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When first introduced, Dependency Theory challenged traditional approaches to the study of
development and developing countries. Today, however, many critics charge that Dependency
Theory is out of date and fails to effectively explain contemporary economic and social
conditions in the developing world. Do you agree or disagree with this critique? Explain. Be sure
to support your position by drawing upon the experience of a country or region in the
developing world which you know well.

- Agree. Apart from classical examples like India, North Korea and South Korea, another current
example of a country which does not relay, or at least starting not to relay and serve the desire
of the first world countries is the Philippines. The Philippine’s position today in international
relation does not reflect the characteristics of the country described in center periphery and
even the other peripheral country of the dependency theory. In fact the country’s leader stated
its position in the relationship of the country against the developed country, particularly the US
and European countries. Instead of maintaining the traditional relationship between the US and
other European countries, the Philippines opted to seek support in its regional ally such as China
and Japan. The country tries to promote regional relationship and partnership instead of seeking
trade into farther western countries, which also have been maintaining Philippine’s position as
inferior economy by controlling export prices on goods and services.

2. Over the past twenty years policy makers have moved from being Gender ‘Blind’ to Gender
Aware.” With reference to ONE sectoral area of development theory and policy making, (e.g.
health, education, etc.), explore how far the shift from WID (Women in Development) to WAD
(Women and Development) to GAD (Gender and Development) confirms or denies the accuracy
of this assertion.

- Policy makers particularly in the field of Health recognize the importance of being gender aware.
From being a gender blind, policy makers gave importance to the heath of women as they are
importantly involved in the development. As WID and WAD emphasized the role of women as
being a part of development, health programs for women has been launched, particularly on
maternity and teenage health programs. However during the shift to GAD, as women are not
the only one that was recognized as important in the development, men were also recognized
to be equally important with women, thus, promoting gender equality. GAD recognizes the role
of women in any situation status. Health programs on paternity health also become in focus by
the policy makers. Example of these are the availability of paternity leave for men, the health
programs for men that promotes health on reproductive and mental. Health policies under GAD
recognize not only the importance of women’s health but as well as paternal health which
ultimately affects family, community, and social development. Today, the UN promotes their
banner on Planet 50-50 by 2013, which set ups gender equality, as well as the “HeforShe”
These two terms, reliability and validity, are often used interchangeably when they are not related to
statistics. When critical readers of statistics use these terms, however, they refer to different properties
of the statistical or experimental method.

Reliability is another term for consistency. If one person takes the same personality test several times
and always receives the same results, the test is reliable.

A test is valid if it measures what it is supposed to measure. If the results of the personality test claimed
that a very shy person was in fact outgoing, the test would be invalid.

Reliability and validity are independent of each other. A measurement maybe valid but not reliable, or
reliable but not valid. Suppose your bathroom scale was reset to read 10 pound lighter. The weight it
reads will be reliable(the same every time you step on it) but will not be valid, since it is not reading your
actual weight.

- Theories of change are primarily based on the possible improvement of society
- It is possible to improve society through deliberate human effort and that society was moving
inexorably from one stage or phase towards another, usually a better or more desirable one.
- Marx and Engels and other believed that increase in societal complexity produces greater
human happiness.
- Permutter 1991 and other argue that changing global process and structure seem to signify
emergence of the 1st world civilization with a new world order and shared values, structures,
and process
- Contemporary anthropologist cited technology as indicator of social evolution
- Directionality, novelty, variety, selectivity, and increased complexity are key aspects of
evolutionary patterns (Chattoe, 2002; Richerson & Boyd, 1992).
- similar sequence of evolution was discussed by Robert N. Bellah (1970) in his paper, “Religious
Evolution.” He views evolution “as a process of increasing differentiation and complexity of
organization which endows the organism, community, or whatever the unit in question may be,
with greater capacity to adapt to its environment so that it is in some sense more autonomous
relative to its environment than were its less complex ancestors”
Quantifying evolution of society
- Leslie 1949 proposed emergence of energy utilization as quantifiable measure of social
- Marshall Sahlins 1958 used surplus products of food commodities and degree of their
redistribution as a measure of technological efficiency

