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(Effective Alternative Secondary Education)

MATHEMATICS II
Y

MODULE 5
Radical Expressions

BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION


Department of Education
DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue, Pasig City

1
Module 5
Radical Expressions

What this module is about

Just as you did in the case of adding and subtracting radical expressions,
this module will allow you to multiply and divide them by applying the same basic
procedures in dealing with algebraic expressions. You will constantly be using
properties of radicals which is in the box for easy reference.

__ _ _
Property 1 ab = a . b
_
Property 2. a = a
b b

What you are expected to learn

1. Recognize basic radical notation


2. apply the basic properties of radicals to obtain an expression in
simplest radical form.
3. multiply and divide radical expressions.

How much do you know

A. Multiply the following expressions..


_ _
1. 43 . 33
_ _
2. 57 . 27
_ _
3. 25. 7
_ _
4. 52 . 5
__ _
5. (2x2b)(5b )

2
B. Divide the following expressions.
_ _
1. 2  3
_ _
2. 4  6
3 3

_ _
3. 2  2
3

_ _
4. 2  (2 + 3)
__ _ _
5. xy  (x - y)

What will you do

Lesson 1

Multiplication of Radical Expression

In multiplying radical, there are three cases to be considered. These are:

a. Indices are the same. When multiplying radicals having the same
index,
_ _ __
apply: x . y = xy and then if necessary, simplify the resulting
n n n

radicand.

b. Indices are different but radicands are the same. To find the product of
radicals with different indices, but the same radicand, apply the
following steps:

1. transform the radical to fractional exponents.


2. multiply the powers by applying: xm . xn = xm+n (law of exponent)
3. rewrite the product as a single radical.
4. simplify the resulting radicand if necessary.

c. Indices and radicands are different. To find the product with different indices
and radicands, follow the following steps:

1. transform the radicals to powers with fractional exponents.


2. change the fractional exponents into similar fractions.
3. rewrite the product as a single radical
4. Simplify the resulting radicand if necessary.

3
Multiplying monomial radicals

Rules to follow:
Rule 1. If radicals to be multiplied have the same indices, follow the steps
in the examples.
_ _ _
Example 1. Multiply: 2.3.5
Solution: Write the product of two or more radicals as a single expression.
_ _ _ ____
2.3.5 =  2.3.5
__
= 30
__ __
Example 2. Find the product: 12 . 18
Solution: There are two approaches to solve.
__ __ _____
12 . 18 = 12.18 by property 1

___
= 216 Look for the largest perfect square
factor of 216, which is 36.
__ _
= 36 . 6
_
= 66

Second approach: First put each radical into simplest form.


__ __ _ _ _ _
12 . 18 = 4. 3 . 9. 2
_ _
= 23 . 32 Rearrange the factors.
_ _
= 2.33 2
_
= 6 6

Note that the second approach used kept numbers much smaller. The
arithmetic was easier when the radical is simplified first.
_ __
Example 3. Find the product: 7 . 14
Solution: _ __ ____
7 . 14 =  7.14
__
= 98 express the radicand as product

4
of the largest perfect square factor.
__ _
=  49. 2
_
= 72
_ _
Example 4. Multiply: a3 . b6
Solution: _ _ ___
a3 . b6 = ab3.6 simply multiply the radicand
having the same index.
__
= ab18 express the radicand as product
of the largest square factor
_ _
= ab9 . 2
_
= 3ab2
___ ____
Example 5. Get the product: 2ab3 . 12ab
Solution: ____ ____ ___________
2ab3 . 12ab =  (2ab3).(12ab) applying the law of
exponent
_____
= 24a2b4 expressing the radicand
as the largest square
factors
_ _ _ _
= 4 .6 a2 b4
_
= 2ab 6
2

Rule 2. If the radicals have different indices but same radicands, transform the
radicals to powers with fractional exponents, multiply the powers by
applying the multiplication law in exponents and then rewrite the product
as single radical.
_ _
Example 6. 5 . 4 5
_ _
Solution: 5 . 5 = 51/2 . 51/4
4

