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WPI Biomedical Engineering p.

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Homework 1 Solutions (60 pts)

1. (6 pts) If the QRS peak rises and falls in 0.01s, the instrument would barely be able to follow if the it
had a maximum frequency of f = 1/T = 1 / 0.01s = 100 Hz.

2a. (6 pts + 1pt citation) Blood glucose: range 0 - 500 mg/dL. Levels change slowly, for example within
several minutes after eating, so frequency range would be 0 (static) to about 1/(5 min) or 1/(300 s) or
~0.01 Hz.
2b. (6 pts + 1pt citation) Impact shock (g-force) during a football hit is about 20-150·g. (Concussion
occurs at about 100g). Duration of impact is a bit harder to find, but reports online of about 25 ms are
reported. To capture this data, which changes with ~millisecond timing, a frequency range of at least
100 - 1000 Hz is reasonable.

3a. (3 pts) Boiling water at sea level = 100.0 ºC true value.

3b. (7 pts) Relative accuracy is:
(i) (101.0ºC - 100.0ºC)/100.0ºC * 100% = +1.0%
(ii) (98.8ºC - 100.0ºC)/100.0ºC * 100% = –1.2%
Reading (i) is more accurate than (ii), with smaller absolute relative accuracy value.
3b. (4 pts) The specifications indicate a relative accuracy of ±0.5% full scale or ±0.5% * (150ºC - (–50ºC)
= ±0.5% * 200ºC = ±1.0ºC. The thermometer is not operating within specifications, since at least one
reading was outside the specified range.

4a. (3 pts) Normal blood pH is ~7.4.

4b. (6 pts) (i) a one-point calibration at pH 7.0 just prior to measurement.
Advantages. Recent measurement avoids sensor drift, and calibration is close to sample.
Disadvantages. Slope (sensitivity) may be off.

(ii) a two-point calibration at pH 7.0 and at pH 10.0 the day before.

Advantages. Calibration of both slope and offset spans sample.
Disadvantages: Sensor drift may have occurred overnight.

(iii) a two-point calibration at pH 4.0 and at pH 10.0 just prior to measurement

Advantages. Recent measurement avoids sensor drift, and both offset and slope are corrected
Disadvantages. Neither calibration point is near the sample pH. Significant errors could occur if
the calibration curve is nonlinear.

4c. (3 pts) The best option would be: a two-point calibration at pH 7.0 and 10.0, spanning the expected
sample pH, performed just prior to sample measurement.

5a. (4 pts) The measurand is the desired quantity to be measured. Here, it is the concentration of calcium
ions, Ca++.
5b. (5 pts) A modifying input affects the performance of the sensor, often by changing the scaling.
Temperature changes the performance of the sensor, so it is a modifying input. As we will learn later,
the voltage output of such a sensor is dependent linearly on temperature.
5c. (5 pts) An interfering input is an undesired contributor to the sensor’s signal. Because Mg ++ ions also
pass through the ion-selective membrane a little, they contribute to the sensor’s input, and so the
concentration of Mg++ is an interfering input.