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ANEXOS
7 aspectos gramaticales para recordar en inglés (propia autoría)
Business English Book
Modals Chart
Chart of Prepositions
Chart of Transitional devices
List of Regular Verbs
List of Irregular Verbs
List of Compounds Verbs
Algunas Print Screen del Aula Virtual en SEDLUZ
Banners creados para el Aula Virtual
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UNIVERSIDAD DEL ZULIA


FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ECONÓMICAS Y SOCIALES

Gustavo E. López Medina


Hugo R. Navarro Palomares
María de Lourdes García de Vargas
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CONTENT

UNIT 0: REVIEW UNIT……………………………………………………….…..04


7 A SPECTOS G RAMATICASLES B ÁSICOS PARA R ECORDAR EN I NGLÉS …….05
UNIT I: READING THE DICTIONARY………………………………………09
UNIT II: DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS…………………………….18
P ROFILE OF A C OMPANY C HAIRMAN ………………………………………………19
W HAT ECONOMICS IS …………………………………………………………………21
M ARKETING M ANAGER ………………………………………………………………27
M ARKS & S PENCER ……………………………………………………………………30
UNIT II: NARRATION……………………………………………………………..35
S IR P ETER P ARKER : A MAN OF MANY PARTS ……………………………………36
K ENSHIN OSHIMA : M AKING MONEY OUT OF MONEY …………………………40
T HE S TORY OF C OKE………………………………………………………………….44
UNIT III: INSTRUCTIONS………………………………………………………..49
T IPS FOR S UCCESS ON THE T ELEPHONE …………………………………………..50
H OW TO R EDUCE S TRESS AND B E H APPY ON THE J OB ……………………….53
UNIT IV: TABLES GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS……………………………58
C OMPARING C OUNTRIES …………………………………………………………….59
H EALTHCARE E XHIBITION …………………………………………………………….62
H EADLINES ……………………………………………………………………………...63
C OMPLETE G RAPHS ……………………………………………………………………64
S ALES OF R EACH P RODUCT ………………………………………………………….65
UNIT V: INTENSIVE READING FOR DISCUSSION…………………….67
W AGES AND S ALARIES ………………………………………………………………..68
B ALANCING THE B OOKS ………………………………………………………………71
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7 ASPECTOS GRAMATICALES BÁSICOS PARA RECORDAR EN INGLÉS


(DISEÑO Y ELABORACIÓN: PROF. G. LÓPEZ)

1. TO BE: SER/ESTAR

PRESENTE: AM – ARE – IS
N° Pronombre Presente Be Traducción: Ser;
estar
SINGULAR 1 I AM Soy; estoy
2 YOU ARE Eres, estás
3 HE IS Es, está
3 SHE IS Es, está
3 IT IS Es, está
PLURAL 1 WE ARE Somos, estamos
2 YOU ARE Son, están
3 THEY ARE Son, están
Ej1. I am Venezuelan. Ej2: She is a very intelligent girl. Ej3: We are in class.
Ej1. Soy venezolan@. Ej2:Ella es una muchacha muy inteligente. Ej3: Estamos en clase.

PASADO: WAS – WERE


N° Pronombre Presente Be Traducción: Ser;
estar
SINGULAR 1 I WAS Fui; estuve
2 YOU WERE Fuiste, estuviste
3 HE WAS Fue, estuvo
3 SHE WAS Fue, estuvo
3 IT WAS Fue, estuvo
PLURAL 1 WE WERE Fuimos, estuvimos
2 YOU WERE Fuiste, estuviste
3 THEY WERE Fueron, estuvieron

Además, el verbo TO BE significa:

I. TENER cuando nos referimos a edad.


Ej. How old is she? ¿Qué edad tiene ella?

II. HACER cuando nos referimos a condiciones atmosféricas.


Ej. It’s hot. Hace calor
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2. USOS DEL AUXILIAR:


El auxiliar sirve para:

a) Identificar el tiempo de la oración (pasado, presente o futuro):


My brother will be here in December. (Futuro simple)

b) Formular preguntas:
Have you studied English before? (Interrogativa presente perfecto)

c) i. Negar:
I didn’t visit her.

ii. Enfatizar comentarios afirmativos:

She did go to class no matter that she had a fever.

3. PRESENTE SIMPLE:
I. Do - Does : Auxiliar que indica el tiempo presente simple.

II. En presente al hablar/escribir en forma positiva de la 3ª persona del singular


(He/She/It), los verbos terminados en: CH - S - SH - X – O - Z, agregan ES.
Ej Wash  WashES; Teach  TeachES, Go  GoES

III. Todos los verbos que terminan en: Consonante + Y, cambian la Y por I y agregan
ES.
Ej. Study  StudIES

IV. Todos los demás verbos agregan S Ej. Work  WorkS , Say  SayS

4. PASADO SIMPLE:
I. Did: auxiliar que indica el pasado simple:
Ej. Did you do your research on crops?

II. ed: indica tanto el pasado simple como el pasado participio de verbos regulares;
además de una acción culminada.
Ej. He developed a new theory.

Nota: el pasado participio puede funcionar como adjetivo.

Ej. A developed country. Un país desarrollado.


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5. ¿QUÉ INDICA LA S?

I. Plural (sustantivos o nombres):

Ej. The studies of different sciences can lead to a better understanding of the situation.

II. 3ª persona del Singular (He, She, It) en tiempo Presente Simple

Ej. He works a lot

III. La pertenencia (forma nominal).

Ej. Professor Beauport’s research on triune brain is very interesting.

6. ¿CÓMO LEER EL “ING”?


El “ING”…

 Cuando acompaña al verbo To Be conjuga al otro verbo terminando en:


“ANDO” o “IENDO”
Ej. I AM not smokING = (Yo) No estoy fumando.

We ARE studyING = (Nosotros) Estamos estudiando.

 Al comienzo de oración o su final (complemento), funciona como nombre = sustantivo


y agrega el artículo determinado “EL” o “LA”.
Ej. Smoking is dangerous - El fumar es nocivo;

Swimming is my favorite sport = La natación es mi deporte favorito.

 Al acompañarse de preposición puede leerse el verbo en infinitivo, es decir,


terminando en: AR, ER, IR.
Ej. On entering, close the door. = Al ENTRAR cierre la puerta.

 Puede significar “QUE”, al funcionar como adjetivo (es quien modifica al sustantivo).
Ej. Drugs affecting the brain can also damage other organs. =

Las drogas QUE afectan al cerebro pueden también dañar otros órganos.

 Indica proceso: Developing countries = Países EN DESARROLLO.


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7. LA VOZ PASIVA: se forma con la combinación de dos verbos: V TO BE +

VPARTICIPIO PASADO; EL VERBO TO BE DETERMINA EL TIEMPO DE LA ORACIÓN


PASIVA.

Am
Are
Is
Was
Were

Can be
Could be
May be
Might be + Verbo en pasado participio
Will be
Would be
Should be
Must be

Have been
Has been
Had been
Oración Sujeto Verbo Objeto
Activa Williams Painted the house.

Pasiva The house was painted by Williams.

Oración Sujeto Verbo Objeto


Activa Williams painted the house.

Pasiva Sujeto
The house was painted by Williams
Nota1: El objeto de la oración activa se convierte en el sujeto de la oración pasiva.
Nota2: Cuando no aparecer el agente de la acción; es decir, by + agent, puede leerse
como SE, por tratarse de una forma impersonal. Ejemplos:

It is said  SE dice;
It was considered  SE consideró;
It has been said  SE ha dicho;
It might be shown  Puede demostrarSE;
It had been studied  SE había estudiado.
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Reading the Dictionary

Experts believe that most English-speaking adults use between 25,000 and
50,000 words. That seems like a large number, yet the English language has over a
million words. Effective readers use a dictionary to understand new or difficult words.

Most dictionaries provide the following information:


• Guide words (the words at the top of each page)
• Spelling (how the word and its different forms are spelled)
• Pronunciation (how to say the word)
• Part of speech (the function of the word)
• Definition (the meaning of the word)
• Synonyms (words that have similar meanings)
• Etymology (the history of the word)

All dictionaries have guide words at the top of each page. However, dic-
tionaries differ from each other in the way they give other information about
words. Some dictionaries give more information about the origin of the word;
other dictionaries give long lists of synonyms. Each dictionary will explain how to use
its resources in the first few pages.

How to Read a Dictionary Entry

The following entry from Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary,


10th edition, will be used as an example for the discussions about
the kinds of information a dictionary provides.
her·bi·cide n: an agent used to destroy or inhibit
plant growth — her·bi·cid·al adj —
her·bi·cid·al·ly adv
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Spelling and Syllables

The spelling of the main word is given first in bold type.


