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Workshop Manual

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Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ ,


Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol 2006 ➤ ,

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Gol 2009 ➤ , Gol 2013 ➤ , Golf 1999 ➤ ,


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Polo Sedan 2012 ➤ , Saveiro 2000 ➤ ,


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Saveiro 2006 ➤ , Saveiro 2010 ➤ ,


Saveiro 2014 ➤ , SpaceFox 2006 ➤ ,
SpaceFox 2011 ➤ , Voyage 2009 ➤ ,
Voyage 2013 ➤
Wheels and Tyres - General information
Edition 04.2013

Service Department. Technical Information


Service
List of Workshop Manual Repair GroupsList of Workshop Manual
Repair GroupsList of Workshop Manual Repair Groups

Repair Group
00 - Technical data

AG. Volkswagen AG d
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Prote AG.

Technical information should always be available to the foremen and mechanics, because their
careful and constant adherence to the instructions is essential to ensure vehicle road-worthiness and
safety. In addition, the normal basic safety precautions for working on motor vehicles must, as a
matter of course, be observed.

All rights reserved.


No reproduction without prior agreement from publisher.

Copyright © 2013 Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg D3E804CBC09


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Contents

00 - Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 General notes on rims and tyres (vehicles and passengers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Technical conditions for combining rims and tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Generalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Protecting the wheel centering seat against corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1 Wear/tyre mileage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Rolling noises coming from the tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3 Drive instability due to rim/tyre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4 The vehicle deviates to one side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.5 Damages aon genthe tyres
AG. Volkswag. e.n.A.G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
does 28
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2.6 Useful
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V notes related to tyres and wheels
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Contents i
Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

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ii Contents
Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General
AG. Volkinformation
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00 – Technical data
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1 General notes on rims and tyres (ve‐

un

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hicles and passengers)

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ility
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(VRL005664; Edition 04.2013)

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This information that follows aims to help you in case of tyre dam‐

spec
urposes, in part or in wh
age and complaints.

t to the co
This chapter handles technical information regarding tyres and
wheels.

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Tyres are technologically advanced products, optimized for con‐
ditions of use in modern vehicles.

ss
As with all products resulting from advanced technological devel‐

o
cial p

f
opment, these also must be handled with care. It is the only way

inform
to ensure safety, durability and driving comfort for the entire useful
mer

life of the tyre.

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Tyres are subject to a process of constant evolution. Modern
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building techniques, manufacturing processes and permanent
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quality control produce tyres of a high standard of quality. All tyres


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recommended by Volkswagen have been tested by the depart‐

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ment of technical development and have been optimized for the yi


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type of vehicle on which they are to be used, in co-operation with . Cop py
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For this reason, if a tyre must be replaced we advise using a
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product of a brand we recommend.
AG.

Vehicle safety is our foremost priority. Considering different con‐


ditions of use, such as:
• different speeds,
• wet or dry surfaces,
During their life, tyres must meet many different use require‐
ments. For this important reason, the basic prerequisites for the
best possible use of tyres have been compiled in one place.
Correct adjustment of the axle geometry is a crucial factor to en‐
sure maximum durability of the tyres. Thus, the adjustment of the
axle geometry must remain strictly within the indicated tolerance
limits.
Information on measuring the axle geometry of the vehicle ⇒
Running gear, axles, steering; Rep. gr. 44 ; Vehicle measure‐
ment, wheels, tyres .

Note

The causes of tyre damage and of complaints may be diverse. It


is therefore very important to know whether the complaint origi‐
nates in the tyre or in other components.

The normal tyre wear alters its characteristics. This may result in
noises and driving instability. These are not considered damages
as in faults, but they are signs of wear which may, by taking ob‐
jective action, be at least partly eliminated. Driving noises can be
100% eliminated, in some cases.

1. General notes on rims and tyres (vehicles and passengers) 1


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

1.1 Technical conditions forAGcombining


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• Combination and alterationstho shown in each vehicle's table re‐ or
au
fer only to original Volkswagen
ss wheels ac

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• Rim/tyre combinations or alterations with wheels acquired in

pt
du

an
the auto parts trade cannot be homologated.
itte

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• Radial tyres without inner tube may be mounted on oblique rim

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shoulders with safety shoulder, for example rounded shoulder.

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h re
• When using a rim/tyre combination, the respective tyre cali‐
hole

spec
bration values must be complied with. Tyre calibration values
es, in part or in w

are indicated on a label on the inside of the fuel tank's nozzle

t to the co
compartment lid or in instruction manuals and service manuals
for each vehicle.

rrectness of i
• Front and rear wheel must be of the same manufacture type
and size. In four-wheel-drive vehicles, always use tyres of the
l purpos

same brand and tread.

1.2 Generalities

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1.2.1 Wheel bolts - Tightening torques


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To obtain the tightening torques for the wheel bolts, please refer

o
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rp

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to ⇒ Chassis, axles, steering; Rep. gr. 44 ; Wheels, tyres, vehicle
o

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dimensions (wheel alignment)


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1.2.2 Wheel hole circle diameter
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Hole Models
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circle
diame‐
ter
100 Gol G4 Parati G4 Saveiro G4
mm Fox SpaceFox CrossFox
Polo Golf Gol / Voyage /
Saveiro (5U)
112 Kombi
mm

2 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

1.2.3 Wheel specifications

1- - Rim bead
Tire side bead rest
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2– - Curvature (H2) ain
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Elevated curvature (EH2) pre‐

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scribed for the use of rims with

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emergency operation charac‐

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3- - Rabbet
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Facilitates tire assembly

A- - Rim opening width

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Distance between tire rest sur‐
faces of both rim edges

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Measurement in inches f inform


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B- - Rim diameter
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Distance between the resting


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surfaces of the opposing tire


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Measurement in inches
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C- - Insertion depth
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Distance between the wheel's
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vertical middle and the internal
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wheel rest surface

Measurement in millimeters

D- - Hole circle diameter


Diameter of the circle with wheel bolt holes

Measurement in millimeters

E- - Central hole boring


Works as centering

Measurement in millimeters

Different specifications may apply to the wheels. The specifica‐


tions necessary to correctly identify the rim may be seen in the
following example:
Part number: 6E0 601 027 A
Rim dimensions: 6 J x 15
6 - Dimension of rim width in inches
J - form of the tyre edge
15 - rim diameter in inches.
Distance between the centre and the rim contact face 43 ( Offset )
(ET) in mm:

1. General notes on rims and tyres (vehicles and passengers) 3


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Salience data for rim shoulder: EH2


extended salience 1)
1) Salient round shoulder on both rim shoulders. These are intended, when using a tyre with the characteristics of an airless emergency
tyre, to prevent it from jumping from its fit on the tyre shoulder. Wheels with EH2 are necessary only when tyres with emergency charac‐
teristics are mounted!

1.3 Protecting the lkswagwheel


en AG. V centering
olkswagen AG
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Can be used in all
au light alloy wheels and steel wheels.
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If the wheel is replaced, the wheel centring seat must be washed

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nl

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with Cleaning spray - D 322 000 A2- as a preventive measure

an
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against corrosion between the wheel centring seat and the wheel

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rim. Refer to the ⇒ Chemicals Manual .

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– Remove the wheel.
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– Clean the centering seat in the wheel hub and the wheel rim

spec
centering thoroughly.
es, in part or in w

t to the co
– Apply wax on the centering area -arrow - with a brush.
Be sure to wax only the centering -arrow - and not the wheel ring

rrectness of i
stop. Otherwise, this will cause dirt build-up on the brake surface
when the vehicle is moving, which may cause poor braking action.
l purpos

WARNING nform
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at

The wheel bolts, wheel stop/hub surfaces and wheel hub


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threads should not be waxed. Never apply lubricants or anti-


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corrosion agents on the wheel bolt threads.


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– Install and fasten the wheel .


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4 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


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Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ ,byFox V 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Golot1999
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Wheels riseand Tyres - General information - Edition nte 04.2013
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2 Curiosities about rims and tyres (pas‐

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2.1 Wear/tyre mileage

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2.1.1 Generalities

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Tyres must meet uncountable needs ⇒ page 5 . l purpos
Each need is already partly considered in the tyres.
From tyres of types H, V and Z for “higher motorization vehicles”

nform
ercia

high adherence is expected, even on wet surfaces or in aqua‐


planing conditions. Conversely, total mileage obtained with this
m

at
manufacturing concept cannot be as high as that obtainable with
om

ion
tyres of types S or T.
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ate

2.1.2 What a tyre must provide

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for

A - Good braking behaviour on wet road surface

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C - Precise steering
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D - Driving stability
E - Tyre weight
F - Durability expectation
G - Road resistance
H - Aquaplaning
The circular surface shows a tyre's suitability. It indicates in what
way need factors from A to H can be incorporated in the structure
and rubber mix of the tyre.
Improving performance in relation to a certain need may entail
neglecting another need.
Example:
Improving braking behaviour on a wet roadway -A- entails a re‐
duction in driving comfort -B-, in road resistance -G- and in
expected life (durability) -F-.
Tyre durability in passenger vehicles does not depend solely on
rubber mixture and tyre construction type. Conditions of use, the
specific vehicle's conditions and the driving style also impact de‐
cisively the kilometres a tyre may travel over its life.
Modern vehicles equipped with adequate motorization allow both
a careful, economical driving style, as a more sporty behaviour.
Distances driven with the tyres can be from 5,000 to 40,000 km.

Note

Driving style is the one factor that most impacts tyre's durability.

2.1.3 Wear behaviour of high speed tyres


These tyres were developed to run at higher speeds. For this
reason, their design emphasizes good adherence on wet road
surfaces. The tyre's tread mixes are not as resistant to abrasion

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 5


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

as those used on tyres of types T and H, developed for lower


speeds.
For this reason, the durability of high speed tyres in similar uti‐
lization conditions is substantially lower.

2.1.4 Factors that influence tyre durability


The following factors have different impacts as regards tyre du‐
rability.
Driving style:
♦ Speed ⇒ page 6
♦ Brakes ⇒ page 6
♦ Acceleration ⇒ page 7
♦ Displacement in a curve ⇒ page 7
More information is available on factors related to driving styles
⇒ page 6
Maintenance:
♦ Air pressure in tyres ⇒ page 7
More information is available on factors related to maintenance
⇒ page 7
Ambient conditions: AG. Volkswagen AG d
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♦ Surface paving olksw not
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♦ External temperature/Climate horis
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♦ Weight
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♦ Values of convergence angles and camber


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Tyre use: wit


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♦ Speed limits
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spec
es, in part or in w

♦ Dry or wet
t to the co

2.1.5 Driving style:


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I. Motion at constant speed without slowing down or picking up


speed
l purpos

Example:
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Speed in km/h Skidding Abrasion wear


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m

atio

100 1 1
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c

180 3 9
or

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II. Brakes (driving style)


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Braking causes the greatest abrasion wear. opyri
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Example: Braking starting at a speed of 50 km/h
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Braking course (m) Deceleration (m/s2) 2) Skidding Abrasion wear


Vehicle in motion until stop 0 0
100 0.1 x g 4 1
50 0.2 x g 8 4
12,5 0.4 x g 3) 32 2000 - 3000

6 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

2) g = gravity acceleration: 9.81 m/s2


3) The delay of 0.4 x g corresponds to a hard braking.

