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Grade 4

- Division (such as concepts like equal grouping)

- Multiplicative Thinking and Strategies

them

- Reason abstractly and quantitatively

- Construct viable arguments and critique the

reasoning of others

Primary Standards

properties of operations to perform multi-digit

arithmetic.

- CC.2.2.4.A.1 Represent and solve problems

involving the four operations.

- CC.2.2.4.A.4 Generate and analyze patterns using

one rule. Commented [1]: This is a stretch. I don't think its

necessary to include

PA Eligible Content - M04.B-O.1.1.2 Multiply or divide to solve word

problems involving multiplicative comparison,

distinguishing multiplicative comparison from

additive comparison. Commented [2]: This one doesn't really fit with this

problem. Multiplicative comparison is saying that

- M04.B-O.1.1.3 Solve multi-step word problems something is xtimes something else. Your problem is

posed with whole numbers using the four equal groups.

operations.

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

The Task

There are 36 crackers to be shared equally for a snack. How many kids can share the Commented [3]: Will 36 be challenging enough for your

students? You could also use 72.

crackers? How many crackers will each kid get?

Commented [LMS4R3]: I thought about this a lot after

you mentioned this. Part of me immediately agreed and

wanted to use 72 instead as a method of offering all

Explanation of Task students high-level content; however, I am deciding to

There are multiple reasons why we feel this is a worthwhile task for both of our 4th-grade stick with 36 because I feel that it is important to utilize

it as perhaps an entryway problem and to then possibly

classrooms. These reasons include: probe them to think further and break them in half and

- Both of our classes are just starting to learn division. This is a new mathematical see if they can use the same strategies. I also think it

will make for a better discussion.

operation and concept to both of our classes.

Commented [5]: These make sense and are well

- Students are coming off of a unit that reviewed 3rd-grade multiplication concepts and justified

taught two-digit by two-digit multiplication. We feel that this problem takes students’

prior knowledge of multiplication and also gives them an opportunity to take prior

knowledge and bridge it to grapple with a new concept.

- This problem is open-ended and calls for multiple answers and strategies. Students can

use strategies that they are familiar with at the beginning of the task. We believe that this

task allows us to build up from strategies students are already familiar with and challenge

them to see the connection to higher-level strategies and understanding.

- The task opens the door to partner sharing and constructing arguments to support

thinking. We believe this task directly allows students to work on two of the

Mathematical Practices: (1) reason abstractly and quantitatively and (2) construct viable

arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Through talking with partners, students

are pushed to reason, construct arguments, and critique the reasoning of others verbally.

- Due to its open-ended nature, this task challenges students to persevere in solving

problems (a third Mathematical Practice). This task pushes the boundaries of

conventional whole-class learning and intentionally pushes students’ thinking and

understanding of what Math should look like in their classroom.

Lauren’s class has been working on division for a few

weeks now and have worked through multiple strategies on

solving a division problem. Lauren’s school, Wissahickon Charter

School uses the GoMath curriculum. They have learned the

strategies of drawing out circles and making equal groups Commented [6]: Note that these higher level strategies

are not really useful when the product is only 36

(including remainders), making arrays (equal grouping), dividing

Commented [LMS7R6]: We chose not to include long

with partial quotients (dividing with familiar numbers), repeated division in the possible student strategies (see below)

subtraction (Base-10), and long division. All strategies have been for this reason. I just felt it was important to highlight

the background knowledge the students were coming

introduced and taught and therefore students have the in with.

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

foundational knowledge of multiple strategies for solving division problems, but have moved

toward picking the strategy they feel most comfortable with and competent in.

In contrast, Kelsey’s class has just started their division unit this week. Her school, E.M.

Stanton, uses the Envision math curriculum, which her teacher strictly follows. Using this

curriculum, students have so far been introduced to strategies such as estimation, trial/error,

dividing with of familiar numbers (Base-10), writing out multiplication facts before solving the

division problem, and drawing equal groups to find their answer (including remainders).