The word is also divided into syllables. The word herbicide
has three syllables: her-bi-cide. Spellings of words based on
this word are given at the end of the entry. This listing is es-
pecially helpful when letters are dropped or added to
create a new word. The word herbicide changes form and
spelling to become herbicidal, which has four syllables, her-
bi-cid-al, and herbicidally, which has five syllables, her-bi-
cid-al-ly.
EXAMPLES Use a dictionary to break the following words
into syllables. In the spaces provided, rewrite each word,
placing a dot ( ·) between the syllables.
1. intermit _________________________________________
2. pedagogy _________________________________________

EXPLANATIONS

1. Intermit has three syllables: in-ter-mit.


2. Pedagogy has four syllables: ped-a-go-gy.

PRACTICE 1

Use a dictionary to break the following words into


syllables. In the spaces provided, rewrite each word,
placing a dot ( ·) between the syllables.
1. scavenger _______________________________________
2. tundra _________________________________________
Parts of Speech
Parts of speech indicate how a word functions in a sentence.
Dictionary entries tell you what part of speech a word is—noun,
verb, adjective, and so on. The part of speech is abbreviated and
printed in italics. Your dictionary provides a full list of
abbreviations. The following are the most common abbreviations
for the parts of speech:
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Parts of Speech n noun


adj adjective prep preposition
adv adverb pron pronoun
conj conjunction v, vi, vt verb
interj Interjection

Read again the sample dictionary entry for herbicide.

her·bi·cide n: an agent used to destroy or inhibit plant


growth — her·bi·cid·al adj — her·bi·cid·al·ly adv

As the entry shows, the word herbicide is a noun. Two other


forms of the word are identified as an adjective (herbicidal) and
an adverb (herbicidally).
EXAMPLES Use your dictionary to identify the parts of speech for
each of the following words. A word may be used as more than
one part of speech.

1. complement ______________________________________
2. before___________________________________________
3. fly ______________________________________________

1. Complement can be used as a noun or a verb.


2. Before can be used as an adjective, an adverb, a conjunction, or a
preposition.
3. Fly can be used as an adjective, a noun, or a verb.
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PRACTICE 2

Use your dictionary to identify the parts of speech for each of the
following words. A word may be used as more than one part of speech.

1. graph_______________________________________________________
2. angle _______________________________________________________
3. degree ______________________________________________________

Definitions

Most words have more than one meaning. When there is more than one defini-
tion, each meaning is numbered. Many times the dictionary will also provide
examples of sentences in which the word is used.

EXAMPLE Three definitions are given for the word degree. In the spaces provided,
write the number of the definition that best fits its meaning in each sentence.

1. A step or stage in a process


2. A unit of measurement for angles and curves
3. A title conferred on students by a college, university, or professional school
upon completion of a program of study
___ A. Joanne changed her physical fitness activities by degrees; she began
with short 5-minute walks and built up to 30-minute walks every day of the
week.

___ B. John received his associate of arts degree from a community college and
his bachelor of arts degree from a four-year university.

___ C. If two triangles are similar, their corresponding angles have the same
number of degrees.

EXPLANATION

A. The correct answer is “a step or stage in a process” (1).


B. The correct answer is “a title conferred on students by a college, university,
or professional school upon completion of a program of study” (3).
C. The correct answer is “a unit of measurement for angles and curves” (2).
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PRACTICE 3

Here are two words, their definitions, and sentences using the
words based on their various definitions. In the spaces
provided, write the number of the definition that best fits each
sentence. Note that one definition is not used.
A. factor : 1 something that brings about a result, ingredient 2
one who acts or transacts the business of another 3 a number
that will divide into another number exactly
____ 1. The manufacturer submits the order, along with the
terms and conditions, to the factor for approval.

____ 2. The factors of 10 are 1, 2, and 5.

____ 3. The doctor discovered that pollen was a factor in


Justine’s sinus condition.

B. plot : 1 n a small area of planted ground 2 n the plan or main story of a


literary work 3 v to mark or note on as if on a map or chart
___ 4. The graph of an equation is a drawing that plots all its solutions.

___ 5. Grandmother worked in the vegetable plot all morning.


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READINGS!
TEXT # 1

TEXT # 2

TEXT # 3
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TASK 2: FIND FIVE (5) NOUNS AND FIVE (5) VERBS IN EACH TEXT .

TEXT 1 TEXT 2 TEXT 3

NOUNS

VERBS
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UNIT I: USO DEL DICCIONARIO

 PROFILE. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England.


1991. p. 13.
 ASSISTANT DIRECTOR CORPORATE FINANCE. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford
University Press. Oxford, England. 1991. p. 127.
 A FAMILY CRISIS. Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty, R. Oxford University Press.
New York. 1995. p. 105.
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TASK 1: READ THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE

TASK 2: SCRAMBLED PARAGRAPHS, ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING IDEAS


 Company activities ............................. ______
 Dury´s private life ............................... ______
 Biographical references ....................... ______

TASK 3: TICK () WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE


OR FALSE
STATEMENTS TRUE FALSE
1. He started his own repair company at the age of 15.
2. The president of DURANCO plc. is Alan Dury.
3. DURANCO plc. is an American Company.
4. The Company sells electronic devices at reasonable prices.
5. The Company Factory is settled in England.
6. He manages the business from home.
7. He is a rich man who lives an unusual life.
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TASK 4: ANSWER IN SPANISH THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

1. How old is Alan Dury?

2. Where is he from?

3. What does he do?

4. Where does he live?

5. What kind of Company does he manage?

6. Where is the Company based?

7. What does the Company manufacture?

8. Why is the Company successful?

9. In what ways is Alan Dury an unusual Company Chairman?

TASK 5: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE


1 NAME :
2 AGE :
3 PLACE OF BIRTH :
4 PLACE OF RESIDENCE :
5 JOB :
6 COMPANY NAME :
7 COMPANY ACTIVITY :
8 LIFE STYLE :
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Task 1: Reading. WHAT ECONOMICS IS


In more than a century and a half
1. As a scholarly discipline, that elapsed between the
Economics is only two centuries appearance of The Wealth of
old. Adam Smith published his Nations and the publication of
pathbreaking book, The Wealth John Maynard Keynes' The
of Nations in 1776, a year General Theory of Employment,
notable also for the Declaration Interest and Money (1936),
of Independence. It is no economics went through many
coincidence that both documents stages of development. Almost at
appeared the same year: Political the halfway point, there
freedom from the tyranny or appeared the massive critique of
monarchy was closely related to capitalism by Karl Marx: Das
emancipation of prices and Kapital (1867, followed by two
wages from the interfering hand posthumous volumes). More than
of state regulation. a billion people, one-third of the
world's population, live in
2. Adam Smith, of course,
countries where Das Kapital is
represented only the beginning.
economic gospel.

TASK 2: WRITE WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE.


JUSTIFY IN SPANISH THE FALSE ONES.
1. Economics is more than 300 years old as a scholarly discipline. T F

2. The Declaration of Independence and the Wealth of Nations


appeared in 1776.

3. Economics did not evolve too much from 1776 to 1936.

4. Adam Smith wrote Das Kapital.

5. Das Kapital is considered the economic gospel by billions of


people all over the world.
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TASK 3: Answer the following questions. Do it in Spanish

1. How old is economics as a scholarly discipline?

2. What did Adam Smith do?

3. Why was 1776 important?

4. What two elements were related then?

5. Did economics develop at once? Why?

6. What is Das Kapital?

7. When did it appear?

8. How is Das Kapital considered worldwide?

TASK 4: READ THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS:

DEFINITIONS
a) On first encountering with definitions: a) Economics is the
economics, people often want a study of those activities that
short definition. In response to involve production and exchange
this demand, there is no shortage among people. b) Economics
of supply. Here are a few popular analyzes movements in the overall
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economy trends in prices, output, The list is a good one, yet a


and unemployment. Once such philosopher can extend it many times
phenomena are understood, over. Why is it so long? Because, for
economics helps develop the a subject that encloses so much and
policies by which governments can evolves so rapidly, it is always hard to
affect the overall economy. c) compress into a few lines an exact
Economics is the science of choice. description that will differentiate its
It studies how people choose to boundaries from those of other
use scarce or limited productive disciplines. Economics certainly does
resources (land, labor, equipment, involve all the elements stressed in
technical knowledge) to produce these various definitions - and more.
various commodities (such as
Economists today agree on a general
wheat, beef, overcoats, concerts,
definition something like the
roads, missiles) and distribute
following: “Economics is the study of
these goods to various members of
how people and society choose to employ
society for their consumption. d)
Economics is the study of how scarce resources that could have
human beings go about the alternative uses in order to produce
business of organizing various commodities and to distribute
consumption and production them for consumption, now or in the
activities. e) Economics is the future, among various persons and groups
study of money, interest rates, in society.
capital and wealth.

TASK 5: TAKE NOTES FROM THE READING:

Term to be defined:

Class:

Characteristics:
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TASK 6: WRITE YOUR OWN DEFINITION ABOUT ECONOMICS. DO IT IN SPANISH.

TASK 7: READ THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS:

MEASUREMENT IN ECONOMICS
3. We might conclude that economics 5. Returning to measurement, one of the
talks about many of life's practical most important concepts in all
questions. But it does more than talk: economics is the gross national
Economics is vitally concerned with product (GNP). This represents the
the measurement of important total dollar value of all goods and
phenomena - unemployment, prices, services produced each year in a
Incomes, and so forth. nation. The GNP tells us much about
the real economic performance of a
4. One important example of such
country. It is the best available
measurement occurs in
summary measure of the quantity of
macroeconomics. Microeconomics
real goods and services - food,
studies the behavior of the economy as
clothing, penicillin, ballet, baseball,
a whole - movements in overall prices
and so forth - a country is capable of
or output or employment.
generating. It tells us much about a
Microeconomics, in a sense, looks at
country's living standard, its health
the economy through a microscope -
status, and its educational attainment.
studying the behavior of an economy's
individual molecules, like firms or
households.
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TASK 8: REARRANGE THE FOLLOWING DEFINITIONS AND TRANSLATE IT INTO


SPANISH:

Macroeconomics represents the total dollar value studies the behavior

of the economy as a whole Microeconomics of an economy's individual


molecules

of all goods and studies the behavior GNP


Services produced each year

Macroeconomics

Microeconomics

GNP

TASK 9 SKIM AND SCAN THE EXTRACTS AND TICK () NEXT TO THE TOPICS DISCUSSED:

1. _____ Definitions of field of study.

