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Social media and politics in the

United States
Social media and politics in the United States

Table of Contents
Social media and politics
06 Twitter: world leaders with the most Twitter followers 2017
07 Twitter: world leaders with the most mutual connections 2017
08 Twitter: world leaders with highest reply rates 2017
09 U.S. adults typical social media posts 2016
10 U.S. Facebook users with similar political beliefs 2016
11 U.S. social media user online political discussion frequency 2016
12 U.S. social media users opinions on social media posts on politics 2016
13 U.S. social media users opinions on online discussions on politics 2016
14 Social media: influence on political opinions of U.S. social media users 2016
15 Social media: influence on political candidate views of U.S. social media users 2016

Online publishers
17 Facebook user engagement of leading English-language newspapers 2017
18 Facebook user engagement of leading publishers 2017
19 Global public broadcaster social media audience 2016
20 U.S. Presidential Inauguration Facebook user engagement 2017, by publisher
21 U.S. presidential election 2016: Twitter voice distribution Trump-Clinton debates
22 U.S. presidential election 2016: Facebook voice distribution Trump-Clinton debates
23 U.S. presidential election 2016: social media buzz Trump-Clinton debates
24 Use of pro-Trump Twitter bots during key moments of U.S. presidential campaign 2016
25 Share of bot tweets during key moments of U.S. presidential campaign 2016

Fake news
27 U.S. presidential campaign: mainstream and fake news Facebook engagement 2016
28 Facebook engagement for top real and fake election stories in the U.S. 2016
29 U.S. trust in news shared by friends and family via Facebook 2016
30 U.S. trust in news shared by friends and family via Facebook 2016, by gender
31 Fake news traffic sources in the U.S. 2017
32 Perceived sources of fake news in the U.S. 2017
33 Perceived sources of fake news in the U.S. 2017, by political affiliation
34 Effect of fake news on online news media worldwide 2016
35 Ability to recognize fake news in the U.S. 2017
Social media and politics in the United States

Social media and politics


Social media and politics 6

Twitter: world leaders with the most Twitter followers 2017


World leaders with the most Twitter followers as of May 2017

data

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Pope Francis, Vatican @Pontifex* 33.72

Donald Trump, U.S. @RealDonaldTrump 30.13

Narendra Modi, India @NarendraModi 30.06

Prime Minister, India @PMOIndia 18.04

President, U.S. @POTUS 17.76

The White House, U.S. @WhiteHouse 14.42

Recep Tayyip Erdoan, Turkey @RT_Erdogan 10.27

Sushma Swaraj, India @SushmaSwaraj 8.01

HH Sheikh Mohammed, UAE @Jokowi 7.92

Joko Widodo, Indonesia @Jokowi 7.43

Twitter followers in millions

Note: Worldwide; May 22, 2017

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 37.

Source: Twiplomacy; Burson-Marsteller ID 281375


Social media and politics 7

Twitter: world leaders with the most mutual connections 2017


World leaders and foreign ministries with the most mutual Twitter
connections as of May 2017

data

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

EU External Action @EU-eeas 128

Foreign Ministry Russia @MFA_Russia 127

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Germany @GermanyDiplo 116

Foreign Office UK @ForeignOffice 115

Foreign Ministry Norway @NorwayMFA 109

Foreign Ministry Iceland @MFAIceland 108

Foreign Ministry Lithuania @LithuaniaMFA 108

Foreign Ministry Israel @IsraelMFA 107

Foreign Ministry The Netherlands @DutchMFA 106

Foreign Ministry France @FranceDiplo 95

Number of mutual peer connections

Note: Worldwide; May 22, 2017

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 38.

Source: Twiplomacy ID 348469


Social media and politics 8

Twitter: world leaders with highest reply rates 2017


Most conversational world leaders having highest reply rates on Twitter
as of May 2017

data

0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0%

Government, The Netherlands 95%

Government, Nepal 95%

Paul Kagame, Rwanda 79%

Erna Solberg, Norway 66%

Anastase Murekezi, Rwanda 60%

Anders Samuelsen, Denmark 56%

Prime Minister, Israel 55%

Jimmy Morales, Guatemala 52%

Louise Mushikiwabo, Rwanda 50%

Sigmar Gabriel, Germany 47%

Percentage of tweets being replies

Note: Worldwide; May 2017

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 39.