= 5½+¼

= 53/4
__ ___
= 453 or 4125

5
____ ____
Example 7. (42x – 1) ( 32x – 1
Solution:
_____ _____
( 2x – 1 ) ( 2x – 1) = (2x -1 )1/4 (2x – 1)1/3
4 3

= (2x – 1) ¼ + 1/3
= (2x – 1) 7/12
_______
= (2x – 1)7
12

Rule 3: If radicals have different indices and different radicands, convert the
radicals into powers having similar fraction for exponents and rewrite the
product as a single radical. Simplify the answer if possible.
_ _
Example 8. 2 33
Solution: _ _
2 33 = 21/2 . 31/3
= 23/6 . 32/6
__ __
= 23 . 632
6

____
= 8.9
6

__
= 72
6

_ _
Example 9. 42 . 35
Solution: _ _
4
2 . 35 = 21/4 . 51/3

= 23/12 . 54/12
__ __
= 1223 . 1254
_ ___
= 128 . 12625
_____
= 12 5000

Multiplying a radical by a binomial

In each of the following multiplication, you are to use the distributive


property to expand the binomial terms.

6
_ _ _
Example 10. Multiply: 3 ( 23 + 5)
Solution: Using the distributive law, then
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
3 (23 + 5) = 3 . 23 + 3 . 5
_ _ ____
= 23.3 +  3. 5
___
= 2.3 + 15
__
= 6 + 15
_ _ _
Example 11. Multiply and simplify: 2x (x - 3) – 4(3 - 5x)
Solution: Proceed as if there are no radicals- using the distributive law to
remove the parentheses;
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
2x (x - 3) – 4(3 - 5x) = 2x x - 6x – 12 + 20x
_ _
= 2 x -6x – 12 + 20x
_ _
= 2x - 6x–12 + 20x combine like terms
_
= 2x + 14x – 12

Binomial Multiplication.

This method is very much similar to the FOIL method. The terms are
expanded by multiplying each term in the first binomial by each term in the
second binomial.
_ _ _ _
Example 12. (43 + 2) (3 -52
_ _ _ _
Solution: (43 + 2) (3 -52)
Use the FOIL method, that is multiplying the first terms, outer
terms, inner terms and the last terms.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
= 4(3)(3) -43(52) + 2(3) - 2(52)
_ _ _ _
= 4(3) - 206 + 6 -5(2)2
2

_ _
= 4 . 3 - 206 + 6 – 5 . 2
_ _
= 12 - 206 + 6 – 10
_
= 2 - 196

7
_ _ _ _
Example 13. (a + 3) (b + 3)
_ _ _ _
Solution: (a + 3) (b + 3) FOIL these binomial then
simplify.
__ _ _ _ _ _
= ab + 3a + 3b + (3)2
__ __ __
= ab + 3a + 3b + 3
_ _
Example 14. Multiply and simplify: (7 - 3 )2

Solution. Watch out! Avoid the temptation to square them


separately.

Remember: (a+b)2 a2+ b2

_ _ _ _ _ _
(7 - 3)2 = (7 - 3) (7 - 3)
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
= 7 7 - 7 3 - 7 3 + 3 3
__ __
= 7 - 21 - 21 + 3 Combine like terms
__
= 10 - 221
_ ____
Example 15. (a – 3) – (a – 3 )2
2

Solution: Note the difference between the two expressions being


squared.
The first is a binomial; the second is not.
_ ___ _ _ ____ ___
(a – 3) – (a – 3 ) = (a – 3)(a – 3) - a – 3 a-3
2 2

_ _ _ _
= aa - 3a -3a + 9 – (a - 3)

Note that the parentheses around a – 3 is essential.


_
= a – 6 a + 9 – a + 3
_
= -6a + 12

8
Multiplying Conjugate Binomials

The product of conjugates are always rational numbers. The product of a


pair of conjugates is always a difference of two squares (a 2 – b2), multiplication of
a radical expression by its conjugate results in an expression that is free of
radicals.
__ __
Example 16. (13 -3) (13 + 3)

Solution: Multiply out using FOIL.


