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1 Modelling and measurement of the thermal properties of insulating vegetables fibers by the

2 asymmetrical hot plate method and the radial flux method: kapok, coconut, peanut shell and
3 rattan
4
5 J.C. Damfeu*a, P. Meukama and Y. Jannotb
6 a
Laboratoire d’Energétique, Eau et Environnement, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique
7 de Yaoundé-Cameroun, PO Box 8390 Yaoundé,
b
8 LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS 2, Avenue de la forêt de la Haye, PO Box 160, 54504
9 Vandoeuvre Cedex France,
10 *corresponding authors: damfeuclaude@yahoo.fr
11 Abstract
12 Cet article présente deux méthodes de détermination des propriétés thermophysiques des
13 fibres naturelles cultivées dans presque tous les pays du monde. Des mesures expérimentales
14 ont été effectuées sur quatre fibres naturelles végétales sèches de faible densité: les fibres de
15 kapok ; les fibres de coques d'arachide; les fibres de rotin et les fibres de coco. L’effusivité
16 thermique a été estimée par une méthode en régime transitoire (la méthode du plan chaud
17 asymétrique) et avec la mesure expérimentale de la capacité thermique massique par
18 calorimétrie différentielle (DCS) a permis de déduire la conductivité thermique de ces fibres.
19
20 This article provides two methods for determining the thermophysical properties of natural
21 fibers grown in almost all countries of the world. Experimental measurements were carried
22 out on four dry plant natural fibers of low density kapok fibers; the fibers of peanut hulls;
23 rattan fibers and coconut fibers. The thermal effusivity has been estimated by a transient
24 method (method of asymmetric hot plane) with the experimental determination of the heat
25 capacity by differential scanning calorimetry (DCS) made it possible to deduce the thermal
26 conductivity of such fibers.
27
28
29 Les propriétés thermiques estimées par cette méthode sont alors comparées aux résultats
30 obtenus par la méthode du flux radial, une méthode en régime permanent qui permet de
31 mesurer directement la conductivité thermique. Les résultats expérimentaux comparés par ces
32 deux méthodes sont en bon accord (erreur relative < 5 %). Les conductivités thermiques des
33 fibres de kapok (λ=0.045 W m-1K-1) et les fibres de coco (λ=0.055 W m-1K-1) alors obtenus
34 montrent qu’ils peuvent être utilisées comme isolants de substitution aux isolants synthétiques
35 comme les fibres de polyester (λ=0.045 W m-1K-1) ou la laine de verre (λ=0.04 W m-1K-1) et

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36 servir ainsi d’alternative dans la mesure ou les isolants synthétiques ne sont pas toujours
37 d’origine renouvelables.
38
39 The thermal properties estimated by this method are then compared to the results obtained by
40 the radial flow method, a method in continuous operation that directly measure the thermal
41 conductivity. Experimental results compared by these two methods are in good agreement
42 (relative error <5%). The thermal conductivities of kapok fibers (λ = 0.045 W m-1 K-1) and
43 coconut fibers (λ = 0.055 W m-1 K-1) so obtained show that they can be used as substitution
44 of insulating synthetic insulation as polyester fibers (λ = 0.045 W m-1 K-1) or glass wool (λ =
45 0.04 W m-1 K-1) and thus serve as an alternative to the extent the synthetic insulation are not
46 always of renewable origin.
47
48 Aussi les conductivités thermiques des fibres de kapok et de coco étant en accord avec les
49 résultats obtenus par d’autres méthodes de mesure dans la littérature, nous permet de dire que
50 le modèle quadripolaire 1D développé pour l’estimation des propriétés thermiques des fibres
51 en vrac est valide et peut permettre une bonne estimation des propriétés thermophysiques. Dès
52 lors, la conductivité thermique des fibres de coques d’arachide et des fibres de rotin estimées
53 sont de l’ordre de λ=0.093 W m-1K-1 et λ=0.072 W m-1K-1 respectivement.
54
55 Also the thermal conductivities of kapok and coir are in agreement with results obtained by
56 other measurement methods in the literature, we can say that the quadrupole 1D model
57 developed to estimate the thermal properties of bulk fiber is valid and can allow a good
58 estimation of thermophysical properties. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the fibers of
59 peanut hulls and rattan fibers are estimated on the order of λ = 0.093 W m-1 K-1 and λ =
60 0.072 W m-1 K-1 respectively.
61
62 Keywords: transient regime, radial flux method, natural fiber, thermal properties
63
64 Nomenclature
65 T Temperature (°C) cp specific heat capacity (J kg-1 K-1)
66 E thermal effusivity (J m-2 °C-1 s-1/2) λ thermal conductivity (W m-1 K-1)
67 a thermal diffusivity (m2 s-1) h Convective heat loss coefficient (W m-2 °C)
68 Rc thermal contact resistance (°C W-1) θ Lapalce transform of temperature
69 Φ Laplace transform of heat flux p Laplace parameter
70 ρ density (kg m-3) φ heat flux dissipated in the heating element (W)
71  Heat flux density (W m-2) Bi Biot number
72 e thickness (m)
73 Subscripts
74 i insulating blocks h heating element

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75 1. Introduction
76
77 Avec le réchauffement de la planète qui se fait de plus en plus ressentir sur la planète, l'une
78 des solutions pour ralentir la croissance de cette dernière est la réduction de l’émission des
79 gaz à effet de serre. Dans le secteur du bâtiment, l’émission des GES est principalement liée à
80 la forte consommation énergétique par le biais de l’utilisation des appareils procurant un bon
81 confort thermique dans l’ambiance intérieur du bâtiment, mais fortement émetteurs de CO2.
82 Cette forte consommation constatée est dû soit à la mauvaise isolation de l’enveloppe du
83 bâtiment, soit à l’emploi des matériaux ayant une grande valeur du coefficient de conductivité
84 thermique. Un des défis serait alors de réduire considérablement la consommation d'énergie
85 en développant des matériaux de construction isolants ou en fabricant de matériaux isolants à
86 faible énergie grise capable d'isoler de manière optimale un bâtiment [1].
87
88 With the global warming that is increasingly felt on the planet, one of the solutions to slow
89 the growth of the latter is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In the building sector,
90 the GHG emissions is mainly due to the high energy consumption through the use of devices
91 providing a good thermal comfort in the interior atmosphere of the building, but strongly CO2
92 emitters. This high consumption observed is due either to poor insulation of the building
93 envelope or to the use of materials with high value of the coefficient of thermal conductivity.
94 One of the challenges would be to significantly reduce energy consumption by developing
95 insulating building materials or manufacturer of insulating materials with low embodied
96 energy capable of isolating optimally a building [1].
97
98
99 Aujourd'hui, l’un des matériaux les plus utilisés pour l’isolation des bâtiments sont les fibres
100 de verre. Cependant, ces fibres ne sont pas toujours d’origine renouvelables et pose alors le
101 problème de leur élimination en fin de cycle de vie. Les fibres de verre posent également des
102 problèmes en matière de santé et de sécurité. Par exemple, ils provoquent des irritations de la
103 peau lors de leurs manutentions manuelle pendant le transport ou pendant leur traitement.
104 Une alternative écologique intéressante aux fibres de verre serait alors l’utilisation des fibres
105 végétales naturelles.
106
107 Today, one of the most common materials used for building insulation are glass fibers.
108 However, these fibers are not always renewable origin and then the problem of disposal at end
109 of life cycle. The glass fibers are also problematic in terms of health and safety. For example,
110 they cause skin irritation in their manual handling during transport or during processing.
111 Ecological interesting alternative to glass fibers would be the use of natural plant fibers.
112