Source: Twiplomacy ID 348481


Social media and politics 9

U.S. adults typical social media posts 2016


Typical social media posts of adults in the United States as of June 2016

data

0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0%

Engage with social media (net) 77%

My family 34%

Humor (funny quizzes, memes, videos) 30%

My friends 26%

Travel 18%

My child(ren) 18%

Food 18%

Entertainment (movies, tv shows, celebrities) 17%

My pets 17%

Sports 13%

Politics 11%

My work 7%

Something else 20%

N/A - I don't engage in social media in any way 23%

Share of respondents

Note: United States; June 7 to 9, 2016; 18 years and older; 2,034

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 40.

Source: Harris Poll ID 616624


Social media and politics 10

U.S. Facebook users with similar political beliefs 2016


Do most of your Facebook friends have similar political beliefs to you?

data

60.0%

53%

50.0%

40.0%
Share of respondents

30.0%

23%

19%
20.0%

10.0%

5%

0.0%
A mix of political beliefs Similar political beliefs to you I`m not sure about their political beliefs Different political beliefs from you

Note: United States; July 12 to August 8, 2016; 18 years and older; 3,163; Facebook users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 41.

Source: Pew Research Center ID 677484


Social media and politics 11

U.S. social media user online political discussion frequency 2016


Frequency of of social media users in the United States commenting,
posting, or discussing government and politics with others on social
media as of August 2016
data

60.0%

50%
50.0%

40.0%
Share of respondents

30.0%

24%

19%
20.0%

10.0%
7%

1%
0.0%
Often Sometimes Hardly ever Never No answer

Note: United States; July 12 to August 8, 2016; 18 years and older; 4,579; social media users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 42.

Source: Pew Research Center ID 677457


Social media and politics 12

U.S. social media users opinions on social media posts on politics 2016
View of social media users in the United States on seeing social media
posts and discussions about politics and the 2016 election as of August
2016
data

0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0%

I like seeing lots of political posts and discussions on social media 20%

I am worn-out by how many political posts and discussions I see on social media 37%

I don`t feel strongly about these posts one way or the other 41%

No answer 2%

Share of respondents

Note: United States; July 12 to August 8, 2016; 18 years and older; 3,571; social media users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 43.

Source: Pew Research Center ID 677547


Social media and politics 13

U.S. social media users opinions on online discussions on politics 2016


Opinions of social media users in the United States on social media
discussions regarding politics as of August 2016

Chart Title

Very well Somewhat well Not at all No answer

60.0% 57%

53%
50%
50.0%
45% 45%
44%

40%
40.0%
Share of respondents

35%

30.0%

24%
22%
21%
20%
20.0%
15%
14%

9%
10.0%

2% 2% 2%
1% 1%
0.0%
People say things when Social media has helped to People don`t say things about Social media helps people get Social media is a good way to
discussing politics on social bring new voices into the politics on social media involved with issues that matter learn about what political
media that they would never political discussion because they worry they will to them candidates are really like
say in person lose friends or get criticized

Note: United States; July 12 to August 8, 2016; 18 years and older; 3,571; Social media users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 44.

Source: Pew Research Center ID 677567


Social media and politics 14

Social media: influence on political opinions of U.S. social media users 2016
Share of social media users in the United States who have modified their
views about a political or social issue because of something they saw on
social media as of August 2016
data

90.0%

79%
80.0%

70.0%

60.0%
Share of respondents

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20%
20.0%

10.0%

1%
0.0%
Yes No No answer

Note: United States; July 12 to August 8, 2016; 18 years and older; 3,571; social media users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 45.

