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Symptoms of a car that is out of alignment

Uneven or rapid wear Pulling or Drifting away from a straight line Wandering on a straight level road Spokes of the steering wheel off to one side while driving on a straight and level road.

Symptoms of wheel that is out of balance

Vibration in the steering wheel at certain highway speeds. Vibration in the seat or floorboard at certain highway speeds. Scalloped or cupped wear patterns on the tires.

COMMON HAND TOOLS

Adjustable Wrenches - 6" and 12" Allen Wrench Set Chisel Set Combination Wrenches Crowfoot Wrench Set Drill Motors Flare Nut (tubing) Wrenches:

Flashlight and batteries Hack Saw and blades Hammers: Rubber Mallet Ignition Wrench Set Impact Wrenches Inspection Mirror Pickup Tool - magnetic and claw type Pliers: Combination, Hose Clamp, Locking Jaw, Needle Nose, Side Cutting Punch Set Socket Set Flex Handle Impact Sockets Standard Impact Driver Ratchet Jack Tire Torque Wrenches

Balance

is

not

1. Sensor damp or damage

1.

Calibrate again,oven and then

accurate & difficult

2. Program chore

calibration or change.

to reach “00”

 

2. Calibration again

When second mount & demount, the error will exceed

1. Wheel internal hole irregular

1. Change the wheel

2. Flange disk assemble not properly

2. Check the assemble surface

and try again.

10g.

7.4 ACCESSORY

 

STANDARD ACCESSORY

 

ACCESSORY

DESCRIPTION

QUANTITY

 

ACCESSORY

DESCRIPTION

QUANTITY

CONE 1 SET   BR SCALER 1 PIECE

CONE

1 SET

 
CONE 1 SET   BR SCALER 1 PIECE

BR SCALER

1 PIECE

    THREAD  
   
    THREAD  

THREAD

 

PLIER

1 PIECE

SHAFT

1 PIECE

QUICK NUT 1PIECE WEIGHT 1PIECE

QUICK NUT

1PIECE

QUICK NUT 1PIECE WEIGHT 1PIECE

WEIGHT

1PIECE

BOWL 1PIECE   BOWL EDGE 1PIECE

BOWL

1PIECE

 
BOWL 1PIECE   BOWL EDGE 1PIECE

BOWL EDGE

1PIECE

 

OPTIONAL ACCESSORY

 

ACCESSORY

DESCRIPTIUON

 

ACCESSORY

DESCRIPTIUON

  HOOD 4-POSITION ADAPTOR
 

HOOD

  HOOD 4-POSITION ADAPTOR

4-POSITION ADAPTOR

15

LARGE CONE FLANGE DISK

LARGE CONE

LARGE CONE FLANGE DISK

FLANGE DISK

  CENTERLESS RIM
 
  CENTERLESS RIM

CENTERLESS RIM

WEIGHT STICK SCALE

CALIP

DK-W-1 DK-W-2

DK-W-1

DK-W-1 DK-W-2

DK-W-2

MJ-I MJ-I I

MJ-I

MJ-I MJ-I I

MJ-I I

8. MAINTENANCE

CALIP DK-W-1 DK-W-2 MJ-I MJ-I I 8. MAINTENANCE WARNING The manufacturer will not bear any responsibility

WARNING

The manufacturer will not bear any responsibility in the event of claims resulting from the use of non-original spare parts or accessories.

WARNINGfrom the use of non-original spare parts or accessories. Unplug the machine from the socket and

Unplug the machine from the socket and make sure that all moving parts have been locked before performing any adjustment or maintenance operation.

before performing any adjustment or maintenance operation. WARNING Do not remove or modify any part of

WARNING

Do not remove or modify any part of the machine (except for service interventions).

any part of the machine (except for service interventions). CAUTION Keep the work area clean. Never

CAUTION

Keep the work area clean. Never use compressed air and/or jets of water to remove dirt or residues from the machine. Take all possible measures to prevent dust from building up or rising during cleaning operations. Keep the wheel balancer shaft, the securing ring nut, the centering cones and ange clean. These components can be cleaned using a brush previously dripped in environmentally friendly solvents. Handle cones and anges carefully so as to avoid accidental dropping and subsequent damage that would affect centering accuracy. After use, store cones and anges in a place where they are suitably protected from dust and dirt. If necessary, use ethyl alcohol to clean the display panel. Perform the calibration procedure at least once every six months. LUBRICATION