III. Acceleration (driving style)


The skidding that occurs with a smooth starting is approximately
the same that occurs at a constant speed of approximately 100
km/h. 100 km/h
Example:
Skidding Abrasion wear
AG. Volkswagen AG d
Smooth starting lksw
agen 1 - 2 oes
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1
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Normal starting byV 7-8 gu
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Starting with wheels skidding tho 20 and above o100 - 200
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IV. Displacement in curve (driving style)

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ility
Also in curves, a “sporty” driving style and taking the curves at a
ot p

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higher speed cause greater wear.
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hole

In practice, this means that doubling the speed in a curve will

spec
cause an abrasion wear 16 times greater. This would be the “high-
es, in part or in w

t to the co
speed supplement” disbursed for faster travel.
Example: taking a curve with a 150 m radius

rrectness of i
Speed in km/h Transverse acceleration (m/s2) 4) Abrasion wear
l purpos

50 1 = 0.13 x g 1
80 2,5 = 0.33 x g 6,5

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100 4 = 0.53 x g 16
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4) g = gravity acceleration: 9.81 m/s2

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2.1.6 Tyre maintenance


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Air pressure in the tyre
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Note
AG.

Tire pressure must be checked in the label located on the fuel


tank compartment lid. Or, in case of Kombi, the label located on
column “B” of the driver side must be checked.

The weight of the vehicle causes the tyre's contact surface to flat‐
ten. During driving, the tyre suffers a forced deformation all
around the tread and mesh. In case of low air pressure, the forced
deformation is greater, resulting in greater heating and higher
road resistance. This causes greater wear and a higher safety
risk.
Example: recommended air pressure, depending on load with
empty tyres
Air pressure (bar) Air pressure (%) Kilometres travelled (%)
2,3 100 100
1,9 80 85
1,4 60 60

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 7


n AG. Volkswagen AG do
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by ua ➤ , Gol
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Wheels andtho Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013 tee
or
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Air pressure (bar) Air pressure (%) Kilometres travelled (%)
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un

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1,0 40 25

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Excessive air pressure would cause greater wear in the centre

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and worsen driving comfort. We recommend following the air
is n

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pressure indicated by the manufacturer.
ole,

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

t to the co
Note

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♦ The charts presented are not applicable to all situations and

s
must show only the wear behaviour in the front and real axles

s o
cial p

f
and in vehicles with front-wheel and four-wheel drive.

inform
mer

♦ Depending on use conditions and on the running gear, the kil‐

atio
ometres travelled can diverge substantially.
om

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Diagram 1:
t

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Track depth in kilometres travelled for vehicles with front-wheel

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drive and V tyres. yi


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P - Track depth t. C rig
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S - Distance travelled
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1 - Front axle
2 - Rear axle

Diagram 2:
Track depth in kilometres travelled for vehicles with four-wheel
drive and V tyres.
P - Track depth
S - Distance travelled
1 - Front axle
2 - Rear axle
As shown in graphs 1 and 2, the wear of a tyre with new track is,
for a certain amount of kilometres travelled, greater than the wear
of a tyre with a certain amount of use. After the first 5,000 km no
conclusion can be drawn as to total duration, as the wear curve
does not unfurl in a linear fashion.
In front-wheel drive vehicles, front tyres must transmit not only the
steering and driving forces, but also most of the side and braking
forces. Due to this demand, tyre wear in the front of front-wheel
drive vehicles is much greater than in the rear tyres. A uniform
wear of all the tyres may be obtained by rotating the front and rear
tyres at regular intervals. Wheel replacement ⇒ page 41 .

2.1.7 Tyres with uniform wear


Demands put on tyres increase all the time.
The reason may be related to one of the following factors:
♦ heavier vehicle
♦ high speed
♦ greater vehicle safety
A greater effort by the tyre will entail greater wear.

8 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

The driving style has a decisive impact. For this reason, tyres with
wear complaints and tread wear are replaced outside the war‐
ranty.
The kilometres travelled by a tyre can be seen only with a re‐
maining track depth of 2 mm; graphs ⇒ page 8 .

2.1.8 Measuring track depth

Note

♦ The main track splines are the measuring points to determine


the track depth.
♦ Do not measure in TW (Tread Wear Indicator).

The track depth must be measured in the main splines at the


points of worse tyre wear. The positions of the TWI indicators are
visible on the tire shoulder .
Instead of the “TWI” there may be a “Δ” or the manufacturer's
“symbol”.
The TWI saliences are 1.6 mm high. This is the minimum surface
track depth allowed by law.
In other countries values
agen may differ. AG do
AG. Volkswagen
ksw es n
Vol ot g
d by ua
ran
e
ris tee
tho or
au ac
ss
ce
le

TWI indicators may not be included in the measurements. The


un

pt
an
d

measure obtained at the lowest point of the surface spline is de‐


itte

y li

terminant for the measurement value.


erm

ab
ility
ot p

A - TWI indicators at the main surface splines.


wit
is n

h re

B - Main surface splines with TWI indicators -arrows-


ole,

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

t to the co
rrectness o
cial p

f inform
mer

atio
om

n
c

i
or

n thi
te

sd
iva

o
pr

cum
r
fo

en
ng

2.1.9 Unilateral wear


t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
gh
The causes often reside in the vehicle's driving behaviour, but this
ht
pyri by
Vo
o
may also result from an incorrect adjustment of the axles.
by c lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 9


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

High unilateral wear


Unilateral wear is usually associated to abrasion in the tread ribs
and to small hits; and it always occurs when the tyres run with an
extreme roll angle, suffering as a consequence »abrasion wear«
on the rolling lane.
Fast travel in curvy stretches causes greater wear especially on
the tyre's outer shoulder.
A rounded tyre outer shoulder, together with a pronounced wear
of the tyre surface outer blocks, indicate that curves were taken
at high speed. This wear situation is a consequence of driving
style.
AG. Volkswagen
To optimize the behaviour of the lmoving ksw
agen vehicle, the values
AG do
esof
n tthe
convergence angles and ofdthe by Vocamber must be adjusted. If othe gu
ar
tyres roll in conditions other
orise than those indicated, there unilateral, ante
greater wear. au
th eo
ra
ss c
Particularly if the values of convergence angles and the camber

ce
e
nl

pt
are incorrect, the unilateral wear may be greater and the risk of
du

an
itte

diagonal abrasion may also increase.

y li
erm

ab
ility
ot p

Divergence or negative convergence

wit
, is n

h re
The distance between the wheels is greater at the front -A- than
hole

spec
the distance -B- behind (-C- direction of travel).
es, in part or in w

t to the co
rrectness of i
l purpos

nform
mercia

at
om

ion
c

in t
or

his
ate

do
priv

cum
for

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
by c lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

10 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013
AG. Volkswagen AG d
Positive convergence agen oes
olksw not
V gu
by ara
The distance between the ris wheels is lower at the front -A- in rela‐
ed
nte
tion to distance -B- abehind
ut
ho
(-C- direction of travel). eo
ra
ss c
To avoid unilateral tyre wear, observe that the position of the

ce
le
un
wheels remains within tolerance values indicated by the vehicle's

pt
an
d
itte

manufacturer. The most frequent wheel alignment deviation is

y li
erm

ab
due to external causes. For example, hitting the wheel on the curb

ility
ot p

extremely hard during a parking manoeuvre.

wit
is n

h re
While measuring the axle geometry, it may be determined wheth‐
ole,

er the position of the wheel is within the tolerance values indicated

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

or it may be necessary to carry out a correction.

t to the co
Running gear alterations
If “lowering kits” and/or light alloy wheels not recommended by

rrectne
Volkswagen are used, the position of the wheels may diverge
from the position indicated by the factory.

ss
Even if the adjustment of the axle geometry appears to be correct

o
cial p

f i
when measured on the stationary vehicle, altering the height and

nform
position of the wheels with the vehicle in motion may modify the
mer

suspension's moving patterns.

atio
om

n
c

Irregular wear will be the following consequence:

i
or

n thi
te

sd
a

Inadequate use of running gear levelling with pneumatic suspen‐


iv

o
pr

c
sion.

um
r
fo

en
ng

t.
yi
Using Off-road - Level adjustment is only recommended for all
Co
op py
terrain driving. Permanently using Off-road - Level adjustment in
t. C rig
gh ht
yri
normal driving conditions on (paved) roads may cause great tyre p by
o Vo
by c
wear, because the height change modifies the position of the
lksw
cted agen
Prote
wheels in relation to the floor level.
AG.

To prevent unilateral tyre damage, on one side, the correct axle


geometry adjustment must be ensured, while on the other side
the vehicle must be used appropriately.
Good maintenance of vehicle and tyres contributes to prevent
wear. The following indications must be observed for that pur‐
pose:

Note

Tire pressure must be checked in the lable located on the fuel


tank compartment lid. Or, in case of Kombi, the label located on
column “B” of the driver side must be checked.

♦ The minimal tyre calibration pressure must be observed.


♦ Depending on driving style, different wear in front and rear
axles may not be avoidable. To counter this effect, the wheels
may be rotated regularly. It is also useful to replace the sum‐
mer tyres with winter tyres, and vice versa. This replacement
has as a positive result an even wear on all tyres, making the
assembly of a complete set of new tyres possible. This avoids
the use of tyres with different tread designs on both axles, and
the results may be negative on behaviour of the vehicle in mo‐
tion.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 11


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

♦ The wear in shape of saw consists in a normal wear especially


in the very calm driving mode ⇒ page 15 . This fact can cause
a higher rolling noise (in the tread), but it usually owners again,
as the reduction of depth grooves occurs. If the existence of a
wear in the shape of saw is still incipient or it is still being built-
up, the wheel's rotation on the axles is generally enough to
resist to this effect. In case of unusual wear in shape of saw,
the wheels shall be rotated in accordance ⇒ page 15 , so as
to change its tread direction.
♦ Some designs on the tyre tread suggest visually an anticipated
wear when the ribs on the winter tyres or the incisions on the
surface got worn, remaining only the compact blocks without
empty areas, which give an idea of wear on the tyre. In this
case, it is required to measure the remaining depth of the tyre
tread remaining portion in each tyre's groove. If this depth is
higher than the minimum depth required by law (1.6 mm; it is
recommended in Germany the use of winter tyres with a re‐
maining depth of 4 mm, and only under weather conditions
typical of summer [law imposition in Austria], the tyre can con‐
tinue to be used without reservation. wage
n AG. Volkswagen AG do
es
ks not
Vol gu
d by ara
2.1.10 Wear on the outer shoulder
e nte
ris
utho eo
ra
a c
ss
Improper use of running gear levelling adjustment with pneumatic

ce
le

suspension
un

pt
an
d
itte

y li
Using Off-road - Level adjustment is only recommended for all
erm

ab
terrain driving. Permanently using Off-road - Level adjustment in

ility
ot p

normal driving conditions on (paved) roads may cause great tyre

wit
is n

wear, because the height change modifies the position of the

h re
ole,

wheels in relation to the floor level.

