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J. Arockiya Xavier Prabhu, Kaustubh S. Nande, Smriti Shukla, Chirag N. Ade

Electrical Department

Fluor Daniel India Pvt. Ltd.

New Delhi, India

Arockiya.Prabhu.Xavier@fluor.com, jaxp333@gmail.com,

Kaustubh.S.Nande@fluor.com, Smriti.Shukla@fluor.com, Chirag.N.Ade@fluor.com

Abstract—This paper explains about the short circuit providing details about selecting or designing various

calculation based on IEC 60909 using ETAP. Short circuit electrical equipments based on ETAP output(short circuit

calculation is one of the most important calculations in system calculation report). This paper provides the information about

study analysis because the occurrence of short circuit fault in the input required for short circuit calculation and important

electrical system can’t be avoided. Hence all the electrical parameters should be noted in ETAP model for short circuit

equipments chosen for electrical system should be suitable for calculation.

maximum possible fault current in the system. Also all the

protection equipments shall be capable to identify the minimum

possible fault current in the system. This paper discusses about II. INPUT REQUIRED FOR SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION

the input required for short circuit calculation, parameters of all Accuracy of ETAP result depends on accuracy of the input

electrical equipments (transformer, generator, busbar, etc) which provided. This section discusses about the minimum input

depend on the short circuit calculation. This paper also discusses requirement of ETAP model for performing short circuit

the selection of these parameters based on the short circuit calculation without sacrificing the accuracy of result. ETAP

calculation.

model requires lot of other information to be filled. But those

Keywords—Short circuit calculation; modeling equipment

details are not relevant for short circuit calculation.

parameters in ETAP; modeling study case and configuration Commonly used electrical equipment parameters to be

status; system design; result analysis; design of switchgear, circuit modeled in ETAP for short circuit calculation are discussed in

breaker, busbar, transformer and cable. sub-section A to sub-section F. In case of non availability of

certain parameters, the values to be assumed are discussed in

I. INTRODUCTION these sections.

Short circuit calculation is one of the most important and For calculating maximum available fault current and

unavoidable calculation in electrical design. All the electrical minimum available fault current, separate study cases and

equipments should be able to withstand fault current for status configurations (total 2 Nos. of study cases and 2 Nos. of

specified time. Protecting equipments should be able to clear status configurations) need to be modeled in ETAP. During

any available fault current in the system safely. Also the calculation of maximum available fault current, study case

protecting equipments shall clear the fault within the and configuration status modeled for maximum fault current

withstand time of the equipment to be protected. shall be chosen. Similarly during the calculation of minimum

Mostly, Short Circuit Calculation (SCC) is performed to available fault current, study case and configuration status

find the maximum available fault current and minimum modeled for minimum available fault current shall be chosen.

available fault current in the system. Maximum available fault Modeling of study case and status configuration is provided in

current is used for selecting the short circuit withstand section G and section H respectively.

capacity of all electrical equipments. Maximum available fault

current for Line to Ground (LG) fault is used for designing the A. Grid input

earthing system. Minimum available fault current is used for Source impedance and rated voltage of the grid are

selecting the pickup setting of the instantaneous over current required for SCC [1]. Rated voltage of the grid, three phase

relay. Electronic Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) short circuit apparent power (MVAsc), its X/R ratio and single

software can be used for performing short circuit calculation. phase short circuit apparent power, its X/R ratio are required

For large systems, short circuit calculation time can be for modeling grid in ETAP. This information is received from

reduced by using ETAP. the utility power supplier. Normally two short circuit apparent

power values (maximum and minimum values) are provided

The purpose of this paper is to provide details about by the utility supplier. Maximum value shall be used to

modeling electrical system in ETAP for short circuit calculate maximum available fault current and minimum value

calculation, performing maximum and minimum available shall be used to calculate minimum available fault current.

short circuit calculation based on IEC 60909 using ETAP and

Choosing maximum value or minimum value is done by using

978-1-5090-0128-6/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE

configuration status (refer sub-section H). ETAP calculates transformer secondary) same as the transformer secondary

source impedance (positive, negative and zero sequence voltage. Hence, the correct bus nominal voltage shall be

impedance) from these values. provided.

