in the presence of vertical nulls.

1.2 Ground Adjustments:


When the measured distance is out of tolerance, then the system delay of both
Transmitters is to be adjusted by the ground personnel. System delay is to be
increased to reduce the range error and vice versa.

Tolerances:

For Terminal (ILS) DME : ± 75 meters


Enroute (VOR) DME : ± 150 meters

2. NDB Flight Inspection


The Flight procedures required will consist of an orbit at 1500 ft above the facility
elevation at a radius, which will be determined by the facility classification or its
“rated Coverage”. Radial flights at Minimum enroute altitude (MEA) along published
routes, and all published instrument approach and holding procedures.

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2.1 Desired results and Tolerances:

2.1.1 Coverage: Minimum coverage for the various classes of facilities

2.1.2 AGC: The receiver AGC should be the equivalent to at least 70 μv/m (or
120μv/meter between 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South latitude) ± 20%
throughout the area of coverage.

2.1.3 Identification: The identification code should be clear and correct throughout
the area of coverage. If voice is installed, it should be readable to at least two thirds
of the rated usable distance.

2.2 Needle Oscillations:

2.2.1 Enroute: Needle oscillations will not exceed ± 10 degrees to the maximum
usable distance published for the facility.

2.2.2 Approach and Holding: Needle oscillations will not exceed ± 5 degree
Throughout the approach or holding procedure.

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2.1.c VOR Flight Inspection

1. VOR Parameters Checks

Following are the various Flight Inspection Checks carried on VOR.

a. Sensing and Rotation check.


b. Identification Coding Check
c. Modulation Level Check
d. Orbit Check
e. Radial check
f. Polarization Check
g Coverage Check
h. Monitor Alarm check

1.1 Sensing and rotation:

The purpose of this check is to assure proper orientation of the antenna; Proper
connection of its RF feed lines. Course azimuth increases in a clockwise direction
and ‘TO-FROM’ indications are correct.

Flight Inspection aircraft flies any outbound radial to check sensing. After sensing is
checked, Orbit check starts.

If it is found to be incorrect, the most probable cause would be reversed sideband


antenna feed cables.

1.2 Identification check

Identification check is carried out to see the correctness, clarity and to ensure that
there is no adverse effect on VOR course structure.

This check is performed anytime while flying a radial.

1.3 Modulation Levels Check

1.3.1 Purpose:

To confirm that modulation levels of 30 Hz AM, 9960 KHz Sub-carrier and the 30
Hz FM (deviation ratio of 9960 KHz sub-carrier) are set properly.

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1.3.2 Flight Procedure:

Calibration aircraft flies on any radial and modulation levels of the parameters are
checked and adjusted accordingly

Mod. Depth of 30 Hz AM adjusted for 30% ± 2 %


9960 KHz adjusted for 30% ± 2%
Deviation ratio 30 Hz FM 16 ± 1

Final adjustments are carried out during Orbit check.

1.4 Orbit Checks

1.4.1 5 Nm Orbit :

1.4.1.1 Purpose:
i To evaluate the error in azimuth alignment , the roughness and scalloping of
sectors and the signal strength over the orbit.
ii To determine the accuracy and overall alignment error distribution of the radials
over 360 degrees.

This check is carried out during Commissioning and routine flight checks.

1.4.1.2 Flight Procedure:

Calibration aircraft flies an orbit radius of normally 5 Nm or more in a Counter Clock


wise direction at a minimum altitude of 1000' AGL or above.

1.4.1.3 Position reference system:

Calibration Aircraft is automatically tracked by GPS available on board with AFIS. Its
omnistar GPS receiver receives correctional data from service provider via satellite
to give submeter accuracy under DGPS mode.

1.4.1.4 Ground Facility Adjustment


Adjustments are made on the basis of analysis of flight inspection data to establish
and maintain optimum error distribution. Ground staff is required

1. To adjust modulation levels of 30 Hz AM, 9960 Subcarrier, the FMI of 30Hz FM


and 1020 Hz Ident.
2. To adjust the north bearing for alignment with magnetic north and to optimize the
error distribution throughout radials .

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VOR

FIG.1

1.4.2 25 Nm Orbit check :

1.4.2.1 Purpose:
i To evaluates Bends ,roughness , scalloping and signal strength.
ii. To establish Ground check points.

This check is carried out only during Commissioning

1.4.2.2 Flight Procedure:

Calibration aircraft flies an orbit radius of normally 25 Nm in a Counter Clock wise


rotation at a minimum altitude of 1000’ AGL.

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1.4.2.3 Position reference system:

Calibration Aircraft is automatically tracked by GPS available on board with AFIS.

1.4.2.4 Ground Facility Adjustment

Normally no adjustment is carried out for above exercise. After the Half the Orbit, a
changeover of Tx is carried out.