Kelsey’s class has not engaged with partial quotient, array models, repeated subtraction, or the

traditional way of long division. Her students have however practiced similar strategies when

solving multiplication, such as the array model, partial products, repeated addition, and counting

up. The strategies Kelsey’s class is currently learning find themselves on each stage of the

OGAP framework. For example, students are learning the Early Additive and Additive strategies

of grouping by counting by ones and equal groups by repeated addition/subtraction. Students are

also currently being taught to use a Transitional strategy of using the inverse relationship

between multiplication and division to find their answer.

While both of our classes are at different stages of learning division, we feel that students

need to understand and be able to do the following. First, students need to be able to look at a

problem and know the question it is posing. More specifically, students need to know what they

are looking for and the language of multiplication and division situations must be understood

(Chapin & Johnson, p.77). Second, students need to be able to look at the problem and know

what operations they can use to solve the problem. Third, students need to understand the

relationship between division and multiplication and be familiar with the concept that to solve a

division problem you are also using multiplicative reasoning. Fourth, students need to have a

foundation of number sense in order to have flexibility with numbers and understand the

relationships between them. Commented [8]: Also think about how the commutative

property will be involved in this problem. 36 crackers

The main difficulty and gap we feel will come up for both of our groups is the fact that can be shared by 3 people and each gets 12 or by 12

there is only one number in the problem. While it is theoretically a division problem, it lacks a people and each get 3. These are different solutions in

the context of the problem, but related multiplicatively.

divisor. Our students are used to having a closed mathematical task that may elicit multiple Note that there is one pair that is not commutative in

strategies but only has one correct answer. It is in the students’ repertoire to look at a problem, this problem context--you can share 36 with 36 people

and each gets 1, but you can't share with just 1 person.

decide what operation/algorithm to use to solve it, and then solve it. Fosnot and Dolk (2001) in

Commented [LMS9R8]: I did not think of this, but now

their writings on algorithms versus number sense argue that a students’ repertoire of strategies having looked at what they learned in 3rd grade I am

must be derived from operating flexibility in the number space--from looking at the numbers seeing that they did learn the commutative property

and that this will be something important to keep in

first, setting up relationships, and then playing with these relationships. This problem pushes mind when going through all of the answers and

them to look at computation strategies not based on basic algorithms but based on number making sense of the answers in the context of the

problem!

relationships and operations.

Commented [10]: Nicely articulated!

Commented [11]: It also involves seeing relationships

between factors and multiples and strategies like

doubling and halving. For example, If 6 people can

share and each get 6, then 12 people can share and

each will only get 3

Commented [LMS12R11]: Important! They are learning

factors and multiples now! Perfect!

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

Anticipating Student Strategies Commented [13]: Nicely done! Make sure you also

figure out all the possible solutions and look for

patterns in the solutions. Make a chart!

Commented [LMS14R13]: Made chart of all possible

answers for both 36 crackers and 72 crackers and

have looked for patterns in the solutions and for

comparing 36 to 72. The chart is in my final lesson

Drawing out Equal plan.

Groups Commented [15]: Or using cubes to directly model by

dealing out in groups?

Commented [LMS16R15]: Absolutely! As you see in the

materials section, we are giving students access to

manipulatives. My students in particular are not used to

using cubes for direct modeling; however, so I am

wondering if they will jump to use them or if they will

immediately go to drawing them as that is the way they

were initially taught.

Array Model Commented [17]: What about area model? How would

that be the same/different?

Commented [LMS18R17]: I wish I could say that my

students will look to the area model to make sense of

the decomposition for partial products or partial

quotients; however, my students consistently get

confused when I introduce the use of area models in

comparison to array models due to the fact that their

GoMath curriculum does not address area models very

often. I do feel that some of them will lean toward

partial products or partial quotients and may use an

area model to make sense of that but I am unsure if

Skip Counting they will jump to use an area model.