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

To prevent unilateral tyre damage, on one side, the correct axle

t to the co
geometry adjustment must be ensured, while on the other side
the vehicle must be used appropriately.

rrectne
Good maintenance of vehicle and tyres contributes to prevent
wear. For this purpose, the following individual indications must
be observed:

ss o
cial p

f inform
mer

Note
atio
om

Tire pressure must be checked in the lable located on the fuel


c

i
or

n thi

tank compartment lid. Or, in case of Kombi, the label located on


te

sd
a

column “B” of the driver side must be checked.


iv

o
pr

cum
r
fo

en
ng

♦ The minimal tyre calibration pressure must be observed.


t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
♦ Depending on driving style, different wear in front and rear yri
gh by
ht
axles may not be avoidable. To counter this effect, the wheels cop Vo
by lksw
may be rotated regularly. It is also useful to replace the sum‐
cted agen
Prote AG.
mer tyres with winter tyres, and vice versa. This replacement
has as a positive secondary result an even wear on all tyres,
making the assembly of a complete set of new tyres possible.
This avoids the use of tyres with different tread designs on both
axles, and the results may be negative on behaviour of the
vehicle in motion.
♦ The wear in shape of saw consists in a normal wear especially
in the very calm driving mode ⇒ page 15 . This fact can cause
a higher rolling noise, but it usually owners again, as the re‐
duction of depth grooves occurs. If the existence of a wear in
the shape of saw is still incipient or it is still being built-up, the
wheel's rotation on the axles is generally enough to resist to
this effect. In case of unusual wear in shape of saw, the wheels
shall be rotated in accordance ⇒ page 15 , so as to change
its tread direction.

12 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels
olksw
and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013
AG. V agen AG
agen does
lksw not
♦ Some designs on the tyred btread
yV
o
suggest visually an anticipated gu
ar
wear when the ribs on oristhe winter tyres or the incisions on the ante
e
surface got worn, aremaining
ut
h only the compact blocks without eo
ra
empty areas, which
ss give an idea of wear on the tyre. In this c
case, it is required to measure the remaining depth of the tyre

ce
le
un

pt
tread remaining portion in each tyre's groove. If this depth is

an
d
itte

y li
higher than the minimum depth required by law (1.6 mm; it is
erm

ab
recommended in Germany the use of winter tyres with a re‐

ility
ot p

maining depth of 4 mm, and only under weather conditions

wit
is n

typical of summer [law imposition in Austria], the tyre can con‐

h re
ole,

tinue to be used without reservation.

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

2.1.11 Wear on the centre portion of the tyre

t to the co
This wear condition can be seen on the driving wheels of powerful
vehicles that ride long distances at high speeds.

rrectne
At high speeds, and due to centrifugal force, the diameter of

s
wheels increases more at the centre portion of tyre's tread than

s o
on the tyre's shoulders. Consequently the propulsion force is
cial p

f in
transmitted up from the centre area of tyre tread on the asphalt

form
mer

surface. This is reflected on the wear condition.

atio
m

These symptoms are noticeable especially on wide tyres.


o

n
c

i
or

n thi
e

The reduction of air pressure on the tyres does not change this
t

sd
va

wear condition.
i

o
pr

cum
r
fo

en
ng

t.
yi Co
WARNING t. Cop py
rig
gh ht
yri by
The reduction of tyre inflation pressure below the indicated
op Vo
by c lksw
values is not allowed, for safety reason.
cted agen
Prote AG.

The wear condition due to abrasion remains even if the tyre ro‐
tation is made from front axle to rear axle.
Higher wear on the tyre tread
The higher wear on the centre portion of the tyre tread is linked
to the effort's request resulting from centrifugal force of tyre and
transmission of propulsion forces.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 13


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

2.1.12 Diagonal abrasion


The diagonal abrasion on the tyres
The diagonal abrasion occurs at an angle of about 45° concerning
the perimeter direction.
In the most of cases they happen only once, but several abrasion
conditions can arise on the tyre perimeter.Volkswa
AG. gen AG
agen do
The wear due to abrasion happens olks almost exclusively on sthe
w e n
ot tyre
yV g
not impelled, especially on d the rear left tyre. There are modelsuaof
b ran
ir se
vehicles where the wear th due to abrasion arises continuously and e o
o te
there are models where
ss
au
this type of wear does not cause any ra
c
problem. The effect is increased due to high toe-in values. The

ce
e
nl

toe-in values located close to lower tolerance limit of adjustment

pt
du

an
values indicated improve the wear condition.
itte

y li
erm

ab
The connection point of tyre components is frequently on the most

ility
ot p

accentuated abrasion zone.

wit
, is n

h re
The wheels with toe-in roll including when the vehicle is being
hole

spec
driven straight ahead at an oblique rolling angle. This fact causes
es, in part or in w

a diagonal stress on the asphalt/tyre contact zone.

t to the co
To resist to such wear conditions, the toe-in values of both rear
wheels shall be similar and the air pressure values shall be kept

rrectness of i
within the indicated values.
l purpos

When abrasion conditions are detected, the wheels shall be as‐


sembled in the drive shaft if the abrasion wear is at the beginning.
An accentuated wear due to abrasion is not serviceable.
nf
ercia

Adjustment errors orm


m

atio
om

n in

In case of claim due to “diagonal abrasion”, check the toe-in ad‐


or c

justment. If the toe-in values are correct, the cause of diagonal


thi
te

sd
a

abrasion is probably on the tyre.


iv

o
r
rp

cu
o

The tyres with diagonal abrasion due to wrong adjustment of axle


f

en
ng

t.
yi
geometry on the wheels are not covered by warranty.
Co
Cop py
t. rig
gh ht
yri by
2.2 Rolling noises coming from the tyres
cop Vo
by lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

2.2.1 General notes about rolling noises


The rolling noises perceptible by human ears are the result of
vibrations coming from a sound source, and they reach our ears
through the air.
In this case the noises engage our attraction; they are caused due
to certain features and effects while the tyres are rolling.
The reason for noise occurrence depends essentially on the com‐
bination tyre/rolling lane.
The structure of the surface and the running lane material influ‐
ence the rolling noise very much too. The noise level caused on
a wet running lane is, for example, substantially higher than that
on a dry running lane.
The type of profile of the tyre tread has a great influence on the
noise occurrence. The tyres with 90° angle-grooves cause more
noise than those tyres with oblique angle drawing.
The tyre tread blocks of small tyres are unstable. The air is excited
due to its strong deformation during the tyre rolling. There are
vibrations caused by air that produce noises.
The wider tyres cause more noises. They need a higher quantity
of grooves for flowing the water. During driving, these grooves on
the tyre tread displace the air and it vibrates.

14 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


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Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Other effects that influence the noise occurrence:


♦ The “vibration of tyres” is the main cause of rolling noises.
AG. Volkswagen AG d
These noises are caused
lksw
agen by excitement ofoair
es ncolumns in the
tyre's tread grooves.
d byV
o ot g
ua
e ran
ris t
♦ “Air pumping”
tho is the compression and the expansion ofeethe
o air
s au up in the connection of tyre's bearing surfacer awith
that builds c
s
the running lane, due to deformation of tyre's tread blocks.

ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
Argumentation aid in case of rolling noises
itte

y li
erm

ab
The noise occurrence is caused essentially due to tyres and the

ility
ot p

running lane.

wit
, is n

h re
The influence factors of running lane are roughness, the structure
hole

spec
and the material.
es, in part or in w

t to the co
The factors that influence the tyres are the wheel and the tyre
width, among others. A wider tyre, due to its bearing surface, in‐
duces to noise occurrence, because it repels more air and be‐

rrectness of i
cause there is more “mass” to vibrate than in a smaller tyre.
l purpos

Likewise, a wider wheel originates a wider bearing surface. The


effects of the noise occurrence are basically similar to those of a
wider tyre. Moreover, the attenuation features of the tyres are

nf
ercia

o
negatively influenced by wider wheels under given circumstan‐

rm
m

ces.

atio
om

n in
c

The rolling noises are especially perceptible at the rear portion of


or

those vehicles equipped with front engine, provided that the thi
te

sd
iva

noises coming from the engine and from the wind are less audible
o
r
rp

cu

at the rear portion of the passenger compartment.


o

m
f

en
ng

t.
yi
2.2.2 Wear occurrence in the shape of saw
Co
Cop py
ht. rig
rig ht
by
The wear in the shape of saw is a layered wear of every tyre tread copy Vo
by lksw
block ⇒ page 16 , causing an increase of the rolling noise. The
cted agen
Prote AG.
saw teeth appears due to uneven deformation of the tyre tread
blocks on its bearing surface. At the non-driving wheels, the wear
in the shape of saw happens in a more accentuated way than on
the driving wheels.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 15


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

On new tyres there is a more accentuated trend to the build-up of


saw teeth, because the tyre tread blocks have a higher elasticity.
The reduction of the tyre's tread groove depth increases the ri‐
gidity of the blocks on the floor, reducing the trend for wear
occurrence in the shape of saw.
Aspect of saw tooth
A - Blocks of the tread on a new tyre; the blocks of the tyre tread
have in the drive direction perspective, -arrow 1- the same height
forwards and backwards.
B - Wear occurrence in the shape of saw; the blocks ofolkthe
AG. V swatyre
gen AG
agen d
tread in the drive direction perspective are Vol-arrow
ksw 1- higher at the oes not g
front portion than at the rear portion -arrow
ed
by 2-. ua
ran
is tee
or
C - The blocks on the tyre treadaublocks
th present in the running or
ac
direction perspective, -arrow 1-s a higher wear on the front portion
s

ce
le

of the “saw tooth” -arrow 3-.


un

pt
an
d
itte

If there is an accentuated occurrence of wear in the shape of saw,

y li
erm

ab
it may lead to claims due to noises.

ility
ot p

wit
Cases where the occurrence of wear in the shape of saw is ac‐
is n

h re
centuated:
ole,

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

♦ toe-in values too high

t to the co
♦ wrong tyre pressure
♦ tyre tread profile rough and open

rrectne
♦ tyres assembled in an axle deprived of propulsion.

ss
♦ displacement in winding routes under extreme conditions

o
cial p

f in
Tyres without indication of tread direction

form
mer

When the saw teeth appear, the change of the tread direction of
atio
m

the tyre is required. If the wear occurrence in the shape of saw is


o

n
c

i
or

accentuated, as well as the rolling noise, perform the tyre rotation


thi
te

on a crisscross pattern. This procedure leads to a reduction of


sd
iva

o
r

saw teeth.
p

cum
r
fo

en
ng

In those vehicles equipped with front traction, this effect is ampli‐


t.
yi Co
op
fied, due to a higher wear existing on the front axle. C py
t. rig
gh ht
yri by
The rolling noise will be a little more intensive immediately after cop Vo
by lksw
the tyre change, however, after approximately 500 ... 1000 km, cted agen
Prote AG.
the normal level of noise will be reached again.
Tyres with indication of tread direction
In case of a great quantity of saw teeth on the tyres of the rear
axle - preferably on vehicles equipped with front traction - perform
the change of the rear tyres to the front axle. If there are accen‐
tuated saw teeth on the outer edge of an axle, return both tyres
to the wheel. Following, the left wheel shall be assembled at the
right side and the right wheel at the left side.