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113 Des études [1, 2] ont montrés que les matériaux de construction à base de fibres végétales sont
114 une réponse parfaite au problème de l’impact environnemental des matériaux (énergies grises
115 et émissions polluantes) et de la réduction de la consommation énergétique du bâtiment. En
116 Europe par exemple, l’une des fibres végétales les plus valorisées sont les fibres de chanvre.
117 Les recherches [3,4] effectuées sur cette fibre ont permis à ce jour de déterminer ces
118 propriétés: mécanique, thermique et hydrique. Samri [5] et Evrard [6], ont montrés que les
119 bétons à base de chanvre présente des très bonnes performances hygrothermiques (λ=0.046 W
120 m-1 K-1) et permettent d’assurer un bon confort thermique.
121
122 Studies [1, 2] have shown that building materials based on plant fibers are a perfect answer to
123 the problem of environmental impact of materials (gray energy and emissions) and the
124 reduction of energy consumption of the building. In Europe for example, one of the most
125 valued vegetable fibers are hemp fibers. The research [3,4] made on this fiber have allowed to
126 date to determine these properties: mechanical, thermal and water. Samri [5] and Evrard [6]
127 have shown that concretes containing hemp has very good hygrothermal performance (λ =
128 0.046 W m-1 K-1) and help ensure good thermal comfort.
129
130
131 En ce qui concerne l’Afrique, elle regorge une grande variété de fibre naturelle végétale,
132 parmi lesquelles: le rotin; le kapok; coquille d'arachide; le bois; les fibres de coco; le bambou;
133 les gousses de mil; les fibres de palmier ou encore la sciure de bois. Au Cameroun, ces fibres
134 sont disponibles en grandes quantités sur le territoire national et non valorisées. La plupart de
135 ces fibres sont jetés dans l’environnement et sont alors source de pollution ou alors brulés en
136 des grandes quantités générant des GES responsable du changement climatique. Un moyen
137 de recyclage serait alors de valoriser ces fibres en les incorporant comme agrégats aux
138 matériaux de construction locaux.
139
140 Regarding Africa, it is full a wide variety of natural plant fiber, including: rattan; kapok;
141 Peanut shell; wood; coconut fibers; bamboo; pods of millet; palm fibers or sawdust. In
142 Cameroon, these fibers are available in large quantities in the national territory and not
143 valued. Most of these fibers are discarded in the environment and are then cause pollution or
144 else burned in generating large amounts of greenhouse gases responsible for climate change.
145 Recycling means would then develop these fibers by incorporating them as aggregates with
146 local building materials.
147
148 Plusieurs auteurs se sont intéressés à la caractérisation des matériaux locaux incorporant des
149 fibres naturelles isolantes. Bal et al [7] a incorporé à la latérite des gousses de mil à des
150 proportions différentes. Il a étudié l’influence de la teneur en gousse de mil sur la conductivité

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151 thermique du matériau composite brique de latérite-gousse de mil, mais dans son étude, il n’a
152 pas estimé préalablement les propriétés thermiques des gousses mil qui ne sont pas connues
153 dans la littérature.
154
155 Several authors have focused on the characterization of local materials incorporating natural
156 fiber insulation. Bal et al [7] has incorporated laterite millet pods in different proportions. He
157 studied the influence of millet pod content on the thermal conductivity of the composite
158 material laterite brick clove of millet, but in his study, he did not previously estimated the
159 thermal properties of millet pods that are not known in the literature.
160
161 Meukam [8] a incorporé à la latérite des fibres d’ayous. Il a montré que cette incorporation
162 optimise la capacité d’isolation du matériau composite fabriqué. Mais également dans son
163 étude une estimation de la conductivité thermique des fibres d’ayous n’a pas été réalisée.
164
165 Meukam [8] was incorporated into the laterite of ayous fibers. He showed that incorporation
166 optimizes the insulation capacity of the produced composite material. But also in his study
167 estimates the thermal conductivity of fiber ayous was not performed.
168
169 Asangwing [9] a incorporé à de la latérite, des fibres de palmier à huile a des proportions
170 allant de 1 % à 12 %. Il a déterminé la conductivité thermique du matériau élaboré non pas
171 par une méthode expérimentale, mais avec un dispositif électronique qui indique la
172 conductivité thermique à partir de l’application des électrodes de l’appareil sur le matériau
173 fabriqué. Egalement, dans son étude les propriétés thermique des fibres de palmier ne sont pas
174 estimées et ne sont pas connues dans la littérature.
175
176 Asangwing [9] incorporated laterite, oil palm fiber has proportions ranging from 1% to 12%.
177 He determined the thermal conductivity of the material produced not by an experimental
178 method, but with an electronic device which indicates the thermal conductivity from the
179 application of the electrodes of the device on the manufactured material. Also, in its study the
180 thermal properties of palm fibers are not estimated and are not known in the literature.
181
182 Mekhemerche [10] a réalisé un matériau composite en incorporant à de l’argile (37%) et du
183 sable (40 %), 3 % de fibres de palmier d’Algérie. Il est arrivé à une résistance en compression
184 de 3.24 MPa. Il a montré que les briques confectionnées avec un pourcentage maximum de
185 3% de fibres de palmier peuvent améliorer l’isolation thermique d’un bâtiment. Mais
186 également dans son étude il ne détermine pas au préalable les propriétés thermiques des fibres
187 de palmier incorporées.
188