Source: Pew Research Center ID 244921


Social media and politics 15

Social media: influence on political candidate views of U.S. social media users 2016
This election season, have you modified your views about a particular
political candidate because of something you saw on social media?

data

90.0%

82%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%
Share of respondents

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0% 17%

10.0%

1%
0.0%
Yes No No answer

Note: United States; July 12 to August 8, 2016; 18 years and older; 3,571; social media users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 46.

Source: Pew Research Center ID 677589


Social media and politics in the United States

Online publishers
Online publishers 17

Facebook user engagement of leading English-language newspapers 2017


Biggest English-language newspapers on Facebook in January 2017,
ranked by total Facebook interactions (in millions)

data

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

The New York Times 25.53

Washington Post 25.17

Daily Mail 24.29

The Guardian 18.05

The Indian Express 14.07

Daily Mirror 11.74

Total Facebook interactions in millions

Note: Worldwide; January 2017; likes, comments, shares and reactions on artiles published during January 2017

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 47.

Source: NewsWhip ID 377496


Online publishers 18

Facebook user engagement of leading publishers 2017


Biggest publishers on Facebook in September 2017, ranked by total
Facebook interactions (in millions)

data

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

boredpanda.com 32.13

foxnews.com 27.99

nytimes.com 25.69

cnn.com 23.89

nbc.com 23.53

dailymail.co.uk 21.36

huffingtonpost.com 17.45

buzzfeed.com 16.8

bbc.co.uk 16.5

washingtonpost.com 15.94

Number of interactions in million

Note: Worldwide; September 2017; English-language publications only

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 48.

Source: NewsWhip ID 444419


Online publishers 19

Global public broadcaster social media audience 2016


Budget and social media performance of public international
broadcasters as of September 2016

2016 budget in million EUR YouTube subscribtions (in millions) Facebook Likes (in millions)

CCTV (China) 1840 0.17 33.3

BBC World Service (UK) 471 0.02 4.4

RT (Russia) 400 1.86 3.7

France Medias Monde 373 0.93 11.3

DW (Germany) 302 0.5 1.2

Note: Worldwide; September 2016

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 49.

Source: Munich Security Conference; Hertie School of Governance ID 699642


Online publishers 20

U.S. Presidential Inauguration Facebook user engagement 2017, by publisher


Biggest Facebook publishers in U.S. Presidential Inauguration in 2017,
ranked by total Facebook interactions

data

1600000

1400000 1,340,000

1,230,000
1,180,000
1200000
Number of Facebook interactions

1,060,000 1,040,000
990,000
1000000 961,000
867,000 849,000 847,000

800000

600000

400000

200000

0
om
m

m
m

om
om

m
om

om
co

co
co

co

co
.c

t.c
.c

.c

.c
c.

n.
s.

s.

n.
es

ay

st

t
ar

os
nb

ew

t
cn

ia
ra
o
tim

od

tb

rd
np

np
oc
xn

ei
at

ua
ny

to

to
m
br
fo
us

ng

ng
eg
de
hi

ffi
th
py
as

hu
cu
w

oc

Note: Worldwide; January 18th to 23rd, 2017; based on Facebook engagements to publishers' domains for content containing keywords around the U.S.
presidential inauguration

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 50.

Source: NewsWhip ID 677643


Online publishers 21

U.S. presidential election 2016: Twitter voice distribution Trump-Clinton debates


Distribution of Twitter conversation surrounding the 2016 U.S.
presidential debates between Clinton and Trump as of October 19, 2016

Chart Title

Trump Clinton

70.0%
64%
62%
59%
60.0%

50.0%

41%
40.0% 38%
Share of voice

36%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%
First debate (Sep 26, 2016) Second debate (Oct 9, 2016) Third debate (Oct 19, 2016)

Note: Worldwide; September 26, 2016, October 10, 2016, and October 19, 2016

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 51.

