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Wings of aero

UNIT I

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

Part-A (2 Marks)

1. What is meant by thermodynamics system? How do you classify it?

2. What is meant by closed system? Give an example.

3. Define an open system Give an example.

4. Distingusih between Open and Closed system

5. Define an isolated system:

6. Define specific heat capacity at constant pressure.

7. Define specific heat capacity at constant volume.

8. What is meant by surroundings?

9. What is boundary?

10. What is meant by thermodynamic property

11. How do you classify the property?

12. Define Intensive and Extensive properties.

13. What do you understand by equilibrium of a system?

14. Differentiate Intensive and Extensive properties

15. State the Kelvin - Planck statement of second law of thermodynamics.

16. State Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics.

17. Write the third law of thermodynamics.

18. State Carnot's theorem.

19. What are the Corollaries of Carnot theorems?

20. Define - PMM of second kind.

21. What is difference between a heat pump and refrigerator?

22. Define the term COP.

23. Why Carnot cycle cannot be realized in practice?

24. Name two alternative methods by which the efficiency of a Carnot cycle can be

increased.

25. Why a heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency

26. When the Carnot cycle efficiency will be maximum?

27. What are the processes involved in Carnot cycle

28. What is mean by heat engine?

29. What do you meant by entropy?

30. Prove Clausius Inequality

31. Write the principle of Increase in entropy

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Phone: +918870705857/+918220125658

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1. one kg of gas expands at CO&11stant pressure from 0.085 m3 to 0.13 Ill).if the initial

temperature of the gas is 22.5 °c.find the final. Temperatures, net heat transfer, change

in internal energy, pressure of gas.

2. A certain quantity of gas is head at constant pressure from 35 °0 to 185°c. Estimate

the amount of heat transferred, ideal work done, change in internal energy,when the

initial volume of the gas is 0.6 m^3.

3. Explain and derive Isothermal process

4. Explain and derive Isobaric process.

5. Explain and derive Isochoric process.

6. Explain and derive isentropic process.

7. Explain and derive Polytropic process.

8. Explain the inequivalence of Kelvin Planck’s & Clausius Statement

9. 2kg of gas at a pressure of 1.5 bar. Occupies a volume of 2.5 m^3. If this gas

compresses isothermally to 1/3 times the initial volume. Find initial. Final

temperature, work done, heat transfer.

10. one kg of air is compressed polytropically (n=1.3) from 1 bar and 27 deg Celsius to 3

bar. Find I. work transfer 2. Heat transfer 3. Change in internal energy.

11. A system receives 42 kJ of heat while expanding with volume change of 0.123 m3

against an atmosphere of 12 N/cm2. A mass of 80 kg in the surroundings is also lifted

through a distance of 6 metres.

a. Find the change in energy of the system.

b. The system is returned to its initial volume by an adiabatic process which requires

100 kJ of work. Find the change in energy of system.

c. Determine the total change in energy of the system.

12. A tank contains 2.26 m3 of air at a pressure of 24.12 bar. If air is cooled until its

pressure and temperature becomes 13.78 bar and 21.1°C respectively. Determine the

decrease of internal energy.

13. Determine work done by fluid in the thermodynamic cycle comprising of following

processes

a. Unit mass of fluid at 20 atm and 0.04 m3 is expanded by the law PV1.5 =

constant, till volume gets doubled.

b. Fluid is cooled isobarically to its original volume.

c. Heat is added to fluid till its pressure reaches to its original pressure,

isochorically.

14. Air at 8 bar, 100°C flows in a duct of 15 cm diameter at rate of 150 kg/min. It is then

throttled by a valve upto 4 bar pressure. Determine the velocity of air after throttling

and also show that enthalpy remains constant before and after throttling.

15. Determine the power required by a compressor designed to compress atmospheric air

(at 1 bar, 20°C) to 10 bar pressure. Air enters compressor through inlet area of 90cm2

with velocity of 50 m/s and leaves with velocity of 120 m/s from exit area of 5 cm2.

Consider heat losses to environment to be 10% of power input to compressor.

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16. A frictionless piston is free to move in a closed cylinder. Initially there is 0.035 m3 of

oxygen at 4.5 bar, 60°C on one side of the piston and 0.07 m3 of methane at 4.5 bar

and – 12°C on the other side. The cylinder walls and piston may be regarded as

perfect thermal insulators but the oxygen may be heated electrically. Heating takes

place so that the volume of oxygen doubles. Find :

a. Final state condition ; (ii) Work done by the piston ;

b. Heat transferred to oxygen.

c. Treat both gases as perfect and take :

d. For oxygen cp = 0.88 kJ/kg K, R = 0.24 kJ/kg K

e. For methane cp = 1.92 kJ/kg K, R = 0.496 kJ/kg K.

17. The specific heat at constant pressure of one kg fluid undergoing a non-flow constant

pressure process is given by

where T is in °C.

18. The pressure during the process is maintained at 2 bar and volume changes from 1 m3

to 1.8 m3 and temperature changes from 50°C to 450°C.

a. Determine :

i. Heat added (ii) Work done

ii. Change in internal energy (iv) Change in enthalpy.

19. A fluid system, contained in a piston and cylinder machine, passes through a complete

cycle of four processes. The sum of all heat transferred during a cycle is – 340 kJ. The

system completes 200 cycles per min. Complete the following table showing the

method for each item, and compute the net rate of work output in kW.