Multiplication

Making Problem

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

Relatable to Context

Partial Quotients Commented [19]: They might also think this way with

multiplication. 3 x 10 = 30 and 3 x 2= 6

Commented [LMS20R19]: Yes, you are right, I think

they actually may be more likely to think of this way

with multiplication and partial products because they

are more comfortable with multiplication. Will add this

on final lesson plan.

equations, and statements

Pencils and Colored Pencils For students to solve task with pictures, Commented [21]: Lauren's idea, I'm guessing : )

equations, and statements Commented [LMS22R21]: You are correct! I think using

color is becoming part of my pedagogical beliefs. Not

Math Manipulatives (Base-10 Block, Cubes) For students to solve task with manipulatives only did I thrive growing up using color to make sense

of math but I also feel that adding color to math helps

students see important relationships and visually make

Whiteboards/Whiteboard markers For students to put up one strategy on the sense of processes.

chart for us to discuss Commented [23]: ok yes. Think through how these tools

will help and how you want students to use them to

Saltine Crackers Used during whole group discussion to push reflect on the important ideas

student’s thinking of the multiple ways that Commented [LMS24R23]: I will do so in final lesson

the crackers can be divided (an example plan!

would be breaking the crackers in half) Commented [25]: Yes! We rephrased the question to be

about graham crackers because they are so easy to

split. Don't forget to anticipate some of these solutions

in case they come up

Commented [LMS26R25]: Anticipated in a chart in final

lesson plan!

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

Physical Space Set Up

We both have large fourth-grade classes which means a lot of desks and very little room for small

group work. Therefore, we will be conducting the lesson in our respective shared school library. We like

each of our school’s library space for a number of reasons. The first reason is that the library has tables

rather than individual desks. This will be a really great way to promote collaboration and to allow

students to work together to solve the task and work through the questions we each pose to our classes,

together. Second, there is more space in the library for students to spread out and work with more

flexibility than in the classroom.

We will each have our students sit with us at one table altogether as we each launch the lesson

and as we read through the problem together with each of our classes. We would then explain that

students have room to spread out between three tables to work on the task with a partner. We would then

bring students back to sit around the table with each of us when we discuss the task and move on to the

exit ticket.

Distribution of Materials

When we launch the lesson, all materials will be with each of us. We would like students to listen

first to the norm-setting without distractions or materials to play with. When we are ready to introduce the

actual task, we will write the problem up on the board and then read it out loud. We will then have a

student reword the task in their own words (see more on this in Part II). Once this is done, we will

distribute the pens, pencils, colored pencils, and math manipulatives for students to solve the problem

individually. Once this time (approximately 5 minutes) is up, we will distribute the whiteboards and

whiteboard markers for students to pick one of their strategies to put on the whiteboard and share with

their turn and talk partner. We would not use the saltine crackers until the second half of the discussion.

We feel the saltine crackers will distract our students and also potentially cause students to only think

about the problem visually and concretely, rather than strategically through multiple methods. Commented [27]: and concretely? I agree with this

statement. It will be good for the launch though

Anticipated Management Concerns and Responses Commented [LMS28R27]: Added to the launch in the

final lesson plan how I will explain to the students that it

is important to think about STRATEGIES and what they

know about multiplication, division, factors, and

Anticipated Concern Anticipated Response multiples to help solve this problem and how it is

important to think about the multiple ways to solve this

Negative or uncharacteristic reactions to a - Setting up physical space to be away problem.

different physical space to conduct the lesson from potential distractions such as Commented [29]: This is very well thought through!

students or faculty using the space for

various reasons.

- Having the materials they are used to

during math time out when they arrive

so that it is a familiar set up.

- Having them bring with them all of the

math materials they would typically

have out during a math lesson

(textbook, notebook, pencil etc.)

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

Students’ lack of perseverance and fixed - Probing their thinking while they are

mindset when it comes to mathematical working individually

problems (specifically division) - Scaffolding

- “Let’s read the problem

together again. “What sticks

out to you...what do you

notice...what do you know?”

- Reminding the students there is no one

“right” way to do the problem

problem first and solve it correctly of norms and expectations throughout

the lesson

- Providing extensions to students

thinking and solving so that finishing

first does not mean you are finished

with the problem

- Lay out the structure of the activity

prior to sending them off to solve so

they are aware that they will be given

time to talk and share solutions and

strategies

Lesson Goal: To provide students with the arena to explore the relationships of number and the

relationship between multiplication and division.