__ __ __ __ __ __
(13 -3) (13 + 3) = 13 13 + 313 - 313 – 9 The middle
terms combine to 0.
= 13 – 9

=4 This answer does


not involve radical.
_ _ _ _
Example 17. (5 + 7 ) (5 - 7) A difference of squares
_ _ A square of a root is the
= (5)2 – (7)2 original integer

= -2 Simplified
_ _ _ _
Example 18. (7 + 23)(7 - 23)
_ _
= (7 )2 – (23 )2

= 7 – 12

= -5

9
Try this out

Perform the indicated operations. Simplify all answers as completely as


possible.
A.
_ __ _ __
1. 311 6. 5 45
_ _ __ _ _ __
2. 3513 7. 2610
_ _ _ _ _
3. 6 24 8. 3 5 6
__ __ __ __
4. 18 32 9. 24 28

_ _
5. (-42 )2 10. ( 35 )2

B.
__ _ _ _ _ _
11. 25c . 55 16. (23 - 7)(23 + 7)
_ _ _ ____
12. 25 (53 + 35) 17. ( 1 + x + 2 )2
_ _ _ _ _
13. (25 -4)( 25 + 4) 18. 3 ( 23 - 32)
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
14. (33 - 2) ( 2 + 3) 19. 32 (2 – 4)+ 2 (5 - 2)
_ _ _ _
15. (3 + 2) (3 -5) 20. (x + 3 )2

C. What’s Message?

Do you feel down with people around you? Don’t feel low. Decode the
message by performing the following radical operations. Write the words
corresponding to the obtained value in the box provided for.

10
_ _
are not 2 . 58
_ _
and irreplaceable 3
7 . 7
4

_ _
consider yourself 43 . 33
_ _
Do not 9 . 4
____ _____
Each one 3
9xy . 3 3x4y6
2 3

for people (43a3)2


_ __
is unique 3 . 18
3

__ _
more or less 27 . 3
_ _
nor even equal a (a3 – 7)
_ _
of identical quality 57 . 27
__ __ ___
to others (5a)(2a)(310a2)

6 36 9 _ 30a2
2
a -7a

48a3 20 70 20 ___ ___


9xy2 3x2y2 6
54

_
7
12

11
Lesson 2

Division of radicals

Dividing a radical by another radical, follows the rule similar to


multiplication. When a rational expression contains a radical in its denominator,
you often want to find an equivalent expression that does not have a radical in
the denominator. This is rationalization. Study the following examples.
__
Example 1. Simplify: 72
6
Solution: You are given two solutions:
__
b. Simplify 72. b. Make one radical expression
___ __ __ __
72 = 36 2 72 = 72
6 6 6 6
_ __
= 62 Rationalize = 12
6 _ _
_ _ = 4 3
= 62 . 6 _
6 6 = 23
__
= 612
6
__
= 12
_ _
= 4 3
_
= 23

Note: Clearly the second method is more efficient. If you have the quotient of
two radical expressions and see that there are common factors which can be
reduced, it is usually method 2 is a better strategy, first to make a single radical
and reduce the fraction within the radical sign. then proceed to simplify the
remaining expression.
___
Example 2. 6b7_
30ab
___
Solution: 6b7__ = 6b7 Reduce
30ab 30ab

12
b6
= 5a
_
= b6
5a

= b3
5a
__
= b . 5a
3

5a 5a
__
= b 5a
3

5a

Rationalizing binomial denominators

The principle used to remove such radicals is the familiar factoring


equation. If a or b is square root, and the denominator is a + b, multiply the
numerator and the denominator by a – b and if a or b is a square root and the
denominator is a + b, multiply the numerator and the denominator by a – b. (a +
b) (a – b) = a2- b2

Example 3. ___2___
7 - 5 __ __
Solution: the denominator is 7 - 5, is the difference, so multiply the
numerator and the numerator by the sum 7 + 5:
_ _ _ _
___2___ x 7 + 5 = 2(7 + 5)
7 - 5 7 + 5 (7)2 – (5)2
_ _
= 2(7 + 5 )_
7–5
_ _
= 2(7 + 5) Simplify
2
_ _
= 7 + 5

Example 4. ___20___
10 + 6
__ _
Solution: ___20___ = ___20___ . 10 - 6
10 + 6 10 + 6 10 - 6

13
__ _
= 20(10 - 6)
10 – 6
__ _
= 20(10 - 6 )
4
__ __ _ _
= 5(10 - 6) or 510 - 56

Example 5. Simplify as completely as possible: ___8___ - 10


3 - 5 5
Solution: Begin by rationalizing each denominator. Keep in mind that each
fraction has sits own rationalizing factor.