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189 Mekhemerche [10] made a composite material by incorporating the clay (37%) and the sand
190 (40%), 3% of Algeria palm fibers. He arrived in a compressive strength of 3.24 MPa. It has
191 shown that bricks made up with a maximum of 3% of palm fibers can improve the thermal
192 insulation of a building. But also in his study does not determine in advance the thermal
193 properties of palm fibers incorporated.
194
195 De toutes ces études, les propriétés thermiques et mécaniques des fibres incorporées comme
196 agrégats aux matériaux locaux de construction (latérite pour la plupart) ne sont pas déterminés
197 et ne sont pas connues dans la littérature. Néanmoins, l’ajout de ces fibres optimise les
198 capacités d’isolations du matériau composite mis en place. De ce fait, la connaissance
199 préalable des propriétés thermiques et mécaniques de fibres incorporées est un enjeu
200 important dans la mesure où leurs connaissances peuvent permettre de prévoir le caractère
201 isolant d’un matériau composite lorsqu’on lui incorpore différents agrégats.
202
203 In all these studies, thermal and mechanical properties of the fibers incorporated as aggregates
204 to local building materials (laterite mostly) are not determined and are not known in the
205 literature. However, the addition of these fibers improves the insulation capacity of the
206 composite material in place. Therefore, prior knowledge of the thermal and mechanical
207 properties of fibers incorporated is an important issue since knowledge may predict the
208 insulating character of a composite material when incorporated him different aggregates.
209
210 Généralement, le principal paramètre thermophysique qui permet de classer un matériau
211 comme un matériau isolant est la conductivité thermique. Il existe plusieurs méthodes de
212 détermination de la conductivité thermique, donc les plus fréquents sont : La méthode du fil
213 chaud [11, 12]La méthode de la plaque chaude gardée [13, 14]La méthode du hot-disc [15,
214 16] La méthode du tri-couche [17]
215
216 Generally, the main thermophysical parameter to classify a material as an insulating material
217 is thermal conductivity. There are several methods for determining the thermal conductivity,
218 so the most common are: The method hot wire [11, 12] The means of guarded hot plate [13,
219 14] The method of hot-disc [15, 16] the method of tri-layer [17]
220
221
222 Parmi ces méthodes, la seule méthode qui à priori pourrait permettre de déterminer la
223 conductivité thermique des fibres en vrac est la méthode du fil chaud. Les autres méthodes
224 sont dédiées aux échantillons ayant une forme géométrique bien précise. Les échantillons
225 étudiés ici étant des fibres en vrac et légère, un fil chaud avec un très faible diamètre (moins
226 de 1 mm) ne serait pas très adapté pour la mesure de l’élévation de température le long du fil

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227 traversant les échantillons de fibres. Dans la mesure où le contact entre les fibres et le fil n’est
228 pas parfait ceci pourrait conduire à une valeur erronée de la conductivité thermique estimée.
229 L’objectif de ce travail est alors de proposer deux méthodes de mesure de la conductivité
230 thermique de fibres végétales (fibres de kapok, fibres de coco, fibres de coques d’arachides et
231 fibres de rotin).
232
233 Among these methods, the only method that could allow a priori to determine the thermal
234 conductivity of the bulk fibers is the hot wire method. The other methods are dedicated to
235 samples having a specific geometric shape. The samples studied here is fiber bulk and light, a
236 hot wire with a very small diameter (less than 1 mm) would not be very suitable for
237 measuring the temperature increase along the wire through the fiber samples. Insofar as the
238 contact between the fibers and the thread is not perfect, this could lead to an erroneous value
239 of the estimated thermal conductivity.
240 The objective of this study was therefore to propose two methods of measuring the thermal
241 conductivity of vegetable fibers (kapok fibers, coconut fibers, peanut shells and fibers rattan
242 fibers).
243
244 La première méthode: la méthode du plan chaud asymétrique qui est une méthode en régime
245 transitoire, permet l'estimation de l'effusivité thermique E à partir de deux modèles :
246 L’exploitation de la pente de la courbe expérimentale des températures T(t)=f ( t ) permet
247 une pré-estimation de E pour le modèle simplifié
248 En utilisant la valeur pré-estimée, la minimisation de la somme des carrés des écarts
249 quadratiques entre les valeurs des températures expérimentales et celles simulées par la
250 modélisation quadripolaire permet l’estimation de E pour le modèle complet. Cette
251 estimation est faite sur un intervalle de temps tel que les résidus soit centré autour de zéro
252 degré
253
254 The first method: the asymmetric plan is a hot transient method allows the estimation of the
255 thermal effusivity E from two models:
256 The operation of the slope of the experimental curve of the temperature T (t) = f () to a pre-
257 estimate of the simplified model for E
258 Using the pre-estimated, minimizing the sum of squares of the squared differences between
259 the values of experimental temperatures and those simulated by the quadrupole modeling
260 allows estimating E for the full model. This estimate is made on a time interval such that the
261 residue is centered around zero degree
262
263 Dans les deux cas, l’exploitation des températures expérimentales se fera à partir d’un code de
264 calcul en Matlab. La mesure expérimentale de la capacité thermique massique par
265 calorimétrie à balayage différentiel permet avec l’estimation de l’effusivité thermique de
266 déduire avec la conductivité thermique de ces fibres.

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267
268 La seconde méthode, la méthode du flux radial, qui est une méthode en régime permanent
269 dans laquelle le fil chaud remplacé par un tube en acier inoxydable permet une mesure directe
270 de la conductivité thermique.
271
272 In both cases, the exploitation of experimental temperatures will be done from a computer
273 code in Matlab. The experimental determination of the heat capacity by differential scanning
274 calorimetry with allows the estimation of the thermal effusivity of deduce the thermal
275 conductivity of these fibers.
276 The second method, the radial flow, which is a steady state method wherein the hot wire
277 replaced by a stainless steel tube provides a direct measurement of thermal conductivity.
278
279 Le calcul des écarts relatifs entre ces deux méthodes de mesures nous permettra de valider les
280 résultats expérimentaux de la conductivité des fibres et de les comparés à ceux de la
281 littérature.
282
283 Calculating the relative differences between the two measurement methods allow us to
284 validate the experimental results of the conductivity of the fibers and compared with those of
285 the literature.
286
287 2. Materials and experimental testing
288 2.1 Materials preparation
289 2.1.1 Kapok fibers
290 Kapok fiber is a natural cellulosic fiber which grows on the kapok plan. It consists of
291 unicellular fibers such as cotton but they are seven times less dense [15] than the latter and
292 have a buoyancy which may have twenty times its weight. Kapok (Fig 1.a) studied in this
293 paper was taken from the region in the Far North of Cameroon. Several authors were
294 interested in the kapok.

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295
296 Fig 1: Natural fibers kapok: a) kapok fruit; b) fibers of kapok
297
298 Voumbo et al [16] realized the thermophysical characterization of kapok by the box method
299 [17, 18] in the steady state regime and found out that kapok’s conductivity varies between
300 0.03 W m-1 K-1 and 0.04 W m-1 K-1. Pang Cui et al [19] studied the heat flow through kapok
301 fibers at different temperatures against wind speed. The value of the thermal conductivity that
302 they used for his experiments was 0.0486 W m-1 K-1. Faming et al [20] at the end of their
303 study proposed that kapok fibers use are filled inside coats to replace traditional duckling
304 feathers. The process to obtain the kapok fibers for experimental measurement of its thermal
305 properties as follows:
306 - the fibers surrounding (Fig 1.a) arrivals seeds are then separated and treated by
307 removing all solids grains. This produces a very light fibers (Fig 1.b),
308 - the fibers are then dried in the open air before being placed for 48 hours in a vacuum
309 drying chamber wherein the pressure can be lowered to below 1 Pa,
310 - once out of the vacuum drying chamber, they are packed in a sealed plastic bag in
311 order to keep the moisture of the air close to zero
312 - The process for obtaining kapok fibers for the measurement of thermal
313 properties is as follows:
314 - The fibers surrounding the seeds murent (Fig 1a) reached maturity are then
315 separated from the capsule fruit kapok and treated by removing all solids. We
316 then obtain very light plant fibers as shown in Figure 1.b
317 - These fibers are then dried in the open air before being placed for 48 hours in a
318 vacuum chamber wherein the pressure can be lowered to below 1 Pa
319 - Once out of the vacuum chamber, they are packed in a sealed plastic bag in
320 order to keep them at zero water content
321
322