2.2.3 Blockage points


The blockage points are the consequence of sudden braking
when the wheels are blocked, when at the tyre/running lane
matching surface there is rubber wear due to friction.
During the skidding of the tyres on the running lane there is heat
build-up due to friction and it reduces the resistance to wear of
tyre tread material.
Even a mix of the tyre tread resistant to wear due to friction does
not exclude blockage points, as it happens under extreme con‐
ditions of sudden breaking.

16 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


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Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

The braking systems monitored by the ABS system do not get to


hinder the blockage, including a short duration one, and exclude
the corresponding flattening of reduced dimensions.
The quantity of wear depends essentially on the speed of the ve‐
hicle, on the asphalt coverage and on the load supported by the
wheel. For a better comprehension, examples numerically quan‐
tified are indicated as follows:
If a vehicle is braked until the immobilization with the front wheels
blocked on dry surface, the wear due to friction on the bearing
surface of the tyre with the dimensions of a mail stamp is of ap‐
proximately:
♦ at 57 km/h = 23.8 m braking travel until 2.0 mm
♦ at 75 km/h = 41.8 m braking travel until 3.3 mm
♦ at 92 km/h = 71.6 m braking travel until 4.8 mm
Blockage points at the tyre tread
Tyres with damages of this nature are useless and have to be
replaced.
AG. Volkswagen AG d
agen oes
olksw not
byV gu
ara
ed
ris nte
ho eo
aut ra
ss c

ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
itte

y li
erm

ab
ility
ot p

wit
, is n

h re
hole

spec
es, in part or in w

t to the co
rrectness of i
l purpos

2.3 Drive instability due to rim/tyre


nform
mercia

2.3.1 Causes of drive instability


at
om

ion
c

in t
or

The causes of drive instability have several sources. The drive


his
te

instability can be originated in the wear of the tyres, amount other


a

do
riv

causes. The wear of the tyres resulting from driving the vehicle is
p

cum
or

not processed in an even way on the whole tyre tread. This way,
f

en
ng

t.
yi
some small unbalances occur and they affect the rolling of the
Co
op py
wheel balanced before accurately.
. C rig
ht ht
rig by
py Vo
These small unbalances are not perceptible at the steering wheel,
co lksw
by
cted agen
but they exist as a matter of fact. They accelerate the wear of the Prote AG.
tyre and reduce its useful life as a result.
Recommendation
In order to get during the whole useful life of a tyre:
• safety
• rolling stability and
• even wear
, we recommend the balancing of the rim/tyre assembly at least
twice during the useful life of the tyres.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 17


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

2.3.2 Wheel balancing.


Before beginning the balancing, it is required to meet the following
conditions:
• The tyre's pressure has to be right.
• The tyre tread cannot be worn only in one of the sides; the
minimum depth shall be 4 mm.
• The tyre cannot present damages, as cuts, incisions, strange
material, etc.
• The suspension, the steering wheel, the drag links and the
shock absorbers have to be perfectly operating.
• A test drive has to be performed ⇒ page 18 .

2.3.3 Perform a test drive before performing


the wheel balancing.
If the vehicle goes to the repair shop with a claim about “drive
instability ”, a test drive shall be performed before performing the
wheel balancing.
♦ This way it is possible to obtain information about the type of
drive instability.
♦ It is possible to notice the speed range where the instability
happens.
– Put the vehicle on the lift after performing the running test.
– Before removing the wheels, the installation point should be
marked and the identification has to be done according to the
table below:
Location of the tyre Identify with ...
left front tyre FL
front right tyre FR n AG. Volkswagen AG do
lkswage es n
rear left tyre RL d byV
o ot g
ua
ran
ir se
right rear tyre RRtho tee
o
au ra
c
ss
– Remove the wheels from the vehicle.
ce
e
nl

pt
du

– Perform the wheel balancing.


an
itte

y li
erm

ab

2.3.4 Wheel balancing with the static balanc‐


ility
ot p

ing machine.
wit
, is n

h re
hole

spec

Attach the wheel to the balancing machine.


es, in part or in w

t to the co

Note
rrectness of i

As in any other repair, taking care of the cleanness when balanc‐


ing the wheel is an indispensable factor. Only this way it is
l purpos

possible to get a perfect result!


nform
ercia

Dirt and rust on the thrust surface area and centre portion of the
m

wheel impair the result.


at
om

ion
c

– Clean the thrust surface, the centre portion of the wheel and
in t
or

his
e

the wheel disc before attaching it to the balancing machine!


at

do
priv

– Attach the wheel to the balancing machine.


um
for

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
co lksw
by
cted agen
Prote AG.

18 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013
AG. Volkswagen AG d
agen oes
olksw not
y V gu
b
Note rise
d ara
nte
tho eo
au ra
♦ For attaching the wheel, use, for example,
ss the Cantering sys‐ c
tem for wheel balancing machines - VAS 5271- .

ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
itte
♦ This way, it is assured a central positioning of the wheel at

y li
erm

ab
100% and a very good attachment

ility
ot p
♦ It is not possible to position the wheel at 100% to the balancing

wit
, is n

h re
machine with conical fixtures. hole

spec
♦ A deviation of 0.1 mm outer of the centre causes a misbalance
es, in part or in w

t to the co
at the wheel/tyre of 10 grams.

Evolution of wheel balancing operation.

rrectness of i
– Turn the wheel at the balancing machine.
l purpos

– Check the course of the distinctive curves on the side walls of


the tyre next to the rim flap.

nform
ercia

– Check the design of the tyre tread while the wheel is rolling.
m

at
om

ion
c

in t
or

Note

his
ate

do
priv

cum
If there is one-sided wear, due to sudden braking or strong wear
for

en
g

due to abrasion, it is not possible to reach the drive stability


n

t.
yi Co
op
through the wheel balancing. In these cases, the tyre must be C py
t. rig
replaced.
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
co lksw
by
cted agen
– Check the concentricity of the wheel. If the wheel rolls eccen‐
Prote AG.

trically, despite of inexistence of deformation, the cause can


be a radial deviation or an axial deviation.
– Inspect the wheel for existence of radial and axial deviations
⇒ page 20 .
– If the axial and radial deviation remain within the tolerance
values allowed, perform the balancing of the rim and of the
tyre.

Note

♦ Do not use more than 60 grams of weight for each wheel.


♦ If the use of more weight is required, it is possible, occasion‐
ally, to obtain better drive stability through the modification of
the positioning of the tyre in relation to the rim in 1/4 of turn
sequentially, until getting the best result. Correction of devia‐
tions in the wheel balancing through the positioning in relation
to the rim. ⇒ page 22
♦ The indicator on the balancing machine shall show 0 gram.
♦ As an alternative to the deviation in the dynamic balancing of
the wheel, the Wheel balancer - VAS 6202- can be used.

– Screw the wheel to the vehicle.


– First, screw the lowest stud of the wheel, not tightening it
much, with approximately 30 Nm.
– Now, tighten the remaining screws for the wheel similarly with
approximately 30 Nm and on a crisscross pattern. This way, it
is possible the centering of the wheel to the corresponding
hub.
– Put the vehicle on the wheels.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 19


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

– Now, tighten the studs of the wheel on a crisscross pattern


with a torque wrench with the tightening torque specified for
the vehicle in question.
Perform a test drive.
– After balancing the wheel, perform a test drive.
If during the test drive the continuation of the drive instability is
perceptible, it may happen due to tolerances existing in the cen‐
tering of the wheel.

2.3.5 Radial and axial deviation of concentric‐


ity of rim/tyre assembly
The radial and axial deviations arise due to inexact concentricity
of the rim and the tyre.
The concentricity to 100% is not feasible due to technical reasons.
This way, the manufacturers allows for these components toler‐
ance values exactly defined.
When the wheel and the tyre are assembled in an unfavourable
position, this will not be considered a reason to exceed the max‐
imum values of tolerance allowed to the rim/tyre assembly.
The maximum allowable tolerance values on the table may be
referred to the assembled rim/tyre assembly.
Tolerance values to the radial and axial deviations of concentricity
of rim/tyre assembly.
Rim/tyre assembly. Radial deviation of concentricity (mm) Axial deviation of concentricity
(mm)
G. Volkswagen AG d
Automobile 0,9 lkswagen A oes
n
1,1
Vo
by (1.3 on theotnomenclature
gu
ara zone)
ed nte
oris eo
th
au ra
c
ss
2.3.6 Inspect the radial and axial deviations of
ce
le
un

pt
an
d

the rim/tyre assembly with the Tyre


itte

y li
erm

ab

gauge - V.A.G 1435-


ility
ot p

wit
is n

Inspect the axial deviation.


h re
ole,

spec

– Connect the Tyre gauge - V.A.G 1435- with approximately 2


urposes, in part or in wh

mm of pre-tension.
t to the co
rrectness o
cial p

f inform
mer

atio
om

n
c

i
or

n thi
te

sd
iva

o
pr

cum
r
fo

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
ht. rig
rig ht
py by
co Vo
by lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

20 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

– Lean the Tyre gauge - V.A.G 1435- against the side surface
of the tyre.
– Turn the wheel slowly.
– Record the maximum and minimum amplitude of the needle.

Note

If the difference is higher than 1.3 mm, the axial deviation of con‐
centricity will be too high.
AG. Volkswagen
In this case, the reduction of the axiallksdeviation
wage
n
through the po‐
AG do
es n
sitioning of the tyre in relation tod bthe
y wheel is possible
Vo ot g
ua
⇒ page 22 . o
ir se
ran
te
h eo
ut ra
It is unnecessary to takesinto
s a account the needle deviations of the c
Tyre gauge - V.A.G 1435- due to small irregularities of the rubber.

ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
Inspect the radial deviation.
itte

y li
erm

ab
– Connect the Tyre gauge - V.A.G 1435- with approximately 2

ility
ot p

mm of pre-tension.

wit
, is n

h re
hole

spec
– Lean the Tyre gauge - V.A.G 1435- against the tyre tread.
es, in part or in w

t to the co
– Turn the wheel slowly.
– Record the maximum and minimum amplitude of the needle.

rrectness of i
l purpos

Note

If the difference is higher than 1 mm, the radial deviation of con‐

nform
ercia

centricity will be too high.


m

at
om

ion

In this case, the reduction of the vertical deviation through the


c

in t
or

positioning of the tyre in relation to the wheel is possible


his
ate

⇒ page 22 .
do
priv

cum
for

en
ng

2.3.7 Inspect the radial and axial deviations of


t.
yi Co
Cop py
rim concentricity
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
co lksw
by
– Connect the rim to the Wheel balancer - VAS 6202- . cted agen
Prote AG.