_ _
___8___ - 10 = ___8___ . 3 + 5 - 10 . 5
3 - 5 5 3 - 5 3 + 5 5 . 5
_ _
= 8(3 + 5) - 105 Reduce each fraction
9–5 5
_ _
= 8(3 + 5) - 105 Simplify the numerator
4 5 and denominator which
_ _ are not radicand.
= 2(3 + 5) - 25 Combine similar
radicands.
_ _
= 6 + 25 - 25
=6
__
Example 6. Simplify: 12 + 18
6
Solution: Begin by simplifying the radical.
__ _ _
12 + 18 = 12 +9 2
6 6
_
= 12 + 32 Factor out the common factor
6 of 3 in the numerator.
_
= 3(4 + 2) simplify
6
_ _
= 4 + 2 or 2 + 2
2 2

14
_ _
Example 7. 2  2
3

_ _ _
Solution: 2  2 = __2__
3

3
2

= 21/2 Change the radicals to fractional exponent.


21/3

= 23/6 Change the fractional exponents to similar


22/6 fractions
6
= 23 Transform the expression as a single radical.
22 and simplify.
_
= 2
6

_____ _______
Example 8. Express as a single radical: 4xy z  16xy2z4
2 2 6

_____ _______
Solution: 4xy2z2  616xy2z4 Transform to fraction
_____
= __4xy2z2__
6
16xy2z4

= (4xy2z3)1/2 Change to fractional exponent


(16xy2z4)1/6

= (4xy2z3)3/6 Change the fractional


(16xy2z4)1/6 exponent to similar fractions.
_______
= (4xy2z2)3
6
Rewrite as radical expressions
6
16xy2z4 the radicand to powers.

=6 64x3y6z6 Simplify.
16xy2z4
6
= 4x2y4z2

_ _
Example 9. Perform: 2  (2 + 3)
_ _ _
Solution: 2  (2 + 3) = __2__ rewrite the expression
2 + 3

15
_ _
= __2__ . 2 -3 rationalize
2 + 3 2 - 3
_ _
= 22 - 6 simplify
4-3
_ _
= 22 - 6
__ _ _
Example 10. Simplify: xy  (x - y)
__ _ _ __
Solution: xy  (x - y) = __xy__ rewrite the expression
(x - y)
__ _ _
= __xy__ . x + y rationalize
x - y x + y
___ ___
= x2y + xy2
x–y
_ _
= x y + yx
x–y

Try this out

A. Divide and simplify


__ __
1. 618  1240
__ __
2. 819  438
_ _
3. 203  53
_ _
4. 426  36
__ _
5. -420  2
_ _
6. 1018  29
__ __
7. 596  224
__ __
8. 3/7 30  1/3 15
__ __
9. 2046  523

16
_ __
10. 63  18
_ __
11. 122  227
_ __
12. 126  ¼ 72
__ ___
13. 50  125
__ ___
14. 45  400

15. 3 3x2b  4 25xy2


B. Simplify
__
1. 10  3 2
_
2. 3 3  3

3. 4
3  3
3

4. 3
6  4
6

5. 36 
3 4
6
_ _
6. 9  3

7. 4
27  3
2

8. __1__
2 + 5
9. __1__
3 - 11

10. __3__
3 – 1

D. Why is tennis a noisy game?

Solve the radicals by performing the indicated operation. Find the answer below
and exchange it for each radical letter.