2. _____ Some examples of how the study of economics can influence policy decisions.

3. _____Indication of importance of field of study.

4. _____ Presentation and definitions of essential terminology.

5. _____ Historical references to the development of the field of study.

6. _____ The relationship of economics to other social sciences.

7. _____ Some methodological principles, and problems.


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TASK 10: SUMMING - UP: WRITE IN SPANISH A SUMMARY OF THE THREE


PASSAGES STUDIED IN CLASS .
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TASK 1: Read the following advertisement :


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TASK 2: TAKE NOTES FROM THE READING:

What is the job? - What is the salary? - Where is the job? - What is the name of the
company? - What kind of company is it? - What qualities is the company looking for?

TASK 3: FILL IN THE BLANKS: Complete the paragraph using the


following words.
1. short list 4. post/position 7. Apply
2. offer 5. CV (Am. English : resume) 8. advertisement
3. interview 6. application 9. Candidate

Luis decides to____________ for the job . He has to send his __________

and a letter of _______________to the address given in the

____________. If he is a good _______________, he will be put on a

_______________ and invited for an _______________. If he is

successful, they will _______________ him the _______________.


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TASK 4 Mark a tick () next to the most important aspects you consider
when preparing a job ad.

1. benefits ______ 9. holidays ______


2. kind of company ______ 10. responsibility ______

3. company name ______ 11. job description ______


4. working skills ______ 12. salary ______

5. company address ______ 13. languages ______


6. professional qualification__ 14. travel ______

7. experience ______ 15. job satisfaction _____


8. promotion ______

TASK 5: Using the information in exercise 4 write your own job


advertisement. Do it in Spanish.
TASK 1: Read the following article:
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TASK 2: After having read the passage given in Task 1, tick () the main
function of that passage:
 Narration  Instructions

 Definition  Description of places

 Description of objects  Description of people

 Classification  Process

TASK 3: Refer back to the passage and choose the correct answer:
1. “They” in line 5 refers to : 4. “They” in line 18 refers to:
a) France, Belgium, Holland, Spain a) Countries
and Portugal b) Marks and Spencer
b) Marks and Spencer
5. “They” in line 26 refers to:
2. “Their” in line 9 refers to : a) Customers
a) People b) Marks and Spencer
b) Marks and Spencer
6. “His” in line 31 refers to:
3. “Their” in line 13 refers to : a) man
a) Franchises c) woman
b) Marks and Spencer
7. “Her” in line 32 refers to:
a) man
b) woman

TASK 4: Write whether the following statements are true (t) or false
(f), justify the false ones:
1. Marks and Spencer is based in the United Kingdom (UK) ( )
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2. At the moment they are constructing a new shop in Canada ( )

3. The company hires about 50,000 people in Great Britain (GB) ( )

4. Marks and Spencer has been growing for the last 10 years ( )

5. The company pays a percentage of its turnover to the owners of franchises ( )

6. Marks and Spencer’s clothes and food are standard all over the world ( )

7. They’re very successful due to their high quality standards ( )

8. By the year 2,000, about 20% of the Chinese population will get
their clothes from Marks and Spencer ( )

TASK 5: Answer in Spanish the following questions:


1. Where is Marks and Spencer building a new store?

2. What does M&S sell?

3. What is M&S studying at the moment?


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4. How many people does the company employ?

5. What varies from country to country?

6. What are more and more people doing?

TASK 6: Circle the letter of the best answer according to the passage:
1. Company is a synonym of : b. abroad
a. corporation c. national
b. situation
c. fabrics 4. Stock is a synonym of :
a. merchandise
2. Currently is a synonym of : b. quality
a. Actually c. item
b. in fact
c. at the moment 5. Average is a synonym of :
a. centre
3. Overseas is a synonym of : b. rate
a. worldwide c. midpoint

TASK 7: Match the TERMS on the left with their DEFINITIONS on the
right:
TERMS DEFINITIONS

1. Customer a) sales income.


2. Shelf life b) an agreement to use a company’s name in return for a fee.
3. Turn over c) a company which sells items to another company.
4. Franchise d) people who use a particular shop or firm.
5. Item e) how long an item remains on sale.
6. Supplier f) the thing a company sells.
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TASK 8: SCRAMBLED PARAGRAPHS: Organize the following ideas

 Selling varieties from country to country _____

 High quality standards _____

 Importance of M&S in the world _____

 Future expectations _____

 The growth of M&S in the world _____

TASK 9: SUMMING–UP: Write in Spanish a short summary about the


article:
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REFERENCES:

UNIT II: DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS:

 PROFILE OF A COMPANY CHAIRMAN. A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. &


Dummett, P. Heinemann. New York. 1994. pw.2.

 WHAT ECONOMICS IS. Economics by Samuelson, P.A. & Nordhaus, A. McGraw-Hill.


New York. 1985. p. 21

 MARKETING MANAGER (SOUTH AMERICA). Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty,


R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p.134.

 MARKS & SPENCER. Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty, R. Oxford University
Press. New York. 1995. p.67.
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TASK 1: Read the article about SIR PETER PARKER:

SIR PETER PARKER: A MAN OF MANY PARTS


Sir Peter Parker is well known as a top manager. He finally
chose a career in business but there were always other
things he wanted to do as well.

He studied History at Oxford University between 1947 and


1950, but he had many other interests. He wanted to be a
sportsman: he played rugby for the University team and
for his hometown. He also wanted to be an actor and,
when he was a student, he acted in a lot of plays. In 1948,
he played the long and difficult role of Hamlet. He wanted
to be a politician - in the same year, he was chairman of
the University Labour Club. Three years later, he was a
candidate for parliament in his hometown, Bedford. He
lost the election, but he increased his party's vote.

In 1956, Peter Parker organized a big international


conference on 'The Human Problems of Industry'- the
chairman was Prince Philip. He worked as a manager for a
number of companies during the 1950s and 1960s, and
later became well known to the public as Chairman of
British Rail. He joined British Rail in 1976, and left in 1983.
In 1978, he was awarded a knighthood by the Queen, and
became Sir Peter Parker. He received another award from
the Queen in 1993 for his 'contribution to public life'.

He is currently Chairman of several companies, including


Mitsubishi Electric (UK), who appointed him in 1984. He
was the first non-Japanese to become chairman of a
Japanese company. In 1991, the Japanese Government
awarded him the 'Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred
Treasure.'

He wrote his autobiography, For Starters, in 1989.


37

TASK 2: AFTER HAVING READ THE ARTICLE GIVEN IN TASK 1, INDICATE


WITH A TICK () THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THAT ARTICLE

( ) Description of people ( ) Definition

( ) Instructions ( ) Description of places

( ) Description of products ( ) Comparison

( ) Narration ( ) Process

TASK 3: SKIMMING
STATE, IN ONLY ONE SENTENCE, THE MAIN IDEA OF THE ARTICLE GIVEN
IN TASK 1:

TASK 4: WRITE WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE


T F
1. Sir Peter Parker was just interested in business.
2. He studied History for three years.
3. When he was a student he was an actor, a sportsman and a
politician.
4. He was president of the University Labour Club in 1948.
5. In 1952, he lost the election for parliament in Bedford.
6. Prince Phillip carried out the organization of the Conference
on The Human Problems of Industry in 1956.
7. Sir Peter Parker managed a lot of companies for two decades
8. He worked for the British Rail.
9. He was awarded twice by the Queen the same year.
10. He received the Grand Cordon of the Order of Sacred
Treasure from a British Organization.
38

TASK 5: ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN SPANISH:

1. Who is Sir Peter Parker?

2. Where did he study History?

3. What were his interests?

4. What happened in 1951?

5. When did he organize an International Conference?

6. What did he do between the 1950's and the 1960's?

7. How many awards did he receive?

8. What did he do in 1989?

TASK 6: Fill in the blanks using the information from the reading:

Sir Peter Parker was born in _____________________, he studied


____________________ at _______________________ and finished in

_____________________. He was so versatile that he was interested in


____________________, _____________________, __________________ and

_____________________.
39

TASK 7: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE USING INFORMATION FROM


THE READING . D ATES CAN BE A SPECIFIC YEAR OR A PERIOD :
DATE EVENT
1. 1947-1950

2. a. Personificó Hamlet.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

TASK 8: SUMMING-UP: WRITE IN SPANISH A SHORT BIOGRAPHY ABOUT SIR PETER PARKER:
40

TASK 1: Read the text about Kenshin Oshima:

TASK 2: Underline the Main Verbs.


TASK 3: Fill in with the correct information:
Function of the Text: _____________________________________________
Verb Form Used: ________________________________________________

TASK 4: SKIMMING.
STATE, IN ONLY ONE SENTENCE, THE MAIN IDEA OF THE ARTICLE GIVEN:
41

TASK 4: MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When did Kenshin Oshima join Mitsui and Co.?


a. At the age of 22
b. At the age of 29
c. In 1978

2. Why did he resign from his job?


a. Because his salary was very high.
b. Because he wanted to work for another company.
c. Because he wanted to earn a lot of money.

3. Why didn’t he start his company before 1978?


a. Because he spent a lot of money.
b. Because he didn’t want to be rich.
c. Because he didn’t have enough money.

4. Where did he get the money to launch his business?


a. He saved money from his salary.
b. He borrowed it from a bank.
c. A friend lent it to him.

