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Design Of Electrical System Based On Short Circuit

Study Using ETAP For IEC Projects

J. Arockiya Xavier Prabhu, Kaustubh S. Nande, Smriti Shukla, Chirag N. Ade
Electrical Department
Fluor Daniel India Pvt. Ltd.
New Delhi, India
Arockiya.Prabhu.Xavier@fluor.com, jaxp333@gmail.com,
Kaustubh.S.Nande@fluor.com, Smriti.Shukla@fluor.com, Chirag.N.Ade@fluor.com

Abstract—This paper explains about the short circuit providing details about selecting or designing various
calculation based on IEC 60909 using ETAP. Short circuit electrical equipments based on ETAP output(short circuit
calculation is one of the most important calculations in system calculation report). This paper provides the information about
study analysis because the occurrence of short circuit fault in the input required for short circuit calculation and important
electrical system can’t be avoided. Hence all the electrical parameters should be noted in ETAP model for short circuit
equipments chosen for electrical system should be suitable for calculation.
maximum possible fault current in the system. Also all the
protection equipments shall be capable to identify the minimum
possible fault current in the system. This paper discusses about II. INPUT REQUIRED FOR SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION
the input required for short circuit calculation, parameters of all Accuracy of ETAP result depends on accuracy of the input
electrical equipments (transformer, generator, busbar, etc) which provided. This section discusses about the minimum input
depend on the short circuit calculation. This paper also discusses requirement of ETAP model for performing short circuit
the selection of these parameters based on the short circuit calculation without sacrificing the accuracy of result. ETAP
model requires lot of other information to be filled. But those
Keywords—Short circuit calculation; modeling equipment
details are not relevant for short circuit calculation.
parameters in ETAP; modeling study case and configuration Commonly used electrical equipment parameters to be
status; system design; result analysis; design of switchgear, circuit modeled in ETAP for short circuit calculation are discussed in
breaker, busbar, transformer and cable. sub-section A to sub-section F. In case of non availability of
certain parameters, the values to be assumed are discussed in
I. INTRODUCTION these sections.
Short circuit calculation is one of the most important and For calculating maximum available fault current and
unavoidable calculation in electrical design. All the electrical minimum available fault current, separate study cases and
equipments should be able to withstand fault current for status configurations (total 2 Nos. of study cases and 2 Nos. of
specified time. Protecting equipments should be able to clear status configurations) need to be modeled in ETAP. During
any available fault current in the system safely. Also the calculation of maximum available fault current, study case
protecting equipments shall clear the fault within the and configuration status modeled for maximum fault current
withstand time of the equipment to be protected. shall be chosen. Similarly during the calculation of minimum
Mostly, Short Circuit Calculation (SCC) is performed to available fault current, study case and configuration status
find the maximum available fault current and minimum modeled for minimum available fault current shall be chosen.
available fault current in the system. Maximum available fault Modeling of study case and status configuration is provided in
current is used for selecting the short circuit withstand section G and section H respectively.
capacity of all electrical equipments. Maximum available fault
current for Line to Ground (LG) fault is used for designing the A. Grid input
earthing system. Minimum available fault current is used for Source impedance and rated voltage of the grid are
selecting the pickup setting of the instantaneous over current required for SCC [1]. Rated voltage of the grid, three phase
relay. Electronic Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) short circuit apparent power (MVAsc), its X/R ratio and single
software can be used for performing short circuit calculation. phase short circuit apparent power, its X/R ratio are required
For large systems, short circuit calculation time can be for modeling grid in ETAP. This information is received from
reduced by using ETAP. the utility power supplier. Normally two short circuit apparent
power values (maximum and minimum values) are provided
The purpose of this paper is to provide details about by the utility supplier. Maximum value shall be used to
modeling electrical system in ETAP for short circuit calculate maximum available fault current and minimum value
calculation, performing maximum and minimum available shall be used to calculate minimum available fault current.
short circuit calculation based on IEC 60909 using ETAP and
Choosing maximum value or minimum value is done by using
978-1-5090-0128-6/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE
configuration status (refer sub-section H). ETAP calculates transformer secondary) same as the transformer secondary
source impedance (positive, negative and zero sequence voltage. Hence, the correct bus nominal voltage shall be
impedance) from these values. provided.