my prompts, but you don't really outline what is going to

a. What norms will you establish? happen. You should address the prompts (when

i. We listen carefully appropriate), but write this out as a plan that will be

useful to you. What will you say? What do you expect

ii. We value and respect all opinions students might say or do? Where do you show the

iii. We think about what is being said crackers? Think about engaging students in the

problem so they care about solving it and making sure

iv. We actively participate in the discussion they understand the vocabulary and context well

v. We ask questions for understanding enough to be successful solving it.

vi. We value and learn from our mistakes Commented [LMS31R30]: Rewritten to outline exactly

what is going to happen in final lesson plan.

b. How will you introduce the task?

i. Teacher reads problem 2x

ii. Students are given sheets of paper with the problem on it and told to read Commented [32]: Try to avoid this as it encourages

the problem in their heads once. once to look for the keywords that tell focusing on one word rather than making sense of the

context. There is a lot of research to show that this is

them what the problem is asking not an effective strategy, though many teachers use it

iii. Turn and talk about this because they don't know anything else. Focus on

understanding what is happening (as you would in

literacy) rather than taking words out of context

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

iv. Students read the problem in their head again to read for what the question

is that the problem is asking

v. Turn and talk about this

vi. Whole group share out about what they think the problem is asking

vii. Students read the problem one more time to look at the problem and think

“I see this so I know I need to do this”

viii. Students go off to work independently on the problem for a maximum of 5

minutes on the sheet with the problem on it Commented [33]: I like the idea of having them read

three times. Are you ever having a whole group

c. How will you elicit and draw connections to students’ prior knowledge? discussion though? After turn and talk do they share

i. Positive statements such as: out?

1. “You have been working so hard as mathematicians to tackle

division”

2. “We have been talking a lot about how multiplication and division

are related to each other. Today you will get an opportunity to

explore what you know about multiplication to help you figure out

how to divide!”

3. For Lauren’s group: “I want you to think about what we do as a

class when we do our grapple problems while you are working

through this.”

d. Are there terms, ideas of contexts that need to be discussed or explained in order Commented [34]: Think about this. How will you engage

students in the idea of sharing crackers with friends?

for students to engage successfully with the task? (You should not be showing What needs to be explained? Try to engage students

students how to solve the task here!) so they care about finding solutions to this problem

rather than just seeing it as another word problem

i. “This is not a test...today is all about working through a different kind of

Commented [LMS35R34]: Thinking about introducing

math problem than you are used to. I want you to be creative with your this as a problem that Ms. Schwartz is having while

thinking and stretch your mind.” passing out snack that needs solving. Not just a “word

problem” but a real life problem that they can solve.

ii. For Lauren’s Group: “Just like during a grapple problem, you are going

to take some time to work through this problem on your own. If you are

confused or have a question, you should have something on your paper

first so I can help you. Remember, ‘show me what you know.’

iii. For Kelsey’s group: “Just like we do in Mrs. Williams’ room, you are

going to take some time to work through this problem on your own. If you

are confused or have a question, you should have something on your paper

first so I can help you! Remember the struggle is real, and we are here to

grow and challenge ourselves!”

2. During (Explore). There should be adequate time for students to work on the task;

students might work in small groups, pairs, or independently.

a. What do you expect students to do?

i. After reading through and discussing the question together, students go off

to work independently on the problem for a maximum of 5 minutes on the

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

sheet with the problem on it. They have access to any of the materials

listed above to work through the problem.

ii. After students are given 5 minutes to work independently, they are given

one whiteboard to write one of their solutions down

iii. After each student has one strategy on their whiteboard, we will pair

students up with each other to share the strategy they have on their

whiteboard. We would also encourage students to share how they came to

that solution. We would say this before they turn and talk, but would also

talk about this as we bounce from group to group hearing the discussions. Commented [36]: Now you could ask them to find as

many different solutions as they can

iv. After the turn and talk, the group turns back together to discuss the

Commented [LMS37R36]: Will push their thinking to

problem as a whole group. have them come up with as many different solutions as

they can and then if they complete that then probe the

breaking crackers in half.

b. How will you monitor student thinking? What questions will you ask while

circulating? What will you look for?

i. “How did you know to use to that strategy?”

ii. “How do you know each friend will get that many crackers?”

iii. “Can you share with a different number of friends?” “Try it!”

iv. “Why does that strategy work?”