5. What does his company do?


a. It owes money.
b. It lends money.
c. It borrows money.
42

TASK 5: MATCH THE VERBS ON THE LEFT WITH THEIR CORRESPONDING MEANING
ON THE RIGHT :
1. ( ) INVEST a. To have enough money.
2. ( ) BORROW b. To take a loan.
3. ( ) LEND c. To keep money for future use.
4. ( ) AFFORD d. To use money to buy business shares, property,
5. ( ) EARN etc. in order to make more money.
6. ( ) SAVE e. To give a loan.
f. To get money by working.

TASK 6: Fill in the blanks choosing the words from the box.

gets – benefits – owes- loan – interest – invest –


borrow – lends – afford – earn – save - worth

A bank makes a __________(1) when it __________(2) money to its


customers. For example, a customer wants to buy a new car, but he can’t
__________(3) to pay for it, because he doesn’t __________(4) enough money at
work. So he goes to his bank manager and asks to __________(5) some money.
But when he __________(6) the loan he also has to pay __________(7) on the

money that he owes (8).

A bank is also a place where customers can make money. For example, they
can __________(9) their money in a fix interest account. With this type of
account, they usually know what their money will be __________(10) in three or
four years’ time.

Alternatively, customers can __________(11) their capital in a portfolio of


company __________(12) which is managed by the bank.
43

TASK 7: NOTE MAKING: Write notes about the most important events mentioned
in the text.
44

TASK 1: READ THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE:


THE STORY OF COKE sold his last shares to Asa G. Candler, a
businessman from Atlanta.

He distributed thousands of coupons for a


complimentary glass of Coca-Cola and he promoted
the drink with souvenirs fans, calendars, clocks, and
novelties. Sales rose dramatically and, by 1892,
they were ten times their 1888 level.

Coca-Cola had to develop a bottling system and set


up plants. The first bottling plant opened in
Vicksburg in 1894 and over the next 25 years, the
20 number of plants rose from two to over a
thousand. Other soft drink companies tried to
imitate the Coca-Cola taste so the company kept
the drink’s formula secret and searched for a
distinctive package. In 1916, they introduced the
first bottle with the famous Coca-Cola shape.

Then the United States joined the war, and the


company President gave an order “to see that every
man in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for 5
cents, wherever he is and whatever the cost to the
company”. As a result, Coca-Cola shipped 64
bottling plants abroad during the war. And when the
war finished, they were ready to conquer the world.
From the mid 1940s until 1960, the number of
countries with bottling plants nearly doubled.

This was the first change in the secret formula since


Dr. John Styth Pemberton made it in his backyard, 1886. In pre-launch tests, consumers preferred the
took it to his local pharmacy, and they put it on sale new taste. But the tests couldn’t measure their
at 5 cents a glass. Hand-painted signs saying feelings for the brand. Coca-Cola had a special
“Coca-Cola” appeared outside the store and inside place in their hearts and they didn’t want a change.
signs invited costumers to “Drink”. But sales didn’t For the first time in History, sales of Coca-Cola fell.
take off. In the first year they average just 9 drinks a The company responded quickly and marketed the
day. original formula again as Coca-Cola Classic. Sales
climbed back up again, and continued to grow.
He thought it would never be very successful and
he steadily sold his shares in the business to And if you’re not sure what the world’s top selling
different partners. In 1888, just before he died, he soft drink is by now; “Coke is it”.
45

TASK 2: Underline the main verbs:

TASK 3: Fill in with the correct information:


 Function of the Text: ________________________________________

 Verb Form Used: ___________________________________________

TASK 4: SCRAMBLED PARAGRAPHS: The first sentence in each


paragraph of this article is missing. They are all listed below. Read
the article and decide where each sentence goes.
1. Asa Candler had a talent for marketing.
2. In the 1980s, in the USA only, the Company launched a new taste for Coke.
3. In 1941, there were bottling plants in 44 countries.
4. Coca-Cola was invented in Atlanta, Georgia on May 8th, 1886.
5. So today millions of people all over the world are drinking Coke.
6. The huge increase in the popularity of the drink led to problems meeting
demand.
7. Dr. Pemberton didn´t see the potential of his new drink.

TASK 5: Try to guess what these words mean in Spanish:


1. signs 7. abroad
2. take off 8. conquer
3. shares 9. brand
4. coupons
10. responded
5. bottling plants
6. shape
46

TASK 6: Answer in Spanish the following questions:

1. Who was the inventor of Coke?

2. Where was Coca-Cola invented?

3. How much was a glass of Coca-Cola at the beginning?

4. Why did Dr. Pemberton sell his shares in Coca-Cola?

5. Who did he sell his last shares?

6. What did Mr. Candler do to increase Coca-Cola sales?

7. Why did Coca-Cola Company keep the drink´s formula in secret?

8. What happened to Coca-Cola after the war?

TASK 7: CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE: FILL IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE USING


INFORMATION FROM THE READING.
DATE EVENT
1) May 8th, 1886 Se inventó la Coca-Cola
2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)
47

TASK 8: SUMMING - UP: USING THE INFORMATION FROM THE TABLE ABOVE,
WRITE A SHORT SUMMARY ABOUT THE STORY OF COKE. DO IT IN SPANISH.
48

UNIT III: NARRATION:

 SIR PETER PARKER: A MAN OF MANY PARTS. Business Basics by Grant, D. &
McLarty, R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p.99.
 KENSHIN OSHIMA: MAKING MONEY OUT OF MONEY . Business Basics by Grant, D.
& McLarty, R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p.102.
 THE STORY OF COKE. Business Venture by Barnard, R. & Cady, J. Oxford University
Press. Oxford, England. 1992. p. 56.
49
50

TASK 1: Read the following passage:

TASK 2: IDENTIFY:
 Function:

 Verb Form Used:

TASK 3: FIND THE REFERENT:


 IT in line 4 refers to:

 THIS in line 19 refers to:

 IT in line 34 refers to:

 THESE in line 37 refers to:

 THEM in line 38 refers to:


51

TASK 4: TICK () WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR


FALSE, JUSTIFY THE FALSE ONES.

STATEMENT T F
1. Always give your name when you ask to speak to someone.

2. Speak slowly and clearly.

3. Always leave your phone number.

4. When you thank someone, use the person’s name.

5. Always say “hello” and not “hi” when you ask to speak to
someone.

TASK 5: SKIMMING:

STATE, IN ONLY ONE SENTENCE, THE GENERAL IDEA THAT THE AUTHOR
WANTS TO TRANSMIT TO THE READER IN THE PASSAGE GIVEN IN TASK 1.
DO IT IN SPANISH:
52

TASK 6: Answer the following questions in Spanish according to the


text.
1. How can you be successful on the phone?

2. Why do you have to pronounce your words clearly when talking on the phone?

3. What is the difference between a business call and a personal call?

4. Do you always leave your phone number? Why?

5. Why do you have to thank the person you speak with on the phone?

TASK 7: NOTE-MAKING: Write in Spanish the suggestions given in the


passage.
53

TASK 1: Read the following passage.

TASK 2: Identify.
 Function: ____________________________________________________

 Verb Form Used: ______________________________________________

 Type of Text: __________________________________________________


54

TASK 3: Circle the best answer:


WHAT DOES THE ARTICLE MAINLY DISCUSS?
A. INCREASING STRESS ON THE JOB

B. REDUCING STRESS IN YOUR DAILY LIFE

C. DECREASING TENSION ON THE JOB

D. RAISING TENSION IN YOUR DAILY LIFE

TASK 4: Find the referent corresponding to the highlighted words.


1. their: ____________________ 2. his or her: ________________

3. yours : __________________ 4. them : __________________

5. each : ___________________ 6. It : ______________________

TASK 5: Match the verbs on the left with their corresponding meaning
on the right:
1. ( ) Propose A. To allow

2. ( ) Study the future B. To assign

3. ( ) Permit C. To suggest

4. ( ) Delegate D. To think about what will happen


55

TASK 6: According to the passage, tick () the following statements


TRUE or FALSE. Justify the false ones.
T F

1. Suggest your own deadlines, rather than waiting for your boss to
give them to you.

2. Try not to think about what will happen in the future.

3. Never allow interruptions.

4. Give work to other employees, if possible, rather than doing


everything yourself.

5. Don’t spend time thinking about problems.

6. Take on as much work as you can, without worrying about how


much time it will take.

7. Try to understand your boss’s point of view.

8. Postpone taking action on a problem if you know it will upset you.


56

TASK 7: Write in Spanish a set of instructions to reduce stress.


57

UNIT IV: INSTRUCTIONS:

 TIPS FOR SUCCESS ON THE TELEPHONE. Spectrum 1 by Dye, J. & Frankfort, N.


Prentice Hall Regents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1993. p. 76.

 HOW TO REDUCE STRESS AND BE HAPPY ON THE JOB. Spectrum 4 by Dye, J. &
Frankfort, N. Prentice Hall Regents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1994. p. 110.
58
59

TASK 1: Study the graphs and complete the reports. Use only one
word per space.
A. ________________ has the highest level of productivity.
________________ has a higher level than Japan but a lower level than
Germany. ________________ has the lowest level of productivity.

B. Portugal has ____________ ____________ level of labour costs and


Switzerland has ____________ ____________. Spain has a
____________ level ____________ Greece, but a ____________ level
____________ Italy.
60

C. ________________ spends the most money on research and


development. ________________ spends less than Japan but more than
France, and ________________ spends the least.
61

D. Norwegians pay ____________ ____________tax and Turks pay


____________ ____________. The Japanese pay ____________
____________ the Italians but ____________ ____________ the
Austrians.

E. There are fewer students in full-time education in ________________ than


in Belgium, but there are more than in the Netherlands. ________________
has the most students in higher education and ________________ has the
fewest.
62

TASK 2: READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.