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323 2.1.2 Peanuts shells
324 Peanut shells shows in Fig 2 are from the Western region of Cameroon. Indeed, Cameroon
325 industry of oil generates an average of 3000 tons of peanut shells [21]. During combustion of
326 these shells amounts of carbon dioxide stocks are emitted into the atmosphere contributing to
327 global warming. It is therefore important to recyclate and valorizes them. In Senegal and
328 Gambia [22], for example, peanut bricks (biocharbon) are used for firewood as an alternative
329 solution to deforestation.
330 Peanut hulls studied in this article comes from the western region of Cameroon. Indeed,
331 Cameroon industry oil mill generates an average of 3,000 tons of peanut shells. [24]
332 During combustion of these large amounts of carbon dioxide stocks are emitted into the
333 atmosphere contributing to global warming. It is therefore important to recycle and
334 enhance these thermally peanut shells. Senegal and Gambia [25] For example, the bricks
335 of peanut shells (biochar) are used as fuel as an alternative to deforestation.

336
337 Fig 2: Peanut: a) peanut nut; b) peanut shell fibers
338 Before the measurement its thermal properties, the process to obtain fibers peanuts shells as
339 follows:
340 - the peanut pod harvested with the moist soil is dried in ambient air for several days.
341 This process allows the earth to free the hull
342 - the seeds of peanuts as show in Fig 2.a are then separed from the hull with a husking
343 machine
344 - peanut shell waste is then recovered and lightly crushed using a mechanical mold. Is
345 then recovered chips peanut shells as show in Fig 2.b, and dry it in a vacuum drying
346 chamber for 48 hours
347 - last, the fibers are also packed in a sealed plastic bag

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348 - Before measuring its thermophysical properties, the process of obtaining the
349 fiber peanut hulls is as follows:
350 - The peanut pod harvested moist soil is dried in ambient air for several weeks.
351 This process allows the earth to free the hull
352 - Seeds of peanuts as shown in Figure 2.a, are then separated from the hull with a
353 husking machine
354 - Peanut shells waste is then recovered and lightly crushed using a mechanical
355 mold. Is then recovered chips peanut shells as shown in Figure 2b, that we dry
356 with a vacuum chamber for 48 h.
357 - After pulling vacuum, the fibers are packed in a sealed plastic bag.
358
359 2.1.3 Coconut fibers
360 Coconut fibers studied here are from the Central region of Cameroon. In civil engineering,
361 coconut fibers are used as reinforcement material [23]. According to Li Z. et al [24] who
362 invented coconut fiber board’s (CFB), coconut fibers can replace construction materials such
363 as tiles, bricks, polywood. He equally showed that, coconut fibers can provide a good thermal
364 comfort. Momohar et al [25] using a method in steady state (ASTM C518) showed that the
365 experimental conductivity of coconut fibers at 21.8 °C lies between 0.05009 W m-1 K-1 and
366 0.05758 W m-1 K-1 for density varying between 40 and 90 kg m-3. Fig 3 shows the coconut
367 fibers.

368
369 Fig 3: coconut: a) coconut husk; b) coconut fibers treated
370 Before the measurement its thermal properties, the process to obtain coconut fibers as
371 follows:
372 - coconut is picked to the coconut tree once mature
373 - coconut shell, as shown in Fig 3 is then separated from the nuts and dried for several
374 day in the air. The dried shells are then soaked in water for several days. A rotation
375 machine (285 tr min-1) is used to mix all of the fibers and facilitating their separation

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376 - Once formed into small fibers , they are finally dried in a vacuum drying chamber for
377 48 hours
378 Before measuring its thermophysical properties, obtaining coir process is as follows:
379 - Coconut coconut fruit is picked when mature
380 - Coconut fibers intertwined with each other, as shown in Figure 3.a are then separated
381 from the nuts and dried for several days in air. These dried fibers are then soaked in
382 water for several days. A rotation machine (285 r / min) is used to mix all of the fibers
383 and facilitate their separation. Fibers are obtained as shown in Figure 3.b
384 - After pulling vacuum, the fibers are packed in a sealed plastic bag.
385 2.1.4 Rattan fibers
386 Rattan fibers are superficially similar to bamboo. Unlike bamboo, rattan stems are solid, and
387 most species need structural support and cannot stand on their own. In forest where rattan
388 grows, its economic value can help protect forest land, by providing an alternative to loggers
389 who forgo timber logging and harvest rattan canes instead. Dans certains villages du sud
390 Cameroun les fibres de rotin sont mélangées à de la terre pour construire des habitations,
391 comme le montre la Fig 4.b. Rattan studied in this paper is from Limbe (South West region of
392 Cameroon). Before carrying out the experimental measurements, they were first of all cut into
393 thin slices (see Fig 4.a) and then dried in in a vacuum drying chamber for 48 hours.

394
395 Fig 4: Rattan: a) rattan fibers; b) mud house + fiber rattan
396
397 2.2 Experimental device
398 The experimental device manufactured for measuring the thermal effusivity is show in Fig 5.
399 It is an asymmetric hot plate device that allows the temperature recording at the center of the
400 heating surface.

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401
402
403 Fig 5: View of the experimental device
404
405
406 2.2.1 Calibration process of the heating element
407 Temperature at the center of the heating element was measured with type K thermocouple
408 made with two wires with a 0.005 mm in diameter. These wires are stuck at the center of
409 heating element MINCO HK 5178. Fig 6 shows the scheme of the calibration process.
410

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411
412
413 Fig 6: Scheme of calibration process of the heating element
414
415 The thermal conductivity of insulating material polystyrene measured by the center plate
416 method [26] is 0.032 W m-1 K-1 and its volumetric heat capacity is 4800 J m-3 K-1. With these
417 data, using a hot plate symmetrical method which minimizes the function
n
F   (Tc )exp (ti )  (Tc ) mod el (ti )  where (Tc (t )) mod is the inverse Laplace tramsform c ( z, p)
2
418
i 1

419 given by:


0 Bi
420 c ( z, p)  (1)
2 p h ch eh B p  D
i i
2
421 Where:
422 h, ch and eh are the density; the specific heat capacity and the thickness of the heating
423 element respectively.
424 Bi and Di is the coefficient of the quadrupolar matrix of insulating material
425 The estimated surface of the heating element estimated is 0.010141 m2 and the estimated
426 thermal capacity of the heating element per unit area hcheh is 590.626 J m-2K-1
427
428 2.2.2 Experimental program
429 A calibrated heating element made of a plane resistance inserted between two polymide films
430 was stuck to the flat face of an insulating material with a surface 150 mm150 mm of
431 perfectly know thermal effusivity. On the section of the insulating material not covered (50
432 mm50 mm) with the heating element, another sample of polystyrene, of equal thickness as

