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A.

Present Simple
1. Bentuk (Form)
Form Nominal Verbal
Subject + To Be +
Subject + Verb 1 (s/es)
Adjective/Noun/Adverb
+ Ririn is smart
Ririn is a teacher Ririn works in stepLES Ltd.
Ririn is in the office
Subject + To Be + Not + Subject + Do/Does + Not +
Adjective/Noun/Adverb Verb 1
- Ririn is not smart
Ririn does not work in
Ririn is not a teacher
stepLES Ltd.
Ririn is not in the office
To Be + Subject +
Do/Does + Subject + Verb 1
Adjective/Noun/Adverb
? Is Ririn smart?
Does Ririn Work in stepLES
Is Ririn a teacher?
Ltd.?
Is Ririn in the office?
2. Fungsi (Function)
Function Example
Habitual action (Kegiatan yang berulang- I get up at 05.00 every day.
ulang dan sudah menjadi kebiasaan)
General Truth (Kebenaran umum) The sun rises in the east and sets
in the west.
Ability (Kecakapan/kemampuan) My teacher is friendly.
Headline (Judul Berita Utama) Therapy Dogs Work Miracles
(www.nationalgeographic.com)
Future Condition (Menyatakan sesuatu The train arrives at 20.00
yang sudah terjadwal atau setiap tonight.
waktunya sama bahkan di masa yang
akan datang)
Pengganti present continuous untuk Non- I like you.
Progressive Verb (verb yang tidak dapat I think you are right.
digunakan pada pada tenses continuous)
Imperative (Kalimat perintah) Oper your book!

HELPFUL HINTS!

Present simple sering digunakan bersama dengan kata-kata dan frase berikut:
Adverb: Always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never.
Phrases: Every Monday/week/etc., each Monday/week/etc., once/twice a week/month/etc., there
times a week/month/etc.

B. Present Continuous
1. Bentuk (Form)
Form Present Continuous
Subject + To Be + Ving
+
Ayu is working in stepLES Ltd.
Subject + To Be + Not + Ving
-
Ayu is not working in stepLES Ltd.
To Be + Subject + + Ving
?
Is Ayu working in stepLES Ltd.?
2. Fungsi (Function)
Function Example
Kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung I am writing a letter (Short term
pada saat ini. activity)
Arini is looking for a job at the
moment (Long term activity)
Kegiatan yang berulang-ulang, He is always borrowing my books.
mengandung makna rasa jengkel, She is always reading many books.
dapat juga untuk menjukkan rasa
kagum.
Menyatakan future time We are visiting some friends in
(keterangan waktu harus Makassar.
disebutkan)
Situasi atau peristiwa yang Your English is improving.
berangsur-angsur berubah
Kebiasaan yang bersifat sementara I am living in Makassar at the
moment.

HELPFUL HINTS!

Present continuous sering digunakan bersama dengan kata-kata dan frase berikut:
Now, right now, at the moment, today, this week/month/etc.

C. Past Simple
1. Bentuk (Form)
Form Nominal Verbal
Subject + To Be +
Subject + Verb 2
Adjective/Noun/Adverb
+ Ririn was smart
Ririn was a teacher Ririn worked in stepLES Ltd.
Ririn was in the office
Subject + To Be + Not +
- Subject + Did + Not + Verb 1
Adjective/Noun/Adverb
Ririn was not smart
Ririn did not work in stepLES
Ririn was not a teacher
Ltd.
Ririn was not in the office
To Be + Subject +
Did + Subject + Verb 1
Adjective/Noun/Adverb
? Was Ririn smart?
Did Ririn Work in stepLES
Was Ririn a teacher?
Ltd.?
Was Ririn in the office?
2. Fungsi (Function)
Function Example
Perbuatan yang terjadi di masa lampau I studied last night.
The train was ten minutes late.
Kebiasaan di waktu lampau He always carried an umbrella.
They never drank wine.
General Truth (Kebenaran umum) di masa Fifty years ago, people didn’t
lampau spent as much on entertainment
as they do today.

HELPFUL HINTS!

Past simple sering digunakan bersama dengan kata-kata dan frase berikut:
Yesterday, last week/summer/year/etc., in January/2001/etc., an hour/ a week/ a
year ago.

WATCH OUT!