1.4.2.5 Ground check points: Ground checkpoints, evenly distributed around the
facility are selected from an aeronautical map and transferred over the VOR Orbit.
Each checkpoint is marked by the pilot and is compared with actual azimuth reading
by the flight inspector. Over-all sectoral quality of signal, roughness, scalloping, bend
or noise can be detected for the VOR at 25 Nm which could be used during the
radial checks. This method also reassures radial alignment through physical
matching of ground features.

1.4.2.6 Desired Results and tolerances:

30 Hz AM % mod depth : 30% ± 2 %


9960 KHz % mod depth : 30% ± 2 %
Deviation ratio 30 Hz FM : 15 to 17
Azimuth Alignment : ± 2.0°
Signal Strength : 90 μV/m
Bends : ± 3.5°
Roughness : ± 3.0°
Scalloping : ± 3.0°

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VOR

1.5 Radial Checks

1.5.1 Purpose:

i To check that the quality of course signals is satisfactory. Course bends,


roughness, scalloping (all combined together) should be within tolerance limits

ii Minimum 8 radials with at least one radial in each quadrant including PDRs are
checked during commissioning. During Routine inspections , only PDRs are
checked .

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1.5.2 Flight Procedure

i Calibration A/C flies on enroute radials either inbound or outbound along the radial
to a distance of 40 Nm. The minimum altitude is 1000ft above the highest terrain. .

1.5.3 Ground Adjustment

Normally no adjustment is carried out for above exercise. .

1.5.4 Desired Results and Tolerances

i. Alignment

Signal strength > 90 µv/m


Bends : ± 3.5°
Roughness : ± 3.0°
Scalloping : ± 3.0°

1.6 Polarization Check

1.6.1 Purpose:

To confirm, that no adverse effect will be encountered, while flying on course due to
undesired vertical polarization component.

The desired polarization of VOR is HORIZONTAL

VOR Radial Check

1.6.2 Flight Procedure :

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Calibration A/C flies in-bound OR out-bound on any radial and The A/C is made to
Bank 30° each side between 5-20 NM. while heading is not changed.

1.6.3 Desired Result

Course deviations as a result of aircraft banking should not exceed 2 degree


Bearing deviation : ± 2 .0°

1.7 Coverage Check

1.7.1 Purpose:

To confirm that VOR provides coverage to the defined service volume, even when
operating on Stby Power Supply.

1.7.2 Flight Procedure:

The FIU A/C flies on any radial outbound at a minimum altitude of 1000’AGL.

1.7.3 Ground Facility Adjustment

The field strength of the VOR signal is measured on course at greatest distance at
which it is expected to be used while operating with stby Supply.

1.7.4 Desired Result: –

Throughout the coverage volume:


Minimum Signal Strength : more than 90 μV/m

1.8 Bearing Monitor alarm check

Monitor alarm limits are cross checked. Ground maintenance personnel actuate
alignment monitor alarm condition with North Alignment Control. Calibration aircraft
detects the deviation to confirm that the deviation is within the tolerance limits.

Calibration A/C flies on any radial either inbound or outbound. Give the equipment
on alarm with north alignment control when advised by flight inspector. Normalize
the equipment after Alarm check.

Tolerance: Bearing Monitor : ± 1 .0°

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1.9 FLYABILITY - Must be Satisfactory

Flyability is a subjective assessment by the Pilot during the inspection.


Assessment of Flyability is performed on operational radials and during procedures
based on the VORs.

1.10 RECEIVER CHECK POINTS:

Fixed check points are established both on the ground and in the air where pilots
may check the accuracy of their aircraft VOR Receivers. These points are
established during Commissioning check.

1.10.1 Airborne Check Points: The aircraft flies either inbound or outbound directly
over easily identified ground features at specific altitudes near the airport at a
distance between 5 Nm to 30 Nm. The radial and distance above the check point will
be published as Receiver air check point azimuth.

1.10.2 Ground Check points: The aircraft position on the ramp or on a taxiway
over a selected location. The indicated radial and distance will be published as
Ground check point.

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2. Flight Inspection Profiles of VOR

Flight recording result


Parameters Remarks
profile parameters evaluation
1.Ground eqpt to be
adjusted for proper
modulation levels.
2.Enroute & approach
1.Alignment 1. Mod depth-30
(1) radials to be checked.
2.Modulation Hz
Radial Proper 3.Ground eqpt on Stby
levels AM, 9960 Sub
1000ft modulation supply during one of the
3.Polarisation carrier,Ident
AGL,inbou Levels, radial checks 4.Gnd eqpt to
4.Coverage on 2. frequency
nd ident be set for Bearing Monitor
Stby supply deviation
/outbound, ,AGC, Alarm 1deg on each side
5.Coverage 3. AGC
0-40 Nm/ Coverage under instruction.
6.Bearing alarm 4. Alignement
40 Nm- 0 5.A/c to Bank 30° on either
check error
side on path for polarization
check during commissioning
radial checks.

