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NUTR 295

DIET ANALYSIS PROJECT PART 2


Question 1: Calories
Report to reference: “3-Day Average”
How does your calorie intake compare with your estimated calorie needs?
My calorie intake is a little lower than the estimate calorie needs

a. Are you within 90% - 110% of goal? If so, you are on target and should state this. (The
“3-Day Average” Report does not provide you with % of goal so you will have to
calculate this by dividing your average eaten by your target and multiplying by 100).
My goal is 1901 Cal/day, and my calorie intake of 3-Day Average is 1763, it is 93% within my
goal, so I am on target.

c. Do you think the Diet & Wellness app estimate of your “Target” Total calories is
correct? If not, how many calories do you think are appropriate for you? Give a number
and justify why you chose this number. Please consider the amount that you exercised
during the three days and whether or not this was representative of your normal level of
exercise.
The Diet & Wellness app estimate of your “Target” Total calories is 1901, but I think 1800 are
appropriate me because I am a sedentary person now.

d. Do you think the Diet and Wellness estimate of your “Average Eaten” Total calories is edent
a correct? Why or why not?
There is a small error between the two The “Average Eaten” Total calories and actual intake
because the cooking oil might not precise.

e. Use the answers in the questions above to justify whether or not you think you need to
change your calorie intake.
My goal is 1800 calories per day, and my actual intake is 1763 calories per day. There are close
to my goal. On the other hand, the Recommended calories intake of The Diet & Wellness app are
1901 for me, and my actual consumption is within 93% of the recommendation. I need to
maintain my daily calories intake currently unless I increase my amount of exercise.

Question 2: Macronutrients
Report to reference: “3-Day Average”
Examine the distribution of your calories between carbohydrate, protein, and fat (from the “3-
Day Average” Report). Input your numbers into the table below, then provide the answers to the
questions below.
Nutrient Average eaten Recommended Assessment
(% calories) by DGA (under, on-target,
(% calories) over)
Carbohydrate 52% 45-65% on-target
Protein 15% 10-35% on-target
Fat 35% 20-35% on-target
Saturated fat 13% <10% over

a. Is your distribution of calories among the macronutrients appropriate?


As the Table above, my distribution of calories among the macronutrients meet the requirement.

b. If you are outside of the recommended % calories range for any of the macronutrients,
describe the possible consequences of eating too much/too little of these macronutrients.
I am not outside of the recommendation of calories range, but the proportion of saturated fat is
over. If people’s eating too much of these macronutrients might gain weight or cause obesity and
other chronic diseases. Otherwise, might cause weight loss and malnutrition.

Question 3: Dietary Fiber


Report to reference: “3-Day Average”
How does your dietary fiber intake compare to your target amount?
My dietary fiber intake is lower than my target amount

a. Are you within 75-125% of your recommended target fiber amount?


o If so, you can consider yourself to be on-target.
o If not, assess how far away you are from your target fiber goal.
My fiber intake only within 65% of the recommended target amount. My target fiber goal is 25.0
g/d, and my actual intake is 16.22 g/d approximately. I should increase at least 8.78g/d to attain
my goal.

b. Which foods in your diet contributed 10% or more of your daily fiber intake? (Use the
Diet & Wellness app on your Computer in MindTap (reports can’t be accessed via the
mobile app) to identify foods that contributed fiber. Go to the Reports tab > Select “3-
Day Average” Report > Select the appropriate date range for your 3-day recall > Create
Report > Include the percentages each food contributed to your fiber intake (only over
10%).
No food in my diet contributed 10% or more of my daily fiber intake.
Question 4: Micronutrients
Report to reference: “3-Day Average”
Are there any micronutrients that you are under- or over-consuming? Identify each
micronutrient that Diet & Wellness lists as “Under” or “Over”. List each of these nutrients in the
table below. Calculate the percent of target that you have consumed and list the possible
consequences of this level of consumption for you.
• % Target consumed = Average eaten / Target × 100%
• You can add more lines to the table below as needed.
• You do not need to list the consequences of under- and over-consumption of a nutrient.
Just list the consequences for your level of consumption.
• If consumption of a micronutrient is low/high but you do not think it is a problem,
indicate why.
Micronutrient Status % of Target Potential
Status (Over/ Under) Consumed Consequences
Vitamin D Under 73% I consumed only 73% of
Vitamin D that is
recommended for a
female my age. The result
of my intake might
influence calcium
absorption, bone pain, and
muscle weakness. But
increase the sun time can
solve this problem.
Vitamin C Under 79% I consumed 79% of my
Vitamin C DRI, and this
level is lower than DRI. I
need to eat oranges and
bell peppers, strawberries,
which contain Vitamin C
because of the
inadequate intake of
Vitamin C can lead to
scurvy
Alpha-Tocopherol Under 39% I consumed only 39% of
my Alpha- Tocopherol
DRI. I need to eat more
nuts, plant oil. My
amount of intake might
lead to
Vitamin A (RAE) Under 51% I consumed 51% of my
Vitamin A(RAE) DRI,
but I consumed 176%
Vitamin A(IU)
Calcium Under 85% I consumed 85% of the
calcium that is
recommended for a
female my age. It may
increase the risk of
osteoporosis and bone
fractures after
menopause.
Iron Under 78% I consumed only 78%
of the Iron that is
recommended by DRI.
I will feel weakness,
fatigue, headaches, bad
mood if I continue to
intake less Iron. I
should add clam,
spinach, beef in my
daily diet.
Magnesium Under 80% I consumed 80% of the
Magnesium that is
recommended by DRI.
It might not be
dangerous, but I may
feel weak and confuse
if the long-term
deficiency
Potassium Under 43% I consumed only 43%
of the Magnesium that
is recommended from
DRI. This deficiency
intake will cause me
muscle weakness and
heart palpitation
Sodium Over 237% I consumed 237% of my
sodium DRI. This level is
dangerous for me.
Because I have a low
potassium intake, a high
sodium intake will lead to
water weight, high blood
pressure. I should choose
fresh whole foods instead
of processed foods.