Rated power, rated voltage, power factor, d-axis(D-axis) In study case, certain parameters specifically required for

sub transient reactance(Xd”), d-axis transient reactance(Xd’), SCC(which are not applicable for other studies) are modeled.

d-axis and q-axis reactances(Xd and Xq), negative sequence Faulted bus input, X/R calculation method, voltage factor ‘c’,

reactance(X2), Zero sequence reactance(X0), armature tolerance for transformer impedance, tolerance for reactor

resistance(Ra), negative sequence resistance(R2) and zero impedance, tolerance for cable/transmission line, resistance

sequence resistance(R0) are required for modeling generator. correction temperature for cables and alert can be modeled in

Normally, this information is available from the generator study case. For maximum fault current calculation, normally c

manufacturer. Saturated value of Xd” shall be used for is chosen as 1.1(both for L.V. and H.V. system). For minimum

maximum available fault current. If these data are not fault current calculation, c is chosen as 0.95 for LV system

available, ETAP typical values can be used. (less than 1000V) and 1 for HV system (more than 1000V)

[1].

C. Transformer Input Tolerance (for transformer impedance, length of cable, etc)

Rated voltage, rated apparent power, positive and zero can be provided locally (shall be provided in parameters of

sequence impedance (in %) with X/R ratio, vector group, type individual equipments) and globally (in study case and this

of system earthing are required for modeling of transformer in applicable for the entire model). In general, 5% to 10%

ETAP. Rated apparent power is selected based on the load tolerance is considered for cable and transmission line length.

connected to the transformer and the largest motor to be For transformer with impedance less than 10%, tolerance shall

started on the transformer. Impedance of the transformer can be ±10% and for impedance ≥10%, a tolerance of ±7.5% shall

be chosen based on [2]. Higher value of impedance (compared be considered (if transformer impedance testing data is not

to impedance value specified in [2]) can be chosen if the fault available) [4]. ETAP considers negative tolerance for short

current at secondary of the transformer is required to be circuit.

reduced. But, the increase in impedance should not affect the

starting of the largest motor. The X/R ratio is calculated using For maximum available fault current calculation,

impedance and copper loss of the transformer [3]. Impedance resistance temperature correction of cables and transmission

tolerance shall be used if the actual data is not available. line shall be considered as 200C [1]. For minimum available

fault current calculation, resistance temperature correction

shall be 1600C for Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) insulated cable

D. Motor Input

with size ≤300mm2, 1400C for PVC insulated cable with size

Rated power of the motor, rated voltage, power factor, >300mm2 and 2500C for Cross-linked polyethylene(XLPE)

efficiency, Locked Rotor Current (LRC) and starting power and Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables [1][5][6].

factor are required for modeling motor in ETAP. Rated power

of the motor depends on the load coupled to the motor. LRC H. Configuration Status Input

can be assumed as 600% to 700% based on the project

requirement (if information is not available). Configuration status in ETAP can be used to model the

different modes of plant operation. Using the configuration

status, ON/OFF operation can be controlled for switching

E. Lump Load Input

devices like circuit breaker, contactor, switch, etc. For

A group of loads can be merged into one lump load in example, if a switching device is modeled as switched ON in

ETAP. In general low voltage loads are modeled as lump one configuration(say configuration1) then the same switching

loads in big systems. The rated power and power factor of a device can be modeled as switched OFF for another

lump load is considered as total power of the group load and configuration(say configuration2). Hence, by choosing

its power factor respectively. For the configuration of lump configuration1, short circuit study can be performed for

load percentage constant kVA (percentage of motor load) is switching device in ON condition and similarly by choosing

entered and ETAP formulates the value of percentage constant configuration 2, short circuit study can be performed for

impedance load (static load). Percentage of motor load in the switching device in OFF condition.

group is to be defined in lump load because only motor load

contributes fault current. LRC of lump load can be assumed as For maximum available fault current calculation the

500% [1]. switching device ON/OFF operation shall be modeled to

achieve maximum fault current and this is not the same for all

F. Busbar Input projects. The conditions listed below may be followed to

model maximum available fault current configuration by

Nominal voltage of busbar is the most important input for closing/opening appropriate switching devices.

short circuit calculation. ETAP calculates short circuit current

based on the bus nominal voltage. In IEC based projects, the • Grid model with maximum short circuit MVA shall be

bus voltage is different from the transformer secondary chosen.

voltage. ETAP considers the bus voltage (bus connected to

• Parallel operation shall be considered for transformer, transformers/generators shall be modeled as connected

generator and grid (if continuous parallel operation is to switchgear.

applicable). Normally, a system with voltage 33kV and

above may have transformers operating in parallel. • For switchgear with single bus system and with two

Mostly HV generators (except standby generator for incomers and bus coupler, both incomers shall be

emergency supply) operate in parallel with other modeled as closed. Bus coupler shall be modeled as

generators or grid. open.