[8]

i. Process Q (kJ/min) W (kJ/min) ΔE

(kJ/min)

iii. 2—3 42000 0 —

iv. 3—4 –4200 — – 73200

v. 4—1 — — ___

32. Air flows through an adiabatic compressor at 3 kg/s the inlet conditions are 2 bar and

310k and exit conditions are 20 bar and 560 k. compute the net rate of availability

transfer and irreversibility.

33. Air in a closed vessel of fixed volume of 0.15 m 3, exerts pressure of 12 bar at 250 °c

,if the vessel is cooled so that the pressure falls to 3.5 bar, determine the final

temperature, heat transfer and change of entropy.

34. Explain Carnot engine cycle and its efficiency.

35. Explain the term availability and unavailability.

36. A heat engine operates between a source a 600 °c and a sink at 60 c Determine the

least rate of heat rejection per KW net output of the engine.

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37. 0.2 kg of air at 1.5 bar and 27 "c is compressed to a pressure of 15 bar according to

the law pv (l.25) =c. determine work done heat flow to or from the air, increase or

decrease in entropy

38. Two heat engines operating on carnot cycle are arranged in series. The engine A

receives heat at 1000 K and rejects heat at a constant temperature T2. The engine B

receives heat rejected by A, and in turn rejects heat to a reservoir at 300 K. Calculate

the T2 when a) the efficiency of the two engines are equal b) the work output of the

two engines are equal.

39. A carnot engine receives 90kJ from a reservoir at 900 K. It rejects heat to the

environment at 300 K. One-fifth of its work output is used to drive a carnot

refrigerator. The refrigerator rejects 60 kJ to the environment at 300 K. Find work

output and efficiency of the engine, the temperature of the sink for the refrigerator in

degree celsius.

40. Three reversible engines of Carnot type are operating in series between the limiting

temperatures of 1100 K and 300 K. Determine the intermediate temperatures if the

work output from engines is in proportion of 3 : 2 : 1.

41. In a compressor the air enters at 27°C and 1 atm and leaves at 227°C and 1 MPa.

Determine the work done per unit mass of air assuming velocities at entry and exit to

be negligible. Also determine the additional work required, if velocities are 10 m/s

and 50 m/s at inlet and exit respectively.

42. In a gas turbine installation air is heated inside heat exchanger upto 750°C from

ambient temperature of 27°C. Hot air then enters into gas turbine with the velocity of

50 m/s and leaves at 600°C. Air leaving turbine enters a nozzle at 60 m/s velocity and

leaves nozzle at temperature of 500°C. For unit mass flow rate of air determine the

following assuming adiabatic expansion in turbine and nozzle,

a. heat transfer to air in heat exchanger

b. power output from turbine

c. velocity at exit of nozzle.

d. Take cp for air as 1.005 kJ/kg°K.

43. A refrigerator operates on reversed Carnot cycle. Determine the power required to

drive refrigerator between temperatures of 42ºC and 4ºC if heat at the rate of 2 kJ/s is

extracted from the low temperature region.

44. In a power station, the saturated steam is generated at 200ºC by transferring the heat

from hot gases in a steam boiler. Find the increase in total entropy of the combined

system of gas and water and increase in unavailable energy due to irreversible heat

transfer. The gases are cooled from 1000°C to 500°C and all the heat from gases goes

to water. Assume water enters the boiler at saturated condition and leaves as saturated

steam

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UNIT II

AIR CYCLES

Part-A (2 Marks)

1. What is a thermodynamic cycle?

2. What is meant by air standard cycle?

3. Name the various ―gas power cycles‖.

4. What are the assumptions made for air standard cycle analysis?

5. Mention the various processes of the Otto cycle.

6. Mention the various processes of the diesel cycle.

7. Mention the various processes of the dual cycle.

8. Mention the various processes of the Brayton cycle.

9. Define air standard cycle efficiency.

10. Sketch Otto cycle on p-V diagram and name all the processes.

11. Plot the Diesel cycle on p-V and T-s diagram (or) Sketch the diesel cycle on p-V and

T-s diagrams.

12. Define mean effective pressure as applied to gas power cycles. How it is related to

indicated power of an I.C engine?

13 Sketch the dual cycle on p-V and T-s co-ordinates and name the various processes.

14. Define the following terms. (i) Compression ratio (ii) Cut off ratio and (iii) Expansion

ratio

15. Sketch Otto and Diesel cycle for the same compression ratio and heat input and

compare the efficiency.

16. Which cycle is more efficient with respect to the same compression ratio?

17. For the same compression ratio and heat sup[plied, state the order of decreasing air

standard efficiency of Otto, diesel and dual cycle.

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18. Represent the Otto, Diesel and Dual cycle on p-V coordinates for the same

compression ratio and same heat input.

19. What is the range of compression ratio for Otto and Diesel cycle?

20. Name the factors that affect air standard efficiency of Diesel cycle.

21. What is the effect of cut-off ratio on the efficiency of diesel cycle when the

compression ratio is kept constant?

22. Define mean effective pressure. What is its physical significance?

23. Write an expression for mean effective pressure for an Otto cycle interms of

compression ratio and other parameters.

24. Write down the expression for mean effective pressure for an Diesel cycle and Dual

cycle interms of r, p and k.

25. Write the expression for efficiency of the diesel cycle interms of compression ratio

and cut-off ratio.

26. Write any four major differences between Otto and diesel cycle.

27. Draw the p-V and T-s diagram of Brayton cycle (or) Sketch the limited pressure cycle

on p-V and T-s diagram and name various processes.