Source: Adweek; Twitter ID 618890


Online publishers 22

U.S. presidential election 2016: Facebook voice distribution Trump-Clinton debates


Distribution of Facebook conversation surrounding the 2016 U.S.
presidential debates between Clinton and Trump as of October 19, 2016

Chart Title

Trump Clinton

90.0%

79%
80.0% 76%

70.0%

60.0% 56%
Share of voice

50.0%
44%

40.0%

30.0%
24%
21%
20.0%

10.0%

0.0%
First debate (Sep 26, 2016) Second debate (Oct 9, 2016) Third debate (Oct 19, 2016)

Note: Worldwide; September 26, 2016, October 10 and 19, 2016

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 52.

Source: Adweek; Facebook; CNET ID 618898


Online publishers 23

U.S. presidential election 2016: social media buzz Trump-Clinton debates


Combined Twitter and Facebook interactions generated by the 2016 U.S.
presidential debates between Clinton and Trump as of October 19, 2016
(in millions)
Chart Title

Uniques Interactions

90
83.02

80

70

61.67
60
Number of units in millions

52.3

50

40

30
23.97

20 18.01 16.9
16.38

10
5.5

0
First debate - Hillary Clinton vs. Donald Vice president debate - Tim Kaine vs. Second debate - Hillary Clinton vs. Third debate - Hillary Clinton vs. Donald
Trump (Sep 26, 2016) Mike Pence (Oct 4, 2016) Donald Trump (Oct 9, 2016) Trump (Oct 19, 2016)

Note: United States; September 26, 2016, October 4, October 10, and October 19 2016

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 53.

Source: Media Life Magazine; Nielsen ID 618913


Online publishers 24

Use of pro-Trump Twitter bots during key moments of U.S. presidential campaign 2016
Number of automated pro-Trump tweets for every automated pro-Clinton
tweet around select key periods of the U.S. presidential election
campaign in 2016
data

6.9
7

4.9
5
Number of tweets

4.4
4.2

0
First debate Second debate Third debate Election day

Note: Worldwide; September to November 2016

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 54.

Source: Munich Security Conference; Oxford Internet Institute ID 699668


Online publishers 25

Share of bot tweets during key moments of U.S. presidential campaign 2016
Share of tweets generated by highly automated accounts around select
key periods of the U.S. presidential election campaign in 2016

data

30.0%

27.2%
26.1%

25.0%
23.2%

20.0%
17.9%
Share of tweets

15.0%

10.0%

5.0%

0.0%
First debate Second debate Third debate Election day

Note: Worldwide; September to November 2016

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 55.

Source: Munich Security Conference; Oxford Internet Institute ID 699680


Social media and politics in the United States

Fake news
Fake news 27

U.S. presidential campaign: mainstream and fake news Facebook engagement 2016
Facebook engagement for top 20 mainstream and fake election stories of
the the U.S. presidential election campaign in 2016, by number of actions
(in millions)
Chart Title

Mainstream news stories Fake news stories

14

12
12
Facebook user engagement in million actions

10
9 9

8
7

4
3 3

0
Feb - Apr May - Jul Aug - election day

Note: Worldwide; February to November 2016; shares, reactions, comments

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 56.

Source: Munich Security Conference; BuzzFeed (BuzzFeed News) ID 699687


Fake news 28

Facebook engagement for top real and fake election stories in the U.S. 2016
Facebook engagements for the top 20 election stories in the United
States in 2016, by authenticity (in millions)

data

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Mainstream news

Fake news

Number of Facebook engagements in millions

Note: United States; August 2016 to Election Day (November 8, 2016); total number of shares, reactions and comments for a piece of content on Facebook

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 57.

Source: Facebook; BuzzSumo; Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism ID 665531
Fake news 29

U.S. trust in news shared by friends and family via Facebook 2016
How much do you trust news that your friends and family share on
Facebook?

data

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%
Share of respondents

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%
A lot A little Not at all Not sure

Note: United States; December 8 to 9, 2016; 18 years and older; 1,000; internet users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 58.

Source: YouGov ID 184278


Fake news 30

U.S. trust in news shared by friends and family via Facebook 2016, by gender
How much do you trust news that your friends and family share on
Facebook?

Chart Title

Male Female

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%
Share of respondents

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%
A lot A little Not at all Not sure

Note: United States; December 8 to 9, 2016; 18 years and older; 1,000; internet users

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 59.