14
433 the first was stuck to it, but this one has a rectangular hole with the same dimensions as the
434 heating element and a depth of 5 cm. The processes used to measure the thermal effusivity
435 were:
436 - the fibers were inserted with the hand into the rectangular space in small heaps and
437 pressed until they filled all the space,
438 - before temperature was recorded, the fibers with which the rectangular hole was filled
439 were removed and put in a sealed dry plastic bag, whose mass is known,
440 - these fibers were weighed and dried for 24 h with help of a vacuum drying chamber.
441 - after the 24 h, these fibers were weighed once again to obtain the dry mass m f,
442 Knowing the apparent volume Va of a rectangular hole (10 cm 10 cm 5 cm) and the
443 apparent mass ma, their apparent density ρapp can easily determined.
mf
444  app  (2)
Vapp

445 - last, The fibers were rapidly re-inserted into the rectangular space then covered with a
446 plastic film to keep moisture close to zero. The rectangular hole was covered with an
447 insulating aluminum block (see Fig 5) with a thickness of 40 mm and section of 130
448 mm130 mm, in order to keep moisture of the air close to zero.
449
450 This experimental device is placed on an isothermal block with a thickness of 20 mm and a
451 section of 200 mm200 mm. The temperature (T0) of the isothermal block was supposed
hL
452 uniform. This hypothesis is validated if the Biot number Bi  is lower than 0.1 [27].
 Al
453 Considering h=10 W m-2 K-1, the thermal conductivity of the blocks Al=200 W m-1 K-1 lead
454 to Bi=0.01 so that the temperature of the aluminum blocks may be considered as uniform. A
455 flux step was then sent into the heating element by means of the electric generator and the
456 temperature Th(t) at the center of heating element was recorded.
457
458
459 3. Physical modelling
460 The modelling was based on the following assumptions:
461 - the system is at a uniform temperature Ta (ambient temperature) at the initial time,
462 - polystyrene is an insulating material. So the thermal contact resistance at the interface
463 of the heating element/polystyrene will be neglected;

15
464 - the fibers are dried, no mass transfers occurs
465 3.1 3D model
466 If T(x,y,z,t) is the temperature through the fibers, the heat transfer equation is:
467

468
469
470 Fig 6: Schema of the modeled 3D system
471
 2T ( x, y, z, t )  2T ( x, y, z, t )  2T ( x, y, z, t ) 1 T ( x, y, z, t )
472    (3)
x 2 y 2 z 2 a t
473 Initial condition is:
474 t  0, T ( x, y, z,0)  Ta (4)
475 The boundary conditions (Fig 6) may be written as:
T (0, y, z, t )
476 x0 0 (5)
x
T (x, 0, z, t )
477 y0 0 (6)
y
z  e 0  x  c et 0  y  d
478 T (x, y, e, t ) (7)
  h1 (T (x, y, e, t )  Ta )
z
T (c a, y, z, t )
479 x ca   h(T (c a, y, z, t )  Ta ) (8)
z
T (x, y, 0, t ) Th (x, y, t )  T (x, y, 0, t )
480 z0   (9)
z Rc

T (c, y, z, t ) T (c, y, z, t )
481 xc   i i (10)
x x

16
T (x, d, z, t ) T (x, d, z, t )
482 yd   i i (11)
y y
Tc ( x, y, t ) T ( x, y, 0, t ) T ( x, y, 0, t )
483 z0 0  h ch eh   i i (12)
t z z
484 Where:
485  is the fibers’ thermal conductivity,
486 i is the polystyrene thermal conductivity,
487 ei is the thickness of the polystyrene,
488 Ti is the temperature at the center of polystyrene block,
489 Th is the temperature at the center of heating element,
490 2c and 2d are respectively width and length of the rectangular space in which the fiber were
491 filled,
492 h1 is the convective heat transfer coefficient on the top of the fibers,
493 h is the convective heat transfer coefficient on the lateral sides of the insulating material,
494 0 is the heat flux density produced in the heating element.
495 Equation (7) formalizes the continuity of the heat flux losses on the top of the fibers. Equation
496 (9) formalizes the continuity of the heat flux produced at the interface resistance R c (thermal
497 contact resistance) between the heating element\fibers. Equations (10) and (11) formalize the
498 continuity of the heat flux on each side of interfaces fibers/polystyrene. Using the separation
499 of variables method, it is not possible to solve equation (3) with its boundary conditions
500 through an analytical method, because temperature T(x,y,z,t), Th(x,y,t) and Ti(x,y,z,t) are not
501 equal and moreover there is no continuity of the thermal diffusivity on these interfaces. The
502 only way to solve it is through the numerical method. Using the value of the thermal
503 conductivity obtained by estimation from the simplified model, a quarter of the apparatus was
504 simulated with the help of the software Comsol. Fig 7 shows a simulation from the
505 thermophysical properties of a peanut shells obtained from a simplified model (=0.097 W m-
506 1
K-1, cp=218.0089 103 J m-3 K-1).

17
507
508 Fig 7: Schema of the quarter of experimental device solve by Comsol for peanut shell:
509 e=5cm, =0.097 W/m/ K, cp=218.0089 103 J m-3 K-1
510
511 By considering the simulated values of temperature (T (t ))comsol (step time 0.5 s) performed
512 using the software Comsol, firstly by considering the lateral heat losses on the sides of the
513 polystyrene block h=0 (1D transfer) and the convective heat coefficient on the top of fibers
514 h1=10 W m-2 °K-1, the next step h=10 W m-2 °K-1 (3D transfer) and h1=10 W m-2 °K-1. The
T (t ) h 0  T (t ) h 10
515 relative difference was calculated. The time during which 1 % of this
T (t ) h 0
516 relative difference was observed was tmax=450 s. Thus, the time range which a good
517 estimation of the thermal effusivity can be obtained by the 1D transfer assumption of heat is
518 [0, 450 s]. This result may be validated by observing the residues curves of 1D model.
519
520 3.2 1D model
521 A simplified model may be established by considering the supplementary hypothesis that, the
522 heat transfer remains 1D at the center of system during the experiment. With this hypothesis,
523 the temperature at the center of heating element depends only on z and t (see Fig 8).
524

18
525
526
527 Fig 8: Experimental device in sectional view
528
529 Using the quadrupole formalism presented by Maillet et al [19], and neglecting the convection
530 lateral heat loss on lateral faces of insulating material and considering the heating element as a
531 thin system, the following matrix relations can be written:
532 - when the heat flux density (  01 ) leaving the heating element through the fibers is
533 considered:

c   1 0   1 SRc  A B   1 1 0 



 h1 
534        (13)
  01    h ch eh p 1   0 1  C D   0 1   1 

535 - when the heat flux density leaving (  02 ) the heating element through the insulating
536 materials is considered:
c   Ai Bi  0 
537     (14)
 02   Ci Di   2 