28. Sketch the schematic arrangement of open cycle gas turbine plant and name the

components.

29. What are all the modifications are caddied out in Brayton cycle? Why?

30. Is it always useful to have a regenerator in a gas turbine power cycle? Why?

31. What is the expression for optimum pressure ratio for maximum specific work out-put

in Brayton cycle?

32. Why the gas turbine plants are generally designed for optimum pressure ratio for

Maximum specific work output?

33. When will be the gas turbine cycle efficiency reaches maximum?

34. In case of regenerative cycle, what are the factors affecting thermal efficiency of the

Cycle?

35. What are the effects of introducing regeneration in the basic gas turbine cycle?

36. When will the intercooler is provided between two compressors?

37. What are the effects of providing the intercooler in the gas turbine cycle?

38. When the reheater is employed in the gas turbine cycle.

39. What is the condition for maximum work in the case of reheater employed in the gas

turbine cycle?

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Part-B (16Marks)

1. Drive and expression for the air standard efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of volume

ratio.

2. Drive an expression for the air standard efficiency of Diesel cycle.

3. Drive an expression for the air standard efficiency of Dual cycle. .

4. Explain the working of 4 stroke cycle Diesel engine. Draw the theoretical and actual

PV diagram.

5. An engine of 250 mm bore and 375 mm stroke works on Otto cycle. The clearance

volume is 0.00263 m³. The initial pressure and temperature are 1bar and 50°C. if the

maximum pressure is limited to 25 bar, find the following :

a) The air std efficiency of the cycle

b) The mean effective pressure for the cycle.

Assume the ideal conditions.

adiabatically until the pressure is 7bar in Otto cycle engine. 465 kJ of heat per kg of

air is now added at constant volume. Determine:

a) Compression ratio of the engine.

b) Temperature at the end of compression.

c) Temperature at the end of heat addition.

Take for air cp = 1.0kJ/kg-K, cv = 0.706kJ/kg-K.

7. In a constant volume Otto cycle the pressure at the end of compression is 15times that

at the start, the temperature of air at the beginning of compression is 38°C and

maximum temperature attained in the cycle is 1950°C.determine:

a) Compression ratio.

b) Thermal efficiency of the cycle.

c) Work done.

8. An engine working on Otto cycle has a volume of 0.45m³, pressure 1 bar and

temperature 30°C at the beginning of compression stroke. At the end of compression

stroke, the pressure is 11 bar. 210kJ of heat is added at constant volume. Determine :

a) Pressures, temperature and volumes at salient points in the cycle.

b) Percentage clearance.

c) Efficiency.

d) Net work per cycle.

e) Mean effective pressure.

f) Ideal power developed by the engine if the number of working cycles per minute

is 210.

Assume the cycle is reversible.

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9. The stroke and cylinder diameter of a compression ignition engine are 250 mm and

150 mm respectively. If the clearance volume is 0.0004m³ and fuel injection takes

place constant pressure for 5% of the stroke determine the efficiency of the engine.

Assume the engine working on the diesel cycle.

10. An engine with 200 mm cylinder dia and 300 mm stroke works on theoretical Diesel

cycle. The initial pressure and temperature of air used are 1bar and 27°C. The cut-off

is 8% of the stroke. Determine :

a) Pressure and temperature at all salient points.

b) Theoretical air std efficiency.

c) Mean effective pressure.

d) Power of engine if the working cycles per minute are 380.

Assume that compression ratio is 15 and working fluid is air

Consider all conditions to be ideal.

11. The swept volume of a diesel engine working on dual cycle 0.0053m³ and clearance

volume is 0.00035m³. The maximum pressure is 65bar. Fuel injection ends at 5% of

the stroke. The temperature and pressure at the start of compression are 80°C and

0.9bar. Determine the air std efficiency of the cycle. Take γ for air = 1.4

12. The compression ratio for a single cylinder engine operating on dual cycle is 9. The

maximum pressure in the cylinder is limited to 60bar. The pressure and temperature

of the air at the beginning of the cycle are 1bar and 30°C. Heat is added during

constant pressure process upto 4% of the stroke. Assuming the cylinder dia and stroke

length as 250 mm and 300 mm respectively, determine :

a) The air std efficiency of the cycle.

b) The power developed if the numbers of working cycles are 3 per second.

Take for air cp = 1.0 and cv = 0.71

13. In an engine working on dual cycle, the temperature and pressure at the beginning of

the cycle are 90°C and 1 bar respectively. The compression ratio is 9. The maximum

pressure is limited to 68 bar and total heat supplied per kg of air is 1750 kJ. Determine

a) Pressure and temperature at all salient points.

b) Air std efficiency.

c) Mean effective pressure.

14. Air enters the compressor of a gas turbine plant operating on Brayton cycle at 101.325

kpa, 27°C. The pressure ratio in the cycle is 6. Calculate the maximum temperature in

the cycle and the cycle efficiency. Assume WT = 2.5WC where WT and Wc are the

turbine and the compressor work respectively. Take γ =1.4.

15. Consider an air std cycle in which the air enters the compressor at 1.0 bar and 20°C.

The pressure of air leaving the compressor is 3.5 bar and the temperature at turbine

inlet is 600°C. Determine per kg of air:

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a) Efficiency of cycle

b) Heat supplied to air

c) Work available at the shaft

d) Heat rejected in the cooler, and

e) Temperature of air leaving the turbine.

