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Anatomy of a Term Symbol

A term symbol is a unique “nickname” for an electronic state


→ →
Total orbital angular momentum: L=Σ li degeneracy gL = 2L + 1 : ML = -L,…, 0,… L
→ →
Total spin angular momentum: S = Σ si degeneracy gS = 2S + 1 : MS = -S,…, 0,… S
→ → → → →
Total angular momentum: J = L + S J = Σ ji degeneracy gJ = 2J + 1 : MJ = -J,…, 0, …, J

L: 0 1 2 3 4 5
Term: S P D F G H

Clebsch-Gordan Series: L = l1 + l2, l1 + l2 – 1, …, |l1 – l2| M L = Σ mL L = |ML|max


J = L + S, L + S – 1, …, |L – S|
Term Symbol: multiplicity
2S + 1
LJ
Orbital angular momentum total angular momentum
Example: C : p2 l1 = 1, l2 = 1 : L = 2, 1, 0 gives D, P, and S terms
s1 = ½, s2 = ½ : S = 1, 0 gives triplet and singlet states
1 1
D: L = 2, S = 0: J = 2 : D2
3 3
P: L = 1, S = 1: J = 2, 1, 0: P2, 3P1, 3P0
1 1
S: L = 0, S = 0: J = 0: S0
Term Symbols for Selected Configurations*
1 2
s S s2, p6, d10 1
S
s1 p 1 1,3
P s1 d 1 1,3
D p1d1 1,3
P,D,F
p1, p5 2
P p2, p4 1
S,D; 3P p3 2
P,D; 4S
d1, d9 2
D
d2, d8 1
S,D,G; 3P,F
d3, d7 2
P,D,D,F,G,H; 4P,F
d4, d6 1
S,S,D,D,F,G,G,I; 3P,P,D,F,F,G,H; 5D
d5 2
S,P,D,D,D,F,F,G,G,H,I; 4P,D,F,G; 6S

Be B C N O F

Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
2 2
S½ 1S0 4 3 3 P½ 3P0 4S3/2 3P2 2P3/2 1S0
F3/2 D4 F4
7
S3 1
2 3
D3/2 F2 D½ 6
S5/2 5F5 4F9/2 S0 2S½ 1S0
6

4
F3/2 5D0 5
D4 3
D3

* J. S. Winn, Physical Chemistry, Harper Collins, 1995


Fr Ra Ac Rf/Ku

Colby College