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Application of Laplace Transformation

Mathematical Modelling Of Carbon Cycle


Atmosphere and Vegetation
Ni Iluh1, 018201700015
1Environmental Engineering, President University, 17550 Bekasi, Indonesia

Abstract. Global warming is a phenomenon that traps gases that are


recognized as greenhouse gases. In this case the temperature of the earth
will experience an increase because carbon emissions into the atmosphere
will be more than the sequestration emissions from plants, this is called the
carbon cycle which is the process of binding and releasing carbon. This
cycle is formed by two-way input and carbon output. Completion of
changes in ordinary time differential equations can be done with Laplace
transform, this model is an exponential equation that can describe the
amount of carbon and atmospheric vegetation. Based on analysis and
simulation data, the amount of initial vegetation carbon is directly
proportional to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

1. INTRODUCTION
Now our earth is increasingly unfriendly. We often complain that during the day the sun
feels so hot when the night feels so cold. It's not wrong if we feel like that. Because data
shows that the earth has experienced an alarming increase in temperature in recent years.
This is called Global Warming. Global warming is basically the phenomenon of increasing
global temperatures from year to year due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased gas
emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), Nitrogen Oxide (N2O) and CFC
so that solar energy is trapped. in the earth's atmosphere.
Lately the average temperature of the earth's surface has increased and is often
associated with global warming due to the greenhouse effect, which is an event of
increasing the intensity of the greenhouse effect because gas in the atmosphere absorb heat
rays, namely infrared rays emitted by the earth. The gas is called greenhouse gas. With the
absorption of hot light trapped so that the surface temperature of the earth increases. One of
the main types of greenhouse gases that play a role in the greenhouse effect is carbon
dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is absorbed and released back into the atmosphere in various
ways. One of the processes of carbon sequestration on land is carried out by plants.
Through plants, carbon dioxide is absorbed and used in photosynthesis.
In the process it produces organic material which if oxidized will produce carbon
dioxide again. Plants that are still in the early stages will absorb more carbon dioxide. But
now the land for plants is getting smaller as the number of human activities increases for
others, the result of this is the lack of carbon absorption by plants. In addition to producing
organic matter, photosynthesis also produces oxygen released into the air. So oxygen will
be used by humans and animals for respiration and produce carbon dioxide which will be
released back into the atmosphere. The process of carbon exchange between the atmosphere
and soil and atmosphere with the ocean can be explained by mathematical models.
In this final exam, we will discuss the model of carbon exchange produced by the
atmosphere and vegetation. Changes in the amount of carbon to time are explained in
ordinary differential equations which can be solved by Laplace transform.

2. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

2.1 Construction of Mathematical Models Change For Amount of Carbon In


Atmosphere and Vegetation

The exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and land, namely in the vegetation is a
two-way flow, there is a process of absorption and release of carbon between the two
carbon storage sites. The carbon cycle that occurs between the atmosphere and vegetation
can be presented in Figure 2.1.
KL2
Atmosphere Vegetation
(mA) (mv)
KL1

Fig. 2.1. Carbon exchange diagram between the atmosphere and vegetation

mA the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, mv the amount of carbon in the vegetation, and
coefficient k is the carbon exchange coefficient with is KL1 carbon release coefficient by the
atmosphere which is then absorbed by vegetation or the carbon absorption coefficient by
vegetation from the atmosphere and KL2 is carbon release coefficients from vegetation that
are reabsorbed by the atmosphere or carbon absorption coefficient by the atmosphere from
vegetation. The rate of change in the amount of carbon in the atmosphere against time is
expressed by
𝑑𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)
= 𝐾𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (t) - 𝐾𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑡) (2.1)
𝑑𝑡
while the rate of change in the amount of carbon in the vegetation against time is expressed
by
𝑑𝑚𝑣 (𝑡)
= 𝐾𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (t) - 𝐾𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (𝑡) (2.2)
𝑑𝑡

2.2 Formulation of Laplace Transformation from the Carbon Cycle


Place the figure as close as possible after the point where it is first referenced in the text. If
there is a large number of figures and tables it might be necessary to place some before
their text citation.
Both differential equations in equations (2.1) and (2.2) will solved by the Laplace
transformation method by assuming that all initial conditions are zero, which means when,
the amount of carbon is initially in the atmosphere and vegetation is zero. The Laplace
transformation form of the equation (2.1) is:
𝑑𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)
𝐿 [ ] = 𝐿[𝑘𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (𝑡) − 𝑘𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)]
𝑑𝑡
𝑠 𝐿[𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)] − 𝑚𝐴 (0) = 𝑘𝐿2 𝐿[𝑚𝑣 (𝑡)] − 𝑘𝐿1 [𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)]
assuming the initial condition is zero, that is when it is t=0, so mA(0) = 0, it is obtained
𝑠𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) − 0 = 𝑘𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (𝑠) − 𝑘𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑠)
1
𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) = 𝑘𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (s) (2.3)
(𝑠+𝑘𝐿1 )
The Laplace transform form of equation (2.2) is:
𝑑𝑚𝑣 (𝑡)
𝐿 [ ] = 𝐿[𝑘𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)]
𝑑 (𝑡)
𝑠 𝐿[𝑚𝑣 (𝑡)] − 𝑚𝑣 (0) = 𝐾𝐿1 𝐿 [𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)] − 𝐾𝐿2 𝐿 [𝑚𝑣 (𝑡)]
assuming the initial condition is zero, that is when it is t=0, so 𝑚𝑣 (0) = 0, it is obtained
𝑠 𝑚𝑣 (𝑠) − 0 = 𝐾𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) − 𝐾𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (𝑠)
1
𝑚𝑣 (𝑠) = 𝐾𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) (2.4)
𝑠+ 𝑘𝐿2
with 𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) Laplace transformation from 𝑚𝐴 (𝑡) and 𝑚𝑣 (𝑠) Laplace transformation
from 𝑚𝑣 (𝑡).