538 where:
 sh(qe) 
 A B   ch(qe)
q 
p
539   with q
 C D    qsh(qe) 
ch(qe) 
a

540 and:
 sh(qi ei ) 
 Ai Bi   ch(qi ei )
i qi 
p
541   with qi 
 Ci Di    ai
 i qi sh(qi ei ) ch(qi ei ) 
542 with:
543 - c ( z, p)  L(T ( z, t )) is Laplace transform of the temperature difference T(z,t)-Ta

19
544 -  0 is the Laplace transform of total heat flux density produced in the heating element
545 - Rc is the thermal contact resistance at the interface heating element/fibers (°C W-1)
546 - p is the Laplace parameter
547 - a and ai are respectively thermal diffusivity of fibers and thermal diffusivity of
548 polystyrene (m s-2).
549 The total heat flux density in the Laplace space is:
550 0  1   2 (15)
551 After combining relations (13), (14) and (15), the final result is given by relation (16):
0 1
552 c ( z, p)  (16)
p h ch eh ( A  Bh1 ) p  Dh1  Di
A  Bh1 Bi
553 Applying the inverse Laplace transform by use of De Hoog algorithm [29] at the relation (16),
554 numerical value of temperature model Tmod el (t ) through the fibers was calculated.
555
556 3.3 Simplified model
557 A simplified 1D model may also be written always with the hypothesis that the heat transfer
558 remains 1D at the center of a system and more, both fibers and insulating materials are semi-
559 infinite medium. Within these hypotheses, one can write:
560 - when the heat flux density (  01 ) leaving the heating element through the fibers is
561 considered:

c   1 0   1 
562  
     (17)
  01    h ch eh p 1   E p1 
563 - when the heat flux density leaving (  02 ) the heating element through the insulating
564 material is considered:

  c   Ai Bi    2 
565      (18)
  02   Ci Di   Ei p 2 

566 where:
567 E is the thermal effusivity of fibers (J m-2 C-1s-1/2)
568 Ei is the thermal effusivity of insulating material (J m-2 C-1s-1/2).
569 The equation (17) and (18) lead to:
0 1
570 c ( p)  (19)
p h ch eh p  ( E  Ei ) p

20
571 For sufficiently long times (p0):
20
572 T (0, t  )  t (21)
( E  Ei ) 
573 Thermal effusivity may be evaluated with simplified 1D model from numerical calculation of
574 the slope α(t) of the linear part of curve T(t)=f( t ).
20
575 E  Ei (22)
 
576 3.4 Measurement method of specific heat capacity
577 Before each experiment, the fibers were dried in a vacuum drying chamber (PFIEFER
578 VACUUM PMZ 01300) for 48 hours. The specific heat capacity cp of each fiber and of the
579 inner tube was measured with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter SETERAM DSC3. The
580 fibers’ densities were derived from weighing a known volume of dried fibers (relation 2). The
581 results are presented in Table 1.
582
583 Table 1: Measured values of dry densities and dry mass specific heat capacity
584
T(0C) 20 30 40 50 60
Peanut S.  (kg m-3) 170.92
cp (J kg-1 K-1) 1259 1310 1363 1415 1470
cp (J kg-1 m-3) 215.18 103 223.90 103 232.96 103 241.85 103 251.25 103
Coconut  (kg m-3) 46.76
cp (J kg-1 K-1) 1180 1228 1278 1329 1381
cp (J kg-1 m-3) 55.17 103 57.42 103 59.75 103 62.14 103 64.57 103
Kapok  (kg m-3) 17.1
cp (J kg-1 K-1) 1261 1307 1360 1413 1469
cp (J kg-1 m-3) 21.56 103 22.34 103 23.25 103 24.16 103 25.11 103
Rattan  (kg m-3) 70.58
cp (J kg-1 K-1) 1280.5 1341.5 1414.5 1466.1 1526.9
cp (J kg-1 m-3) 90.65 103 94.68 103 99.90 103 103.47 103 107.76 103

585
586 For four products, mass heat capacity as a function of temperature varies linearly as shows in
587 Fig 9.

21
1550
y = 6.174x + 1159.1
1500 y = 5.27x + 1152.6
R² = 0.9971
R² = 0.9998
1450
y = 5.22x + 1153.2
Cp (J K-1 kg-1 1400 R² = 0.9988
1350 coconut
1300 rattan
y = 5.03x + 1078
1250 R² = 0.9998 kapok
1200 peanut
1150
1100
20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature (0C)
588
589 Fig 9: Mass heat capacity as a function of temperature
590
591 4. The thermal effusivity estimation method
592 The thermal effusivity was measured using an asymmetrical hot plate method (cf Fig 5).
593 Estimation of the parameter E is achieved by a completed model taking as initial value, the
594 value pre-estimated from the simplified model with experimental temperatures. The values of
595 thermal contact resistance Rc and convective heat coefficient h1 are fixed respectively to 10-10
°
596 K W-1 and 10 W m-2 K-1. The theoretical curve Tmod el (t ) is calculated by relation (16) using
597 the De Hoog algorithm. The Levenberg-Marquart algorithm [30] integrated in the Matlab
598 code to estimate value of the thermal effusivity which minimizes the sum of quadratic errors
n
    Texp (ti )  Tmod el (ti ) 
2
599 between the experimental curve Texp (t )  T (0, t )  Ta
i 1

600 (temperature recording) and theoretical curve. The estimation has been done on a time
601 interval [t0, tmax] such as the residues are small and perfectly centered around 0 0C, which
602 validates our 1D model. With the value of the thermal effusivity and volumetric heat capacity
603 ρcp, the thermal conductivity λ is then deduced by the relation (22).
E2
604  (22)
cp
605
606 5. Experimental study and discussion
607 The experimental studies focused on four natural fibers samples:
608 - a very light fiber: kapok
609 - light fibers: coconut fibers

22
610 - heavy fibers: peanut shell
611 - heavy fibers: rattan fibers.
612
613 5.1 Estimation from experimental 1D model
614 Three measurements were made for each sample of fiber and the mean values retained. Fig
615 10.a shows the experimental curve and the slope curve (simplified model) and Fig 10.b the
616 experimental curve and simulated curve with the pre-estimated parameter values of the
617 thermal properties of peanut shells (completed model).
618
619 Three measurements were made for each fiber and the average value was selected as the
620 experimental value. Figure 10.a shows the experimental curve T (t) = f () and slope (t)
621 (simplified model) and Figure 10.b shows the experimental and simulated curves as well
622 as estimation residue obtained from pre-estimated values of thermophysical parameters
623 of the fibers of peanut shells (full model).