Source: YouGov ID 653052


Fake news 31

Fake news traffic sources in the U.S. 2017


Distribution of traffic sources for fake news in the United States in 2017

data

0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0%

Social 42%

Direct 30%

Search 23%

Referral 5%

Share of traffic

Note: United States; as of February 2017

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 60.

Source: Visual Capitalist; Gallup; Edelman; Alexa ID 672275


Fake news 32

Perceived sources of fake news in the U.S. 2017


Most likely sources of fake news stories in the United States as of
January 2017

data

0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0%

Facebook 58%

Internet News Sites 51%

Twitter 49%

Saturday Night Live 39%

Fox News 24%

Radio Talk Shows 24%

The Daily Show 24%

CNN 24%

MSNBC 17%

The New York Times 17%

Good Morning America (ABC) 15%

CBS This Morning (CBS) 14%

The Today Show (NBC) 14%

USA Today 13%

ABC World News Tonight 13%

Share of respondents who thought they'd encounter fake news stories

Note: United States; January 27, 2017; 18 years and older; 1,007

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 61.

Source: Katz Media; Vision Critical ID 697774


Fake news 33

Perceived sources of fake news in the U.S. 2017, by political affiliation


Most likely sources of fake news stories in the United States as of
January 2017, by political affiliation

Chart Title

Democrats Republicans

0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0%


53%
Facebook 62%

28%
Saturday Night Live 54%

47%
Twitter 51%

47%
Internet News Sites 51%

14%
CNN 39%

7%
The New York Times 31%

7%
MSNBC 30%

17%
The Daily Show 30%

8%
Good Morning America (ABC) 27%

8%
The Today Show (NBC) 26%

6%
NBC Nightly News 25%

4%
CBS Evening News 24%

5%
ABC World News Tonight 24%

6%
CBS This Morning (CBS) 24%
Share of respondents who thought they'd encounter fake news stories

Note: United States; January 27, 2017; 18 years and older; 1,007

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 62.

Source: Katz Media; Vision Critical ID 697793


Fake news 34

Effect of fake news on online news media worldwide 2016


Will worries over the distribution of fake/inaccurate news weaken or
strengthen the position of news media online?

data

0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0%

Strengthen

Weaken

No difference

Don't know

Share of respondents

Note: Worldwide; December 2016; 18 years and older; 143 Respondents; Editors, CEOs, and digital leaders

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 63.

Source: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism ID 665567


Fake news 35

Ability to recognize fake news in the U.S. 2017


How confident are you that you can tell real news from fake news?

data

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%
Share of respondents

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%
Very confident Somewhat confident Not too confident Not at all confident

Note: United States; August 4 to October 2, 2017; 18 years and older; 19,196

Further information regarding this statistic can be found on page 64.

Source: Knight Foundation; Gallup ID 657090


Social media and politics in the United States

References
References 37

Twitter: world leaders with the most Twitter followers 2017


World leaders with the most Twitter followers as of May 2017

Source and methodology information Notes:


*A total of the Pope's nine language accounts
Source Twiplomacy; Burson-Marsteller

Conducted by Burson-Marsteller

Survey period May 22, 2017

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Twiplomacy

Publication date May 2017

Original source Twiplomacy Study 2017

Website URL visit the website


References 38

Twitter: world leaders with the most mutual connections 2017


World leaders and foreign ministries with the most mutual Twitter
connections as of May 2017

Source and methodology information Notes:


The source identified 856 Twitter accounts of heads of state and government,
foreign ministers, and their institutions in 178 countries worldwide. The study
Source Twiplomacy analyzes each leader`s Twitter profiles, tweet history and their connections
with each other.