– Use the Wheel balancing machine centering system - VAS


5271- .
– Connect the Tyre gauge - V.A.G 1435- with approximately 2
mm of pre-tension.
– Turn the rim slowly.
– Record the maximum and minimum amplitude of the needle.
S - Axial deviation of rim concentricity
H - Axial deviation of rim concentricity
– Compare the value settled with the nominal values on the table
⇒ page 22 .

Note

It is unnecessary to take into account the needle deviations of the


Tyre gauge - V.A.G 1435- due to small irregularities.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 21


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Nominal values to the radial and axial deviations of wheel con‐


centricity
Rim Radial deviation of concentricity Axial deviation of concentricity
(mm) (mm)
Automobile Steel rim 0,5 0,5
Light metal rim 0,5 0,8

Note

If the value measured is higher than the nominal value, it will not
be possible to reach an acceptable drive stability.

2.3.8 Positioning of the tyre in relation to the


rim
Generalities
When the radial or axial deviation of the rim and of the tyre match,
the drive instability of the wheel with the tyre rises.
The concentricity to 100% is not feasible due to technical reasons
⇒ page 20 .
Before starting the positioning of the tyre in relation to the wheel,
perform a warm-up of the tyres through displacement of the ve‐
hicle. This way occasional deformations due to stoppage are
eliminated ⇒ page 23 . . Volkswag AG en AG
agen does
Sequence of operations to perform the positioningy of ksw
Vol the tyre in
not
gu
relation to the wheel ise
d b ara
nte
r
ho eo
– Deflate the tyre. aut ra
c
ss
– Loosen the tyre beads from the wheel flap.
ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
itte

– Pass the tyre beads around the wheel with Tyre assembly
y li
erm

ab

paste . Refer to the ⇒ Chemicals Manual .


ility
ot p

– Displace the tyre 180° in relation to the rim.


wit
, is n

h re
hole

– Inflate the tyre until approximately 4 bar.


spec
es, in part or in w

– Attach the rim with the tyre using the balancing machine.
t to the co

– Inspect the radial and axial deviations of rim concentricity.


rrectness of i

Note
l purpos

♦ If the nominal value of radial and axial deviations are not ex‐
nform
ercia

ceeded, balance the wheel to 0 gram. The nominal values may


be referred in ⇒ page 20 .
m

at
om

io

♦ It is required to displace the tyre again if the radial and/or axial


n
c

in t
or

deviations are out of nominal values.


his
ate

do
priv

cum

– Remove the air from the tyre and loosen the tyre from the rim
for

en
g

flaps.
n

t.
yi Co
Cop py
– Displace the tyre 90° in relation to the rim (1/4 of turn).
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
– Inflate the tyre again to 4 bar-pressure and check the concen‐
by c lksw
cted agen
tricity.
Prote AG.

22 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Note

♦ If the nominal value of radial and axial deviations are not ex‐
ceeded, balance the wheel to 0 gram.
♦ It is required to displace the tyre again if the radial and/or axial
deviations are out of nominal values.

– Loosen the tyre from the rim flaps again, according to descrip‐
tion above.
– Displace the tyre 180° in relation to the rim (1/2 of turn).
If the radial and/or axial deviation is out of nominal values yet,
check the rim radial and axial deviations ⇒ page 21 .
It the vertical and horizontal deviations at the rim is within the
nominal values, the tyre has a vertical or horizontal deviation ex‐
cessively high. In this case, replace the tyre.

Note

♦ Due to tyre assembly, there is assembly paste between the


tyre and the wheel flaps.
♦ For this reason, avoid sudden acceleration and braking during
the first 100 or 200 km of the travel. Otherwise, the tyres may
displace from the wheel and the operation would be all in vain!

2.3.9 Tyre deformation


What is a tyre deformation due to stoppage?
To define the deformation phenomenon, synonyms as depres‐
sion and flattening are similarly used.agen AG. Volkswagen AG d
w oes
olks no
The deformations cause drive d binstability too, such as a wheel in‐uara
yV tg
correctly balanced. The important
rise
is the identification of a defor‐ nte
mation on the tyre tread.
utho eo
ra
a c
ss
The deformations cannot be eliminated through balancing and
ce
le
un

pt

can have different causes. It is possible the elimination of defor‐


an
d
itte

mations without the use of special tools. We take as principle that


y li
rm

ab

it is not a deformation caused by a sudden braking ⇒ page 16 .


pe

ility
ot

wit
, is n

h re

Note
hole

spec
es, in part or in w

t to the co

The deformations caused by braking are not serviceable dam‐


ages on the tyres! The tyres with this type of damages have to be
replaced.
rrectness of i

Causes of deformations
l purpos

♦ The vehicle is stopped for several weeks in the same place,


without motion.
nform
ercia

♦ The tyres have a pressure too low.


m

a
com

tion in

♦ After painting, the vehicle was put in a drying chamber of a


r
te o

body and painting shop.


thi
s
iva

do
r

♦ The vehicle was parked for a long time with warm tyres in a
rp

cum
fo

cold garage or in a similar place. In this case, a deformation


en
ng

t.
yi
can arise from one day to another.
Co
Cop py
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
co lksw
by
cted agen
Prote AG.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 23


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Eliminate deformations
♦ The deformations cannot be eliminated from the tyres with the
means of a repair shop.
♦ The only way to eliminate the flattening is through tyre warm-
up during the motion of the vehicle.

WARNING

♦ Do not expose yourself or other persons to danger during


the driving test
♦ Respect the traffic laws, and the imposed speed limits.

– After the vehicle driving test raise the vehicle immediately.


– Disassemble the wheels from the vehicle.
– Balance the wheels at the stationary balancing machine
⇒ page 18 .

2.4 The vehicle deviates to one side

2.4.1 Generalities
Determine, through driving test, if the vehicle pulls to the side and,
in affirmative case, to what side. If the vehicle pulls to one side
⇒ page 25 .
If the axle alignment was done, attach the corresponding report
to the tyre claim. AG. Volkswagen AG d
agen oes
ksw not
Due to manufacturer tolerance values it is possible to check the by
Vol
gu
ara
conicity of the frame. Thus, while the tyre is rolling, there is raiseside
d
nte
force that acts directly on the suspension and can lead ato ut a self-
ho eo
ra
direction behaviour of the vehicle. Through selective changes
ss of c
wheels, it is possible to compensate this self-direction behaviour.

ce
le
un

pt
an
d
itte

2.4.2 Conicity
y li
erm

ab
ility
ot p

The conicity is caused by a slight displacement (some tenths of

wit
is n

a millimetre) of the tyre tread and/or steel wire mesh in relation to


h re
ole,

tyre's geometric centre. The conicity is not detectable through the


eyes and can not be measured with the repair shop's means. spec
urposes, in part or in wh

t to the co
Tyre components
1 - Tyre bead
rrectne

2 - Tyre shoulder
3 - Tyre tread
ss o
cial p

4 - Interlaced steel wire mesh


inform
mer

A - Tyre geometric centre


atio
om

B - Real position of the mesh. The mesh may be misaligned in‐


c

i
or

wards or outwards.
thi
te

sd
iva

o
pr

cum
r
fo

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
by c lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

24 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Representation with some exaggeration for a better visualization


1 - Misalignment of the tyre mesh/tyre tread
F1 - Unequal supporting forces of the wheel
F2 - Unequal supporting forces of the wheel
Fk - Conicity force
Due to misalignment, a variable rigidity on the outer and inner tyre
shoulder is verified, and it leads to different supporting forces of
the wheel. Due to this, the mesh and the tyre tread do not exert
the same force (F1, F2) on the running lane. There is a cone. The
resulting force (conicity force Fk) may, depending on the speed,
become so strong that the vehicle pulls to one side.
If the force (Fk) in a axle wheel is 50 Newton, for example, in the
other wheel it is also 50 Newton, and if these forces act in the
same direction, they will have a cumulative effect. Turning the tyre
in relation to the wheel, it is possible to compensate the deviation
to the side, because the forces are opposite in their action.
Once it is not possible to visualize on nthe AG.tyre
Volksthe
wagedirection
n AG d that
the conicity force acts, only witholksawdriving test and a selective
age oes
not
wheel or tyre change it is possible
db
yV to verify which tyre is causing gu
ara
the deviation. orise nte
e h
ut or
The tyre is composedss by several components and materials that,
a ac
at the end of a very demanding manufacturing process, they are

ce
le
un

pt
vulcanized in a piece. Several manufacturing tolerances result

an
d
itte

from this process, and they may be noticed through more or less

y li
erm

ab
strong side forces (side conicity forces). These forces can happen

ility
ot p

on new tyres too.


wit
is n

h re
The vehicle pulls to one side in the front axle.
ole,

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

The causes of this side deviation may be in the running gear. t to the co
Nevertheless, according to experience, in more than 90% of the
claims, the cause for vehicle's pulling to one side is the tyres.
The vehicle pulls to one side under normal driving.
rrectne

Driving in a straight and flat surface, at constant velocity or under


s

moderate acceleration, the vehicle shows the trend of pulling to


s o

one of the sides. A force at the steering wheel is felt.


cial p

f inform

The vehicle pulls to one side under strong acceleration.


mer

atio
m

In those vehicles equipped with front traction, if the vehicle pulls


o

n
c

to one of the sides under strong acceleration, it is concerned in


i
or

n thi
e

part with its own conception. The different friction ratios between
t

sd
va

the left wheel and the right wheel or the occasional irregularities
i

o
pr

cum

on the pavement (deep potholes) and consequently the oscillating


r
fo

en
ng

adherence to the floor influence the driving features very much.


t.
yi Co
op
It is not a claim in the extent of warranty. C py
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
by c
2.4.3 Solution when the vehicle deviates to
lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.
one side
Inspection conditions before and during the driving test
– Inspect all suspension components on the front axle and on
the rear axle for damages.
– Check the inflation of the tyres and correct it if required.
– Check the tyres for visible damages from the outer portion of
the vehicle. Perforations, cuts and crushing on the side wall,
deformations caused by braking and/or damages on the tyre
tread.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 25


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

– Ask to the client if the tyre was perforated olby


kswa
agnail
en AGor some‐
en AG. V
thing similar and if it was repaired
olkswagby a tyre specialized
doesrepair
not
shop. Occasionally replace db
y Vthese tyres. gu
ar
e an
ris tee
– Check the tyres forutregular
ho wear and depth of the groove. or
a ac
ss
– The tyres are of the same type and brand and/or have the

ce
le
un

same type of groove?

pt
an
d
itte

y li
– In case of tyres without tread direction, assure that all tyre DOT
erm

ab
symbols are faced outward. Possibly it was already done, pre‐

ility
ot p

viously, a tyre or wheel replacement.

wit
is n

h re
ole,

– Is it a tyre's brand approved by manufacturer to be used as

spec
genuine component?
urposes, in part or in wh

t to the co
– In order to perform the driving test, use a flat and straight sur‐
face, not inclined to one side and without grooves.

rrectne
– Perform a driving test with the client, taking into account the
conditions mentioned above. The client shall submit a claim.

ss o
cial p

f i
Note

nform
mer

atio
At the moment the driving test is performed there shall not be side
om

n
wind.
c

i
or

n thi
te

sd
va

If the claim is justifiable, we recommend the change of the wheels/


i

o
pr

cum
r

tyres according to the content of the following pages.


fo

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Before beginning the operations, it is very important to read the t. Cop py
following indications, otherwise the efforts performed may be
rig
gh ht
yri by
useless! cop Vo
by lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

Note

♦ Mark the tyres/wheels before the first replacement, for exam‐


ple, FL, FR, RL, RR.
♦ After the change of the wheels, of after the modification of the
tyre position on the wheel, take special care to the behaviour
of the vehicle during the driving test. Note the replaced com‐
ponents and how they were replaced.
♦ It shall be checked the intensity or the occasional change of
side deviation of the vehicle.
♦ For that, it is strictly required that the driving tests are always
performed by the same person and on the same surface. The
best condition will be the performance of the driving test on
both senses of the “test route” chosen.
♦ When replacing a tyre by a new one, it is not assured that the
vehicle will not pull to one of the sides anymore. For this rea‐
son, it is recommended that first the selective change of the
wheels is performed, as described on the following pages.
♦ In case of a great depth difference on the tyre grooves of the
front axle and rear axle, the tyres with higher groove depth
shall be assembled always at the same axle.

