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J.D.

TYTLER SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY PROJECT
AIM – TO FIND THE PERCENTAGE OF
GLUCOSE AND PRESENCE OF
NICKEL IN CHOCOLATES.
BY – ATISHAY JAIN
XII-C

BATCH – 2018-2019
UNDER THE SUPERVISION AND
GUIDANCE OF
DR. AZHAR ASLAM KHAN
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
CERTIFICATE
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT ATISHAY JAIN OF
CLASS XII-C OF J.D. TYTLER SCHOOL HAS
WORKED UNDER MY GUIDANCE AND
PRESENT DISSERTATION OF THE TOPIC:

“THE PERCENTAGE OF GLUCOSE AND THE


PRESENCE OF NICKEL IN CHOCOLATES”

IT IS BEING SUBMITTED FOR FULFILMENT OF


REQUIREMNT OF SENIOR SECONDARY
CERTIFICATE.

DR. AZHAR ASLAM KHAN N. ANDREW MRS. TYTLER


SUPERVISOR PRINCIPAL DIRECTOR
(DEPT. OF CHEMISTRY)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
FIRSTLY, I AM THANKFUL TO CBSE AND MY
SCHOOL FOR GIVING ME SUCH A
WONDERFUL OPPORTUNITY OF EENETRING
THE WORLD OF SCIENCE.

I GREATLY ACKNOWLEDGE THE EFFECTIVE


GUIDANCE RECEIVED FROM MY CHEMISTRY
TEACHER DR. AZHAR ASLAM KHAN WHO
HAS BEEN A GREAT SOURCE OF
INSPIRATION AND KNOWLEDGE FOR ME.

I AM ALSO THANKFUL TO OUR LAB


ASSISTANT MR. BANS BAHADUR FOR HIS
VALUABLE SUPPORT AND AID.

LAST BUT NOT LEADT I AM GREATLY


THANKFUL TO MY PARENTS FOR ALWAYS
BEING SO SUPPORTIVE AND GIVING ME
EDUCATION IN SUCH A GREAT SCHOOL.
INDEX
1) AIM
2) Apparatus Required
3) Theory
4) Classification of Carbohydrates
5) Procedure
6) Redox reaction
7) Role of Nickel
8) Conclusion
9) Bibliography
CHEMISTRY
PROJECT
AIM: PRESENCE OF NICKEL &
PERCENTAGE OF
GLUCOSE IN CHOCOLATES

SUBMITTED BY : ATISHAY JAIN


ROLL NO :
TO FIND THE
CONCENTRATION OF
GLUCOSE IN VARIOUS TYPES
OF CHOCOLATES
APPARATUS
REQUIRED
 BURETTE
 PIPETTE
 CONICAL FLASK
 BEAKER
 CLAMP STAND
 FEHLING’S SOLUTION
 CHOCOLATES
 BISCUITS
 WATER
 BUNSEN BURNER
 ELECTRIC WEIGHT BALANCE
THEORY
 THE QUALITTATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS
WITH VOLUME OF SOLUTION AND TGEIR
MEASUREMNETSS IS TERMED AS
VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS.

 VARIOUS TERMS USED IN THE PROCESS


ARE:
 TITRATION: THE PROCESS IN WHICH
SOLUTION IS ADDED FROM BURETTE IN
CONICAL FLASK TO COMPLETE THE
REACTION.

 END POINT: THE EXACT STAGE AT WHICH


THE CHEMICAL REACTION INVOLVED IN THE
TITRATION JUST COMPLETES.

 INDIACTOR: THE SUBSTANCE USED TO


INDICATE THE END POINT O THE REACTION.

 STANDARD SOLUTION: A SOLUTION OF


KNOWN STRENGTH IS KNOWN AS
STANDARD SOLUTION.
FOR M U LA TO CA LCU LAT E G LU COSE
PER CEN TAG E N CH OCOLAT ES

GLUCOSE % = Wchocolate * Volume of fehling' s used *100


Molar Mass of Glucose
CLASSIFICTAION OF
CARBOHYSRATES
 MONOSACCHARIDES
They are the simplest carbohydrates and they
cannot be hydrolysed to smaller
carbohydrates.
They are aldehydes with 2 or more hydroxyl
group.
It’s general formula is (HO-C=O)n

 DISACCHARIDES
2 monosaccharides joined together are
called as disaccharides.
The 2 monosaccharides are attached by
the glycosidic linkage.