1.Ground eqpt i.e main and


1. Mod depth-30
stby
(2) Hz AM, 9960
Error tx is to be radiated
5NMOrbit, 1.Errorspread Subcarrier, Ident
spread,
CCW, 2.North 2. frequency
mod levels, a) to determine error spread
1000ft/150 alignment deviation
ident, AGC b) to align the magnetic
0ft AGL 3. AGC
north
4. Alignment error

1.Roughness,
Error
scalloping 1. Mod depth-30 1.Fly the aircraft directly
spread,
(3) bends, Hz AM, 9960 over the
AGC,
25NMOrbit noise etc Sub carrier, Ident selected Ground check
actual
,CCW, 2. error 2. frequency point and
azimuth
1000ft/150 distribution deviation mark the recording at the
reading
0ft AGL w.r.t. ground 3. AGC checkpoint.
over
check points. 4. Alignment error and compare the values.
checkpoint

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1. AZIMUTH 1. Fly the aircraft over


2. Distance Geographical
1. Air Rx.check 3. 30Hz AM, Feature at 15-20 Nm .
(4)
point Radial and 2 Park the aircraft on the
Receiver
2.Gnd.Rx.check SC,FMI,AGC distance airport
checkpoint
Point 4. Tx-I & Tx-II ramp or taxiway at points
indications should selected
be within ± 1 deg. for easy access by aircraft.

3. Table for Acceptable Limits of VOR

Ideal
S.N Lower value/Resu Upper
o. Parameter limit lt limit Remarks
1 Polarization -2º 0 +2º
2 Pattern Accuracy
Alignment -2º 0 +2º

Bends -3.5º 0 +3.5º


Roughness -3º 0 +3º
Scalloping -3º 0 +3º
or -107
dBW/m2 or -
Coverage field 77
3 strength 90µv/m >= 90µv/m dBmW/m2
4 9960 Hz deviation 15 16 17
9960 Hz Modulation
5 depth 0.28 0.3 0.32
6 30 Hz Modulation 0.28 0.3 0.32
Clearly
7 Ident audible
8 Bearing Monitor -1º +1º

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2.2 GROUND AND AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT

2.2.1 Ground Equipment: GROUND MAINTENANCE SUPPORT SYSTEM


(GMSS):

GMSS is the Laboratory equipment setup used for maintenance of AFIS-200


System. The hardware units and the software of GMSS are similar to relevant
hardware of AFIS-200 fitted in the Flight Inspection Aircraft and can be
interchanged.

The GMSS is used for calibration, testing and maintenance of AFIS components. In
addition to this it is used for :

2.7 Archival of mission data from MO disk to CD


2.8 Replaying of Mission data which are recorded during flight Inspection
2.9 Preparation and up gradation of FIS database
2.10 Training on ground using the Simulation feature available in the system.

2.2.2 Airborne FIS Equipment

FIS console fitted on board the flight inspection aircraft may be of one of the
following:

a. Manual System (earlier): Features manual data analysis and computation of


results besides supported by a manual theodolite / tracking system.

b. Semi-Automatic System (earlier): Features automatic data analysis and


computation of results but supported by an operator dependent position reference
system / Theodolite.

c. Fully Automatic System (present): Features automatic data analysis and


computation of results based on self contained automatic position reference
systems, like DGPS and Laser Tracker. This system is recently acquired from
Germany and fitted in Dornier aircraft.

1. AFIS-200

1.1 This is a fully Automatic Flight Inspection system which is installed in the
Flight Inspection aircrafts of AAI Flight Inspection Unit. It is procured from M/s
Aerodata, Germany. The system is fully dependent on GPS for its Positional
Reference System. A single GPS system can give positional accuracy, no better
than 30 m which is of no use for ILS calibration. So, the system is equipped with P-
DGPS for achieving the desired accuracy of around 10cm.It is also supplemented by
an automatic laser tracker fully controlled by AFIS System without manual
intervention for tracking, locking or transmitting of aircraft positional information.

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1.2 The system is provided with RASCAL Ground survey kit based on DGPS. At
an airport, the first task of FIU is to collect the Survey data for the ILS to be
calibrated. Generally the ARP of the airport, whose coordinates are accurately
known, is chosen as the DGPS base station for the survey work. The Rover station
is then taken to various points of interest like, Runway Thresholds, Localizer
antenna centre, GP antenna base, the P-DGPS point and the Laser Tracker point
and Coordinates are recorded. Then the laser tracker survey is carried out to set the
references for the tracker itself and a point is selected for siting a reference reflector.