2.4.4 Selective change of wheels for tyres


without tread direction

Determine, through driving test, if the vehicle pulls to the side
and, in affirmative case, to what side

26 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013
AG. Volkswagen AG d
agen o
If the vehicle pulls toVone olks side, change the position
w es n of the front
ot g
ed by wheels. ua
ran
oris tee
auth ↓ or
ac
ss
Perform a driving test

ce
e
nl

pt
du

The vehicle drives straight ahead - THE END

an
itte

y li
The vehicle pulls to the oppo‐ The vehicle pulls to the same
erm

ab
ility
site side. side.
ot p

wit
, is n

↓ ↓

h re
hole

Turn a tyre at the wheel front Install the front wheels at the

spec
axle (change the turning direc‐ rear axle of the vehicle.
es, in part or in w

t to the co
tion).
↓ ↓

rrectness of i
Perform a driving test Perform a driving test
The vehicle drives straight The vehicle drives straight
l purpos

ahead - THE END ahead - THE END


The vehicle does not drive The vehicle does not drive

nf
ercia

o
straight ahead straight ahead

rm
m

atio
↓ ↓
om

n in
c

Change the front and the rear The vehicle Without


or

thi
e

wheels among themselves. pulls to the op‐ change


t

sd
iva

posite side.
o
r
rp

cu
o

m
f

↓ ↓ ↓
en
ng

t.
yi Co
op
Perform a driving test Turn a tyre at Check the front C py
t. rig
the wheel and rear axle
gh ht
pyri by
front axle alignment and
o Vo
by c lksw
cted
(change the align, if re‐
agen
Prote AG.
turning direc‐ quired.
tion)
The vehicle drives straight If the align‐
ahead - THE END ment is cor‐
rect, inform the
department re‐
sponsible by
the product.
The vehicle does not drive
straight ahead

Change the front wheels
among them.
↓ ↓
Perform a driving test Perform a
driving test
The The vehicle does not The vehicle
vehicle drive straight ahead drives straight
drives ahead - THE
straigh END
t
ahead
- THE
END
↓ The vehicle
does not drive
straight ahead
Assemble new tyres Assemble
at the front axle new tyres at
the front axle
↓ ↓

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 27


AG. Volkswagen AG d
agen o
Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 V➤olk,sFox
w
2014 ➤ , Gol 1995e➤ s no, Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
t gu
by
Wheels and Tyres r-iseGeneral information - Edition 04.2013arant
d
ee
tho or
au ac
Perform a Perform a driving
ss
test

ce
e
driving test

nl

pt
du

an
itte
The vehicle drives The vehicle

y li
erm

ab
straight ahead - THE drives straight

ility
ot p

END ahead - THE

wit
END
, is n

h re
hole

↓ ↓

spec
es, in part or in w

The vehicle does not drive straight ahead, inform the depart‐

t to the co
ment responsible by the product

2.4.5 Selective change of wheels for tyres with tread direction

rrectness of i
l purpos


Determine, through driving test, if the vehicle pulls to the side and, in affirmative case, to what side

nf
ercia

orm
m

If the vehicle pulls to one side, install the front wheels/tyres to the rear axle.

atio
om

n in
c


or

thi
e

Perform a driving test


t

sd
iva

o
r
rp

cu
The vehicle drives straight ahead - THE END
o

m
f

en
ng

t.
The vehicle does not drive straight ahead
yi Co
Cop py

t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
Replace a front axle tyre first.
co lksw
by
cted agen
Prote AG.

Perform a driving test
The vehicle drives straight ahead - THE END
The vehicle does not drive straight ahead

Replace the second front axle tyre

Perform a driving test
The vehicle drives straight ahead - THE END
The vehicle does not drive straight ahead

Alight the front portion and the rear portion of the vehicle.

Perform a driving test
The vehicle drives straight ahead - THE END
The vehicle does not drive straight ahead, inform the department responsible by the product

2.5 Damages on the tyres

2.5.1 General recommendations


The existence of damages on the tyres may have serious conse‐
quences.
The best hypothesis for an anticipated detection is the regular
control performed by the driver
Tyres already damaged do not resist to driving conditions as high
speed, long distances, sporty driving and similar ones.
The damage in a tyre may have several factors:

28 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

♦ Driving with insufficient air pressure


♦ Failure when assembling the tyres.
♦ Damage caused by crashes
♦ Aging
♦ Incorrect storage

. Volkswagen AG
WARNING
ksw
agen
AG does
not
y Vol gu
db ara
Always oriwhen
se there is the suspicion of a risk for the
nte safety,
eo the
tyreaumust
th be changed. ra
c
ss

ce
le
un

pt
an
d

2.5.2 Structure of a radial tyre


itte

y li
erm

ab
ility
ot p

Transversal cut of a radial tyre

wit
is n

h re
ole,

spec
1 - Block of the tyre tread
urposes, in part or in wh

t to the co
2 - Grooves of the tyre tread
3 - Tyre tread

rrectne
4 - Nylon stabilizer mesh
5 - Interlaced wire mesh
ss o

❑ are, in most cases, man‐


cial p

f in

ufactured in steel
form
mer

6 - The wires of the tyre bead


atio
om

❑ are formed by steel


c

i
or

n thi

wires covered by rubber


te

sd
a

through vulcanization
iv

o
pr

process.
um
r
fo

en
ng

❑ It assures the stable


t.
yi Co
op
seat of the tyre to the
C py
t. rig
gh
wheel
ht
pyri by
Vo
co lksw
by
7 - Reinforcement of the tyre cted agen
Prote AG.
bead
8 - Wheel flap protector
❑ It is a protection against
friction points in the
wheels and in the tyres,
for example, in case of
contact with the side‐
walk curb.
❑ The tyres with wheel
protection are identified
with the MFS abbrevia‐
tion or identification

The nylon stabilizer mesh -4-, the mesh coat -5-, the tyre bead
wires -6- and the bead reinforcements -7- form the case. The case
is the “assembly structure” of the tyre.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 29


AG. Volkswagen AG d
agen oes
olksw not
Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 d by V ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ... gu
ara
e
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition
horis 04.2013 nte
eo
aut ra
ss c
2.5.3 Damages caused by crashes

ce
le
un

pt
an
d
itte
A “crushing (crease)” on the tyre rubber wall indicates that the

y li
rm

ab
case was damaged in the sub-frame of the tyre.

pe

ility
ot

wit
One of the typical causes for these types of damages is, for ex‐

, is n

h re
ample, when the vehicle climbs a sidewalk curb where there is an

hole
acute angle.

spec
es, in part or in w

t to the co
The case of the tyres "compressed" may be, this way, damaged.
The sub-frame of the tyre is stretched in such a way that causes
the rupture of the individual fibres existing in the case.

rrectness of i
The dimension of the damage depends on the impact speed, im‐
l purpos
pact angle, air pressure of the tyres, weight of the axle and type
of obstacle.

nform
mercia

a
com

tion in
r

Vestiges of compression on the side wall of a tyre -arrows-.


te o

thi
s
iva

do
r
rp

cum
fo

Note

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
♦ Avoid climbing the sidewalk curbs. ht. rig
rig ht
py by
o Vo
♦ If unavoidable, climb the sidewalk by keeping the straightest
by c lksw
cted agen
angle possible.
Prote AG.

Inner view of a tyre with broken case, due to strong impact. The
case was smashed on the wheel rim and is broken on the contact
zone.

Damage in the inner portion of a tyre due to a crash (double rup‐


ture)
Double rupture -arrows-, due to compression when climbing.
Usually not identifiable from the outer portion.

2.5.4 Damages due to cut.


Cut caused by pointed obstacle -arrow-

30 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

2.5.5 Damages caused by strange bodies


When driving over hard and pointed objects such as, for example,
nails, bolts or similar objects, the tyre can be perforated.
This always causes a damage to the tyre.
Damage caused by a strange body thrust in
Sometimes, the strange body -mark- is driven so firmly on the tyre
that even at high speeds it is not released. In this case, it may
play a plug role and seal the tyre relatively well. The consequence
consist in the slow loss of air, not immediately detected by the
driver, but it may cause the tyre to become totally unusable.

Note
. Volkswagen AG
The tyres with interlaced steel wire mesh, whose structure has
ksw
agen
AG does
been perforated by a strange body, cannot be repaired. ol not
V gu
by ara
ed nte
oris eo
th
au ra
2.5.6 Loss of air from the tyress
s c

ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
With the claim "loss of air", the inspection of the tyres for strange
itte

y li
bodies thrust in is mandatory.
erm

ab
ility
ot p

wit
, is n

h re
Note
hole

spec
es, in part or in w

The tyres with interlaced steel wire mesh, whose structure has

t to the co
been perforated by a strange body, cannot be repaired.

There may be corrosion in the steel wires. This must lead to the

rrectness of i
separation of the rubber from the interlaced steel wire mesh.
l purpos

On the whole, it is not possible to determine where the strange


body was thrust in. This way, there may be immediate damages

nf
ercia

to the tyre, due to driving with little air pressure.

orm
m

The damaged interlaced steel wire mesh lead, sooner or later, to

atio
om

the separation of the rubber from the steel mesh. This way, after

n in
or c

a given driving period, the tyre can get completely useless, a long
thi
te

time after the inspection of the damage to the tyre. sd


iva

o
r
rp

cu

The tyres damaged by strange bodies constitute damages not


o

m
f

en
ng

covered by the warranty.


t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
2.5.7 Air pressure
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
by c lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

Note

Tire pressure must be checked in the lable located on the fuel


tank compartment lid. Or, in case of Kombi, the label located on
column “B” of the driver side must be checked.