B. Generator Input G. Study case Input

Rated power, rated voltage, power factor, d-axis(D-axis) In study case, certain parameters specifically required for
sub transient reactance(Xd”), d-axis transient reactance(Xd’), SCC(which are not applicable for other studies) are modeled.
d-axis and q-axis reactances(Xd and Xq), negative sequence Faulted bus input, X/R calculation method, voltage factor ‘c’,
reactance(X2), Zero sequence reactance(X0), armature tolerance for transformer impedance, tolerance for reactor
resistance(Ra), negative sequence resistance(R2) and zero impedance, tolerance for cable/transmission line, resistance
sequence resistance(R0) are required for modeling generator. correction temperature for cables and alert can be modeled in
Normally, this information is available from the generator study case. For maximum fault current calculation, normally c
manufacturer. Saturated value of Xd” shall be used for is chosen as 1.1(both for L.V. and H.V. system). For minimum
maximum available fault current. If these data are not fault current calculation, c is chosen as 0.95 for LV system
available, ETAP typical values can be used. (less than 1000V) and 1 for HV system (more than 1000V)
C. Transformer Input Tolerance (for transformer impedance, length of cable, etc)
Rated voltage, rated apparent power, positive and zero can be provided locally (shall be provided in parameters of
sequence impedance (in %) with X/R ratio, vector group, type individual equipments) and globally (in study case and this
of system earthing are required for modeling of transformer in applicable for the entire model). In general, 5% to 10%
ETAP. Rated apparent power is selected based on the load tolerance is considered for cable and transmission line length.
connected to the transformer and the largest motor to be For transformer with impedance less than 10%, tolerance shall
started on the transformer. Impedance of the transformer can be ±10% and for impedance ≥10%, a tolerance of ±7.5% shall
be chosen based on [2]. Higher value of impedance (compared be considered (if transformer impedance testing data is not
to impedance value specified in [2]) can be chosen if the fault available) [4]. ETAP considers negative tolerance for short
current at secondary of the transformer is required to be circuit.
reduced. But, the increase in impedance should not affect the
starting of the largest motor. The X/R ratio is calculated using For maximum available fault current calculation,
impedance and copper loss of the transformer [3]. Impedance resistance temperature correction of cables and transmission
tolerance shall be used if the actual data is not available. line shall be considered as 200C [1]. For minimum available
fault current calculation, resistance temperature correction
shall be 1600C for Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) insulated cable
D. Motor Input
with size ≤300mm2, 1400C for PVC insulated cable with size
Rated power of the motor, rated voltage, power factor, >300mm2 and 2500C for Cross-linked polyethylene(XLPE)
efficiency, Locked Rotor Current (LRC) and starting power and Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables [1][5][6].
factor are required for modeling motor in ETAP. Rated power
of the motor depends on the load coupled to the motor. LRC H. Configuration Status Input
can be assumed as 600% to 700% based on the project
requirement (if information is not available). Configuration status in ETAP can be used to model the
different modes of plant operation. Using the configuration
status, ON/OFF operation can be controlled for switching
E. Lump Load Input
devices like circuit breaker, contactor, switch, etc. For
A group of loads can be merged into one lump load in example, if a switching device is modeled as switched ON in
ETAP. In general low voltage loads are modeled as lump one configuration(say configuration1) then the same switching
loads in big systems. The rated power and power factor of a device can be modeled as switched OFF for another
lump load is considered as total power of the group load and configuration(say configuration2). Hence, by choosing
its power factor respectively. For the configuration of lump configuration1, short circuit study can be performed for
load percentage constant kVA (percentage of motor load) is switching device in ON condition and similarly by choosing
entered and ETAP formulates the value of percentage constant configuration 2, short circuit study can be performed for
impedance load (static load). Percentage of motor load in the switching device in OFF condition.
group is to be defined in lump load because only motor load
contributes fault current. LRC of lump load can be assumed as For maximum available fault current calculation the
500% [1]. switching device ON/OFF operation shall be modeled to
achieve maximum fault current and this is not the same for all
F. Busbar Input projects. The conditions listed below may be followed to
model maximum available fault current configuration by
Nominal voltage of busbar is the most important input for closing/opening appropriate switching devices.
short circuit calculation. ETAP calculates short circuit current
based on the bus nominal voltage. In IEC based projects, the • Grid model with maximum short circuit MVA shall be
bus voltage is different from the transformer secondary chosen.
voltage. ETAP considers the bus voltage (bus connected to
• Parallel operation shall be considered for transformer, transformers/generators shall be modeled as connected
generator and grid (if continuous parallel operation is to switchgear.
applicable). Normally, a system with voltage 33kV and
above may have transformers operating in parallel. • For switchgear with single bus system and with two
Mostly HV generators (except standby generator for incomers and bus coupler, both incomers shall be
emergency supply) operate in parallel with other modeled as closed. Bus coupler shall be modeled as
generators or grid. open.