In 1987, the Healthcare Exhibition moved from Geneva to a bigger


exhibition center in Zurich, so many more exhibitors were able to
attend. But the first exhibition in Zurich was badly organized and,
because of this, the number of exhibitors dropped in 1988. The
organizers wanted to make sure that this did not happen again, so
in 1989 they reduce the cost of a stand and sent letters to hundred
of companies, advertising the exhibition to non-European
companies and in 1991, 118 companies attended.

Over 85.000 visitors came to the Healthcare Exhibition on the first


day. This was due to a good publicity campaign and because May
1st is a public holiday in Switzerland. However, on the second day
the weather was bad and many people stayed at home. On
Wednesday, another important exhibition - Salvacon 93 - opened
in Zurich, and the number of visitors fell again. Because of this, the
organizers decided to make entrance to the exhibition free from
Thursday. Their idea worked and 300.000 people visited the
exhibition over the last three days.
63

TASK 3: Find the reasons mentioned for the changes A – B – C – D.

TASK 4: Look at the verbs and match them with the right headlines.
(Taken from: “A First Course in Business English” By: Heinemann)

BE GO UP INCREASE RISE

DROP GO DOWN REMAIN AT STAND AT


THAT LEVEL
FALL IMPROVE STAY THE SAME
64

TASK 5: Look at the meaning of the following verbs and decide if


they indicate an Upward (), Downward () or Horizontal ()
movement.
(Taken from: “Speaking Activities for Professional People By: Oxford University Press)

to bottom out to drop To hit a low to recover

to climb To even out To improve to remain


stable
To decline to fall To increase
to rise
to decrease to go down to pick up
to slip back
To deteriorate to go up to reach a peak

TASK 6: Complete these Graphs:


65

TASK 7: Look at the graph and use these words to complete the
sentences: (Taken from: “A First Course in Business English” By: Heinemann)

AT THE END OF UNTIL SLOWLY

AT THE BEGINNING OF OVER RAPIDLY

BETWEEN …AND… IN SHARPLY

SLIGHTLY

_______________ (1) January 1986, sales stood at £ 900 million.

_______________ (2) the next 12 months they rose _______________ (3). But

_______________ (4) 1987 they dropped _______________ (5) to £ 700

million. They remained at this level _______________ (6) the end of 1987.

_______________(7) 1988 _______________ (8) 1990 they increased

_______________ (9) and reached £ 1.250 million. In 1990 they continued to

rise, but more _______________ (10) and _______________ (11) 1990 sales

were £ 1.380 million.


66

UNIT IV: TABLES, GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS:

COMPARING COUNTRIES. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford University


Press. Oxford, England. 1991. p. 99, 100, 101.

HEALTHCARE EXHIBITION. . A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. &


Dummett, P. Heinemann. New York. 1994. p.38.

HEADLINES. . A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. & Dummett, P.


Heinemann. New York. 1994. p.36.

COMPLETE GRAPHS. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford University Press.


Oxford, England. 1991. p. 78.

SALES OF REACH PRODUCTS. . A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. &


Dummett, P. Heinemann. New York. 1994. p.37.
67
68

TASK 1: Read the following text:

WAGES AND SALARIES


The organization and difficulty in measuring administrative
administration of wages and salaries work, however, job grades there are
is complex and varied. In some often decided without reference to
companies, the Personnel
an evaluation system based on points
Department has more responsibility
for wages and salaries than the or factors.
Accounts Department. In others, the In attempting to reach a
Accounts Department is more salaries policy, the Personnel
interested in negotiations with staff Department should compare the
about pay. value of each job with those in the job
If a firm wants to introduce a market. It should also analyse
new wage and salary structure, it will economic factors such as the cost of
have to decide on a method of job living and the labour supply.
evaluation and ways of measuring the It is said that payment for a job
performance of its employees. In should vary with any differences in
order to be successful, that pay the way that job is performed. Where
structure will need agreement it is simple to measure the work
between Trade Unions and done, as in manual work, monetary
management or a clearly defined incentive schemes and merit awards
system for dealing with problems. are often selected. For indirect
In job evaluation, all of the workers, where measurement is
requirements of each job are difficult, methods of additional
specified in a detailed job description. payments include bonus schemes
Each of these requirements is given a based on the performance of the
value, usually in “points” or “factors”, company.
which are added together to give a Non-financial incentive
total value for the job. To pay each schemes are becoming more popular
job what it is worth, the values are for all grades of staff. Fringe benefits
linked to the firm’s salary structure. such as sickness and pension
For middle and higher management, a schemes, sports club, housing and
well-known points method is the Hay canteens are all an accepted part of
System. This evaluates personnel on the conditions of work.
their knowledge of the job, their
responsibility, and their ability to
solve problems. Because of the
69

TASK 2: Identify.
 Function: ____________________________________________________

 Verb Form Used: ______________________________________________

 Type of Text: __________________________________________________

TASK 3: Find the referent.


 It in paragraph 2 refers to:
A. wage B. salary C. firm
 This in paragraph 3 refers to:
A. Hay System B. method
 It in paragraph 4 refers to:
A. job market B. Personnel Dpt. C. salaries policy

TASK 4: Answer and discuss the following questions in Spanish.


1. What is the Accounts Department responsible for?

2. What is the Personnel Department responsible for?

4. What will a firm have to do if it wants to introduce a new wage and salary

structure?

5. How are job “factors” calculated?

6. Which is the method known for middle and higher management? What
does it evaluate?

7. Explain the difference between a “direct” and “indirect” worker. For which
of those workers is it more difficult to calculate their output and salary or
wage?
70

TASK 5: Find the main idea or important words in each paragraph.


 Paragraph # 1: _____________________________________________

 Paragraph # 2: _____________________________________________

 Paragraph # 3: _____________________________________________

 Paragraph # 4: _____________________________________________

 Paragraph # 5: _____________________________________________

 Paragraph # 6: _____________________________________________

TASK 6: Write a short summary of the text in Spanish.


71

TASK 1: READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.

BALANCING THE BOOKS


Although accounting has been accounting. For a variety of reasons,
moving towards a common standard of many companies have avoided
comparability in company reporting, publishing inflation adjusted figures.
experienced company watchers know
that for a full understanding of a profit Problems of avoidance such as
and loss account or of a balance sheet, this should be solved when current cost
careful interpretation may be required. accounting becomes compulsory. Yet
At the moment, it seems that this there are other areas of accounting
question of standards has divided the where discretion is allowed. Take the
profession. old case of extraordinary items which are
often treated in different ways.
I asked Henry Lovett, who is Extraordinary costs incurred for such
about to retire from his job as Managing items as plant overhaul and
Director of the international auditing redundancies have in the past been
firm of Henshaw´s, why his company charged differently by different
were in favor of the flexible approach: accountants. Nor is it difficult to find
“Having studied the problem closely, discrepancies in the way that assets are
Henshaw´s decided that in special valued and depreciated, for it appears
circumstances we were justified in not that some companies have been
using a common standard. My own view, recommended not to carry balance sheet
based on over thirty years´ experience, is assets at their present value but at some
that all creditors are sufficiently anticipated value. Tyne Oil is a good
protected, provided that there are example. Having acquired a new tanker,
proper explanations in the notes to the they valued it an optimum disposal price.
accounts.” However, according to
Samuel Wright of Denham, Coutts and The problem centers on the
Patterns: “We want to see an end to the question of flexibility. The system of
present flexibility in company reporting accounting in the UK is neither at
and a system of penalties for those who historical cost, as in the US, nor at
do not follow regulations.” current cost. It is a system favored by
companies because they can revalue
Of course, if accounting policies their assets at convenient times, such as
were completely voluntary, all kinds of when their liabilities are heavy. Then a
methods might be employed by short qualification is made in the
companies intent on presenting auditor’s report pointing out the
themselves in the best possible way. A difficulty of making an accurate
good example of this is the voluntary evaluation of assets, and that is all.
guidelines in relation to inflation
72

TASK 2: Identify.
 Function: ____________________________________________________

 Verb Form Used: ______________________________________________

 Type of Text: __________________________________________________

TASK 3: Say what the words in ITALIC refers to.


1. “… this question of standards…”
2. “…the profession.”
3. “…the flexible approach…”
4. “…the problem…”
5. “A good example of this…”
6. “Tyne Oil is a good example.”
7. “It is a system…”
8. “…and that is all.”

TASK 4: Match the terms on the left with their corresponding


definition on the right:

TERMS DEFINITIONS
1. Assets A. All debts
2. Auditing Firm B. All the entries on a balance sheet which
3. Balance Sheet show all of a company’s property and
4. Creditors resources
5. Discrepancies C. Differences and Disagreements
6. Disposal D. Fines and other punishment
7. Guidelines E. Firm that performs a critical examination
8. Liabilities and analysis of a company’s accounts
9. Penalties F. Persons to whom money is owed
10. Profit and Loss G. Standards of principles of operation
Account H. Statement of a firm’s financial position
I. Statement of the revenues and expenses of
a firm
J. Transferring, selling or throwing away
73

TASK 5: Answer in Spanish the following questions.


1. Why is the article entitled Balancing the Books?

2. In Henshaw´s view, how are the creditors protected in company


reporting?

3. State in as few words as possible the difference between Lovett´s


and Wright´s view of company reporting.

4. What one reason is suggested for companies not publishing current


cost figures?

5. What does the writer think will probably happen when voluntary
current cost accounting comes to an end?

6. Give examples of how accounting practices are still left to the


discretion of individual companies.