The air pressure shall be controlled at regular intervals. We rec‐


ommend a 7 day-interval between every air pressure inspection.
A correct air pressure is especially important during long trips or
if the vehicle is driven with load. A sporty driving also requires a
correct air pressure or even a slightly raised air pressure.
Slow reduction of air pressure
The slow reduction of the inner pressure of the tyres is a treach‐
erous process, because not even the most skilled drivers can
detect.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 31


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995w➤ age,nGol 1999 ➤ , A
AG. Volkswagen Gol
G do...
es n
ks
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition
b y V 04.2013
ol ot g
u ara
ed nte
oris
With a reduced air pressure and consequently aautmore accentu‐
h e or
ac
ated flexion (inner friction), the materials of thess tyres warm up in
such a way that there may be the separation of the different com‐

ce
le
un

pt
ponents of the frames from rubber mix.

an
d
itte

y li
rm

ab
Most of times, the final result is the complete destruction of the

pe

ility
tyre ⇒ page 32 .

ot

wit
, is n

h re
It's not always possible to determine the cause of the slow loss of

hole
pressure, because the tyre is very damaged and the components

spec
es, in part or in w
the tyre frame do not exist anymore.

t to the co
2.5.8 Damages to the tyres due to insufficient
air pressure

rrectness of i
The most frequent causes of failures are outer small damages, a
l purpos

valve in bad condition, or a wheel that does not seal due to cor‐
rosion or damages.

nform
ercia

Separation of rubber case


m

a
com

ti
Strong warm up due to driving under low pressure ⇒ page 33

on in
led to overheating and the corresponding separation of the rubber
r
te o

thi
material from the case -arrows-.

s
iva

do
r
rp

c
The tyre showed on the Figure A was used during some time with

um
fo

en
g

an insufficient air pressure for the load. The vestiges character‐


n

t.
yi Co
istic for this condition are the wear areas and the whole turn of Cop py
t. rig
the tyre bead due to wheel flap and colouration. Small corrugated yri
gh by
ht
folds are visible from the side inner wall.
op Vo
by c lksw
cted agen
Prote
When turning the tyre, high shearing forces between the steel
AG.

wire layers, particularly at the ends of the mesh, can be noticed.

Tyres with wide depressions around them at the tyre bead area
Wide depressions around the bead area -arrows- are evidences
of driving with insufficient air pressure.
When the vehicle is driven with insufficient air pressure, or when
damages in the tyres are detected, or when these damages are
ignored, the consequences may be serious.
The tyre has not absorbed the forces that are formed while the
vehicle is in motion.
Due to the mentioned damages, the function of the tyre is strongly
limited. The mixes of rubber separate one from the other, and the
components of the tyre are partially released until its complete
destruction.

Tyres with torn tread


The progress of these type of damage usually extends during a
wide period of time. If a damaged tyre is subject to great requests,
there may happen a tear of the components of the tyre, due to
centrifugal force under high speed.
The figure shows a tyre with torn tyre tread, because the vehicle
was driven with insufficient air pressure.

32 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013
AG. Volkswagen AG d
agen
2.5.9 Rise of by
Vtemperature
olks
w
in tyresoewith
s no
t gu insuffi‐
cient
ris air pressure
d ara
e nte
ho
t e or
au a
The chart shows
ss the behaviour of the temperature of a tyre at ac
speed of 180 km/h.

ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
itte

A - Normal amplitude: when the recommended air pressure is

y li
erm

ab
kept, the temperature remains balanced.

ility
ot p

B - Danger: If a pressure 0.3 bar lower than the specified air pres‐

wit
, is n

h re
sure is used, at higher speeds, the temperature rises at more than
hole

120°C.

spec
es, in part or in w

C - Critical temperature limit: beginning of tire damages.

t to the co
T - Temperature in °C

rrectness of i
t - Driving time in minutes
l purpos

nform
mercia

at
om

ion
c

in t
or

his
ate

do
priv

cum
for

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
by c lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 33


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

2.5.10 Damages to the tyres due to assembly


failure (assembly damages)
Bead core broken while inflating the tyre
The updated radial tyre for passenger vehicles are exclusively
assembled in safety wheels. These wheels have an elevation
around the shoulders -1-.
1- protrusion (double protrusion H 2)
2- flap of the wheel
3- inner shoulder of the wheel (for example, inclined shoulder)
4- wheel
5- central disc of the wheel
6- base
7- outer shoulder of the wheel (for example, inclined shoulder)
The protrusion avoids the compression of the tyre by wheel shoul‐
der if the vehicle is driven with insufficient inflation pressure.
When inflating the tyre, it may happen that the tyre bead does not
slide completely over the wheel's protrusion.
In this case, there is the danger of bead core dilatation, due to
excessive inflation pressure, when the corresponding steel wires
break totally or partially. The slots in the tyre bead core are not
detectable from the outer portion.

WARNING AG. Volkswagen AG d


agen oes
olksw not
V gu
d by ara
♦ The tyres with damaged bead oriscore do not have a good
e nte
eo
seating on the wheel. Theseaut tyres represent a danger for
h
ra
the safety! ss c
ce
e
nl

pt

♦ Moreover, there is the danger of a bead core partially


du

an
itte

damaged breaking completely, while the vehicle is being


y li
erm

ab

driven, and the tyre may suddenly open. If the bead core
ility
ot p

breaks while the tyre is being inflated, the case will also
wit
, is n

be destroyed.
h re
hole

spec
es, in part or in w

t to the co

Tyre with damaged tyre bead core and destroyed case


The figure shows a tyre with the bead broken and the case de‐
rrectness of i

stroyed due to excessive stress during the assembly.


l purpos

Damages in the tyre bead caused by deficient or incorrect as‐


sembly with assembly machines
nform
ercia

The following failures that happened during the assembly of the


tyres may cause serious consequences to the tyres:
m

at
om

io

♦ when inserting the upper bead of the wheel, at the tyre as‐
n
c

in t
or

sembly machine, the tyre bead on the opposite side does not
his
ate

seat completely to the base ⇒ page 34


do
priv

cum
or

♦ when the assembly head was misadjusted


f

en
ng

t.
yi Co
op
♦ when the edge of the assembly roll slides on the bead roll. C py
t. rig
gh ht
yri
♦ when the guide rolls are worn and with pointed edges
p by
o Vo
by c lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

34 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013
. Volkswage
AG n AG d
agen oes
o lksw not
Tyre with damaged bead db
yV gu
ara
rise nte
In these cases, the bead subject to great thostress may be cut in the eo
au ra
axial direction, damaged and/or compressed
ss up to the wire of the c
core.

ce
e
nl

pt
du

an
Frequently, vestiges of seat and sliding of the guide roll at the

itte

y li
erm
machine are detected at the damaged area.

ab
ility
ot p

wit
, is n

h re
Note hole

spec
es, in part or in w

Both tyre beads and the wheel shoulders shall be always lubri‐

t to the co
cated with Assembly paste - G 052 109 A2- . Refer to the ⇒
Chemicals Manual .

rrectness of i
If imperceptible assembly damages remain, there is the danger
l purpos

of rendering the tyre useless later, during driving.


FOR THIS REASON!

nform
ercia

♦ Never assemble without Assembly paste - G 052 109 A2- .


m

at
om

io
♦ Do not inflate the tyres with more than 3 bar, in order to make

n
c

in t
r

the thrust to the wheels.


o

his
ate

do
riv

♦ Never inflate the tyres with more than 4 bar.


p

cum
for

en
g

♦ At the end of the assembly operations, reduce the air pressure


n

t.
yi Co
to the specified value. t. Cop py
rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
2.6 Useful notes related to tyres and wheels
c by lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.

2.6.1 Inscriptions on the side wall of the tyre


Example: Dunlop SP Sport 9000

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 35


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

1 - Designation of size
e.g. 205/55 R16

2 - Position of wear indicators


TWI (Tread Wear Indication)
3 - Manufacturer (trade name)
4 - Structure
Radial - radial wearing in the
case

Tubeless - Marks for tubeless


tires

5 - Load capacity coefficient/


speed identification letters
e.g. 91.H

6 - Tire assembly position/roll‐


ing direction indication
7 - Maximum load permitted
Exclusive data for North Amer‐
ica

8 - Maximum tire pressure per‐


mitted
Exclusive data for North Amer‐
ica
n AG. Volkswagen AG do
9 - Number of grooves in the lkswage es n
center of the rolling surface d byV
o ot g
ua
and sidewalls, as well as ma‐ o
ir se
ran
tee
terial data auth or
ac
ss
10 - E-number = license indi‐

ce
le
un

pt
cation

an
d
itte

y li
The tire is compliant with European standards
rm

ab
pe

ility
ot

wit
11 - Manufacturer code/manufacturing date
, is n

h re
hole

Manufacturer identification number, tire size and execution spec


es, in part or in w

t to the co
Tire maturity/manufacturing date

12 - DOT - Department of Transportation


rrectness of i

The tyre meets the guidelines of North-American traffic authorities


l purpos

13 - Brazilian indication - Inmetro seal


14 - China indication
nform
mercia

15 - Manufacturing country
a
com

tion in

e.g. Made in Brazil


r
te o

thi
s
iva

do

16 - Tire use or assembly safety instructions


r
rp

cum
fo

17 - Relative useful life - Resistance to friction


en
ng

t.
yi Co
op
regarding a specific US test
C py
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
18 - Wet braking behavior assessment A, B, or C
c by lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.
as per specific US test

36 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

19 - Temperature resistance assessment A, B, or C


as per specific US test

20 - Indications in tires with emergency operation


gen AG characteristics
. Volkswagen AG
d wa oes
olks not
e.g. Self Supporting Runflat byV gu
ara
ed nte
ris
ho eo
21 - Designation of profile au
t ra
ss c
e.g. ContiPremiumContact

ce
le
un

pt
an
d
itte

y li
rm

ab
2.6.2 Clarifications about tyre inscriptions
pe

ility
ot

wit
, is n

Clarifications about tyre dimensions

h re
hole

spec
Tyre Speed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
es, in part or in w

t to the co
Tyres up to 240 km/h 195 65 R 15 91 V -

rrectness of i
1- Width of tyre
l purpos

2- Height of profile in % of width

nform
ercia

3- Tyre type letter “R” (it means Radial)


m

a
4- Designation of wheel diameter
com

tion in
5- Load capacity code/Loadindex (LI)
r
te o

thi
s
iva

do
6- Speed identification letter
r
rp

cum
fo

Maximum speed/speed identification letters


en
ng

t.
yi Co
op py
Speed identification letter Maximum speed in km/h
. C rig
ht ht
rig by
py
L 120
co Vo
by lksw
cted agen
Prote AG.
M 130
N 140
P 150
Q 160
R 170
S 180
T 190
U 200
H 210
V 240
ZR more than 240
W 270
Y 300

Load capacity code/Loadindex (LI)


The load capacity code is referred on the tyre side wall. This code
indicates the allowable maximum load that the tyre can support.
The weight capacity code is indicated on the tyre dimension des‐
ignation, e.g. 195/65 R 15 91T. It is indicated on the tyre as a code
according to ETRTO rule. The following table shows the load ca‐
pacity codes used by VW with the corresponding capacities.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 37


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Load capacity code Tyre maximum load capacity in kg


75 387
78 agen
AG. Volkswagen AG d
oes 425
olksw not
79 d by V gu
ara 437
ise nte
80uthor eo 450
a ra
s 81
s c 462

ce
e
nl

82 475

pt
du

an
itte

y li
83 487
erm

ab
ility
84 500
ot p

wit
, is n

85 515

h re
hole

86 530

spec
es, in part or in w

87 545

t to the co
88 560
89 580

rrectness of i
90 600
l purpos

91 615
92 630

nform
ercia

93 650
m

at
om

io
94 670

n
c

in t
or

95 690

his
ate

do
riv

96 710
p

cum
for

97 730
en
ng

t.
yi Co
op
98 750
C py
t. rig
gh ht
yri
99 775
p by
co Vo
by lksw
cted
100 800
agen
Prote AG.