Conducted by Twiplomacy

Survey period May 22, 2017

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Twiplomacy

Publication date May 2017

Original source Twiplomacy Study 2017

Website URL visit the website


References 39

Twitter: world leaders with highest reply rates 2017


Most conversational world leaders having highest reply rates on Twitter
as of May 2017

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Twiplomacy

Conducted by Twiplomacy

Survey period May 2017

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Twiplomacy

Publication date May 2017

Original source Twiplomacy Study 2017

Website URL visit the website


References 40

U.S. adults typical social media posts 2016


Typical social media posts of adults in the United States as of June 2016

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Harris Poll

Conducted by Harris Poll

Survey period June 7 to 9, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 2,034

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Harris Poll

Publication date July 2016

Original source The Harris Poll #52, page 29

Website URL visit the website


References 41

U.S. Facebook users with similar political beliefs 2016


Do most of your Facebook friends have similar political beliefs to you?

Source and methodology information Notes:


Question: Do most of your Facebook friends have similar political beliefs to
you?
Source Pew Research Center

Conducted by Pew Research Center

Survey period July 12 to August 8, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 3,163

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics Facebook users

Published by Pew Research Center

Publication date October 2016

Original source The Political Environment on Social Media, page 32

Website URL visit the website


References 42

U.S. social media user online political discussion frequency 2016


Frequency of of social media users in the United States commenting,
posting, or discussing government and politics with others on social
media as of August 2016
Source and methodology information Notes:
Question: How often do you comment, post, or discuss government and
politics with others on social media?
Source Pew Research Center

Conducted by Pew Research Center

Survey period July 12 to August 8, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 4,579

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics social media users

Published by Pew Research Center

Publication date October 2016

Original source The Political Environment on Social Media, page 29

Website URL visit the website


References 43

U.S. social media users opinions on social media posts on politics 2016
View of social media users in the United States on seeing social media
posts and discussions about politics and the 2016 election as of August
2016
Source and methodology information Notes:
View of social media users in the United States on seeing social media posts
and discussions about politics and the 2016 election as of August 2016
Source Pew Research Center

Conducted by Pew Research Center

Survey period July 12 to August 8, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 3,571

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics social media users

Published by Pew Research Center

Publication date October 2016

Original source The Political Environment on Social Media, page 32

Website URL visit the website


References 44

U.S. social media users opinions on online discussions on politics 2016


Opinions of social media users in the United States on social media
discussions regarding politics as of August 2016

Source and methodology information Notes:


Question: How well do you think the following statements describe social
media?
Source Pew Research Center

Conducted by Pew Research Center

Survey period July 12 to August 8, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 3,571

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics Social media users

Published by Pew Research Center

Publication date October 2016

Original source The Political Environment on Social Media, page 35

Website URL visit the website


References 45

Social media: influence on political opinions of U.S. social media users 2016
Share of social media users in the United States who have modified their
views about a political or social issue because of something they saw on
social media as of August 2016
Source and methodology information Notes:
Question: Have you ever modified your views about a political or social issue
because of something you saw on social media?
Source Pew Research Center

Conducted by Pew Research Center

Survey period July 12 to August 8, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 3,571

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics social media users

Published by Pew Research Center

Publication date October 2016

Original source The Political Environment on Social Media, page 35

Website URL visit the website


References 46

Social media: influence on political candidate views of U.S. social media users 2016
This election season, have you modified your views about a particular
political candidate because of something you saw on social media?

Source and methodology information Notes:


View of social media users in the United States on seeing social media posts
and discussions about politics and the 2016 election as of August 2016
Source Pew Research Center

Conducted by Pew Research Center

Survey period July 12 to August 8, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 3,571

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics social media users

Published by Pew Research Center

Publication date October 2016

Original source The Political Environment on Social Media, page 36

Website URL visit the website


References 47

Facebook user engagement of leading English-language newspapers 2017


Biggest English-language newspapers on Facebook in January 2017,
ranked by total Facebook interactions (in millions)

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source NewsWhip

Conducted by NewsWhip

Survey period January 2017

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics likes, comments, shares and reactions on artiles


published during January 2017

Published by NewsWhip

Publication date March 2017

Original source newswhip.com

Website URL visit the website


References 48

Facebook user engagement of leading publishers 2017


Biggest publishers on Facebook in September 2017, ranked by total
Facebook interactions (in millions)