For air γ = 1.4

1. The following data in referred for an air standard diesel cycle compression ratio = 15 heat

added = 200 KJ/Kg- minimum temperature in the cycle = 25°C Suction pressure = 1 bar

Calculate

1. Pressure and temperature at the Salient point.

2. Thermal efficiency

3. Mean effective pressure,

4. Power output of the cycle If flow rate 'of air is 2 Kg/s

2. Air enters the compressor of a gas turbine at 100 KPa and 25 o C. For a pressure ratio of 5

and a maximum temperature of 850°C. Determine the thermal efficiency using the Brayton

cycle.

3. An Engine-working on Otto cycle has a volume of 0.45 m3 , pressure 1 bar and temperature

30o,C at the beginning of compression stroke. At the end of compression stroke, the

pressure is 11 bar and 210 KJ of heat is added at constant volume. Determine (i) Pressure,

temperature and volumes at salient points in the cycle.' (ii) Efficiency.

4. A Dual combustion air standard cycle has a compression ratio of 10. The constant pressure

part of combustion takes place at 40 bar. The highest and the lowest temperature of the

cycle are 1725 degree C and 27 degree C respectively. The pressure at the beginning of

compression is 1 bar.Calculate (I) the pressure and temperature at each key points of the

cycle. (ii) The heat supplied at constant volume, (iii) the heat supplied at constant pressure.

(Iv) The heat rejected. (v) the work output. (vi) the efficiency and (vii) mep.

compression,the air is at 100 kPa, 35°C and 600 cm3.The temperature at the end of

isentropic expansion process is 800 K. Determine

a. The highest temperature and pressure in the cycle

b. The thermal efficiency

c. The mean effective pressure.

the

a. beginning of the compression process air is at 95 kPa and 27°C. Determine

i. The temperature after the heat addition process

ii. The thermal efficiency and

iii. The mean effective pressure

7. Show the Otto cycle on P-V and T-S diagrams. Derive expressions for the efficiency

and mean effective pressure and plot their variation with compression ratio.

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8. In an air standard Diesel cycle, the compression ratio is 16, and at the beginning of

isentropic compression, the temperature is 288 K, and the pressure is 0.1 MPa. The

maximum temperature in the cycle is 1753 K. Calculate

a. The pressure and temperature at all the four important points in the cycle

b. The m.e.p. and the cycle efficiency.

UNIT-3

Part-A (2 Marks)

2. Write down the expression for velocity at exit from steam nozzle.

3. Derive the expression for the critical pressure ratio in a steam nozzle.

4. What are the effects of friction on the flow through a steam nozzle?

5. Write the general energy equation for a steady flow system and from this obtain the

energy equation for nozzle.

6. Define nozzle efficiency and critical pressure ratio.

7. Explain the phenomenon of super saturated expansion in steam nozzle (or) What is

metastable flow?

8. What are the conditions that produce super saturation of steam in nozzles?

9. Draw the T-s and h-s plot of super saturated expansion of steam in a nozzle.

10. What are the effects of super saturation in a steam nozzle?

11. What are the differences between supersaturated flow and isentropic flow through

steam nozzles?

12. What is meant by steam power cycles?

13. What is meant by work ratio? What is the importance of work ratio in vapour cycles?

14. What are the effects of condenser pressure on the Rankine cycle?

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15. Mention the improvements made to increase the ideal efficiency of ranking cycle.

16. Name the different components in steam power plant working on a rankine cycle.

17. What are disadvantages of reheating?

18. List the advantages of reheat cycle.

19. What are the disadvantages of bleeding?

20. Draw the T-s plot of Rankine Cycle

21. Draw the T-s plot of Reheat rankine cycle

22. Define Mach Number

23. Define Stagnation Enthalpy

24. Define Stagnation Temperature

25. Write the area-velocity relation for an isentropic flow in a variable area duct. What is the

effect of Mach number on area-velocity relation?

26. Define Specific impulse

27. Define thrust

28. What is jet propulsion?

29. What are the main components of gas turbine engine used for turbojet aircrafts?

30. Define propulsive efficiency, Jet thrust, thermal efficiency, Overall efficiency

31. What is ―after burning‖ in turbojet engines?

32. Write Continuity, Momentum and Energy equation.

33. What is the function of tail pipe?

PART- B (16Marks)

1. An impulse turbine having a set of 16 nozzles receives steam at 20 bar, 400° C. The

pressure of steam at exist is 12 bar. if the total discharge Is 260 Kg/min and nozzle

efficiency is 90% . Find the cross sectional area of each nozzle, if the steam has

velocity of 80m/s at entry to the nozzle, find the percentage Increase In discharge.

2. Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 8 bar enters the convergent divergent nozzle and

leaves it at a pressure 1.5 bar. If the flow isentropic and if the corresponding index of

expansion is 1.133, find the ratio of 0.3 are at exit and throat for max. discharge.

3. Steam enters a group of nozzles of a steam turbine at 12 bar and 2200 C and leaves at

1.2 bar. The steam turbine develops 220 Kw with a specific steam consumption of

13.5 Kg/ Kw. Hr. If the diameter of nozzle at throat Is 7mm . Calculate the number of

nozzle.

4. Drive an expression for critical pressure ratio in terms of the index of expansion

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5. In a steam nozzle, the steam expands from 4bar to 1bar. The initial velocity is 60m/s and the

initial temp is 200°C. Determine the exit velocity if the nozzle efficiency is 92%.

