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# Part I - Work out

1. A steam boiler heats liquid water coming from feed water pump from 50oC to
superheated steam at 4 MPa and 400 oC. Coal which has an ultimate analysis (by mass)
as 61.40 percent C, 5.79 percent H2, 25.31 percent O2, 1.09 percent N2, 1.41 percent
S, and 5.00 percent ash (non-combustibles) is burned at atmospheric pressure (100 kpa)
with 50 percent excess air. The fuel and air enter the boiler at 25 oC and the products
of combustion leave at 227 oC. (18 Marks)

## Note: - Neglect the effect of the sulfur in the energy analysis.

Calculate:
a) Write the balanced chemical formula for the actual and stoichiometric
combustion reaction
b) The stoichiometric air fuel ratio
c) The amount of steam generated per unit of fuel mass burned
d) The Boiler Efficiency if HHV of the coal is 24 MJ/Kg
e) The Ideal wturb,out if the steam is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of
75 kPa
f) The Real wturb,out if the steam is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of
75 kPa and the isentropic efficiency 82 %
g) The volume fraction of CO2, N2, H2O, SO2
h) calculate the minimum temperature, in 0C, of the combustion products
before liquid water begins to form in the smokestack.

2. In a single-heater generative cycle the steam enters the turbine at 30 bar, 400°C and
the exhaust pressure is 0.10 bar. The feed water heater is a direct-contact type which
operates at 5 bar. Find (a) the efficiency and the steam rate of the cycle and (b) the
increase in mean temperature of heat addition, efficiency and steam rate, as compared
to the Rankine cycle (without regeneration). Neglect pump work. (6 Marks)
1

Steam Turbine

Boiler
3
2

## Feed Water Condenser

Heater
4
7 5
6

Feed Water
Pump Condensate Pump

Part II - Theory

## fuel and their significance during combustion?

2. What is the difference between Lower Heating Value and higher heating value of

a fuel?