Source and methodology information Notes:


Likes, comments, shares and reactions on articles published during
September 2017
Source NewsWhip

Conducted by NewsWhip

Survey period September 2017

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics English-language publications only

Published by NewsWhip

Publication date October 2017

Original source newswhip.com

Website URL visit the website


References 49

Global public broadcaster social media audience 2016


Budget and social media performance of public international
broadcasters as of September 2016

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Munich Security Conference; Hertie School of
Governance

Conducted by Hertie School of Governance

Survey period September 2016

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Munich Security Conference

Publication date February 2017

Original source Munich Security Report 2017, page 43

Website URL visit the website


References 50

U.S. Presidential Inauguration Facebook user engagement 2017, by publisher


Biggest Facebook publishers in U.S. Presidential Inauguration in 2017,
ranked by total Facebook interactions

Source and methodology information Notes:


Facebook engagement was based on links shares, reactions, likes, or
comments
Source NewsWhip

Conducted by NewsWhip

Survey period January 18th to 23rd, 2017

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics based on Facebook engagements to publishers'


domains for content containing keywords around the
U.S. presidential inauguration

Published by NewsWhip

Publication date January 2017

Original source newswhip.com

Website URL visit the website


References 51

U.S. presidential election 2016: Twitter voice distribution Trump-Clinton debates


Distribution of Twitter conversation surrounding the 2016 U.S.
presidential debates between Clinton and Trump as of October 19, 2016

Source and methodology information Notes:


Region is presumed.
Source Adweek; Twitter

Conducted by Twitter

Survey period September 26, 2016, October 10, 2016, and October
19, 2016

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Adweek

Publication date October 2016

Original source adweek.com

Website URL visit the website


References 52

U.S. presidential election 2016: Facebook voice distribution Trump-Clinton debates


Distribution of Facebook conversation surrounding the 2016 U.S.
presidential debates between Clinton and Trump as of October 19, 2016

Source and methodology information Notes:


Region is presumed.
Source Adweek; Facebook; CNET

Conducted by Facebook

Survey period September 26, 2016, October 10 and 19, 2016

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Adweek; CNET

Publication date October 2016

Original source cnet.com

Website URL visit the website


References 53

U.S. presidential election 2016: social media buzz Trump-Clinton debates


Combined Twitter and Facebook interactions generated by the 2016 U.S.
presidential debates between Clinton and Trump as of October 19, 2016
(in millions)
Source and methodology information Notes:
n.a.
Source Media Life Magazine; Nielsen

Conducted by Nielsen

Survey period September 26, 2016, October 4, October 10, and


October 19 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Media Life Magazine

Publication date October 2016

Original source adweek.com

Website URL visit the website


References 54

Use of pro-Trump Twitter bots during key moments of U.S. presidential campaign 2016
Number of automated pro-Trump tweets for every automated pro-Clinton
tweet around select key periods of the U.S. presidential election
campaign in 2016
Source and methodology information Notes:
n.a.
Source Munich Security Conference; Oxford Internet Institute

Conducted by Oxford Internet Institute

Survey period September to November 2016

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Munich Security Conference

Publication date February 2017

Original source Munich Security Report 2017, page 44

Website URL visit the website


References 55

Share of bot tweets during key moments of U.S. presidential campaign 2016
Share of tweets generated by highly automated accounts around select
key periods of the U.S. presidential election campaign in 2016

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Munich Security Conference; Oxford Internet Institute

Conducted by Oxford Internet Institute

Survey period September to November 2016

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Munich Security Conference

Publication date February 2017

Original source Munich Security Report 2017, page 44

Website URL visit the website


References 56

U.S. presidential campaign: mainstream and fake news Facebook engagement 2016
Facebook engagement for top 20 mainstream and fake election stories of
the the U.S. presidential election campaign in 2016, by number of actions
(in millions)
Source and methodology information Notes:
n.a.
Source Munich Security Conference; BuzzFeed (BuzzFeed
News)