Question 5: Food Groups


Report to reference: “MyPlate Analysis”
Compare your intake to your recommended servings from MyPlate by completing the following
table:
Food group Your Target Your Average Eaten Assessment
(Under, On-target,
Over)
Grains 6.0 oz. eq. 8.7 oz. eq. Over
Whole Grains 3.0 oz. eq. Over
Vegetables 2.5 cup eq. 1.7 cup eq. Under
Fruits 2.0 cup eq. 1.3 cup eq. Under
Dairy 3.0 cup eq. 0.2 cup eq. Under
Protein Foods 5.5 oz. eq. 6.8 oz. eq. On-target
Oils 6 teaspoons On-target
Empty Calories 258.0 kcal 479.7 kcal Over

Question 6: Disease Risk


Given that many Americans are at increased risk for heart disease, evaluate your risk of heart
disease later in life.

a. List all the risk factors for heart disease: modifiable (dietary and non-dietary) and
nonmodifiable. Then, use your list to identify any dietary risk factors that occur in your 3-
day food record.
The risk factors for heart disease:
Modifiable: high blood pressure; smoking; high cholesterol including high LDL cholesterol,
Triglyceride, and total cholesterol; high blood glucose level.
Nonmodifiable: age, gender, family history and race
My dietary risk factors:
1. Low potassium
2. High sodium
3. A high proportion of saturated fat
4. Less magnesium

b. What are the nutrients that are of key importance to consider when assessing a diet for
cardiovascular health? List as many nutrients as you can. You should have at least 5
separate nutrients. Include both nutrients that must be consumed in adequate amounts
(those that promote cardiovascular health) and nutrients that must be limited in an
attempt to reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
Must be consumed in adequate amounts: Potassium, Magnesium, Thiamin.
Must be limited: Saturated fat, Sodium.

c. Think about the foods that are easily available to you:


o How difficult is it to eat a diet that contains appropriate amounts of these
nutrients? Why do you think this is?
If I want to consume in adequate amounts of Potassium, Magnesium, Thiamin, I should choose
fresh whole foods especially green vegetable, fruits, beans, and less processed foods. However,
these foods are offered inadequate not only in school cafeterias but also restaurants. There are
not easy to consume adequate amounts of these foods if eating out.
o What changes would you like to see happen in our food system (grocery stores,
restaurants, cafeterias, convenience stores, etc.) that would make it easier eat a
diet that promotes cardiovascular health? Please provide at least three separate
examples.
1. I would like to see more potato and banana dishes in the cafeteria because they contain
adequate potassium.
2. I would like to see more green vegetables especially cooked spinach because cooked
vegetables could easy to consume a higher amount.
3. I would like to see the cafeteria reduces supple sausages which contain high sodium and
saturated fat. People who long-term consume high sodium and saturated fat will increase the risk
of cardiovascular diseases.

Question 7: Overall Diet


Reports to reference: All
Based on your detailed answers to questions 1 through 5, summarize and discuss the overall
adequacy of your diet. The following are suggestions you may consider in your discussion:
• Do you think that this three-day record was representative of your usual dietary intake?
Why or why not? How does that affect your interpretation of your results?
I think the three-day record was roughly representative of my usual dietary intake. Because I am
a student and a sedentary person, that means my daily diet is stable. The three-day record is a
good reflection of people who have a stable life.
• Do your food group results (question 5) agree with your micronutrient, macronutrient and
fiber results (questions 2, 3, and 4)? Why or why not? Can you explain any
discrepancies?
Question 5 shows I have less intake of vegetables, fruits and dairy, which appropriately match
the answers of question 3 and four that show the deficiency intake of fiber, Vitamin C, Vitamin
A, Calcium, Magnesium, and potassium. However, the answer to question 5 cannot represent my
lower Alpha-Tocopherol and Iron intake. Besides, my average calories intake and the proportion
of macronutrient are on-target but could not represent from question 5.

• The results can be overwhelming when looking at the lists of nutrients. Can you simplify
your results?
I am deficient in fiber, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Calcium, Magnesium, and potassium. The reason
is not surprised because my intake of fresh fruits and veggies are inadequate. I like fried chicken
and processed foods, so my sodium is two times higher than DRI, and the proportion of saturated
fat is more than 10%. I do not eat beef, spinach, and black beans, which contain Iron. That is
why my Iron intake is only 78% of goal.
Question 8: Specific Goals
Now that you have thoroughly analyzed your diet and identified all the things you could do to
improve your diet, take a few minutes to prioritize and think about what is realistic. Pick two
things that you think could do in the next few months to improve your diet and write SMART
goals to set you up for success. (SMART goals are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant,
and Time-bound). Use the example below, and the following guidelines to help you formulate
your goals.
• You may not use dietary supplements to correct deficiencies (for the purposes of this
exercise).
• Your food choices must be realistic and accessible to you. (If you live in a dorm without
a kitchen, your suggestions should focus on foods accessible on campus.)
• Be mindful not to create a new nutrient imbalance while fixing another. (For example, if
your saturated fat intake is already high, you should not suggest consuming whole eggs to
increase your protein intake.)
• Wikipedia has a nice summary of SMART goals, if you still have questions:
o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMART_criteria

SMART Goal 1: I want to consume 3 ounces of boil potato and 1 serving of banana per day by
the end of the month.
SMART Goal 2: I want to consume fried chicken only twice a month in two months.