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# Beams

Fall 2018

zhouw@uark.edu
(479) 575-7250

## The Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Learning Objectives
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams
Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment
Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending

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Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

## Beams - structural members supporting loads at

various points along the member

## Transverse loadings of beams are classified as

concentrated loads or distributed loads

## Applied loads result in internal forces consisting

of a shear force (from the shear stress
distribution) and a bending couple (from the
normal stress distribution)

## Normal stress is often the critical design criteria

My Mc M
x   m  
I I S
Requires determination of the location and
Fig. 5.4 Analysis of a
simply supported beam.
magnitude of maximum bending moment
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Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

## Fig. 5.2 Common beam

support configurations.

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Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

## Determination of maximum normal and

shearing stresses requires identification
of maximum internal shear force and
bending couple.

## Shear force and bending couple at a point

are determined by passing a section
through the beam and applying an
equilibrium analysis on the beam portions
on either side of the section.

## Fig. 5.5 Determination of shear force, V

and bending moment, M, at a given section.
(a) Loaded beam with section indicated at
arbitrary positions S. (b) Free-body
diagrams of left and right sections at C.

## Fig. 5.6 Sign convention for shear and

bending moment.

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Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Example 1 SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid
body, determine the reaction forces

## Section the beam at points near

supports and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
resulting free-bodies to determine
For the timber beam and loading internal shear forces and bending
shown, draw the shear and bend- couples
moment diagrams and determine the
maximum normal stress due to Identify the maximum shear and
bending. bending-moment from plots of their
distributions.

## Apply the elastic flexure formulas to

determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
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Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Example 1
SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid body, determine
the reaction forces

F y  0   M B : RB  46 kN RD  14 kN
Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses
on resulting free-bodies
 Fy  0  20 kN  V1  0 V1  20 kN
 M1  0 20 kN 0 m   M1  0 M1  0

 Fy  0  20 kN  V2  0 V2  20 kN
 M2  0 20 kN 2.5 m   M 2  0 M 2  50 kN  m

V3  26 kN M 3  50 kN  m
V4  26 kN M 4  28 kN  m
V5  14 kN M 5  28 kN  m

## Fig. 1 Six sections identified for analysis, and the V6  14 kN M6  0 7

free body diagram for each section.
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Example 1
Identify the maximum shear and bending-
moment from plots of their distributions.
Vm  26 kN M m  M B  50 kN  m

## Apply the elastic flexure formulas to

determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
S  16 b h 2  16 0.080 m 0.250 m 2

 833.33 10 6 m3

MB 50 103 N  m
m  
S 833.33 10 6 m3

 m  60.0 106 Pa

## Fig. 1 Shear and bending moment diagrams 8

result from the analysis of each section.
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Example 2
SOLUTION:
Replace the 10 kip load with an
equivalent force-couple system at D.
Find the reactions at B by considering
the beam as a rigid body.

## Section the beam at points near the

The structure shown is support and load application points.
constructed of a W10x112 rolled- Apply equilibrium analyses on
steel beam. (a) Draw the shear resulting free-bodies to determine
and bending-moment diagrams internal shear forces and bending
for the beam and the given couples.
loading. (b) determine maximum
normal stress in sections just to Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
the right and left of point D. determine the maximum normal
stress to the left and right of point D.
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Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Example 2
SOLUTION:
Replace the 10 kip load with equivalent force-
couple system at D. Find reactions at B.

## Section the beam and apply equilibrium

analyses on resulting free-bodies.
From A to C :
 Fy  0  3x  V  0 V  3x kips
 M1  0 3x 12 x  M  0 M  1.5 x 2 kip  ft

From C to D :
 Fy  0  24  V  0 V  24 kips
 M 2  0 24 x  4  M  0 M  96  24x  kip  ft

From D to B :
V  34 kips M  226  34x  kip  ft

## Fig. 1 Three sections identified for analysis, and 10

the free-body diagram for each section.
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Example 2
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the maximum normal stress to
the left and right of point D.
From Appendix C for a W10x112 rolled
steel shape, S = 126 in3 about the X-X axis.
To the left of D :
M 2016kip  in
m    m  16.0 ksi
S 126in 3
To the right of D :
M 1776kip  in  m  14.1ksi
m  
S 126in 3

## Fig. 1 Shear and bending-moment diagrams

result from the analysis of each section

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Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

## Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Relationship between load and shear:
 Fy  0 : V  V  V   w x  0
V   w x
dV
 w
dx
xD

VD  VC    w dx
xC

##  (area under load curve between C and D)

Relationship between shear and bending
moment:
 M C  0 : M  M   M  V x  wx x  0
2
M  V x  12 w x  2

dM
V
dx
xD
Fig. 5.9 (a) Simply supported beam subjected to a
distributed load, with a small element between C
M D  MC   V dx
xC
and C’, (b) Free-body diagram of the element. 12
 area under shear curve between C and D
Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Example 3

SOLUTION:
Taking the entire beam as a free body,
determine the reactions at A and D.