• All motor loads (except spare motors) shall be modeled • Is-limiter shall be modeled as open.
as running [1].
• Normally in Oil and Gas projects, switchgear for
system voltages up to 11kV is designed with single bus SCC can be performed by clicking “Run LG, LL, LLG 3-
system and with bus sectionalizer (total 2 buses). Each phase Faults” icon in ETAP. Initial symmetrical RMS current
bus is connected to incoming supply via transformer (Ik”), steady state RMS current (Ik), peak current (ip) and angle
capable of supplying power to load connected to both between current and voltage, etc. are calculated by ETAP for
the buses. In other words, one transformer can supply 3-phase fault, line to ground (LG) fault, line to line (LL) fault
power to all the loads. For this type of system and double line to ground (LLG) fault. The results of SCC are
arrangement one transformer shall be considered in stored in output report of ETAP.
service, the other transformer shall be considered as out Maximum available short circuit current calculation shall
of service and bus coupler shall be modeled as ON. be performed by selecting study case and configuration status
Hence all the motors in that switchgear contribute fault modeled for maximum available fault current. Similarly
current to the bus. minimum available short circuit current calculation is also
• Is-limiter model is not available in ETAP. Is-limiter done by choosing appropriate study case and configuration
shall be modeled as a circuit breaker for short circuit status.
calculation. Is-limiter operates(opens) for fault in the
system connected to it and it does not operate for fault IV. UTLIZING THE RESULT OF ETAP FOR ELECTRICAL
in upstream or downstream. For example, if an Is- EQUIPMENT DESIGN
limiter is provided at 11kV system to reduce the fault In this section analyzing the SCC report and utilizing the
current at 11kV system then the Is-limiter operates ETAP result for designing the commonly used electrical
(opens) for fault at 11kV system and does not operate equipment is discussed.
for fault at primary side of upstream transformer (e.g.
33/11.5kV transformer) or fault in secondary side of A. Switchgear Design
downstream transformer (e.g. 11/0.42kV transformer).
Hence, circuit breaker modeled as Is-limiter shall be All the switchgear components are designed for short time
considered as open for SCC for fault at 11kV withstand current (IW) for duration of 1s or 3s and peak
switchgear and shall be considered as closed for SCC withstand current (Ip) [7][8]. Standard IW is provided in [9]. IW
for fault at 33kV and 0.42kV side. of switchgear shall be ≥ I of maximum available SCC. Based
on this condition, next higher value of IW is chosen as
Similarly for minimum available fault current calculation, compared to Ik”.
the switching device ON/OFF operation shall be modeled
to achieve minimum fault current and this differs from HV switchgears are designed for Ip equal to 2.5 times of IW
project to project. Some of the conditions listed below may (for time constant τ = 45ms). Hence ip of maximum available
be applicable to model minimum available fault current fault current shall be ≤ 2.5 times of IW.
configuration by closing/opening appropriate switching LV switchgears are designed for Ip as specified in [8]. For
device. LV switchgear, the value of Ip depends on IW. In LV
• Grid model with minimum short circuit MVA shall be switchgear also ip of maximum available fault current shall be
chosen. ≤ Ip of LV switchgear.