6. Dry saturated steam enters a steam nozzle at a pressure of 15bar and is discharged at a

pressure of 2.0bar. If the dryness fraction of discharge steam is 0.96, what will be the final

velocity of steam, Neglect initial velocity of steam, If 10% of heat drop is lost in friction, find

the percentage reduction in the final velocity.

7. Steam initial dry and saturated is expanded in a nozzle from 15bar at 300°C to 1.0 bar. If the

frictional loss in the nozzle is 12% of the total heat drop calculate the mass of steam

discharged when exit dia of the nozzle is 15mm.

8. Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 11bar enters a convergent-divergent nozzle and leaves

at a pressure of 2bar. If the flow is adiabatic and frictionless, determine a) The exit velocity

of steam b) ratio of cross section at the exit and that at throat. Assume the index of

adiabatic expansion to be 1.135.

9. The nozzles of a De Laval steam turbine are supplied with dry saturated steam at a pressure

of 9bar. The pressure at the outlet is 1bar. The turbine has two nozzles with a throat

diameter of 2.5mm. Assuming nozzle efficiency as 90% and that of turbine rotor 35%, find

the quality of steam used per hour and the power developed.

10. A steam power plant works between 40 bar and 0.05 bar. If the steam supplied is dry

saturated and the cycle of operation is Rankine, find : (i) Cycle efficiency (ii) Specific

steam consumption. In a regenerative cycle the inlet conditions are 40 bar and

400°C. Steam is bled at 10 bar in Regenerative heating. The exit pressure is 0.8 bar.

Neglecting pump work .Determine the efficiency of the cycle.

11. Show the Rankine cycle on h -s and T -s diagrams. Explain the effect of temperature

of heat addition and heat rejection on the performance.

12. A simple turbojet unit operates with a maximum turbine inlet temperature of 1200 K, a

pressure ratio of 4.25: 1, and a mass flow of 25 kg/s, under ideal conditions. Assume a

convergent nozzle is employed. Calculate the total thrust and sfc. Assume that the unit is

stationary and at sea-level, where the ambient conditions may be taken as 1 bar and 293 K.

Assume air-fuel ratio of 50: 1. Calorific value offuel : 43 MJ/kg.

13. Derive an expression for critical pressure ratio in terms of the index of expansion

14. Steam enters a group of nozzles of a steam turbine at 12 bar and 2200 C and leaves at 1.2

bar. The steam turbine develops 220 Kw with a specific steam consumption of 13.5 Kg/ Kw.

Hr. If the diameter of nozzle at throat Is 7mm . Calculate the number of nozzle

15. Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 8 bar enters the convergent divergent nozzle and

leaves it at a pressure 1.5 bar. If the flow isentropic and if the corresponding index of

expansion is 1.133, find the ratio of 0.3 are at exit and throat for max. discharge.

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16. A steam power plant operates on ideal Rankine cycle using reheater and regenerative

feed water heaters. It has one open feed heater. Steam is supplied at 150 bar and

600°C.The condenser pressure is 0.1 bar. Some steam is extracted from the turbine at

40 bar for closed feed water heater and remaining steam is reduced at 40 bar to

600°C. Extracted steam is completely condensed in this closed feed water heater and

is pumped to 150 bar before mixing with the feed water heater. Steam for the open

feed water heater is bled from L.P. turbine at 5 bar. Determine :

a. Fraction of steam extracted from the turbines at each bled heater, and

b. Thermal efficiency of the system.

17. Draw the line diagram of the components of regenerative Rankine and represent the

cycle on T-s diagram.

18. Explain in detail about simple jet propulsion system with neat sketch

19. Explain in detail about ram jet with neat sketch

20. Explain in detail about turbo jet with neat sketch

21. Explain in detail about Turbo prop with neat sketch

22. Explain in detail about Turbo fan with neat sketch

23. Derive the expression of static & stagnation temperature & pressure Ratio

24. A conical diffuser has entry and exit diameter of 15 cm & 30cm respectively.The

pressure, temperature and velocity of air at entry are 0.69 bar, 340 K and 180m/sec

respectively. Determine 1. Exit Pressure 2. Exit velocity assume Isentropic flow,γ

=1.4 Cp=1.000KJ/Kgk

25. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test section Mach number of 2.0 Air enters the

nozzle from large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310K The cross sectional area of throat is

1000 sq.cm.determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one dimensional

isentropic flow: 1. Pressures, Temperatures and velocities at the throat and test

sections 2. Area of cross section of the test section 3. Mass flow rate 4. Power

required to drive the compressor

26. Air is discharged from a reservoir at P0= 6.91 bar T0=3250C through a nozzle to an

exit pressure of 0.98 bar. If the flow rate is 3600 Kg/hr .Determine for the isentropic

flow: 1. Throat area , Pressure,and velocity 2. Exit area ,Mach number & 3. Maximum

velocity

27. A turbojet engine propels an aircraft at a mach number of 0.8 in level flight at an

altitude of 10Km .the datum fir the engine is given below : Stagnation temperature at

turbine inlet = 1200 K ,Stagnation temperature rise through the compressor = 175 K

,Calorific value of fuel is 43MJ/Kg,Compressor Efficiency = 0.75 ,Combustion

chamber efficiency = 0.975, Turbine Efficiency=0.81 , Mechanical Efficiency of

power transmission between turbine and compressor = 0.98, Exhaust Nozzle

Efficiency = 0.97, Specific Impulse = 25 sec ,Calculate 1. Fuel air ratio 2. Compresor

Pressure ratio 3. Turbine Pressure ratio 4. Exhaust Nozzle Pressure Ratio 5. Mach

number of exhaust jet Assume properties of air and combustion gases are same.