## Apply the relationship between shear and load

to develop the shear diagram.

Draw the shear and bending Apply the relationship between bending
moment diagrams for the beam moment and shear to develop the bending
and loading shown. moment diagram.

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Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Example 3
SOLUTION:
Taking the entire beam as a free body, determine the
reactions at A and D.

M A 0
0  D24 ft   20 kips6 ft   12 kips14 ft   12 kips28 ft 
D  26 kips 
F y 0
0  Ay  20 kips  12 kips  26 kips  12 kips
Ay  18 kips 
Apply the relationship between shear and load to
develop the shear diagram.
dV
 w dV   w dx
dx
- zero slope between concentrated loads
Fig. 1 Free-body diagrams for finding - linear variation over uniform load segment
the reactions as well as the shear 14
diagram.
Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Example 3
Apply the relationship between bending moment
and shear to develop the bending moment
diagram.
dM
V dM  V dx
dx
- bending moment at A and E is zero
- bending moment variation between A, B,
C and D is linear
- bending moment variation between D
and E is quadratic
- net change in bending moment is equal to
areas under shear distribution segments
- total of all bending moment changes across
the beam should be zero
Fig. 1 Free-body diagram for finding the
reactions as well as the shear and bending- 15
moment diagrams.
Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Example 4

SOLUTION:
Taking the entire beam as a free body,
determine the reactions at C.

## Apply the relationship between shear and

Draw the shear and bending load to develop the shear diagram.
moment diagrams for the
beam and loading shown. Apply the relationship between bending
moment and shear to develop the
bending moment diagram.

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Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Example 4 SOLUTION:
Taking the entire beam as a free body, determine
the reactions at C.

 Fy  0   12 w0 a  RC RC  12 w0 a
 a  a
 M C  0  12 w0a L    M C M C   12 w0 a L  
 3  3
Results from integration of the load and shear
distributions should be equivalent.
Apply the relationship between shear and load to
develop the shear diagram.
a
a
 x   x 2 
VB  V A    w0 1   dx    w0  x  
 2a 
0  a   0
Fig. 1 Cantilevered beam having
distributed loading and the resulting VB   12 w0 a    area under load curve
the shear diagram.
- No change in shear between B and C.
- Compatible with free body analysis
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Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Example 4
Apply the relationship between bending moment and
shear to develop the bending moment diagram.

a
a  x 2     x 2 x3 
 
M B  M A    w0 x  dx   w0   
  
2a    2 6a 
0     0
M B   13 w0 a 2

 
L
M B  M C    12 w0 a dx   12 w0 aL  a 
a
a w0  a
M C   16 w0 a3L  a   L 
2  3

analysis

## Fig. 1 Cantilevered beam having

distributed loading and the resulting the 18
shear and bending-moment diagrams.
Design of Prismatic Beams

Example 4
The largest normal stress is found at the surface where the
maximum bending moment occurs.
M max c M max
m  
I S

## A safe design requires that the maximum normal stress be less

than the allowable stress for the material used. This criteria
leads to the determination of the minimum acceptable
section modulus.
 m   all
M max
S min 
 all

## Among beam section choices which have an acceptable

section modulus, the one with the smallest weight per unit
length or cross sectional area will be the least expensive
and the best choice. 19
Design of Prismatic Beams

Example 5

SOLUTION:
Considering the entire beam as a free-
body, determine the reactions at A and
D.

## Develop the shear diagram for the beam

A 5-m-long simply supported and load distribution. From the
steel beam AD is to carry the diagram, determine the maximum
distributed and concentrated bending moment.
loads shown. Knowing that
the allowable normal stress Determine the minimum acceptable
for the grade of steel to be beam section modulus. Choose the
used is 160 MPa, select the best standard section which meets this
wide-flange shape that should criteria.
be used.

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Design of Prismatic Beams

Example 5
Considering the entire beam as a free-body,
determine the reactions at A and D.
M A  0  D5 m   60 kN 1.5 m   50 kN 4 m 
D  58.0 kN 
F y  0  Ay  58.0 kN  60 kN  50 kN
Ay  52.0 kN 

## Develop the shear diagram and determine the

maximum bending moment.
V A  Ay  52.0 kN
VB  V A  area under load curve  60 kN
VB  8 kN

## Maximum bending moment occurs at

V = 0 or x = 2.6 m.
M max  area under shear curve, A to E 
Fig. 1 A beam free-body diagram and
associated shear diagram.  67.6 kN 21
Design of Prismatic Beams

Example 5

## Determine the minimum acceptable beam section

modulus.
M max 67.6 kN  m
S min  
 all 160 MPa
 422.5 10 6 m3  422.5 103 mm3

## Choose the best standard section which meets

Shape S  103 mm3
this criteria.
W410  38.8 637
W360  32.9 474 W 360 32.9
W310  38.7 549
W250  44.8 535
W200  46.1 448

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