Frase ‘used to’ juga dapat digunakan untuk menjelaskan kebiasaan di waktu
lampau.
Used To + V1
When I was four, I used to eat ice cream every day.
D. Past Continuous
1. Bentuk (Form)
Form Past Continuous
Subject + To Be + Ving
+
Ayu was working in stepLES Ltd.
Subject + To Be + Not + Ving
-
Ayu was not working in stepLES Ltd.
To Be + Subject + + Ving
?
Was Ayu working in stepLES Ltd.?
2. Fungsi (Function)
Function Example
Perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung At nine o’clock last night, I was
pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau watching TV.
Dua kejadian yang sedang I was reading a book while you were
berlangsung pada waktu yang sama doing the washing-up.
di masa lampau

HELPFUL HINTS!

Past continuous sering digunakan bersama dengan kata-kata dan frase berikut:
All day yesterday, at 7 o’clock yesterday, al 7 o’clock last week, at the same time
yesterday, at this time yesterday.

WATCH OUT!

Jika suatu peristiwa dimasa lampau terjadi ditengah peristiwa lainnya, kita
menggunakan past simple dan past continuous bersama-sama.
 The phone rang while I was watching a DVD.
Past continuous tidak digunakan untuk repeated actions di masa lampau.
 Last year, I was going to the cinema every weekend.
E. Present Perfect Simple
1. Bentuk (Form)
Form Nominal Verbal
Subject + Have/Has + Been +
Subject + Have/Has + Verb 3
Adjective/Noun/Adverb
+ Ririn has been smart
Ririn has been a teacher Ririn has written a letter
Ririn has been from Korea
Subject + Have/Has + Not + Subject + Have/Has + Not +
Been + Adjective/Noun/Adverb Verb 3
- Ririn has not been smart
Ririn has not been a teacher Ririn has not written a letter
Ririn has not been from Korea
Have/Has + Subject + Been +
Have/Has + Subject + Verb 3
Adjective/Noun/Adverb
? Has Ririn been smart?
Has Ririn been a teacher? Has Ririn written a letter?
Has Ririn been from Korea?
2. Fungsi (Function)
Function Example
Perbuatan yang telah selesai dilakukan  They have moved into a new
dan hasilnya masih dirasakan sampai apartment
sekarang.  Reski has just eaten
Perbuatan yang baru saja selesai ketika  I have not seen you for ages
dibicarakan. (tetapi saat dibicarakan,
saya melihat kamu)
 It has been very warm lately
(tetapi, saat dibicarakan
cuaca sudah mulai dingin)
Perbuatan yang masih berlangsung  Ali has taught them IELTS
sampai sekarang/saat dibicarakan bahkan since 3 months ago.
setelah dibicarakan.  Dedi and Reski have been
married for 6 years.

HELPFUL HINTS!

Present perfect simple sering digunakan bersama dengan kata-kata dan frase
berikut:
3. Present Perfect Continuous
For, since, just, already, yet, ever, never, it’s the first time.

F. Present Perfect Continuous


1. Bentuk (Form)
Form Present Perfect Continuous
Subject + Have/Has + Been + Ving
+
Naya and Dira have been studying IELTS
Subject + Have/Has + Not + Been + Ving
-
Naya and Dira have not been studying IELTS
Have/Has + Subject + Been + Ving
?
Have Naya and Dira been studying IELTS?
2. Fungsi (Function)
Function Example
Perbuatan yang dimulai di waktu lampau  I have been waiting for an
dan sampai saat ini masih berlangsung hour.
 Dira has been eating since
five minutes ago.
Perbuatan yang baru saja selesai ketika  My mom has just been
dibicarakan washing our clothes.
(Mungkin masih ada sisa-sisa
busa detergent yang
menempel di sekitar tubuh
atau tempat mencuci)

HELPFUL HINTS!

Present perfect continuous sering digunakan bersama dengan kata-kata berikut:


For, since, just.

WATCH OUT!

Present perfect simple sering digunakan untuk menekankan pada hasil dari suatu
peristiwa:
 She has written an article for the school newspaper. (= she has finished it.)
Present perfect continuous menekankan pada peristiwa dan waktu yang
digunakan pada peristiwa tersebut dibandingkan hasilnya.
 She has been writing an article for the school newspaper. (= she has started, but
she has not finished it yet.)