UNIT IV

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Part-A (2 Marks)

01. Define tons of refrigeration and COP.

02. Define tonne o f refrigeration .Heat is removed from a space at a rate of 42,000kJ/h.

Express this heat removal rate in tons.

03. Show the air- refrigeration cycle on p-V and T-s diagrams.

04. The door of a refrigerator inside a room was left open. What will happen?

05. Show the vapour compression refrigeration cycle in T-s diagram and give the COP of

a simple cycle.

06. In a vapour compression refrigeration system, where the lowest temperature will

occur?

07. How does the actual vapour compression cycle differ from that of the ideal cycle?

08. Name four important properties of a good refrigerant

09. What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration?

10. What is the function of the throttling valve in vapour compression refrigeration

system?

11. In a vapour compression refrigeration system, where the highest temperature will

occur?

12. The vapour absorption system can use low-grade heat energy in the generator. Is true

or false?

13. Name any four commonly used refrigerants.

14. Explain unit of refrigeration.

15. Why throttle valve is used in place of expansion cylinder for vapour compression

refrigerant machine.

16. What are the effect pf superheat and subcooling on the vapour compression cycle?

17. What are the properties of good refrigerant?

18. What are the advantages and disadvantages of air refrigeration system?

19. What are the advantages of vapour compression refrigeration system over air

refrigeration system?

20. What is the objective of under cooling? Sketch the process in T-s diagram?

21. What is net refrigerating effect of the refrigerant?

22. Name the refrigerant normally used in simple vapour absorption system.

23. Name the various components used in simple vapour absorption system.

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24. State the condition of the refrigerant at the end of compression in vapour compression

system.

25. Define refrigerant.

26. What type of condensers are in common uses for vapour absorption refrigeration

system?

27. What is the function of analyzer and rectifier in an absorption system?

28. State the substances used in the Lithium Bromide system and their functions.

29. What is psychrometry?

30. Name some psychrometric processes and represent them on the psychrometric chart.

31. Define DPT and degree of saturation.

32. Define Relative Humidity (RH) and Specific humidity.

33. How are air-conditioning systems classified?

34. How does humidity affect human comfort?

35. What are the various sources of heat gain of an air-conditioned space?

36. What do you mean by the term ―Infiltration‖ in heat load calculations?

37. Define RSHF, RTH.

38. On a psychrometric chart, show all the property lines.

39. Define Apparatus Dew Point (ADP) of cooling coil.

40. Define bypass factor (BPF) of a coil.

41. State the effects of very high and a very low bypass factor.

42. Name four important properties of a good refrigerant

1. Draw neat sketch of simple vapor compression refrigeration system and explain.

2. Explain with sketch the working principle of aqua Ammonia refrigeration system.

3. Explain with sketch the working principle of water-Lithium bromide refrigeration

system.

4. Briefly explain the cooling load calculation in air conditioning system.

5. Explain winter, summer, and year round A/c system.

6. Explain unitary A/c and central A/c system.

7. Explain any four psychometric processes with sketch.

8. The atm conditions are 20°C and specific humidity of 0.0095kJ/kg of dry air.

Calculate the following:

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b) Relative humidity

c) Dew point temperature.

9. The air supplied to a room of a building in winter is to be at 17°C and have a relative

humidity of 60%. If the barometric pressure is 1.01325bar. find

a) The specific humidity

b) The dew point under these condition.

10. 0.004kg of water vapour per kg of atmospheric air is removed and temperature of air

after removing the water vapour becomes 20°C determine:

a) Relative humidity

b) Dew point temperature

Assuming that condition of atm air is 30°C and 55% R.H and pressure is 1.013bar.

11. The sling psychrometer in a laboratory test record the following readings:

Dry bulb temperature = 35°C

Wet bulb temperature = 25°C

Calculate the following:

a) Specific humidity

b) Relative humidity

c) Vapour density in air

d) Dew point temperature

e) Enthalpy of mixture per kg of dry air

Take atm pressure = 1.013bar

12. One kg of air at 35°C DBT and 60% R.H is mixed with 2kg of air at 20°C DBT and

13°C dew-point temperature. Calculate the specific humidity of mixture.

13. 90m³ of air per minute at 20°C and 75% R.H is heated until its temperature becomes

30°C. calculate :

b) Heat added to air per minute.

14. 40 m³ of air at 35°C DBT and 50% R.H is cooled to 25°C DBT maintaining its

specific humidity constant. Determine:

a) Relative humidity of cooled air

b) Heat removed from air

15. 28 tonnes of ice from and at 0°C is produced per day in an ammonia refrigerator. The

temperature range in the compressor is from 25°C to -15°C. The vapour is dry and

saturated at the end of compression and an expansion valve is used. Assuming a co-

efficient of performance of 62% of the theoretical, calculate the power required to

drive the compressor.

Temp °C Enthalpy of liquid Enthalpy of Entropy of Entropy of

(kJ/kg) vapour (kJ/kg) liquid vapour

(kJ/kgK) (kJ/kgK)

25 100.04 1319.22 0.3473 4.4852

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16. A refrigeration plant works between temp limits -5 and 25°C. The working fluid

ammonia has a dryness fraction of 0.62 at entry to compressor. If the machine has a

relative efficiency of 55%, calculate the amount of ice formed during a period of 24

hours. The ice is to be formed at 0°C water at 15°C and 6.4kg of ammonia is

circulated per minute. Specific heat of water is 4.187kJ/kg and latent heat of ice is

335kJ/kg.