• All motor loads shall be modeled as not running [1]. IW of switchgear plays a major role in designing the short
time withstand capacity of most of the electrical equipments
• Based on project requirement, number of transformers, (transformer terminal box, cables, etc.). Design of busbar for
generators, grids to be operated in parallel shall be switchgear is discussed in sub-section B of section III.
decided. Mostly while designing transformer/generator Selection of circuit breaker for switchgear is discussed in sub-
operating in parallel, N+1 concept is followed i.e., if section C of section III.
one transformer/generator is out of service, then
remaining ‘N’ number of transformers/generators can B. Busbar design
feed power to the entire group of loads. In such cases Busbars of switchgears are designed to withstand
one transformer/generator shall be modeled as electromagnetic effect and thermal effect. Electromagnetic
disconnected from switchgear and remaining ‘N’ effect comprises of electromagnetic peak force between
conductors due to three phase fault current (Fm3), peak force
between conductors due to LL fault current (Fm2) and stress be calculated using ETAP by making following modifications
due to bending force (σm,d). Fm3, Fm2 and σm,d are calculated in ETAP model.
based on [10]. Fm3 depends on ip of maximum available 3-
phase fault current. Fm2 depends on peak current of maximum • Separate configuration status shall be created.
available LL fault current. σm,d depends on Fm2 and Fm3 [10]. • All the motor loads shall be disconnected.
Proper support shall be provided to withstand these forces.
• The entire fault current contributing source connected
Due to thermal effect, temperature increases in a busbar. to the secondary side of transformer shall be
Thermal effect depends on material of the busbar, duration of disconnected.
short circuit current, thermal equivalent short-circuit current
(Ith) and area of conductor. Thermal effect is calculated based • Maximum short circuit MVA shall be chosen at
on [10]. Ith depends on Ik” of maximum available 3-phase fault primary side of transformer.
current, factor for heat effect of DC component (m) and factor
• Low impedance path shall be chosen between primary
for heat effect of AC component (n). Ik” is available from
side of transformer and source.
ETAP result. ‘m’ and ‘n’ are calculated using [1].
• Separate study cases shall be created with ‘c’ factor of
C. Circuit Breaker Selection 1.05. Because transformer through fault current for
Circuit breakers are designed for short circuit breaking designing transformer shall be calculated based on
current (Isc), short time withstand current (IW) for duration of 1 rated voltage at secondary of transformer [2]. But in
sec or 3 sec and short circuit making capacity (Im). IW of IEC projects transformer secondary side voltage is
circuit breaker is chosen same as switchgear. In general, Im of approximately 5% higher than bus connected to it. But
HV circuit breaker is designed for 2.5 times of IW. Im of LV ETAP calculates fault current based on bus voltage. To
circuit breaker is designed based on [8]. Im shall be greater match bus voltage with transformer secondary voltage
than or equal to ip of the maximum available short circuit ‘c’ factor of 1.05 shall be considered.
current. Transformers are designed to withstand thermal effect and
Isc of circuit breaker includes AC components and DC electromagnetic effect of the three phase through fault current.
components. AC components of Isc shall be equal to IW. DC Thermal effect depends on Ik” of the three phase through fault
component depends on operating time of circuit breaker (Top), current and duration of the fault current. Duration of the fault
time period of half cycle (of rated frequency) and time current shall be considered as 2s. After 2s the temperature rise
constant. Top is decided by circuit breaker manufacturer. inside the winding shall not exceed the value specified in [2].
Standard time constants are 45ms, 60ms, 75ms and 120ms Electromagnetic effect consists of radial tensile /
[11]. Generally circuit breakers are manufactured and tested compressive forces, radial bursting force and internal axial
for Top of 40-60ms and for time constant of 45ms. Time compression force and axial imbalance force due to tapping.
constant of maximum available fault current shall not exceed These forces depend on peak value of three phase through
45ms. fault current (available in ETAP result). Proper support shall
ETAP provides the angle between fault current and the be provided to withstand these forces.
voltage. Based on this angle, time constant of fault current can
be calculated. If time constant of fault current exceeds 45ms F. Motor Design
then the “I x t” of fault current shall not exceed rated “I x t” of Like generator, motor terminal boxes are designed to
circuit breaker. Where “I x t” is the product of peak value of withstand fault current same as IW of the switchgear. But the
the last short circuit current loop (I) before breaking and duration of short circuit current for designing terminal box is
duration of last short-circuit current loop (t) [11]. The standard considered as 0.5s because protecting device used for
values of “I” and “t” for “I x t” calculation based on time protection of motor operates for less than 0.25s.
constant are provided in [12].
G. Cable Size Selection
D.Generator Design Generally, HV cables are sized to withstand the short
Generators are designed to withstand fault current circuit current equal to IW of the switchgear.
contributed by generator only. Generators are not designed for
maximum available fault current of the system. Fault current The size of cable is given by the following equation from
contributed by generator depends on the impedance of [14].
generator. But generator terminal box is designed to withstand
the fault current same as IW of the switchgear. The duration of I× t
short circuit current for designing terminal box is considered
A= (1)
as 1s.