Conducted by BuzzFeed (BuzzFeed News)

Survey period February to November 2016

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics shares, reactions, comments

Published by Munich Security Conference

Publication date February 2017

Original source Munich Security Report 2017, page 45

Website URL visit the website


References 57

Facebook engagement for top real and fake election stories in the U.S. 2016
Facebook engagements for the top 20 election stories in the United
States in 2016, by authenticity (in millions)

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Facebook; BuzzSumo; Reuters Institute for the Study
of Journalism

Conducted by Facebook; BuzzSumo

Survey period August 2016 to Election Day (November 8, 2016)

Region United States

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics total number of shares, reactions and comments for a


piece of content on Facebook

Published by Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism

Publication date January 2017

Original source Digital News Project 2017, page 7

Website URL visit the website


References 58

U.S. trust in news shared by friends and family via Facebook 2016
How much do you trust news that your friends and family share on
Facebook?

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source YouGov

Conducted by YouGov

Survey period December 8 to 9, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 1,000

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics internet users

Published by YouGov

Publication date December 2016

Original source YouGov Fake News Survey, page 8

Website URL visit the website


References 59

U.S. trust in news shared by friends and family via Facebook 2016, by gender
How much do you trust news that your friends and family share on
Facebook?

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source YouGov

Conducted by YouGov

Survey period December 8 to 9, 2016

Region United States

Number of respondents 1,000

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics internet users

Published by YouGov

Publication date December 2016

Original source YouGov Fake News Survey, page 8

Website URL visit the website


References 60

Fake news traffic sources in the U.S. 2017


Distribution of traffic sources for fake news in the United States in 2017

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Visual Capitalist; Gallup; Edelman; Alexa

Conducted by Gallup; Edelman; Alexa

Survey period as of February 2017

Region United States

Number of respondents n.a.

Age group n.a.

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Visual Capitalist

Publication date February 2017

Original source visualcapitalist.com

Website URL visit the website


References 61

Perceived sources of fake news in the U.S. 2017


Most likely sources of fake news stories in the United States as of
January 2017

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Katz Media; Vision Critical

Conducted by Vision Critical

Survey period January 27, 2017

Region United States

Number of respondents 1,007

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Katz Media

Publication date February 2017

Original source katzmediagroup.com

Website URL visit the website


References 62

Perceived sources of fake news in the U.S. 2017, by political affiliation


Most likely sources of fake news stories in the United States as of
January 2017, by political affiliation

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Katz Media; Vision Critical

Conducted by Vision Critical

Survey period January 27, 2017

Region United States

Number of respondents 1,007

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Katz Media

Publication date February 2017

Original source katzmediagroup.com

Website URL visit the website


References 63

Effect of fake news on online news media worldwide 2016


Will worries over the distribution of fake/inaccurate news weaken or
strengthen the position of news media online?

Source and methodology information Notes:


The source provides the following information about the survey: "Over half of
the participants were from organisations with a print background (51%),
Source Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism around a third(34%) represented commercial or public service broadcasters,
one in ten came from digital born media (11%) and a further 5% from B2B
companies or news agencies. Around 25 countries were represented in the
Conducted by Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism survey including the US, Australia, Korea and Japan but the majority (90%)
came from European countries such as the UK, France, Germany, Austria,
Italy, Finland and Spain."
Survey period December 2016

Region Worldwide

Number of respondents 143

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics Editors, CEOs, and digital leaders

Published by Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism

Publication date January 2017

Original source Digital News Project 2017, page 9

Website URL visit the website


References 64

Ability to recognize fake news in the U.S. 2017


How confident are you that you can tell real news from fake news?

Source and methodology information Notes:


n.a.
Source Knight Foundation; Gallup

Conducted by Knight Foundation; Gallup

Survey period August 4 to October 2, 2017

Region United States

Number of respondents 19,196

Age group 18 years and older

Special characteristics n.a.

Published by Knight Foundation

Publication date January 2018

Original source American Views: Trust, Media and Democracy, page


22

Website URL visit the website