POLYSACCHARIDES
Glucose is the simplest polysaccharide
found in plants and is one of the 3
polysaccharides that get directly absorbed
along with fructose and galactose.
Glucose is an important carbohydrate as
cells use it as the primary source of
energy and as a metabolic intermediate.
Glucose is the main product of
photosynthesis and fuels for cellular
respiration.
It exists in several molecular
structures like D-glucose referred as
dextrose is derived from
dextrorotatory glucose and L-glucose
referred as laevo is derived from laevo
rotatory glucose.
Starch and cellulose are polymers
derived from D-glucose by dehydration
reaction.
PROCEDURE
1) Take 4 washed
and clean test
tubes.

2) Mix 2mL of
Fehling’s A and
Fehling’s B in all
the test tubes.

3) Add a pinch of
each type of
chocolate taken
into each test
tube.

4) Then take
solution of the
test tube in the
water bath.

5) Observe for a
red-brown ppt.
REDOX
REACTION
A reaction in which both
oxidation and reduction takes
place simultaneously is called
redox reaction.
A titration in which reducing
agent is titrated against an
oxidizing agent or vice versa is
termed as redox reaction.

CHO-(CHOH)4-CH2OH + 2Cu


COOH-(CHOH)4-CH2OH + Cu2O
FOR KNOWN SOLUTION 5mL OF
GLUCOSE CONTAINS :
(2 X 5)/250 = 0.04g
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION = 5mL
OF PURE GLUCOSE
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION = 7mL
OF UNKNOWN
10mL OF GLUCOSE = 0.04g OF GLUCOSE
500mL OF UNKNOWN CONTAIN = 5g
PERECENTAGE OF GLUCOSE = 71%
DAIRY MILK
FOR KNOWN SOLUTION 5mL OF
GLUCOSE CONTAINS :
(2 X 5)/250 = 0.04g
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION = 5mL
OF PURE GLUCOSE
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION = 8.8mL
OF UNKNOWN
10mL OF GLUCOSE = 0.04g OF GLUCOSE
500mL OF UNKNOWN CONTAIN = 1.13g
PERECENTAGE OF GLUCOSE = 56.5%
PERK
FOR KNOWN SOLUTION 5mL OF
GLUCOSE CONTAINS :
(2 X 5)/250 = 0.04g
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION =
5mL OF PURE GLUCOSE
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION =
8mL OF UNKNOWN
10mL OF GLUCOSE = 0.04g OF
GLUCOSE
500mL OF UNKNOWN CONTAIN =
1.25g
PERECENTAGE OF GLUCOSE =
62.5%
MILKY BAR
FOR KNOWN SOLUTION 5mL OF
GLUCOSE CONTAINS :
(2 X 5)/250 = 0.04g
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION =
5mL OF PURE GLUCOSE
10mL OF FEHLING’S SOLUTION =
9.5mL OF UNKNOWN
10mL OF GLUCOSE = 0.04g OF
GLUCOSE
500mL OF UNKNOWN CONTAIN =
2.10g
PERECENTAGE OF GLUCOSE =
62.5%
TO CHECK THE
PRESENCE OF NICKEL
IN CHOCOLATES

NICKEL
IN
ROLE OF NICKEL
It is added in the chocolates to
increase their meeting point and
to prevent it from melting at the
room temperature carrying out
careful systematic and qualitative
analysis can identify the presence
of nickel in chocolates.

TOXICITY
Excessive nickel is the pro oxidant
which alters hormones, enzymes
activities and immune functions.
The effects can change the glucose
tolerance, blood pressure and
growth rate.
FIVE STAR

EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE

To the salt
solution add
NH4Cl in excess.
Add NH4OH
solution until it
smells like NH3

Pass H2S gas. No ppt observed Ni2+ Absent


DAIRY MILK

EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE

To the salt
solution add
NH4Cl in excess.
Add NH4OH
solution until it
smells like NH3

Pass H2S gas. No ppt observed Ni2+ Absent


PERK

EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE

To the salt
solution add
NH4Cl in excess.
Add NH4OH
solution until it
smells like NH3

Pass H2S gas. No ppt observed Ni2+ Absent


MILKY BAR

EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE

To the salt
solution add
NH4Cl in excess.
Add NH4OH
solution until it
smells like NH3

Pass H2S gas. No ppt observed Ni2+ Absent


CONCLUSION
PERCENTAGE OF GLUCOSE IN
FOLLOWING CHOCOLATES:

 Dairy Milk – 56.5%


 Five Star – 71%
 Milky Bar – 63.5%
 Perk – 62.5%

PRESENCE OF NICKEL IN THE


FOLLOWING CHOCOLATES

 Diary Milk – Absent


 Five Star – Absent
 Milky Bar – Absent
 Perk – Absent
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Wikipedia
2) Google
3) NCERT Chemistry : Part II