101 825
102 850
103 875
104 900
110 1060
112 1120

2.6.3 Contractions
The contractions are small cavities on the tyre's side tread.
They extend from tyre bead to tyre shoulder. The figure shows
the referred components ⇒ page 24 .
It is a super elevation of material in the composition of tyre com‐
ponents.
The contractions do not exert any influence related to:
♦ safety,
♦ useful life,
♦ vehicle behaviour or
♦ other features of the tyre.
The contractions can present different intensities. It is not required
the removal of the tyre from the wheel or performing an inspec‐
tion.

38 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


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Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

What is the cause of contraction's build-up?


By reason of weight, the modern tyres with interlaced steel wire
mesh are made mainly with a side wall of only one layer.
The components of side wall are formed by elongated bands be‐
fore being matched in a tyre. These bands shall get overlaid in
the combination of material. It produces small irregularities/waves
in the overlaid component zone. Due to the single layer's struc‐
ture, these overlaying are slightly visible up from the exterior.

2.6.4 Rubber valve


1- Valve body
2- Valve inner portion
3- Valve cap
1. Valve body
The rubber valve for tubeless tyres was conceived in order to
hermetically close the rim hole. The elastic material of rubber
body is pressed in order to get secured in the rim hole. gen AG
. Volkswagen AG
a does
lksw not
The wheel sealing is made by a rubber gasket in the dthreaded
by
Vo gu
ara
metal-based valves. The side surfaces of valve hole ris are sealing
e nte
zones. On that account they shall be free of rust, ho
ut dirtiness and
eo
a ra
damages. ss c

ce
le
un

pt
2. Valve inner portion

an
d
itte

y li
The valve inner portion performs the most important task. It seals
erm

ab
ility
and allows the air pressure adjustment. The small disc gasket on
ot p

wit
the valve's inner portion can perform this function if it is free of
is n

h re
impurities or dirtiness from moisture. The air filling systems have
ole,

to be free of water and oil!

spec
urposes, in part or in wh

t to the co
3. Valve cap
All valves shall be always capped. This cap prevents dirt from
penetrating the valve. The dirty occasionally existent in the valve

rrectne
would reach the valve's gasket, causing air leaks.
The valve has to be replaced every time the tyre is reassembled.

ss o
cial p

f
If the vehicle is driven when the valves are not capped, there will

inform
be the risk of dirt penetration. It causes a slow loss of air and this
mer

way it can lead to tyre's destruction:


atio
om

n
c

♦ Separation of rubber case ⇒ page 32


i
or

n thi
te

sd
a

♦ Wide round grooves on the tyre bead area ⇒ page 32


iv

o
pr

cum
r
fo

♦ Damaged tyre tread ⇒ page 32


en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
t. rig
WARNING gh ht
pyri by
Vo
o
by c lksw
cted agen
Only with the valve cap well tightened it is possible to assure Prote AG.
a hermetic closing.

2.6.5 Storage of tyres


Storage
The tyre storage place must be:
• dark,
• dry,
• cool and

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 39


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

• ventilated
.

WARNING

During the tyre storage period, the tyres shall not be in contact
with fuel, oil, grease and chemical products. Otherwise, the
tyre would be damaged by chemical processes that are not
always visible.
This way, we may notice a risk condition during driving.

The chemical products cause damages to the tyres only after a


long period of acting. If, during the refuelling, the tyre is reached
by some fuel drops, such condition is not worrying.
Storage of tyres
Complete wheels
The rims with assembled tyres can be stored in horizontal over‐
lapping. The wheels must be clean and dry. The air pressure shall
be raised up up to the maximum measure of 3 bar.
Tyres without wheels
Preferably store the tyres without rim vertically. If the tyres were
stored in overlapping position for a long time, they will be strongly
compressed, what can make the assembly difficult, because the
tyres do not fit the rim beads. It is recommendable a tyre rotation
every 15 days, in case of vertical storage, in order to avoid an
outstanding flattening. . Volkswage n AG n AG d
wage oes
2.6.6 Aging of tyres d by Volks not
gu
ara
e nte
ris
The tyres get old due
uth to chemical and physical processes that e o
o
ra
damage their function.
ss
a
The tyres stored without use for a long c
period of time get hard and fragile quicker than the tyres that are
ce
le
un

pt

permanently used in a vehicle. Old tyres may present aging


an
d
itte

cracks with the thickness of a hair. The plastifier in the rubber is


y li
erm

ab

activated due to flexion process in those tyres that are continu‐


ility
ot p

ously used, thus avoiding the hardening and crack build-up.


wit
is n

h re

This way, attention should be paid to the tread depth and to the
ole,

spec

age of tyres in the spare tyres, storage tyres and other tyres. The
urposes, in part or in wh

age of the tyre can be read on DOT designation. It includes de


t to the co

tyre production date, among other things.


Example of a DOT number until 12.31.1999
rrectne

DOT ..... 5 0 9 [lt ]


.
ss o

means 199_
cial p

f inform

year of production, last figure


mer

number of calendar week


atio
om

n
c

i
or

In this example, the manufacturing date is the 50th week of 1999.


thi
te

sd
va

Example of a DOT number up from 01.01.2000


i

o
pr

cum
r
fo

en
ng

DO ..... 0 1 0 0
t.
yi Co
op
T . C py
t. rig
gh ht
Year of manufacturing, last two figures
yri
p by
co Vo
by lksw
number of calendar week cted agen
Prote AG.

In this example, the manufacturing date is the 1st week of 2000.

40 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

Recommendation
♦ We recommend the use of tyres that are more than 6 year-old
only in case of emergency and with careful driving.
♦ In case of new tyre assembly, the spare tyre may be used if it
is in perfect conditions and if it is not older than 6 years-old.
The age of the tyres influence the strength when driving the
vehicle fast. The arrangement of a spare tyre with new tyres
is possible, but it may influence the behaviour of the vehicle
while driving it.
♦ The tyres take a constant evolution, and this fact shall lead to
small differences in the mix of the rubber, including when it is
a product of the same brand, dimensions and floor.
♦ All VW vehicles have plant-installed four esimilar
n AG. Vowheels
lkswagenand
AG do
tyres. olkswag es n
o
yV t gu
db ara
Front-wheel drive vehicles: ir se nte
ho eo
ut
♦ For safety reasons, in the same axis, tyres during
ss the driving,
a ra
c
of the same brand and with the same tread shall be used.

ce
le
un

pt
an
d

Integral-wheel drive vehicles:


itte

y li
rm

ab
♦ The integral-wheel drive vehicles shall be equipped with four
pe

ility
wheels and tyres with the same dimensions, type of construc‐
ot

wit
, is n

tion, tyre tread and brand.

h re
hole

spec
Change of tyres
es, in part or in w

t to the co
The tyres shall be always changed, if:
• the legal minimum depth of 1.6 mm for the floor is reached,

rrectness of i
• there are visible damages due to mechanical action,
l purpos

• if the tyres are older than 6 years.

2.6.7 Replacement of wheels


nform
mercia

In vehicles equipped with front traction, due to high effort of the


a
com

tio

front wheels, an accentuated wear can be noticed on the front


n in
r

axle wheels.
te o

thi
s
iva

do

In order to keep the same useful life on the 4 tyres of the vehicle,
r
rp

cum

we recommend the change of the front wheels backwards and


fo

en
g

vice versa.
n

t.
yi Co
Cop py
.
Pay attention to the rolling direction of the tyre, because it cannot
t rig
gh ht
yri by
be reversed. cop Vo
by lksw
cted agen
Prote
As the tyre rolls in the same position, it adjusts and, therefore it
AG.

is recommendable the change of the wheels at short intervals, for


example, every 5,000 km.
Only in case of tyres without rolling direction it is possible to
change the tyres diagonally. This change of tyres represents an
additional advantage in case of saw teeth build-up ⇒ page 15 .
If the saw teeth build-up is great, and the tyre tread is more than
50% worn out, only a little improvement will be possible and the
change will not be worth. The elasticity of the profile blocks re‐
duces and the saw tooth increases.

2. Curiosities about rims and tyres (passenger vehicles) 41


Fox 2004 ➤ , Fox 2010 ➤ , Fox 2014 ➤ , Gol 1995 ➤ , Gol 1999 ➤ , Gol ...
Wheels and Tyres - General information - Edition 04.2013

2.6.8 Notes related to assembly in case of re‐


placement/assembly of wheel

WARNING

The correct attachment of wheel bolts and wheels


kswagen Ais assured
AG. Volare
only if the following inspections/indications followed:
agen G do
es n
ksw
ol ot g
yV ua
edb ran
ris tee
ho
The inspections/indications
aut described below shall be performed or
ac
when the wheel is disassembled!
ss

ce
e
nl

pt
1. Check if the seating surfaces of brake discs/brake drums and
du

an
itte

wheels are free of corrosion and dirt.

y li
erm

ab
ility
The wheel hubcaps and the wheel studs shall also be free
ot p

5)

wit
of oil, grease, corrosion and dirt.
, is n

h re
hole

– If required, remove all evidences of oil, consistent mass, dirt

spec
and corrosion.
es, in part or in w

t to the co
2. Check if the wheel centering hole and the centering of wheel
hub are free of corrosion and dirt.

rrectness of i
– If required, remove the dirt and the corrosion.
l purpos

3. Check if the wheel studs can be screwed manually without any


difficulty. The wheel stud threads cannot contact the brake disc
holes.

nf
ercia

orm
If the wheel stud thread touches the hole, it will be necessary
m

atio
m

to roll the brake disc into conformity.


o

n in
or c

– Clean the dirty wheel studs with a wire brush, for example.
thi
te

sd
iva

o
r
rp

cu
o

WARNING
f

en
ng

t.
yi Co
Cop py
The corroded and/or damaged wheel studs must be replaced!
t. rig
gh ht
pyri by
Vo
co lksw
by
cted agen
Prote AG.
Assembly of the wheel
1. When assembling the wheel, screw all screws manually and
evenly.
2. Tighten the screws on a crisscross pattern, with approximately
30 Nm, for example, with a crisscross wheel wrench.
3. Tighten all wheel bolts on a crisscross pattern with the recom‐
mended tightening torque, with the vehicle on the floor.

WARNING

Never use a percussion screw machine to assemble the


wheels.

5) Wheel hubcap is the round surface of a ball section. The wheel hubcap is in‐
stalled to the wheel with the wheel stud, in the hole for the wheel stud.

42 Rep. gr.00 - Technical data