• All motor loads (except spare motors) shall be modeled • Is-limiter shall be modeled as open.

as running [1].

III. CALCULATION AND REPORT

• Normally in Oil and Gas projects, switchgear for

system voltages up to 11kV is designed with single bus SCC can be performed by clicking “Run LG, LL, LLG 3-

system and with bus sectionalizer (total 2 buses). Each phase Faults” icon in ETAP. Initial symmetrical RMS current

bus is connected to incoming supply via transformer (Ik”), steady state RMS current (Ik), peak current (ip) and angle

capable of supplying power to load connected to both between current and voltage, etc. are calculated by ETAP for

the buses. In other words, one transformer can supply 3-phase fault, line to ground (LG) fault, line to line (LL) fault

power to all the loads. For this type of system and double line to ground (LLG) fault. The results of SCC are

arrangement one transformer shall be considered in stored in output report of ETAP.

service, the other transformer shall be considered as out Maximum available short circuit current calculation shall

of service and bus coupler shall be modeled as ON. be performed by selecting study case and configuration status

Hence all the motors in that switchgear contribute fault modeled for maximum available fault current. Similarly

current to the bus. minimum available short circuit current calculation is also

• Is-limiter model is not available in ETAP. Is-limiter done by choosing appropriate study case and configuration

shall be modeled as a circuit breaker for short circuit status.

calculation. Is-limiter operates(opens) for fault in the

system connected to it and it does not operate for fault IV. UTLIZING THE RESULT OF ETAP FOR ELECTRICAL

in upstream or downstream. For example, if an Is- EQUIPMENT DESIGN

limiter is provided at 11kV system to reduce the fault In this section analyzing the SCC report and utilizing the

current at 11kV system then the Is-limiter operates ETAP result for designing the commonly used electrical

(opens) for fault at 11kV system and does not operate equipment is discussed.

for fault at primary side of upstream transformer (e.g.

33/11.5kV transformer) or fault in secondary side of A. Switchgear Design

downstream transformer (e.g. 11/0.42kV transformer).

Hence, circuit breaker modeled as Is-limiter shall be All the switchgear components are designed for short time

considered as open for SCC for fault at 11kV withstand current (IW) for duration of 1s or 3s and peak

switchgear and shall be considered as closed for SCC withstand current (Ip) [7][8]. Standard IW is provided in [9]. IW

for fault at 33kV and 0.42kV side. of switchgear shall be ≥ I of maximum available SCC. Based

on this condition, next higher value of IW is chosen as

Similarly for minimum available fault current calculation, compared to Ik”.

the switching device ON/OFF operation shall be modeled

to achieve minimum fault current and this differs from HV switchgears are designed for Ip equal to 2.5 times of IW

project to project. Some of the conditions listed below may (for time constant τ = 45ms). Hence ip of maximum available

be applicable to model minimum available fault current fault current shall be ≤ 2.5 times of IW.

configuration by closing/opening appropriate switching LV switchgears are designed for Ip as specified in [8]. For

device. LV switchgear, the value of Ip depends on IW. In LV

• Grid model with minimum short circuit MVA shall be switchgear also ip of maximum available fault current shall be

chosen. ≤ Ip of LV switchgear.

• All motor loads shall be modeled as not running [1]. IW of switchgear plays a major role in designing the short

time withstand capacity of most of the electrical equipments

• Based on project requirement, number of transformers, (transformer terminal box, cables, etc.). Design of busbar for

generators, grids to be operated in parallel shall be switchgear is discussed in sub-section B of section III.

decided. Mostly while designing transformer/generator Selection of circuit breaker for switchgear is discussed in sub-

operating in parallel, N+1 concept is followed i.e., if section C of section III.

one transformer/generator is out of service, then

remaining ‘N’ number of transformers/generators can B. Busbar design

feed power to the entire group of loads. In such cases Busbars of switchgears are designed to withstand

one transformer/generator shall be modeled as electromagnetic effect and thermal effect. Electromagnetic

disconnected from switchgear and remaining ‘N’ effect comprises of electromagnetic peak force between

conductors due to three phase fault current (Fm3), peak force

between conductors due to LL fault current (Fm2) and stress be calculated using ETAP by making following modifications

due to bending force (σm,d). Fm3, Fm2 and σm,d are calculated in ETAP model.

based on [10]. Fm3 depends on ip of maximum available 3-

phase fault current. Fm2 depends on peak current of maximum • Separate configuration status shall be created.

available LL fault current. σm,d depends on Fm2 and Fm3 [10]. • All the motor loads shall be disconnected.