14 15
Texp Texp
12 Slope Tmodel
Residus x10 Residus x10
10
10

8
Temperature(C)
Temperature (C)

5
6

4
0
2

0 -5

-2

-4 -10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
rac(t) t(s)
624
625 a) b)
626 Fig 10: Temperature curve for peanut shells. e=5cm, ei=5cm, i=0.032 W m-1K-1, icpi=48000
627 J m-3 K-1. a) Simplified model; b) Completed model
628
629 It may be noted that unlike the high density material, such as powder laterite for
630 example [31] The temperature is sensitive to the volumetric heat capacity of the probe
631 for a too long time for the low density materials. In the case of fibers of peanut hulls, for
632 example (Fig 10), during the first 25 seconds after recording the temperatures, the
633 temperature is only sensitive to the thermal capacity of the probe and the contact
634 resistance sensor interface / fibers.
635 This very long period of time can be a problem in the estimate from the model 1D if the
636 3D effects occur very quickly. By observing Fig 10.a, note that the transfer of heat in the
637 center of the fibers is unidirectional (zero waste center) on the time interval [5s; 20s] for

23
638 the simplified model and the time interval [50s; 400s] for the full model. Taking into
639 account the maximum time (400 s) on which the estimation can be done this time is
640 slightly below the maximum estimated by Comsol simulations (tmax = 450 s). This may
641 be warranted in so far as the quadrupole developed model does not take into account the
642 lateral losses convective on the sides of insulating material (h = 0), but only convection (h
643 = 10 W m-2 K-1) may occur on the fiber surface in contact with ambient air for the
644 temperature of the recording time. For example, for peanut shells fibers, an estimate
645 between 100-150 s for = 0.097 W / m /the simplified model gives E = 145.41 J m-2C-1s-
646 1/2 and K whereas 200 -300 = 0.095 W / m / Ks from the full model gives E = 143 910
647 Jm-2C-1s-1/2 The relative error between the pre-estimated values and the estimated
648 values are below 4% which is very acceptable. This observation remains valid for
649 coconut fibers and rattan fibers (see Table 2).
650
651 In the case of kapok fibers which are of very small fibers (bulk density 18.24 kg m-3),
652 the difficulty is even greater. Figure 11 shows the evolution of the temperature at the
653 center of kapok fibers placed in the open air for 3 days. By observing the temperature
654 curve and the curve of the residues of simplified model, it is found that the thickness of
655 the kapok layer is felt on a very long time and unlike peanut hulls fibers. For example,
656 the time interval during which the assumption of semi-infinite medium is valid is 100-
657 144 s for kapok (residues centered on this time interval. Fig 11.a) against 25-300 s for the
658 shell peanut (residues centered on this time interval. Fig 10.a). Fig. 11.b shows that the
659 full model does not minimize the differences between the experimental temperatures and
660 temperature model (inversion of the relationship 16). This can be explained by the fact
661 that the recording of temperatures is done on kapok fiber exposed to moisture air for
662 three days (bulk density 18.24 kg m-3, water content Xe = 5.66%) or the quadrupole
663 model does not take into account the mass transfer phenomena.
664 We then pulled these samples under vacuum for 48 hours fibers (bulk density of 17.1 kg
665 m-3, water content Xe = 0%). As shown in Figure 12, this process improves the residues
666 which are then center zero up to 300 s (Fig 12b). Beyond 300 s (time from which the heat
667 flux is more unidirectional in the center of the heating resistor as the curve residues
668 answer) a single 3D model can allow estimation of the thermal effusivity or a method
669 permanant plan may allow the λ estimate.
670 We notice good agreement between the experimental results and the simplified model
671 the complete model. The relative deviations are less than 3%, which is very acceptable.

24
672 The relation (30) is then used to determine the thermal conductivity of the fibers once
673 the steady state is reached. One advantage of this method is that the fibers can be
674 compacted with a maximum in the annular space between the two tubes and thus
675 increase the number of contact points between the fibers and the hot tube. The results of
676 the thermal conductivity of the fibers obtained by this method are shown in table 3. We
677 also calculated the uncertainty between the experimental values of thermal conductivity
678 obtained by the radial flow method and those derived from the estimate of the thermal
679 effusivity of the full model and the simplified model.
680 For each of the fibers studied, we added into the annular space an additional mass of
681 dry fiber in this strongly pressing those already contained in the annular space. The
682 purpose of this is to see if the addition of the fibers changes the value of the thermal
683 conductivity, we have found that once the mass of the fibers introduced into the annular
684 space between the two pipes ensures a perfect contact with the tube hot, this addition
685 does not change the value of the thermal conductivity. This is consistent with the
686 conclusions made by Agoudjil et al. [35] Analysis of the results of Table 3 shows good
687 agreement between the experimental results of thermal conductivity obtained by the
688 method of radial flow and that deduced from the estimate by the asymmetric hot date
689 method. The observed deviations are less than 3% (except for kapok fiber), which is
690 acceptable. In the case of kapok, in view of the results of the literature [19,20,21,22], we
691 can conclude that given their very light density, only a method steady as radial flow
692 method presented in this section or the method of three-layer cylinder [36] can allow a
693 good estimate of its thermal conductivity. = 0.045 W m-1 K-1);In addition, its thermal
694 conductivity is close to the marketed fibers [37], such as polyester fibers ( = 0.05 W m-1
695 K-1) and therefore may serve as an alternative to the insulation fibers.hemp wool or
696 glass wool ( = 0.05 W m-1 K-1).The results for the coconut fiber are consistent with
697 those in the literature [37]: coconut wool ( The experiments on the thermal
698 characterization of peanut hulls and fibers rattan fibers being rare in the literature in
699 view of the results obtained for the two other fibers which are in agreement with the
700 literature, it can be said that the thermal conductivity peanut hull fibers and rattan
701 fibers are around 0.09 W m-1 K-1 and 0.07 W m-1 K-1 respectively.
702
703

25
704 The method of asymmetric hot plan presented in this article is a simple device that
705 allows estimation of the thermal thermal effusivity. The experimental results obtained
706 by this method compared with the radial flow method shows that the quadrupole
707 developed 1D model can allow a good estimate for the plant fibers having a high density.
708 Direct measurement of the thermal conductivity achieved with the method of the radial
709 flow, has validated that deduced from the estimation of E and volumetric heat capacity
710 obtained by programmed differential calorimetry. The experimental results for the
711 fibers of kapok and coconut in agreement with those of literature, allowed us to validate
712 the thermal conductivities of 0.09 W m-1 K-1 and 0.07 W m-1 K-1 as respectively those
713 of the fibers of peanut shells and rattan fibers respectively. Regarding the kapok fibers,
714 in tropical countries such as Cameroon, their use as an alternative to conventional
715 insulation that cost 5-6 times more expensive can achieve significant savings on the
716 investment cost for the construction of containers for the conservation of food for
717 example.
718
719
720
721 5.2 Estimation from the radial flux model
722 In order to compare these values of the thermal conductivity to other values obtained by
723 another experimental method, the thermal conductivities of the fibers were measured by the
724 radial flux method which is a steady state method [32]. It consists of two coaxial tubes: an
725 inner tube of stainless steel of inner radius 4 mm; outer radius 4.5 mm with a height of 380
726 mm and an outer brass tube of inner radius 39 mm; outer radius 40 mm and a height of 426
727 mm. The centering of the inner tube is provided by two hollowed out PVC foams with
728 thickness 8 mm, internal diameter 9 mm and outside diameter 78 mm. These two discs were
729 placed above and below the tubes respectively; they help to maintain the fibers in the annular
730 space between the tubes and to isolate it from the moisture of air. The outer cylinder was
731 cooled by circulating water through a pipe wrapped around its outer surface in order to
732 maintain a constant uniform temperature. Two type K thermocouples of 0.005 mm in
733 diameter are placed at mid-height respectively on the inner tube of stainless steel to measure
734 T1(t) and on the outer tube of brass to measure T2(t).
735 The experimental procedure was as follows: the fibers were filled into the annular space
736 between the two tubes (see Fig 10). It involves passing a current of high intensity through the
737 inner tube of stainless steel and the temperature was recorded by an ALMENO 2390-5