DIFFUSION = a process by which innovations spread from one culture to another or from a subculture
into larger culture.
= process together with reinterpretation of burrowed elements innovation, and synthesis of the
old and the new.
- Diffusion theory = emerged as an alternative to evolution
- Based on G. Elliot Smith’s idea of culturally dominant centers.
- Smith locate cultural similarities between early Egyptians and societies such as the Incas of Peru
and people of India and Mexico. He cited the bone fishhook in Melanesia as based on a bronze
spear developed by the Egyptians, and the Mayan practice building pyramids out of stone as
derived from Egyptian practice.
- Krober’s in the mid-1940s stated that “whatever else diffusion does or does not involve, it does
always involve change for the receiving culture. The total part played by diffusion in human is
almost incredibly great”
o Krober also pointed out that as a society is located farther from cultural centers or “high
centers”, societal complexities increase. Because of being marginal they will be in
- George Murdock (1934) estimated that 90 % of every culture known to history has acquired its
elements from other people’s ei. Cultures.
- Ralph Linton (1936) provides an illustration as a typical American takes its breakfast by breaking
down where his food, utensils, and other things originated or manufactured, orange came from
the eastern Mediterranean, cantaloupe from Persia, and coffee from ancient Abyssinia. Wafers
are derived from a Scandinavian technique from wheat domesticated in Asia Minor. The after-
breakfast cigarette comes from Mexico, from a tobacco plant that originated in Brazil.
- Murdock 1957, anthropologist estimated that there are about 4000 different human societies,
in past and present.
- Linton, illustrated that diffusion is no always one-way process. eg. is the case of Caucasians and
the rest of the east and native American, as more than half of the food that they eat came from
native American farming eg. the wheat, potatoes, corn, beans, squash, and sweet potatoes.
Rogers’s five characteristics that have a major influence on the rate of adoption of an innovation:
1. Relative advantage – the degree to which an innovation is considered superior to the ideas or
products it supersedes. In terms of efficiency, cost, novelty, or perceived advantage.
eg, transistor radio and tube-type radio.

2. Compatibility – degree to which an innovation is consistent with the existing values,

experiences, and needs of the recipient. eg. advantage of portable broadband while using laptop
over wired network which cannot be used when you’re travelling.

3. Complexity – extent to which an innovation is seen as relatively difficult to understand and use.
In q complexity-simplicity continuum, adoption rate of an innovation will be slower when it
perceived as complex b member of a community.

4. Tryability – degree which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. Inventions
such as automobile or tv, have to accepted as they are. It is considered advantageous for the
adoption rate if an item can be tried out first.

5. Observability – extent to w/c a result of an innovation are visible to others. eg. are items such as
clothes or durable goods are highly observable facilitate the rate of adoption.
Roger;s innovation decision, as related to innovation adoption:
1. Optional – person has a choice whether to adopt of not
2. Collective – majority needs to be convinced o adopt
3. Authoritarian – a decision has been superimposed to adopt the innovation

Five adopter categories identified by Rogers:

1. Innovators – who try out new idea
2. Early adopters – more integrated in the community compared to innovators
3. Early majority – who adopt new ideas just before the average in a community
4. Late majority – who follow after the average community members
5. Laggards – who are suspicious of innovators and change agents and have traditional values.

The center-periphery model rests on three basic elements:

1. The innovation to be diffused exists, fully realized in its essentials, prior to its diffusion.
2. Diffusion is the movement of an innovation from a center out to its ultimate users.
3. Directed diffusion is a centrally managed process of dissemination, training, and provision of
resources and incentives.

= refers to taking on material and nonmaterial attributes from culture as a result of prolonged face-to-
face contact

Contact may refer ei. To war , conquest, military occupation, colonization, missionaries, cultural echange
also, transport of labor.
Diffusion is considered as the only one aspect of acculturation.
Diffusion deals with one or small number of attributes,
Acculturation provides he group with many possible new ways of behaving, which might be quite
different from those dictated by their own cultures, norms, and beliefs.
Acculturation is produced by contact, while contact may not be required in Diffusion.