The only rotating parts of the wheel balancer are the motor and balance shaft. These parts must be periodically lubricated by the operators. If the machine is used very frequently, more than

16

SYSTEM DIAGRAM

Reserve tank

Front steering gear

Steering angle transfer shaft

Stepper motor

Steering wheel

Main bevel

gear

10-15

Small bevel

gear

Control rod

Control valve

Input rod

86U 1 0X-539

MAIN COMPONENTS AND FUNCTION OF REAR STEERING

Part

Control unit

I control system

Inase

Stepper motor

Steering angle transfer shaft

Power cylinder

Integral with speedometer and cable; detects vehicle speed and sends data to control

unit

1) Sends step signals indicating steering ratio (corresponds to vehicle speed) to step- per motor

2) Detects abnormalities in steering ratio signal, speed signal, and other electric

I

sysrems

3) Controls the following when problem s detected

a) Warning light ON

b) Solenoid valve open

Incorporates control yoke and bevel gear

Controls valve and direction and amount of rear wheel steerinq

Rotates control yoke in u""orO-o*" *tf-, step signal tron',

,nit

"-trot

Rotates pinion gear and bevel gear in phase control system in relation to steering wheel operation

Regulates hydraulic pressure to control amount of power cylinder stroke and rear wheel steerino ooeration

1) Receives hydraulic pressure from control unit and moves rear wheels

2) Fixes rear wheels in straight-ahead position by built-in self-centering spring in case of electrical or hydraulic failure

1 Provides hydraulic pressure to front and rear steering systems

10-16

86U 1 0X-51

5

I

:

FRONT STEERING SYSTEM

Oil pump

Control valve

Input pinion shaft

Steering angle transfer shaft

Reserve tank (with level sensor)

Power

nder

Right tire

To power cylinder of rear steering system

86U10X-516

This is an ordinary rack and pinion power steering system in whrch the steerrng efforts of the driver are hydraulically assisted. This system consists of a steering wheel, an input pinion shaft connected to the steering wheel by a steering shaft, a rack, an oil pump, and a control valve. A steering angle

transfer shaft for controlling the rear steering system is geared to the rack and connects with the phase

control system of the rear steering system.

10-17

REAR STEERING SYSTEM

From rack of front steering system Fr om ol

o

Power cylinder

Rear-to-f ront steeri n g

ration sensor

o

Self-centering

Output rod

spnng

Stepper motor

Control valve

86U10X 517

This is a hydraulically-assisted

ctoorinn r,yhool annlo

power steering

system which is electronically controlled according to

qtoorinn

u Jrvvr

rr rv

annlo tranc{or cheft cnoo|

qr rvru

Lrqr roiur

or rqtr.

Jvuvu

'rahinla onaad Thic crrctom r-nnqiqtq n{:

llulu

DPuvll,

I I ilo

oyoLgt

|

| uvt

roroLo

vr

oL99r il

rv

vvr r9vr

anr{

dl

qr rvrc

l\,1 vul

sensors, control unit, stepper motor. phase control system. control valve, oil pump, and power cylinder

a nn

d.r

rLl

a'

uutput IUU.

'*n'

'*

.^n

As a fail-safe system. the rear steering system is equipped with a self-centering spring which fixes the

a'

UULpUL

'*n' '*

"^"r

lU\l

i^

^^'^+^r

pL/l

d.LttLl

lJ

ll

I

+h^ ^+"rinht-ahead nosition

Ll lti

JLIaTVIr

qr

rvqu

pvorLrvr

^ ^^r^^^id

d, JUIEI

l\Jl\l

valveVd,lVU whichvvl lltJl

|

il

;^

if hvdrarrlic nrcssr

| ryur

quilv

PrvgQuru

rre tn thp nn\^/trr nvlinr^i9f

L\J Ll

lc

VUvvul

uylll

lu(

is lost. Also incor-

I cutsUULD off\Jl the hydraulic pressure if there rs a system electrical failure

I

10-18

ADVANTAGES OF 4WS

I

Low-speed turning

2WS

4WS

86U1 0X-51 B

For 2WS vehicles turning at low speed, the center of the turn is point O (the extended line of the rear

axle shaft). The minimum turning radius is shown by line R

lf the front and rear wheels are steered in opposite phases, the change in location of point O makes it possible for the minimum turning radius and inner/outer wheel difference (W) to be lessened; thus,

improving the turning capability during small-radius turns.

10-19

High-speed turning and cornering

Direction of travel

Side slippage

2WS

Friction effort

4WS

86Ur 0X-5r I

The centrifugal force acting upon the vehicle booy increases with high speed turning and cornering.