Proper support shall be provided to withstand these forces.

• The entire fault current contributing source connected

Due to thermal effect, temperature increases in a busbar. to the secondary side of transformer shall be

Thermal effect depends on material of the busbar, duration of disconnected.

short circuit current, thermal equivalent short-circuit current

(Ith) and area of conductor. Thermal effect is calculated based • Maximum short circuit MVA shall be chosen at

on [10]. Ith depends on Ik” of maximum available 3-phase fault primary side of transformer.

current, factor for heat effect of DC component (m) and factor

• Low impedance path shall be chosen between primary

for heat effect of AC component (n). Ik” is available from

side of transformer and source.

ETAP result. ‘m’ and ‘n’ are calculated using [1].

• Separate study cases shall be created with ‘c’ factor of

C. Circuit Breaker Selection 1.05. Because transformer through fault current for

Circuit breakers are designed for short circuit breaking designing transformer shall be calculated based on

current (Isc), short time withstand current (IW) for duration of 1 rated voltage at secondary of transformer [2]. But in

sec or 3 sec and short circuit making capacity (Im). IW of IEC projects transformer secondary side voltage is

circuit breaker is chosen same as switchgear. In general, Im of approximately 5% higher than bus connected to it. But

HV circuit breaker is designed for 2.5 times of IW. Im of LV ETAP calculates fault current based on bus voltage. To

circuit breaker is designed based on [8]. Im shall be greater match bus voltage with transformer secondary voltage

than or equal to ip of the maximum available short circuit ‘c’ factor of 1.05 shall be considered.

current. Transformers are designed to withstand thermal effect and

Isc of circuit breaker includes AC components and DC electromagnetic effect of the three phase through fault current.

components. AC components of Isc shall be equal to IW. DC Thermal effect depends on Ik” of the three phase through fault

component depends on operating time of circuit breaker (Top), current and duration of the fault current. Duration of the fault

time period of half cycle (of rated frequency) and time current shall be considered as 2s. After 2s the temperature rise

constant. Top is decided by circuit breaker manufacturer. inside the winding shall not exceed the value specified in [2].

Standard time constants are 45ms, 60ms, 75ms and 120ms Electromagnetic effect consists of radial tensile /

[11]. Generally circuit breakers are manufactured and tested compressive forces, radial bursting force and internal axial

for Top of 40-60ms and for time constant of 45ms. Time compression force and axial imbalance force due to tapping.

constant of maximum available fault current shall not exceed These forces depend on peak value of three phase through

45ms. fault current (available in ETAP result). Proper support shall

ETAP provides the angle between fault current and the be provided to withstand these forces.

voltage. Based on this angle, time constant of fault current can

be calculated. If time constant of fault current exceeds 45ms F. Motor Design

then the “I x t” of fault current shall not exceed rated “I x t” of Like generator, motor terminal boxes are designed to

circuit breaker. Where “I x t” is the product of peak value of withstand fault current same as IW of the switchgear. But the

the last short circuit current loop (I) before breaking and duration of short circuit current for designing terminal box is

duration of last short-circuit current loop (t) [11]. The standard considered as 0.5s because protecting device used for

values of “I” and “t” for “I x t” calculation based on time protection of motor operates for less than 0.25s.

constant are provided in [12].

G. Cable Size Selection

D.Generator Design Generally, HV cables are sized to withstand the short

Generators are designed to withstand fault current circuit current equal to IW of the switchgear.

contributed by generator only. Generators are not designed for

maximum available fault current of the system. Fault current The size of cable is given by the following equation from

contributed by generator depends on the impedance of [14].

generator. But generator terminal box is designed to withstand

the fault current same as IW of the switchgear. The duration of I× t

short circuit current for designing terminal box is considered

A= (1)

K

as 1s.

E. Transformer Design I is the r.m.s. value of the short circuit current (considered

Transformers are designed to withstand fault current. same as IW of the switchgear), t is the duration of fault

Transformers are not designed for maximum available fault (tripping time of the circuit breaker) and K is the short circuit

current of the system. Though fault current of transformer can temperature rise constant.

In general practice, the value of ‘t’ is taken as around 0.25 Tm is the maximum allowable temperature in °C

seconds for circuit breaker controlled motor feeder, 0.02

Ta is the ambient temperature in °C

seconds for fuse/contactor motor feeder, 0.5 seconds for cable

on the primary side of the transformer and 1 second for cable K 0 = 1/ α 0 or (1/ α r ) at reference temperature for material

on the secondary side of the transformer. constants in ºC

Based on [14], the value of K can be calculated as TCAP is the thermal capacity per unit volume in

follows:- J/(cm3·oC) α r , ρ r , Tm , K 0 and TCAP are the functions of

the type of conductor used, and their conductivity.