E. Transformer Design I is the r.m.s. value of the short circuit current (considered
Transformers are designed to withstand fault current. same as IW of the switchgear), t is the duration of fault
Transformers are not designed for maximum available fault (tripping time of the circuit breaker) and K is the short circuit
current of the system. Though fault current of transformer can temperature rise constant.
In general practice, the value of ‘t’ is taken as around 0.25 Tm is the maximum allowable temperature in °C
seconds for circuit breaker controlled motor feeder, 0.02
Ta is the ambient temperature in °C
seconds for fuse/contactor motor feeder, 0.5 seconds for cable
on the primary side of the transformer and 1 second for cable K 0 = 1/ α 0 or (1/ α r ) at reference temperature for material
on the secondary side of the transformer. constants in ºC
Based on [14], the value of K can be calculated as TCAP is the thermal capacity per unit volume in
follows:- J/(cm3·oC) α r , ρ r , Tm , K 0 and TCAP are the functions of
the type of conductor used, and their conductivity.
 β + θf   Q C (β + 20)  To account for the presence of DC offset currents present
K = ln .  (2)
for a considerable time in the fault current, a decrement factor,
 β + θi  ρ 20  which is a function of the X/R ratio is used as a multiplying
Q C is the volumetric heat capacity of conductor material factor.
(J/K mm3) at 20 °C, β is the reciprocal of temperature GPR depends on earth resistance and maximum available
coefficient of resistivity at 0 °C for the conductor (°C), ρ 20 is LG fault current. Step potential and touch potential depend on
maximum available earth fault current and fault current
the electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20 °C duration.
(Ωmm), θi is the initial temperature of conductor (°C) and
ETAP can perform earthing design based on [13] and
θ f is the final temperature of conductor (°C).
Finite Element Method (FEM). Separate earth grid model shall
be created in ETAP for performing this study. ETAP can
H. Earthing design calculate GPR, step potential and touch potential.
Earthing system design requires the maximum available
LG short circuit current, the fault duration, the X/R ratio, type I. Instantaneous overcurrent pickup setting
of material used for earthing,the ambient soil temperature, the Instantaneous over current relay is used to provide short
resistivity of soil, the earth grid parameters, etc. Maximum circuit protection for electrical equipments. Instantaneous over
available LG short circuit current is available from ETAP current protection requires only pickup setting. Instantaneous
short circuit calculation. ETAP results also provide the phase over current relay shall provide protection for minimum
angle between current and voltage. X/R ratio of short circuit available fault current. In general, instantaneous over current
current can be calculated based on the phase angle. Fault setting shall be provided as less than 80% of I”k of minimum
duration can be decided based on the protection philosophy available fault current (result of ETAP study).
and the relay coordination and setting study. Other parameters
depend on project specifications.
Based on the above details, input temperature rise in In this paper, short circuit study using ETAP is discussed
earthing conductor, Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and step with details about the modeling of electrical equipments,
potential and touch potential are calculated for earthing selection of the electrical equipment parameters, modeling
design. study case as per requirements of [1] and modeling
The following equation gives the minimum area of cross configuration status to achieve maximum and minimum fault
section required for the earthing conductor as a function of the current. The way to analyze the short circuit calculation result
short circuit current and the fault duration [13]. and to design/select electrical equipment based on short circuit
calculation is also discussed in this paper.
I 2t Cαrρr
  K + Tm 
( )
TCAP.10 − 4 . ln 0  

[1] IEC 60909-0: Short-circuit currents in three-phase a.c. systems - Part 0:
Calculation of currents.
  K 0 + Ta  [2] IEC 60076-5: Power transformers – Part 5: Ability to withstand short
[3] IEC 60076-8: Power transformers – Part 8: Application guide.
I is the rms value of the short circuit current in kA (available
[4] IEC 60076-1: Power transformers – Part 1: General.
from ETAP study)
[5] IEC 60502-1: Power cables with extruded insulation and their
A is the cross sectional area of the earthing conductor in mm² accessories for rated voltages - Part 1: Cables for rated voltages of 1 kV
t C is the time for which the fault occurs ((Um = 1,2 kV) and 3 kV (Um = 3,6 kV).
α 0 is the coefficient of thermal resistivity at 0 °C in 1/ ºC [6] IEC 60502-2: Power cables with extruded insulation and their
accessories for rated voltages - Part 2: Cables for rated voltages of 6 kV
α r is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference ((Um = 7,2 kV) and 30 kV (Um = 36 kV).
temperature for material constants in 1/ºC [7] IEC 62271-1: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 1:
Common specifications.
ρ r is the resistivity of the ground conductor at reference [8] IEC 61439-1: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part
temperature for material constants in µΩ-cm 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies.
[9] IEC 60059: IEC standard current ratings.
[10] IEC 60865-1: Short-circuit currents — Calculation of effects - Part 1:
Definitions and calculation methods.
[11] IEC 62271-100: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 100:
High-voltage alternating-current circuit-breakers.
[12] IEC 62271-306: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 308:
Guide for asymmetrical short-circuit breaking test duty T100a.
[13] IEEE Std 80, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding.
[14] IEC 60364-54: Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 5-54:
Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Earthing arrangements
and protective conductors