7. When did Tyne Oil value their new tanker? Why did they value it at
an optimum disposal price?

8. In what circumstances might an auditor enter a qualification in his


report?
74

TASK 6: Answer according to the reading.

 WHAT THREE METHODS OF ACCOUNTING ARE MENTIONED IN THE


ARTICLE AND WHICH ONE WOULD YOU USE? WHY?
 DO IT IN SPANISH.
75

UNIT V: INTENSIVE READING:

WAGES AND SALARIES. Manage with English by Sandler, P.L. & Stott, C.L. Oxford
University Press. Oxford, England. 1981. p.32.

BALANCING THE BOOKS. Manage with English by Sandler, P.L. & Stott, C.L. Oxford
University Press. Oxford, England. 1981. p.159.
76

Modals Chart

Modal Past Modal Negative Negative Past


Can Could Can't Couldn't
Cannot Could not
Could Could have Could not Couldn't have
Could not have
Will Would Won't Wouldn't
Will not Would not
Would Would have Wouldn't Wouldn't have
Would not Would not have
May May have May not May not have
Might Might have Might not Might not have
Should Should have Should not Should not have
Must Had to Must not Must not have
Must have Mustn't
Ought to Ought to have Ought not to Ought not to have
Have to Had to Don't have to Didn't have to
Has to Doesn't have to Did not have to
Have got to
Has got to
Be going to Was/were Is/are/am/not going to Wasn't/weren't going to
Be supposed to Isn't/aren't/am not supposed to Wasn't/weren't supposed to
Be able to Was/were able to Isn't/aren't able to Wasn't/weren't able to
Be to Was/were to Is/are/am/not to Wasn't/weren't to
Need to Needed to Doesn't need to Didn't need to
Needs to Needn't
Had better Had better not
Used to Didn't use to
Be about to Was/were about to Is/are/am not about to Wasn't/weren't about to
Would rather Would rather have Would rather not Would rather not have
77

MAKE SURE YOU KNOW THE MEANING OF THE THESE PREPOSITIONS

About Before Down Like Out of Till (until)


ACERCA DE ANTES DEBAJO COMO SIN HASTA
EN TORNO A FUERA DE

Above Behind For Near Outside To


ENCIMA DE DETRÀS POR/PARA CERCA FUERA PARA
A

Across Below From N EXT TO Over Towards


A TRAVÈS DE BAJO DESDE PRÓXIMO POR ENCIMA HACIA
DEBAJO DE AL LADO DE

After Beneath In Of Past Under


DESPUÉS BAJO EN DE PASADO DEBAJO
DEBAJO DE

Along Beside In front of On Round Up


A LO LARGO DE AL LADO DE FRENTE A EN ALREDEDOR DE ARRIBA
ENCIMA DE

Among Between Inside On top of Since With


ENTRE ENTRE DENTRO DE ENCIMA DE DESDE CON
(MÁS DE 2) (SÓLO 2)

At By Into Opposite Through Without


EN POR DENTRO OPUESTO A TRAVÉS (DE) SIN
78

Taken from: WRITING ACADEMIC ENGLISH By: OSIMA, Alice & A. Hogue. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 1983

Clause
Meaning/ Function Sentence Connectors Connectors Others
Coordinators
Subordinators
To introduce an additional Furthermore And another (+ noun)
idea moreover an additional (+ noun)
in addition
To introduce an opposite on the other hand but in spite of (+ noun)
idea however although despite (+ noun)
in contrast yet
though
even though
whereas
while
To introduce an example for example an example of (+ noun)
for instance such as (+ noun)
e.g.
To introduce a restatement i.e.
or explanation
To introduce a conclusion in conclusion
or summary in summary
to conclude
to summarize
To clarify chronological first (second. third, before the first (+ noun)
order and order of fourth, etc.) next, last. after the second (+ noun)
importance finally while before the (+ noun)
first of all, until in the year
above all as soon as since the (+ noun)
after that the most important
since then (+ noun)
more important,
most important
To introduce a cause or for because of
reason because due to
since to result from
as the result of
the effect of x on y
the consequence of
79

the cause of
the reason for
To introduce a cause or as a result of so the result in
result as a consequence to cause
therefore to have an effect on
thus to affect
consequently
hence
To introduce a comparison Similarly and Like
likewise as just like
also just as alike
too similar (to)
the same as
both... and
not only... but also
compare to
To introduce a contrast on the other hand but different from
in contrast although dissimilar
however yet unlike
by (in) comparison though to differ from
even though to compare to
whereas to compare with
while
80

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS.

VERBOS REGULARES:

Son los que forman el pasado y el participio pasado añadiendo la terminación '-ed'

I work / Yo trabajo I worked / Yo trabajé o trabajaba

Abandon Abandonar Abolish Abolir


Absolve Absolver Absorb Absorber
Abuse Injuriar Accede Acceder
Accelerate Acelerar Accent Acentuar
Accept Aceptar Accuse Acusar
Accustom Acostumbrar Achieve Llevar a cabo
Acquire Adquirir Act Actuar
Add Sumar Address Dirigir
Admire Admirar Admit Admitir
Adore Adorar Adorn Adornar
Advance Avanzar Advertise Anunciar
Advise Aconsejar Affirm Afirmar
Agree Acceder Allow Permitir
Amount Ascender/cantidad Amuse Divertir
Announce Anunciar Annoy Molestar
Answer Contestar Apologize Excusarse
Appear Aparecer Appoint Nombrar
Approach Acercarse Approve Aprobar
Arrange Arreglar Arrive Llegar
Ask Preguntar Assure Asegurar
Astonish Asombrar Attack Atacar
Attempt Intentar Attend Asistir
Attract Atraer Avoid Evitar
Bathe Bañarse Beg Rogar, pedir
Believe Creer Belong Pertenecer
Blame Culpar Book Reservar
Call Llamar Carry Llevar
Cash Cobrar Cease Cesar
Change Cambiar Check Comprobar
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Claim Reclamar Clean Limpiar


Clear Aclarar, limpiar Climb Trepar
Close Cerrar Collect Recoger
Comb Peinar Combine Combinar
Command Mandar Commit Cometer
Compare Comparar Complain Quejarse
Compose Componer Conceal Ocultar
Consider Considerar Consist Consistir
Contain Contener Continue Continuar
Copy Copiar Correct Corregir
Cough Toser Count Contar
Cover Cubrir Cross Cruzar
Crown Coronar Cry Gritar, llorar
Damage Dañar Dance Bailar
Dawn Amanecer Deceive Engañar
Decide Decidir Declare Declarar
Defend Defender Deliver Entregar
Desire Desear Despise Despreciar
Destroy Destruir Detach Separar
Develop Desarrollar Devote Dedicar
Devour Devorar Discover Descubrir
Dislike Desaprobar Disturb Perturbar
Divide Dividir Drag Arrastrar
Drop Dejar caer Dry Secar
Earn Ganar Elect Elegir
Employ Emplear Enclose Incluir
Encourage Animar End Terminar
Enjoy Disfrutar Enter Entrar
Establish Establecer Esteem Estimar
Evoke Evocar Exchange Cambiar
Expect Esperar Explain Explicar
Explode Estallar Expose Exponer
Express Expresar Extract Extraer
Fail Fallar Fear Temer
Fetch Ir por Fill Llenar
Finish Acabar Fish Pescar
82

Fit Ajustar Fix Fijar


Float Flotar Fold Doblar
Follow Seguir Found Fundar
Gain Ganar Gamble Jugar
Gather Recoger Govern Gobernar
Grant Conceder Greet Saludar
Guard Guardar Guess Adivinar
Handle Manejar Hang Ahorcar
Happen Suceder Hate Odiar
Heat Calentar Help Ayudar
Hire Alquilar Hope Esperar
Hunt Cazar Hurry Apresurarse
Imagine Imaginar Imply Implicar
Import Importar Impress Impresionar
Improve Mejorar Include Incluir
Increase Aumentar Inquire Averiguar
Intend Proponerse Invent Inventar
Invite Invitar Iron Planchar
Join Unir Joke Bromear
Jump Saltar Justify Justificar
Kick Cocear Kill Matar
Kiss Besar Knock Golpear
Land Aterrizar Last Durar
Laugh Reír Lie Mentir
Like Gustar Listen Escuchar
Live Vivir Look Mirar
Love Amar Lower Bajar
Maintain Mantener Marry Casarse
Measure Medir Mend Componer
Mention Mencionar Move Mover
Name Nombrar Note Notar
Notice Notar, darse cuenta Number Numerar
Obey Obedecer Oblige Obligar
Oblige Obligar Occupy Ocupar
Offer Ofrecer Open Abrir
Order Ordenar Organize Organizar
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Pack Empaquetar Paint Pintar


Pass Pasar Permit Permitir
Place Colocar Play Jugar
Please Agradar Possess Poseer
Practise Practicar Prefer Preferir
Prepare Preparar Present Presentar
Produce Producir Promise Prometer
Propose Proponer Pull Tirar de
Punish Castigar Push Empujar
Rain Llover Reach Alcanzar
Receive Recibir Refer Referir
Refuse Rehusar Relieve Aliviar
Remain Permanecer Remember Recordar
Remind Recordar Remove Quitar
Rent Arrendar Repair Reparar
Repeat Repetir Reply Replicar
Suplicar,
Report Informar Request
requerir
Require Requerir Rest Descansar
Return Volver Rush Precipitarse
Sail Navegar Save Ahorrar
Seem Parecer Sharpen Afilar
Shout Gritar Sign Firmar
Smile Sonreír Smoke Fumar
Sound Sonar Start Empezar
Stop Parar Study Estudiar
Suffer Sufrir Suggest Sugerir
Suppose Suponer Surprise Sorprender
Talk Hablar Tame Domesticar
Taste Probar Tire Cansar
Touch Tocar Test Probar
Thank Agradecer Tie Atar
Translate Traducir Travel Viajar
Trouble Molestar Trust Confiar
Try Probar Turn Girar
Unite Unir Use Usar
84

Vary Variar Visit Visitar


Wait Esperar Walk Andar
Want Querer Wash Lavar
Watch Vigilar Weigh Pesar
Wish Desear Work Trabajar
Worry Preocuparse Wound Herir
85

VERBOS IRREGULARES:

Forman el pasado y participio pasado de manera irregular. Para el presente se comportan como
los verbos regulares, añadiendo '-s' a la tercera persona singular (excepto 'to be' y 'to have').