β + θf Q C (β + 20) To account for the presence of DC offset currents present

K = ln . (2)

for a considerable time in the fault current, a decrement factor,

β + θi ρ 20 which is a function of the X/R ratio is used as a multiplying

Q C is the volumetric heat capacity of conductor material factor.

(J/K mm3) at 20 °C, β is the reciprocal of temperature GPR depends on earth resistance and maximum available

coefficient of resistivity at 0 °C for the conductor (°C), ρ 20 is LG fault current. Step potential and touch potential depend on

maximum available earth fault current and fault current

the electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20 °C duration.

(Ωmm), θi is the initial temperature of conductor (°C) and

ETAP can perform earthing design based on [13] and

θ f is the final temperature of conductor (°C).

Finite Element Method (FEM). Separate earth grid model shall

be created in ETAP for performing this study. ETAP can

H. Earthing design calculate GPR, step potential and touch potential.

Earthing system design requires the maximum available

LG short circuit current, the fault duration, the X/R ratio, type I. Instantaneous overcurrent pickup setting

of material used for earthing,the ambient soil temperature, the Instantaneous over current relay is used to provide short

resistivity of soil, the earth grid parameters, etc. Maximum circuit protection for electrical equipments. Instantaneous over

available LG short circuit current is available from ETAP current protection requires only pickup setting. Instantaneous

short circuit calculation. ETAP results also provide the phase over current relay shall provide protection for minimum

angle between current and voltage. X/R ratio of short circuit available fault current. In general, instantaneous over current

current can be calculated based on the phase angle. Fault setting shall be provided as less than 80% of I”k of minimum

duration can be decided based on the protection philosophy available fault current (result of ETAP study).

and the relay coordination and setting study. Other parameters

depend on project specifications.

V. SUMMARY

Based on the above details, input temperature rise in In this paper, short circuit study using ETAP is discussed

earthing conductor, Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and step with details about the modeling of electrical equipments,

potential and touch potential are calculated for earthing selection of the electrical equipment parameters, modeling

design. study case as per requirements of [1] and modeling

The following equation gives the minimum area of cross configuration status to achieve maximum and minimum fault

section required for the earthing conductor as a function of the current. The way to analyze the short circuit calculation result

short circuit current and the fault duration [13]. and to design/select electrical equipment based on short circuit

calculation is also discussed in this paper.

I 2t Cαrρr

A = (3) REFERENCES

K + Tm

( )

TCAP.10 − 4 . ln 0

[1] IEC 60909-0: Short-circuit currents in three-phase a.c. systems - Part 0:

Calculation of currents.

K 0 + Ta [2] IEC 60076-5: Power transformers – Part 5: Ability to withstand short

circuit.

[3] IEC 60076-8: Power transformers – Part 8: Application guide.

I is the rms value of the short circuit current in kA (available

[4] IEC 60076-1: Power transformers – Part 1: General.

from ETAP study)

[5] IEC 60502-1: Power cables with extruded insulation and their

A is the cross sectional area of the earthing conductor in mm² accessories for rated voltages - Part 1: Cables for rated voltages of 1 kV

t C is the time for which the fault occurs ((Um = 1,2 kV) and 3 kV (Um = 3,6 kV).

α 0 is the coefficient of thermal resistivity at 0 °C in 1/ ºC [6] IEC 60502-2: Power cables with extruded insulation and their

accessories for rated voltages - Part 2: Cables for rated voltages of 6 kV

α r is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference ((Um = 7,2 kV) and 30 kV (Um = 36 kV).

temperature for material constants in 1/ºC [7] IEC 62271-1: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 1:

Common specifications.

ρ r is the resistivity of the ground conductor at reference [8] IEC 61439-1: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part

temperature for material constants in µΩ-cm 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies.

[9] IEC 60059: IEC standard current ratings.

[10] IEC 60865-1: Short-circuit currents — Calculation of effects - Part 1:

Definitions and calculation methods.

[11] IEC 62271-100: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 100:

High-voltage alternating-current circuit-breakers.

[12] IEC 62271-306: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 308:

Guide for asymmetrical short-circuit breaking test duty T100a.

[13] IEEE Std 80, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding.

[14] IEC 60364-54: Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 5-54:

Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Earthing arrangements

and protective conductors

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