1.3 With these data in raw form, it is converted into Threshold coordinate system
(TCS) using a software kit. The TCS has its origin at Threshold, X-axis along the
extended centerline towards outer marker, Y-axis is perpendicular to X-axis in the
anticlockwise direction and Z-axis directed upwards. These values are then fed to
the facility database of the AFIS system. The nominal Course Width of LLZ is
calculated using the survey data and is entered in the database of AFIS.

1.4 During Flight check, the aircraft receives its positional information from GPS.
It also receives the raw GPS information from the DGPS base station antenna from
ground through UHF link. Since the surveyed position of DGPS base antenna is
known to the system, it calculates the error and applies to reduce the C/A Code
error. The system is having a two frequency GPS receiver and can calculate and
apply the carrier phase error in its solution. The application of Phase error gives the
P-DGPS solution which is capable of giving an accuracy of 5 cm accurate enough to
calibrate a cat III ILS.

1.5 The Laser tracker is used to track the aircraft during ILS approaches. The
Laser Auto-tracker is fully controlled by the system software for Search, Track and
Verify operations. There is no manual intervention during its operation.

1.6 The AFIS is a fully menu driven software with defined exercises. The results
are calculated by the inbuilt software and out of tolerance values are displayed in
red. It can also generate the reports of an inspection in a predefined format.

2.3 RADAR FLIGHT TESTING

FCS radar flight testing services comprise commissioning, routine and special flight
testing of all types of radar installations both for military and civilian users. Systems
flight checked include primary and secondary radars including Mode-S systems,
precision approach (PAR) and airport surveillance radar (ASR), as well as medium
range radar systems. FCS optionally provides full SASS-C reporting in compliance
with ICAO DOC 8071 (Vol. III), respectively Eurocontrol EST requirements for
commissioning checks.
FCS usually executes radar flight testing with Learjet 35 aircraft due to their superior
performance data.

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This data, requiring no additional flight effort, permits and in-depth quality evaluation
of the track-generating function of DFS trackers, using plots from various radar
sources, for the air space

Approach and Departure Procedures

ICAO Document 9906 - Quality Manual for Instrument Procedure Design - requires
the validation of new approach and departure procedures (Non Precision Approach,
Standard Instrument Departure, NPA/SID) by an independent party prior to their
release/publication. This comprises the check of ground based navigation facilities
(VOR, NDB, DME) for their usability for the procedure, flyability evaluation with
respect to workload, quality of documents and feasibility of the procedure. This
process was established in Germany already in 2001, and is performed by FCS
flight inspection pilots who are specially qualified and licensed for this task.
For all GPS Area-NAV (RNAV) based procedures as well as procedures with
autopilot based barometric altitude guidance (AP BaroVNAV) a special focus lies on
the validation and periodical check of the utilized databases. For this FCS employs
its purpose-designed FIDIT toolset

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Summary

• Flight Inspection Procedure of ILS

Following are the various Flight Inspection Checks carried on the Localizer
equipment:

1. Identification Coding Checks


2. Mod-Balance and Mod-Depth Checks
3. Course width and Clearance Check
4. Course Structure, Course Alignment and Flyability
Check
5. High angle clearance check
6. Alignment Monitor Alarm check
7. Width Monitor Alarm check
8. Coverage and Power Monitor Alarm Check
9. Polarization Check
10. Course width Symmetry Check.

Following are the various Flight Inspection Checks carried on the Localizer
equipment:
1. Antenna NULL Check
2. Phasing Check
3. Sector width and Glide Angle Check
4. Glide angle and Course Structure Check
5. Monitor Checks
i. Position Alarm
ii.Width Alarm
6. Azimuth Coverage

• Flight Inspection of DME

Following are the various Flight Inspection Checks carried on the Localizer
equipment
1. Identification
2. Distance accuracy
3. Coverage
4. Signal Strength
5. Squitter Rate
6. False replies

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• Flight Inspection of NDB

Following are the various Flight Inspection Checks carried on the Localizer
equipment
1. Coverage
2. AGC
3. Identification
4. Enroute
5. Approach and Holding

• VOR Flight Inspection

Following are the various Flight Inspection Checks carried on VOR.


1. Sensing and Rotation check.
2. Identification Coding Check
3. Modulation Level Check
4. Orbit Check
5. Radial check
6. Polarization Check
7. Coverage Check
8. Monitor Alarm check

• GMSS is the Laboratory equipment setup used for maintenance of AFIS-200


System. The GMSS is used for calibration, testing and maintenance of AFIS
components.

• FCS radar flight testing services comprise commissioning, routine and special
flight testing of all types of radar installations both for military and civilian
users

Civil Aviation Training College, India Page 619