INFINITIVO PASADO SIMPLE PARTICIPIO PASADO TRADUCCIÓN


Arise Arose Arisen Surgir, Levantarse
Awake Awoke Awoken Despertarse
Be/ am, are, is Was / Were Been Ser / Estar
Bear Bore Borne / Born Soportar, dar a luz
Beat Beat Beaten Golpear
Become Became Become Llegar a Ser
Begin Began Begun Empezar
Bend Bent Bent Doblar
Bet Bet Bet Apostar
Bind Bound Bound Atar, encuadernar
Bid Bid Bid Pujar
Bite Bit Bitten Morder
Bleed Bled Bled Sangrar
Blow Blew Blown Soplar
Break Broke Broken Romper
Breed Bred Bred Criar
Bring Brought Brought Traer Llevar
Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Radiar
Build Built Built Edificar
Burn Burnt /Burned Burnt / Burned Quemar
Burst Burst Burst Reventar
Buy Bought Bought Comprar
Cast Cast Cast Arrojar
Catch Caught Caught Coger
Come Came Come Venir
Cost Cost Cost Costar
Cut Cut Cut Cortar
Choose Chose Chosen Elegir
Cling Clung Clung Agarrarse
Creep Crept Crept Arrastrarse
Deal Dealt Dealt Tratar
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Dig Dug Dug Cavar


Do (Does) Did Done Hacer
Draw Drew Drawn Dibujar
Dream Dreamt / Dreamed Dreamt / Dreamed Soñar
Drink Drank Drunk Beber
Drive Drove Driven Conducir
Eat Ate Eaten Comer
Fall Fell Fallen Caer
Feed Fed Fed Alimentar
Feel Felt Felt Sentir
Fight Fought Fought Luchar
Find Found Found Encontrar
Flee Fled Fled Huir
Fly Flew Flown Volar
Forbid Forbade Forbidden Prohibir
Forget Forgot Forgotten Olvidar
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Perdonar
Freeze Froze Frozen Helar
Get Got Got / Gotten Obtener
Give Gave Given Dar
Go (Goes) Went Gone Ir
Grow Grew Grown Crecer
Grind Ground Ground Moler
Hang Hung Hung Colgar
Have Had Had Haber o Tener
Hear Heard Heard Oir
Hide Hid Hidden Ocultar
Hit Hit Hit Golpear
Hold Held Held Agarrar Celebrar
Hurt Hurt Hurt Herir
Keep Kept Kept Conservar
Know Knew Known Saber Conocer
Kneel Knelt Knelt Arrodillarse
Knit Knit Knit Hacer punto
Lay Laid Laid Poner
Lead Led Led Conducir
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Lean Leant Leant Apoyarse


Leap Leapt Leapt Brincar
Learn Learnt / Learned Learnt / Learned Aprender
Leave Left Left Dejar
Lend Lent Lent Prestar
Let Let Let Permitir
Lie Lay Lain Echarse
Light Lit Lit Encender
Lose Lost Lost Perder
Make Made Made Hacer
Mean Meant Meant Significar
Meet Met Met Encontrar
Mistake Mistook Mistaken Equivocar
Overcome Overcame Overcome Vencer
Pay Paid Paid Pagar
Put Put Put Poner
Read Read Read Leer
Ride Rode Ridden Montar
Ring Rang Rung Llamar
Rise Rose Risen Levantarse
Run Ran Run Correr
Say Said Said Decir
See Saw Seen Ver
Seek Sought Sought Buscar
Sell Sold Sold Vender
Send Sent Sent Enviar
Set Set Set Poner(se)
Sew Sewed Sewed / Sewn Coser
Shake Shook Shaken Sacudir
Shear Shore Shorn Esquilar
Shine Shone Shone Brillar
Shoot Shot Shot Disparar
Show Showed Shown Mostrar
Shrink Shrank Shrunk Encogerse
Shut Shut Shut Cerrar
Sing Sang Sung Cantar
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Sink Sank Sunk Hundir


Sit Sat Sat Sentarse
Sleep Slept Slept Dormir
Slide Slid Slid Resbalar
Smell Smelt Smelt Oler
Sow Sowed Sowed / Sown Sembrar
Speak Spoke Spoken Hablar
Speed Sped Sped Acelerar
Spell Spelt Spelt Deletrear
Spend Spent Spent Gastar
Spill Spilt / Spilled Spilt / Spilled Derramar
Spin Spun Spun Hilar
Spit Spat Spat Escupir
Split Split Split Hender / partir / rajar
Spoil Spoilt / Spoiled Spoilt / Spoiled Estropear
Spread Spread Spread Extender
Spring Sprang Sprung Saltar
Stand Stood Stood Estar en pie
Steal Stole Stolen Robar
Stick Stuck Stuck Pegar Engomar
Sting Stung Stung Picar
Stink Stank/Stunk Stunk Apestar
Stride Strode Stridden Dar zancadas
Strike Struck Struck Golpear
Swear Swore Sworn Jurar
Sweat Sweat Sweat Sudar
Sweep Swept Swept Barrer
Swell Swelled Swollen Hinchar
Swim Swam Swum Nadar
Swing Swung Swung Columpiarse
Take Took Taken Coger
Teach Taught Taught Enseñar
Tear Tore Torn Rasgar
Tell Told Told Decir
Think Thought Thought Pensar
Throw Threw Thrown Arrojar Tirar
89

Thrust Thrust Thrust Introducir


Tread Trod Trodden Pisar, hollar
Understand Understood Understood Entender
Undergo Underwent Undergone Sufrir
Undertake Undertook Undertaken Emprender
Wake Woke Woken Despertarse
Wear Wore Worn Llevar puesto
Weave Wove Woven Tejer
Weep Wept Wept Llorar
Wet Wet Wet Mojar
Win Won Won Ganar
Wind Wound Wound Enrollar
Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn Retirarse
Wring Wrung Wrung Torcer
Write Wrote Written Escribir
90

VERBOS COMPUESTOS

Verbos que se acompañan de un adverbio (phrasal verbs) o preposición (prepositional verbs)


modificando su sentido según el adverbio o la preposición.

ADD UP Totalizar ADD UP TO alcanzar un total


ANSWER BACK contestar de malos modos ANSWER FOR responder de
ASK ABOUT preguntar por (un asunto) ASK AFTER preguntar por la salud
ASK FOR pedir, preguntar por ASK UP TO pedir hasta (un precio)
ASK BACK invitar a volver ASK DOWN invitar a bajar
ASK IN invitar a entrar ASK OUT invitar a salir
ASK UP invitar a subir
BACK AWAY retroceder BACK OUT volver atrás
BACK UP Reforzar BE ABOUT estar por (un lugar)
BE AWAY estar fuera BE BACK estar de vuelta
BE FOR estar a favor de BE IN estar en casa
BE OFF irse, estar apagado BE ON estar encendido
BE OUT estar fuera BE OVER estar acabado
BE UP estar levantado BEND DOWN Agacharse
BEND OVER Inclinarse BLOW AWAY llevarse (el viento)
BLOW DOWN derrumbarse por el viento BLOW OFF dejar salir (el vapor)
BLOW OUT apagar (se) (una llama) BLOW UP volar (con explosivos)
BREAK AWAY Soltarse BREAK DOWN derruir, averiarse
BREAK IN irrumpir, interrumpir BREAK OFF romper (se) (relaciones)
terminar el curso o una
BREAK UP BREAK OUT estallar (una guerra)
relación
BRING BACK Devolver BRING ABOUT Acarrear
BRING ALONG traer (consigo) BRING DOWN derribar, rebajar
BRING IN hacer entrar BRING OUT hacer salir, publicar
BRING UP criar, educar BRUSH OFF quitar el polvo
derrumbarse (por el
BURN AWAY consumirse (el fuego) BURN DOWN
fuego)
BURN OUT consumirse (el fuego) BURN UP consumirse (por el fuego)
BUY FOR comprar por o para BUY OVER Sobornar
BUY UP Acaparar
Hacer una visita, hacer
CALL AT CALL AWAY Seguir llamando
escala
Llamar (a alguien) para que
CALL BACK CALL FOR Pedir a voces, exigir
regrese
91