Temp Liquid heat kJ/kg Latent heat kJ/kg Entropy of liquid

kJ/kgK

25 298.9 1167.1 1.124

-5 158.2 1280.8 0.630

17. A simple vapour compression plant produces 5tonnes of refrigeration. The enthalpy

values at inlet to compressor, at exit from the compressor, and at exit from the

condenser are 183.19, 209.41 and 74.59kJ/kg respectively. Estimate a) The refrigerant

flow rate b) The power required to drive the compressor c) The COP d) The rate of

heat rejection to the condenser.

18. Dry bulb and wet temperatures of 1 atmospheric air stream are 40°0 and 30°c

respectively.Determine (a)Humidity (b) Relative humidity (c) Specific humidity.

19. Atmospheric air with barometric pressure of 1.013 bar has 38°c dry bulb temperature and

28°c wet bulb temperature. Determine (a) Humidity ratio (b) Relative humidity (c) dew

point temperature.

20. Atmospheric air at 760 mm of Hg has 45°c DBT and 30°c WBT, using psychometric

chart calculate R.H, Humidity ratio, DPT, enthalpy, specific volume of air.

21. Atmospheric air at 1 bar pressure has 2.5°0 DBT and 75% RH using psychometric chart,

calculate DBT, enthalpy, vapour pressure.

22. Explain sensible heating process, sensible cooling, and humidification process.

23. An air water vapour mixture at 0.1 Mpa, 30°0, 80% RH. Has a volume of 50 m3

Calculate the specific humidity, dew point, wet bulb temperature, mass of dry air and

mass of water vapour.

24. The atmospheric conditions are 30ºC and specific humidity of 0.0215 kg/kg of air.

Determine : Atmospheric pressure = 756 mm Hg.

a. Partial pressure of air

b. Relative humidity

c. Dew point temperature.

25. 1 kg of air at 24ºC and a relative humidity of 70% is to be mixed adiabatically in a steady

state, steady flow device with 1 kg of air at 16ºC and a relative humidity of 10%.

Assuming that the mixing is to be carried out at a constant pressure of 1.0 atm, determine

the temperature and relative humidity of the stream leaving the device.

26. In a laboratory test, a psychrometer recorded 36ºC DBT and 30ºC WBT. Calculate

d. Vapour pressure

e. Relative humidity

f. Specific humidity

g. Degree of saturation

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i. Enthalpy of the mixture.

27. An air-water vapour mixture enters an adiabatic saturator at 30ºC and leaves at 20ºC,

which is the adiabatic saturation temperature. The pressure remains constant at 1 bar.

Determine the relative humidity and the humidity ratio of the inlet mixture.

28. The following observation were made during a testing of moist air

i. Dry bulb temperature Tdb = 29oC

ii. Dew point temperature Tdb = 15oC

iii. Total pressure = 1 bar

Determine the relative humidity and degree of saturation

29. In a combined heating and humidification process, moist air enters heating coil with the dry

bulb temperature 20oC and 30% R.M. After the process the drug bulb temperature and the

RH of Air were found to be 40oC and 55% RH. The air passes through the heating at the rate

of 350 kg/min

30. In an air conditioning plant, fresh air is used to mix up with returned air from conditioned

space. The fresh air drawn from atmosphere has the drug bulb temperature 32oC and we bulb

temperature 25oC. The fresh air is drawn at the rate of 100m3/min. The returned air from

conditioned space has the drug bulb temperature 23oC and relative humidity 50%. The

volume flow rate of it 540 m3/min. Determine the (i) dry bulb and web bulb temperature (ii)

specific humidity of mixture

31. A food storage locker requires a refrigeration system of 2400 kJ/min. capacity at an

evaporator temperature of 263K and a condenser temperature of 303K. The

refrigerant used in Freon -12 and is subcooled by 6°C before entering the expansion

valve and vapour is superheated by 7°C before leaving the evaporator coil. The

compression of refrigeration is reversible adiabatic. The refrigeration compressor is

two cylinder single acting with stroke equal to 1.25 times the bore and operates at

1000r.p.m

Temp Absolute Specific Enthalpy Enthalpy Entropy Entropy

pressure volume of of liquid of vapour of liquid of vapour

bar vapour kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kgK kJ/kgK

m³/kg

263 2.19 0.0767 26.9 183.2 0.1080 0.7020

303 7.45 0.0235 64.6 199.6 0.2399 0.6854

UNIT V

AIR COMPRESSORS

Part-A (2 Marks)

1. Classify the various types of air-compressors.

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3. What is meant by double acting compressor?

4. what is meant by single stage compressor

5. what is meant by multistage compressor

6. Draw the p-v diagram of a two stage reciprocating air compressor

7. Indicate the applications of reciprocating compressors in industry

8. What are the advantage s of multi stage compression with inter cooling over single

stage compression for the same pressure ratio

9. Define the terms as applied to air compressors: Volumetric efficiency and isothermal

compression efficiency

10. Define the mechanical efficiency and isothermal efficiency of a reciprocating air

compressor.

11. Define isentropic efficiency

12. Define mean effective pressure.How is it related to indicated power of an IC engine

13. What is meant by free air delivered?

14. Explain how flow of air is controlled in a reciprocating compressor?

15. What factors limit the delivery Pressure in a reciprocating compressor

16. Name the methods adopted for increasing isothermal efficiency of reciprocating air

compressor.