As a result, a greater cornering force (C) is necessary, and the side-slip angte (a) of the tires is increased.

Ordinarily, when a 2WS vehicle turns or corners under high speed conditions, the side-slip angle of the tires is increased as the driver turns the steering wheel, with the result that the vehicle's rear end yaws to a great extent and the side-slip angle of the rear tires becomes greater. For 4WS vehicles, the rear wheels are steered in the same phase as the front wheels, with the result

that

there is reduced yawing

of the rear end, and there is a corresponding reduction of the yawing

time of the vehicle's rear end.

I

10-20

Lane change

2WS

4WS

86U 1 0X-520

As a result of the 4WS characteristics described, when the 4WS vehicle makes, for example, a lane

change, there is the dif{erence

because the length of time of rear end yawing and attitude change are less

the 2WS vehicle. This is

for the 4WS vehicle.

Moreover, such factors as cornering balance, steering wheel response, and steering precision are better for the 4WS vehicle.

The relationshrp between vehicle speed, steering wheel angle, and angle of the rear wheels is described

on the following page.

(shown in the illustrations above) of the path of the 4WS vehicle and

10-21

Amount and Direction of Steering Angle of Rear Wheels

Br

f(V) =- ol

F

q)

(g

'= -

o

o

tr o

Same phase

t

lOppotite phase

35km/h (22mPh)

Vehicle speed (V)

86U 1 0X-52 1

Rear-to-front steering angle ratio (r/f) is decided by the control unit according to vehicle speed The general characteristics are as follows. Under 35 km/h (22mph) the rear wheels are steered in the opposite direction asthe front wheels, at 35 km/h (22 mph) the rear wheels point straight-ahead as in 2WS, and at speeds over 35 km/h

(22 mph) they are steered in the same direction as the front wheels.

The maxrmum steerino anole of the rear wheels is 5o

10-22

Figure 9-1 Figure 9-2

Figure 9-1 Figure 9-2

Figure 9-1 Figure 9-2

Figure 9-3.

Figure 9-4)

Figure 9-3. Figure 9-4)

Figure 9- 5

Figure 9- 5

Figure 9- 5

Figure 9-6

Figure 9-6

Figure 9-7

Figure 9-7

Figure 9-8 Figure 9-8

Figure 9-8 Figure 9-8

Figure 9-8

Figure 9-8

Figure 9-8 Figure 9-8

Figure 9-9.

Figure 9-9. Figure 9-9)

Figure 9-9)

Figure 9-12, View A Figure 9- 12, View B Figure 9- 13

Figure 9-12, View A

Figure 9- 12, View B

Figure 9-

Figure 9-12, View A Figure 9- 12, View B Figure 9- 13

13

Figure 9-14

Figure 9-14

Figure 9-14 Figure 9-14

Figure 9-

15

Figure 9-16

Figure 9- 15 Figure 9-16

Figure 9-17

Figure 9-18

Figure 9-18

Figure 9-19

Figure 9-20

Figure 9-19 Figure 9-20 Figure 9-21 Figure 9-21

Figure 9-19 Figure 9-20 Figure 9-21 Figure 9-21

Figure 9-21

Figure 9-21

Figure 9-19 Figure 9-20 Figure 9-21 Figure 9-21

Figure 9-22

Figure 9-22.

Figure 9-22 Figure 9-22.

Figure 9-23, Figure 9-24

Figure 9-23, Figure 9-24

Figure 9-25

Figure 9-25

Figure 9-26

Figure 9-26

Figure 9-27 Figure 9-28,

Figure 9-27 Figure 9-28,

Figure 9-27 Figure 9-28,

Figure 9-29

Figure 9-29 Figure 9-30 Figure 9-31

Figure 9-30 Figure 9-31

Figure 9-32,

Figure 9-32,

Figure 9-32,

Figure 9-33

Figure 9-34

Figure 9-33 Figure 9-34

Figure 9-35

Figure 9-35

Figure 9-36,

Figure 9-36,

Figure 9-37

Figure 9-37

Figure 9-38

Figure 9-38 Figure 9-39

Figure 9-39

Figure 9-40

Figure 9-40

Figure 9-40

Figure 9-41 Figure 9-41, View A Figure 9-41, View B, Figure 9-41, View C.

Figure 9-41 Figure 9-41, View A Figure 9-41, View B, Figure 9-41, View C.

Figure 9-42