26
738 apparatus until the temperature T1(t) and T2(t) reach the stationary values. An advantage of
739 this method is that with this method it does not suffer the problem of side convective losses:
740 no 3D effect can occurs.

741
742 a) b)
743 Fig 13: Experimental device for radial flux method: a) general view, b) schematic view
744
745 The modelling was based on the following assumptions:
746 - the fibers are dry: no mass transfer occurs
747 - the temperature gradients along z are negligible
748 - the radial temperature gradient is negligible in the thickness of the inner tube
749 The heat transfer equation at the steady state regime is:
1   T 
750 r 0 (23)
r r  r 
751 The heat flux at a distance r can be written:
 T  dT
752   A(r )      2 rL (24)
 r  dr
753 The conservation of heat flux between the outer radius of the stainless steel inner tube of R1
754 (m) and the inner radius of the outer brass tube R2 (m) allows:

2 rL
R2 2T
dr
755 
R1
r
 
T1

dT (25)

756 This last relation leads to:


 R2 
 ln 

757   R1 
(26)
2 L(T1  T2 )

27
758 By assuming that all the power supply by the electric generator is totally transformed into heat
759 by Joule effect in the resistance heater. The heat flux is:
760   RI 2 (27)
761 where: R is the electrical resistance of the stainless steel tube calculated from the relation
762 (27):
L
763 R (28)
 ( R12  Ri 2 )
764 where: Ri (m) is an inner radius of the inner tube and  (μ cm) electrical resistivity [33].
765 By combining relations (27) and (28), we finally have:
 R2  2
 ln 
I
766  2 2  R1 
(29)
2 ( R1  Ri 2 )(T1  T2 )
767 En combinant les relations (27) et (28), on obtient finalement, l’expression de la conductivité
768 thermique en régime permanent:
 R2  2
  ln   I
769   R1 
(30)
2   2  ( R12  Ri 2 )  (T1  T2 )
770
771 La relation (30) permet alors de déterminer la conductivité thermique des fibres une fois que
772 le régime permanent est atteint. Un des avantages de cette méthode est que les fibres peuvent
773 être compactées au maximum dans l’espace annulaire entre les deux tubes et ainsi augmenter
774 le nombre de points de contact entre les fibres et le tube chaud. Les résultats de la
775 conductivité thermique des fibres obtenus par cette méthode sont présentés à la table 3. Nous
776 avons également calculé les incertitudes entre les valeurs expérimentales de la conductivité
777 thermique obtenue par la méthode du flux radial et celles déduites de l’estimation de
778 l’effusivité thermique par le modèle complet et le modèle simplifié.
779
780 Table 3: Mesure directe et valeur estimée de la conductivité thermique
781
Fibers Radial lux SM CM
T1(C) T2(C) T(C) I(A) (μ (W m-1K-1) (W m-1K-1) (W m-1K-1) D1(%) D2(%)
cm)
PS 26.6 20.5 6.5 5.45 71.88 0.093 0.097 0.095 4.123 2.105
kapok 33.4 20.4 11.7 5.45 72.20 0.042 0.0477 0.0453 10.638 7.284
coconut 30.1 205 9.10 5.36 72.04 0.058 0.0582 0.0576 0.429 1.724

28
Rattan 31 23.3 7.7 5.46 72.08 0.072 0.0710 0.0741 1.291 2.702
782
783 e valider celle déduite de l’estimation de E et de la capacité thermique volumique obtenue par
784 calorimétrie différentielle programmée. Les résultats expérimentaux pour les fibres de kapok
785 et de coco en accord avec ceux de littérature, nous ont permis de validé les conductivités
786 thermiques 0.09 W m-1 K-1 and 0.07 W m-1 K-1 comme étant respectivement celles des fibres
787 de coques d’arachides et des fibres de rotin respectivement. En ce qui concerne les fibres de
788 kapok, dans les pays tropicaux comme le Cameroun, leur utilisation comme alternative aux
789 isolants conventionnels qui coutent 5 à 6 fois plus chères peut permettre de réaliser des
790 économies conséquentes sur le cout d’investissement de la construction des containers pour la
791 conservation des denrées par exemple.
792 The development of materials with these low thermal conductivity fibers will be an interesting
793 alternative that would simhultaneously solve energy and environmental concerns.
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814

29
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822 Acknowledgements
823 Special thanks is send to research teams of LEMTA INPL-Nancy for their support to the
824 expertise of characterization methods used in this work
825
826
827
828
829 References
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921
922
923
924 List of Figs:
925 Fig 1: Natural fibers kapok: a) kapok fruit; b) fibers of kapok
926 Fig 2: Peanut: a) peanut nut; b) peanut shell fibers
927 Fig 3: coconut: a) coconut husk; b) coconut fibers treated
928 Fig 4: Rattan: a) rattan fibers; b) mud house + fiber rattan
929 Fig 5: View of the experimental device
930 Fig 6: Scheme of calibration process of the heating element
931 Fig 7: Schema of the quarter of experimental device solve by Comsol for peanut shell:
932 e=5cm, =0.097 W/m/ K, cp=218.0089 103 J m-3 K-1
933 Fig 8: Experimental device in sectional view
934 Fig 9: Mass heat capacity as a function of temperature
935 Fig 10: Temperature curve for peanut shells. e=5cm, ei=5cm, i=0.032 W m-1K-1, icpi=48000
936 J m-3 K-1. a) Simplified model; b) Completed model
937 Fig 11: Temperature evolution of kapok fibers. e=5 cm; ei=5 cm; i=0.184 W m-1 K-1,
938 icpi=48000 J m-3 K-1. a) Simplified model; b) Completed model
939 Fig 12: Temperature evolution for dry fibers of kapok. e=5 cm; ei=5 cm; i=0.184 W m-1 K-1,
940 icpi=48000 J m-3 K-1. a) Simplified model; b) Completed model
941 Fig 13: Experimental device for radial flux method: a) general view, b) schematic view
942
943 List of tables:
944
945 Table 1: Measured values of densities and mass specific heat
946 Table 2: Estimated values

33
947 Table 3: Measured values and estimated values of thermal conductivity
948
949
950
951

34