17. why clearance is necessaty and What is its effect on the performance of reciprocating

compressor ?

18. Which type of compression is the best in reciprocating compressor?

19. What is compression ratio?

20. Give the expression for inter cooler pressure

21. what is meant by inter cooler?

22. Give the expression for work done for ba multistage compressor with prefect inter

cooling .

23. Give the expression for work done for a two-stage compressor with perfect inter

cooling.

24. What are the factors that affect the volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating

compressor?

25. Name the compression process in which work done is minimum in a reciprocating air

compressor

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27. If C is the clearance ratio for a reciprocating air compressor, what will be the

volumetric efficiency?

28. What is the purpose of using intercooler in multi-stage compression

29. Discuss the effect of clearance upon the performance of an air compressor.

30. Give two merits of rotary compressor over reciprocating compressors

31. Give examples for positive displacement compressor

32. What is the different between complete (or ) perfect inter cooling and incomplete

(or) imperfect inter cooling

33. How to Increase isothermal efficiency

1. Drive an expression for the work done by single stage single acting reciprocating air

compressor.

2. Drive an expression for the volumetric efficiency of reciprocating air compressors

3. Explain the construction and working of a root blower .

4. Explain the construction and working of a centrifugal compressor.

5. Explain the construction and working of a sliding vane compressor and axial flow

compressor

6. A single stage reciprocating compressor takes 1m³ of air per minute at 1.013 bar and

15°C and delivers it at 7 bar. Assuming that the law of compression is pV1.35 =C,

and the clearance is negligible, calculate the indicated power.

7. If the compressor of prob 1is driven at 300 r.p.m and is a single acting, single-

cylinder machine, calculate the cylinder bore required, assuming a stroke to bore ratio

1.5:1 calculate the power of the motor required to drive the compressor if the

mechanical efficiency of the compressor is 85% and that of the motor transmission is

90%.

8. Show that in the case of reciprocating compressor, the work input is independent

clearance ratio. Explain with the help of p-v diagrams.

in terms of clearance ratio and Pressure ratio.

10. Steam at 20 bar, 633 K is expanded in a steam turbine to 0.08 bar. It then enters a

condenser, where it is condensed to saturated liquid water. The pump feeds back the

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water into the boiler. Assuming ideal processes, find per kg of steam, the network

and cycle efficiency.

11. A simple turbojet is being tested under laboratory conditions at static position.

Pressure ratio across the compressor is 5:1; maximum temperature in the cycle is

1200 K. Assume a convergent nozzle is employed. Calculate the total thrust and s.f.c.

Ambient conditions are 1 bar and 300 K Air fuel ratio 50:1; C.V. of fuel 40 MJ/kg.

12. With the help of a neat sketch explain the construction and working of a

reciprocating air compressor. Derive an expression for the work of compression in

terms of pressure ratio and clearance ratio.

13. With the help of a neat sketch explain the construction and working of a rotary air

compressor.

14. Derive an expression for the optimum intermediate pressure of two stage

reciprocating compressor with perfect intercooling.

15. A two stage singe acting air compressor compresses 2m3 airs from 1 bar and 20° C to 15 bar.

The air from the low pressure compressor is cooled to 25° C in the intercooler. Calculate the

minimum power required to run the compressor if the compression follows PV1.25=C and

the compressor runs at 400 rpm.

16. A single stage single acting air compressor is used to compress air from 1.013 bar and 25° C

to 7 bar according to law PV 1.3 = C.The bore and stroke of a cylinder are 120mm and

150mm respectively. The compressor runs at 250 rpm .If clearance volume of the cylinder is

5% of stroke volume and the mechanical efficiency of the compressor is 85%, determine

volumetric efficiency, power, and mass of air delivered per minute.

17. A single stage single acting air compressor is used to compress air from 1 bar and 22° C to 6

bar according to the law PV1 .25 = C. The compressor runs at 125 rpm and the ratio of stroke

length to bore of a cylinder is 1.5. If the power required by the compressor is 20 kW,

determine the size of the cylinder

18. An air compressor takes in air at 1bar and 20°C and compressor it according to law

pV1.2 =C. it is then delivered to a receiver at a constant pressure of 10bar. R=0.287

kJ/kgK determine:

a) Temperature at the end of compression

b) Workdone and heat transferred during compression per kg of air.

19. A single stage double acting cylinder air compressor is required to deliver 14m³ of air

per minute measured at 1.013bar and 15°C. The delivery pressure is 7bar and the

speed of 300r.p.m. Take the clearance volume as 5% of the swept volume with the

compression and expansion index of n = 1.3. calculate:

a) Swept volume of the cylinder

b) The delivery temperature

c) Indicated power

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20. A single stage double acting cylinder air compressor has a free air delivery (F.A.D) of

14m³ per minute measured at 1.013bar and 15°C. The pressure and temperature in the

cylinder during induction are 0.95 bar and 32°C. The delivery pressure is 7 bar and

index of compression and expansion, n=1.3. The clearance volume is 5% of the swept

volume. Calculate

a) Indicated power required

b) Volumetric efficiency

21. A single acting two stage compressor with complete intercooling delivered

10.5kg/min of air at 16 bar. Suction occurs at 1 bar and 27 deg c . It follows the

Law PV^1.3 Determine 1. Power required to drive the compressor 2.Isothermal

Efficiency 3. Free air delivery 4. Heat transferred in the intercooler 5. If

clearance ratios of L.P & H.P cylinders are .04&.06 Calculate Swept &

Clearance volume for each cylinder

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