The most famous case of acculturation at the level of society discussed in the literature is perhaps the
transformation of Manus society as a consequence of the occupation of the island by American troops
during World War II. The Manus community of the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific was revisited by
Margaret Mead after twenty-five years. The first time she studied the community, it comprised people
with no contact with the outside world and no known writing. The problems of social interaction and
reciprocal obligation were handled in terms of kinship. The natives wore G-strings and grass skirts and
had a very primitive economic system. When she returned twenty-five years later, she was “greeted by
a man in carefully ironed white clothes, wearing a tie and shoes, who explained that he was the
‘counsel,’ one of the elected officials of the community” (Mead, quoted by Spindler, 1984:35).

= fundamental, rapid and sometimes violent change in political organization, power relationship,
stratification, economic
= Revolutions are often classified into one of two ideal types: leftist or rightist (DeFronzo, 1996)
- left-wing revolution, the goal is to change major social and political institutions
- right-wing revolution, the objective is the restoration of traditional institutions
The patterns of revolution, according to Chalmers Johnson (1964), can be analyzed in terms of
(1) the targets selected for attack—government personnel, political regime, the community as a social
(2) the nature of the carriers of the revolution—mass or an elite; and
(3) its goals and ideologies—reformist, nostalgic, nation-forming, elitist, or nationalist

Six patterns of Revolution:

1. The Jacquerie – from French peasant insurrection in 1358 vs nobility English soldiers. It’s a
spontaneous mass peasant uprising together with eg church, king and its objective is to purge
local or national elites
2. The Millenarian Rebellion – similar with he no. 1 but with the extra feature of utopian dream
fostered by a strong leader. Eg. is Hitler’s
3. The Anarchistic Rebellion – reflects a nostalgic reaction to progressive change involved
romantic idealization.
4. The Jacobean Communist Revolution – rare, can occur only in a highly centralized state with
good communications and large capital city and its target is the government or the regime. Eg. is
the Rebellion in Star Wars Saga.
5. The Conspiratorial Coup d’État – a calculatd and highly organized undertaking of small elite and
instigated by oligarchic sectarian ideology. Eg. is the Castro Revolution in Cuba.
6. The Militrized Mass Insurrection – deliberately planned mass revolutionary war guided by a
dedicated elite. Guided outcome with Guerilla Warfare instead of military strategy. Eg. Vietnam,
China and Algeria.

= a process by which agrarian societies are transformed into industrial societies.
= aim of modernization is to approximate the characteristics of economically developed and relatively
stable nations
= a form of imitation, emulation, and transplantation of patterns, products, and technologies from
Western countries to less developed countries

= the process by which technology is substituted for manual labor as the basis of production of goods
= commonly used index of industrialization is the proportion of the nation’s labor force engaged in
agriculture. As the proportion declines, a nation can be considered as becoming more industrial
= Industrialization is related to the increased need for literacy, for education is a determining factor in
labor force participation and for social mobility

Example :
Great Britain is considered the first and the classic case of industrialization (Kerr et al., 1964). By 1830, it
had seen the development of workers who were acclimatized to factory conditions and were able to
move from place to place, from employment to employment, as required.

= refers to the process by which an increasing proportion of a country’s population comes to live in
cities, with a concomitant concentration of economic activity, administrative and political organization,
and communication networks in these urban areas.
= highly significant factor in both modernization and industrialization, and the three forces, different as
they are, contain a number of parallel features

= Currently, urbanization is more highly visible in the underdeveloped nations.

= Moreover, overurbanization is often indicative of the fact that the urban population of a nation is too
large in relation to the extent of its economic development.

= simply means a hierarchical social structure for administering large-scale organizations rationally,
efficiently, effectively, and impersonally
= refers to changes within an organization, public or private, toward greater rationality in decision
making, improved operating efficiency, and more effective attainment of common goals (Lorsch, 1987)