Llamar (a alguien) para que


CALL IN CALL ON Ir a ver (a alguien)
entre
CALL OUT Gritar CALL OVER Pasar lista, enumerar
Llamar (a alguien) para
CALL UP Telefonear CALL DOWN
que baje
CARRY ALONG Persuadir CARRY OFF Llevarse a la fuerza
CARRY ON Continuar CARRY OUT Llevar a cabo
CLEAR AWAY Dispersar (se) CLEAR OFF Marcharse
Aclararse (el tiempo,un
CLEAR OUT Marcharse CLEAR UP
misterio)
CLOSE DOWN Cerrar CLOSE UP Acercarse
COME ABOUT Suceder COME ACROSS Encontrarse con
Acompañar, venir por (la
COME ALONG COME AT Embestir
calle)
COME AWAY Desprenderse COME DOWN Bajar
COME FOR Venir por (en busca de) COME FROM Venir de
COME IN Entrar COME OFF Desprenderse
COME ON ¡Vamos! (en imperativo) COME OUT Salir
Ascender (una suma),
COME TO COME UP Subir
volver en sí.
COME UP TO Acercarse a COUNT IN Incluir
COUNT ON Contar con COUNT UP Calcular
COUNT UP TO Contar hasta CRY FOR Pedir llorando
CRY OUT Llorar a gritos CRY OVER Lamentarse
CRY TO Llamar a gritos CUT DOWN Reducir gastos, talar
CUT IN Interrumpir CUT OFF Separar de un tajo
CUT OUT Recortar, omitir CUT THROUGH Acortar por un atajo
CUT UP Trinchar, triturar
DIE AWAY Cesar poco a poco DIE DOWN Apaciguarse
DIE OUT Extinguirse DO UP Abrochar
DO WITHOUT Pasarse sin (carecer de) DRAW AWAY Alejarse
DRAW BACK Retroceder DRAW DOWN Bajar
DRAW IN Economizar, encoger (se) DRAW OFF Apartarse
Sacar, redactar, alargarse
DRAW ON Aproximarse, retirar fondos DRAW OUT
(el día)
Ahuyentar, alejarse en
DRAW UP Para (un vehículo) DRIVE AWAY
coche
DRIVE BACK Rechazar DRIVE BY Pasar en coche
DRIVE IN Entrar en coche, introducir DRIVE OUT Salir en coche, expulsar
92

Alejarse en coche,
DRIVE OFF
ahuyentar
EAT AWAY Erosionar EAT INTO Roer
EAT UP Devorar
FALL DOWN Caerse FALL OFF Disminuir, desprenderse
FALL OVER Tropezar FIGHT OFF Ahuyentar
FIGHT ON Seguir luchando FIGHT UP Luchar valerosamente
FILL IN Rellenar FILL UP Rellenar, llenar
FIND OUT Averiguar FIX UP Arreglar (un asunto)
FLY ABOUT Volar de un lado a otro FLY AT Atacar
FLY AWAY Huir volando FLY DOWN Descender
FLY OFF Desprenderse
GET ABOUT Ir de acá para allá GET ALONG Hacer progreso
GET AT Dar a entender GET AWAY Escaparse
GET BACK Volver, recuperar GET DOWN Descender
GET TO Llegar a GET IN / INTO Entrar, meterse
GET OUT (OF) Salir, apearse GET OFF Apearse, bajarse
GET ON Subirse, progresar GET OUT Producir, salir
Saltar por encima,
GET OVER GET THROUGH Abrirse camino
recobrarse
GET UP Levantarse GIVE AWAY Repartir, denunciar
GIVE BACK Devolver GIVE OFF Despedir (humo, olor)
GIVE OUT Agotarse, repartir GIVE UP Entregar, rendirse
GO ABOUT Ir de un lado para otro GO ALONG Ir a lo largo de
GO AT Atacar GO AWAY Marcharse
GO BY Pasar por GO DOWN Bajar
GO IN / INTO Entrar GO OFF Explotar, marcharse
Salir, pasarse de moda,
GO ON Continuar GO OUT
apagarse
GO OVER Repasar GO THROUGH Penetrar, sufrir
GO UP Subir GO UP TO Acercarse a
GO ACROSS Atravesar GO WITHOUT Pasarse sin
HANG ABOUT Vagar HANG BACK Retraerse
HANG BEHIND Quedarse atrás HANG FROM Colgar de
HANG OFF Colgar (el teléfono) HANG UP Colgar (un cuadro)
HOLD BACK Detener HOLD ON Continuar
HOLD OUT Resistir HURRY ALONG Darse prisa
93

HURRY AWAY Irse rápidamente HURRY OFF Irse rápidamente


HURRY UP Darse prisa
JUMP ABOUT Dar saltos JUMP AT Atacar
JUMP DOWN Bajar de un salto JUMP IN Entrar de un salto
JUMP ON Subir de un salto JUMP OVER Saltar por encima de
KEEP AWAY Mantenerse alejado KEEP BACK Mantenerse separado
KEEP DOWN Controlar KEEP OFF Abstenerse
KEEP UP Mantenerse de pie, resistir KNOCK ABOUT Golpear acá y allá
KNOCK AT Llamar (a la puerta) KNOCK DOWN Derribar
KNOCK OUT Dejar fuera de combate
LOOK AFTER Cuidar LOOK AT Mirar
LOOK BEHIND Mirar atrás LOOK DOWN Mirar abajo
LOOK FOR Buscar LOOK FORWARD TO Anhelar
LOOK IN Mirar dentro LOOK LIKE Parecer
LOOK OUT Mirar fuera LOOK OVER Mirar por encima de
LOOK ROUND Mirar alrededor LOOK UP Mirar arriba, buscar
MOVE AWAY Alejarse MOVE ALONG Pasar, no detenerse
MOVE DOWN Bajar MOVE IN Mudarse (de domicilio)
No detenerse, pasar a
MOVE OFF Marcharse MOVE ON
(otro asunto)
MOVE OUT Mudarse (de domicilio) MOVE UP Moverse (para dejar sitio)
PASS AWAY Fallecer PASS BY Pasar por (un sitio)
PASS IN Entrar PASS ON Pasar (de mano en mano)
PAY FOR Pagar PAY IN Ingresar (dinero)
Liquidar (una cuenta),
PAY OFF PAY UP Pagar (una deuda)
pagar
POINT AT Señalar POINT AWAY Señalar a lo lejos
POINT TO Señalar POINT DOWN Señalar abajo
POINT OUT Destacar POINT UP Señalar arriba
PULL AWAY Arrancar PULL DOWN Derribar
PULL OFF Arrancar PULL OUT Sacar
PULL UP Parar (un vehículo) PUT AWAY Poner a un lado
PUT BACK Poner en su sitio PUT DOWN Anotar, bajar (algo)
PUT IN Meter, instalar PUT OFF Posponer
PUT ON Ponerse (una prenda) PUT OUT Apagar, sacar
PUT UP Subir (algo), alojarse PUT UP WITH Soportar
RUN ABOUT Correr de acá para allá RUN ACROSS Encontrarse con, atravesar corriendo
94

RUN DOWN Pararse (un reloj), enfermar RUN IN Entrar corriendo


RUN OFF Escapar corriendo RUN OUT Salir corriendo
RUN OVER Atropellar RUN UP Subir corriendo
SEE ABOUT Indagar SEE OFF Despedir (a alguien)
SEE TO Encargarse de SEND ALONG Despachar
SEND DOWN Bajar (algo) SEND FOR Enviar por
Despachar,despedir
SEND OFF SEND ROUND Circular
(trabajadores)
SEND UP Subir (algo) SET ABOUT Ponerse (a trabajar)
SET DOWN Asentar, colocar SET OFF Partir (para un viaje)
Callarse, cerrar (una
SHUT IN Encerrar SHUT UP
tienda)
Incorporarse, sentarse
SIT DOWN Sentarse SIT UP
erguido
SIT FOR Presentarse (a un examen) SPEAK FOR Hablar a favor de
SPEAK TO Hablar con SPEAK UP Hablar en alta voz
STAND BY Quedarse cerca STAND OFF Mantenerse alejado
STAND OUT Destacar STAND UP Ponerse de pie
STAY AT Hospedarse STAY BY Permanecer al lado de
STAY IN Quedarse en casa STAY OUT Quedarse fuera de casa
STEP ACROSS Atravesar STEP DOWN Bajar
STEP IN Entrar STEP OUT Salir
STEP UP Subir STEP UP TO Acercarse a (alguien)
STOP BY Quedarse al lado de STOP IN Quedarse en casa
Empastar (una muela),
STOP UP
tapar (una botella)
Escribir al dictado, bajar
TAKE DOWN TAKE FOR Tomar por (equivocarse)
(algo)
Quitarse (una prenda),
TAKE IN Engañar, meter TAKE OFF
despegar
TAKE OUT Sacar, quitar TAKE TO Llevar a
TAKE UP Subir (algo) TALK ABOUT Hablar acerca de
TALK OF Hablar de TALK TO Hablar con
TEAR AWAY Quitar (rasgando) TEAR OFF Separar (rasgando)
TEAR UP Hacer pedazos (rasgando) THROW AWAY Tirar (algo inservible)
THROW BACK Devolver THROW DOWN Tirar hacia abajo
THROW IN Tirar hacia adentro THROW OFF Echar fuera
THROW OUT Arrojar THROW UP Tirar hacia arriba
95

TRY ON Probarse una prenda TURN AWAY Mirar a otro lado


TURN BACK Darse la vuelta TURN DOWN Poner boca abajo
Apagar (la luz), cerrar (una Encender (la luz), abrir
TURN OFF TURN ON
llave) (una llave)
TURN OUT Apagar TURN OVER Volcar, poner boca abajo
TURN INTO Convertirse TURN UP Llegar
WALK ABOUT Andar de acá para allá WALK ALONG Andar por
WALK AWAY Alejarse andando WALK DOWN Bajar
WALK IN Entrar WALK OFF Marcharse
WALK UP Subir WORK OUT Calcular
WORK UNDER Trabajar a las órdenes de WRITE DOWN Anotar
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