2.3 Laplace Inverse Transformation


The Laplace inverse transformation of equations (2.3) and (2.4) is the solution of
differential equations in equations (2.1) and (2.2) which are equations of the amount of
carbon in the atmosphere and vegetation. The form of the Laplace inverse transformation of
equation (2.3) is
𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) 𝑘
(𝑡)
= (𝑠+ 𝐿2 )
𝑚𝑣 𝑘𝐿1
𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) 𝑘𝐿2
𝐿−1 [ ] = 𝐿−1 [ ]
𝑚𝑣 (𝑡) (𝑠+𝑘𝐿1 )
−𝑘𝐿1 𝑡
𝑚𝐴 (𝑡) = 𝑘𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (𝑡)𝑒 (2.6)
and the Laplace inverse transformation of equation (2.4) is
𝑚𝑣 (𝑠) 𝑘𝐿1
=
𝑚𝐴 (𝑡) (𝑠 + 𝑘𝐿2 )
𝑚 (𝑠) 𝑘
𝐿−1 [ 𝑣 ] = 𝐿−1 [ 𝐿1 ]
𝑚𝐴 (𝑡) (𝑠+𝑘𝐿2 )
𝑚𝑣 (𝑡) = 𝑘𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)𝑒 −𝑘𝐿2 𝑡 (2.7)
2.4 Analysis of the Model of Carbon Amount in the Atmosphere and
Vegetation
Equation (2.6) is the equation of the amount of carbon in the atmosphere at the time with
the amount of initial carbon (when t = 0) is equal to 𝑘𝐿2 𝑚𝑣 (𝑡) by 𝑘𝐿2 representing the
carbon absorption coefficient of vegetation by the atmosphere. This means that the amount
of carbon initially in the atmosphere is proportional to the amount of carbon released by
vegetation into the atmosphere.
Equation (2.8) is the equation of the amount of carbon in the vegetation at the time with the
amount of initial carbon (when t = 0) is equal to 𝑘𝐿1 𝑚𝐴 (𝑡) by 𝑘𝐿1 representing the
absorption coefficient of carbon from the atmosphere by vegetation. This means that the
amount of initial carbon in the vegetation is proportional to the amount of carbon
which is absorbed by vegetation from the atmosphere.
The comparison form of the Laplace transform between 𝑚𝐴 (𝑠) with 𝑚𝑣 (𝑠) at the
completion of the Laplace transformation is a transformation ratio. Laplace output
(response function) and Laplace transformation input (drive function). This shows that
between the amount of carbon in the atmosphere and vegetation is interconnected and the
amount of carbon in both of them affects each other.
Equilibrium conditions that occur between the atmosphere and vegetation occur when the
first derivative of the carbon equation model in the atmosphere and vegetation is zero,
which is when
𝑑𝑚𝐴 (𝑡)
=0
𝑑𝑡
And
𝑑𝑚𝑣 (𝑡)
=0
𝑑𝑡
so that the equilibrium conditions between the atmosphere and vegetation are obtained
when
𝑚𝐴 (𝑡) 𝑘𝐿2
=
𝑚𝑣 (𝑡) 𝑘𝐿1
(2.8)
So the equilibrium is the amount of carbon in the atmosphere and vegetation occurs when
the amount of carbon in the atmosphere is directly proportional to comparison of carbon
release coefficients from vegetation into the atmosphere and coefficients release of carbon
from the atmosphere to vegetation and is also directly proportional to amount of carbon in
vegetation.

3. CONCLUSION
From the results of the discussion it can be concluded that the amount of carbon in the
atmosphere and vegetation is dependent, namely the amount of carbon in the atmosphere
depends on the amount of carbon released by vegetation.
As I wish, the amount of carbon initially in the atmosphere affects the change in the amount
of carbon in the vegetation and the amount of carbon initially in the vegetation affects the
change in the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. The amount of carbon at first in the
vegetation is directly proportional to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. The greater
the amount of carbon initially in the vegetation, then if there is deforestation it is likely that
the amount of carbon released back into the atmosphere there will be more. In order for the
amount of carbon in the atmosphere not to multiply more, then the amount of carbon
initially in the vegetation and the amount of carbon released into the atom from the
vegetation must be reduced.

References
1. Kartono. 2012. Ordinary Differential Equations: Mathematical Models of Phenomena
Change. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
2. Edwin J. Purcell, Dale Varberg, Steven E. Rigdon. 2003. Calculus edition eighth volume
1 (Translation I Nyoman Susila). Erlangga: Jakarta.