17
_ _ _ _ __ _
E 2  3 P 3
8  36 R 4
36  46

_ _ ___7___ _ __
I
3
4  36 E 6 + 5 K 46 - 321
3
_ _ _ __ ____ ____
L 2  32 C 5  15 Y 3
 3x2b  325xy2

_ _ ___ _
S 2
2 (2+3) V _1_ E 3
108  32
x
__ __
A 563  67 A 400 R _1_
20 5
__ __ _ __
E 628 R 80  5 A 2046
34 523
_ _ __ __
R __1__ Y 1018  29 T 596  224
2+5 6 5
__ ___ _ _
A __3__ E 25  625 S
3
3  35
3 - 1

6 x _ 3
36 _______
_ _
3 2 7 4 52 3 6
2 5 3
15bxy 5 5
2 5y 5 5

_ 33+ 3
18 _ 3
75 _ _ _ 3 _ _ _ 25
6 2 2 6
4 3
3 3 27 5 42 -2+5 25 3 47-37 3
2

Let us summarize
Definition:

The pairs of expressions like x - y and x + y or x - y and x + y


are called conjugates. The product of a pair of conjugates has no radicals in it.
Hence, when we rationalize a denominator that has two terms where one or more
of them involve a square-root radical, we multiply by an expression equal 1, that
is, by using the conjugate of the denominator.
18
What have you learned

A. Fill in the blanks.

1. For a = b2, _______is the square root of ______.


2. When no index is indicated in a radical, then it is understood that the index
is _____.
3. In radical form, 169 3/2 is written as ____ or ____
__
4. In simplest form. 54 is ____
__
5. In simplest form 16 is ____
3

__
6. In simplest form 64 is ____
4

__
7. in simplest form, 16 is ___
6

_____
8. In simplest form 50x7y11
____ ____
9. The product of (3 2 + 4)(32 – 4)
__ __
10. The product 26 . 44 _ __ __
11. The combined form 57 -228 - 348 is ___________.
__
12. In simplest form, the quotient 27 = _______
48
___
13. In simplest , the quotient 3135 = _____
3
40 _
14. In simplest form, the quotient __7__
3 - 2
______
15. In simplest form, the quotient 162x6y7 = ____
4
4
32x8y

19
Answer Key

How much do you know:

A. 1. 3.4.3 = 36
2. 5.2.7 = 70
__
3. 235

4.510
5. 10bx
_
B. 1. 6/3
__
2. 18/3
3

_
3. 2
6

_ _
4. 22 - 6
_ _
5. xy + yx
x-y

Try this out

Lesson 1
__
A. 1. 33
___
2. 199

3. 12
__
4. 1212

5. 32

6. 15
_
7. 23
__
8. 310
__
9. 242

20
10. 45
_
B. 11. 50c
__
12. 1015 + 30

13. 4
_ _
14. 26 + 7 or 7 + 26
_ _
15. -33 – 7 or -7 - 33

16. 5
____
17. 3 + x + 2 x + 2
_
18. 6 - 36
_
19. 4 - 72
__
20. 3 + x + 23x

C.

Do not consider more or less nor even to others


yourself equal

for people are not of identical each one Is unique


quality

and are
irreplaceable

21
Lesson 2

Try this out.


_ _
A. 1. 35 11. 26
20 3
__ __
2. 219 12. 12
19 4
__
3. 4 13. 10
5
_
4. 14 14. 35

__ _____
5. - 410 15. 75bxy2
4

_ 5y
6. 5 2

7. 10
_
8. 92
2
_
9. 42
_
10. 6

___ _
B. 1. 6
250 8. -2 +5
___ __
2. 6
243 9. 3 + 11
3 -2
__ _
3. 12
311 10. 1 + 33
3 2
_
4. 12
6
__ ____
5. 12
6 or 7776
5 12

_
6. 3
___

22
7. 12
243

C. Why is tennis a noisy game?

6 x _ 36
3
_ 5 15xby
3
5 5
3 2 7 4 52 3 6
2 6 5y 5 5
E V E R Y P L A Y E R

R A I S E S A R A C K E T
_ 33+ 3
18 3
75 _ _ 3 _ _ _ 25
6
4
3 3 2 27 5 42 -2+5 25 3 42-37 3 3
2 6
2

What have you learned

A. 1. a,b
2. 2
____ ________
3. 169 or  4826809
3

_
4. 36
_
5. 2  2
3

_
6. 2 4
4

__
7. 64
6

___
8. 5x y 2xy
3 5

9. 18 + 9x

10. 6 16
_ _
11. 7 - 123

12. 3/4

13. 3/2
__ __
14. 21 + 14
______
15. 3472x2y6
4x

23