v. “What do you mean by ______?” Commented [38]: Keep connecting these questions to

the problem context... how do you know each friend will

vi. “Can you retell your partner’s strategy in your own words?” get that many crackers? can you share with a different

vii. “Why did you choose to show this strategy for your whiteboard over number of friends? let's try it!

another one?”

viii. “Could you think about it another way? Is this the only way to solve this

problem?” Commented [39]: Good question

ix. We are looking to see what students strategies are, and if they can reason

and explain why they chose that strategy/why they think that strategy

works

i. Do research on what division strategy each student in your group seems to

be leaning toward most during division work and be prepared to probe that

student’s thinking using that strategy.

ii. See below in accommodations section

3. After (Discuss and Wrap-Up). End with a whole group sharing of strategies and

discussion of important mathematical ideas. Commented [40]: Again, rather than answering each

prompt separately, script this out

a. How will you structure the sharing of strategies?

i. Students will have already had the opportunity to talk through one of their

strategies in the turn and talk with an intentionally assigned partner

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

ii. When we turn to the whole group, we will elicit student strategies by

saying something along the lines of “What do we think? What solutions

did you come up with?” Commented [41]: What solutions did you come up with?

iii. Students will be have practiced explaining their strategy on their

whiteboard and will now do the same to the whole group. Students will

use their whiteboard to show their strategy and talk about it in steps.

iv. The teacher will probe and question - will also allow students to

respectfully question each other's strategies (remembering and reinforcing

our norms) Commented [42]: Here I recommend recording their

solutions in a chart, in order, on the board or chart

paper. Then you can facilitate a discussion about the

b. What will you be listening and looking for? patterns you see in the solutions. Make sure you do

this yourself first so you know what all the possibilities

i. The different strategies elicited are. I will send you an example...

ii. The number pairs that they come up with

iii. Noting the number pairs that are not used so that we can push for those

numbers during the group discussion

iv. Does any student think about breaking the crackers in half?

v. Planting seeds in students thinking for things we’d like them to bring up in

the whole group discussion

i. When each student is explaining their strategy, revoicing their ideas by

making connections/naming the concepts they are describing

ii. Asking students to think about what we call a specific strategy that a

student describes

iii. Pushing students to ask questions about WHY each strategy works and

helping students to describe why using mathematical terms

iv. Providing connections to higher level strategies

i. Connections to higher level strategies (ie: OGAP framework)

ii. Connections between strategies students share

iii. The connection between the numbers in a division problem (and the

relationship they have)

video and taking pictures of students’ what was learned, rather than an

Lauren Schwartz and Kelsey Mensch

Grade 4

whiteboards assessment of competency Commented [43]: This is good but what will you look

- The whiteboards will be used for - Exit ticket will consist of four for? E.g., you might look at their strategies and also

whether they see connections between multiplication

students to represent their thinking and questions for students to answer at the and division, whether they understand the commutative

solving end of the activity property, and whether they see relationships between

- Monitoring what strategies are used - The following questions are adapted different solutions.

during independent work to decide from Boaler Commented [LMS44R43]: Also look for the use of

factors and multiples and how they respond to the idea

partners - What made this activity of breaking them in half and having 72 crackers

- Keep track of student verbal reasoning different from the math you’re

of solution(s) through video used to?

- What challenged you during

this?

- What is one thing you learned

from this activity?

- What is one question you still

have?

Accommodations

Accommodations for Students Who Need Accommodations for Students Who Need

More Support Additional Challenges

- Read the problem out loud during the - Challenging students with extension

introduction of the lesson questions during independent solve

- Discuss the problem during the time (“can you solve it another way?”

introduction of the lesson (have “what would happen if you did this?”

students revoice the problem in their - Probe during the discussion to push

own words, allow time for questions) student’s thinking and use of

- Provide manipulatives and other mathematical terms

mathematical tools for students who - Provide an extension question at the

need to work through the problem end of the discussion to get students

physically thinking abstractly

- Scaffold during independent work if a

student is struggling

- Plant seeds during partner share to

help students make connections to

more advanced strategies

- Using positive motivating comments

like “find your inner superhero,” “you

are stronger than this math problem,”

“You can do this!”

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