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Annex 2 : Table of Transformations from direct into reported speech Annex 2 : Table of Transformations from direct into reported

ed speech
1. Pronouns 1. Pronouns
Direct Reported Speech Direct Reported Speech Direct Reported Speech Direct Reported Speech
Speech Speech Speech Speech
Personal Pronouns Subject : Personal Pronouns Object : Personal Pronouns Subject : Personal Pronouns Object :

I He/ She Me Him/ Her I He/ She Me Him/ Her


We They Us Them We They Us Them
You sing He/ She/ I You sing Him/ Her/ Me You sing He/ She/ I You sing Him/ Her/ Me
You plu They/ We You plu Them/ Us You plu They/ We You plu Them/ Us
He He Him Him He He Him Him
She She Her Her She She Her Her
They They Them Them They They Them Them
It It It It It It It It

Possessive Pronouns Object : Possessive Pronouns Subject : Possessive Pronouns Subject : Possessive Pronouns Object :

My His/ Her Mine His/ Hers My His/ Her Mine His/ Hers
Our Their Ours Theirs Our Their Ours Theirs
Your sing His/ Her/ My Yours sing His/ Hers/ Mine Your sing His/ Her/ My Yours sing His/ Hers/ Mine
Your plu Their/ Our Yours plu Theirs/ Ours Your plu Their/ Our Yours plu Theirs/ Ours
His His Theirs Theirs His His Theirs Theirs
Her Her His His Her Her His His
Their Their Hers Hers Their Their Hers Hers
Its Its Its Its Its Its Its Its

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2. Verb Tenses 2. Verb Tenses
Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech

Simple Present: Past Simple: Simple Present: Past Simple:


Sonia said: “I want to go home.” Sonia said (that) she wanted to go Sonia said: “I want to go home.” Sonia said (that) she wanted to go
home. home.
Present Continuous: Past Continuous: Present Continuous: Past Continuous:
Tony told me: “I am writing my Tony told me (that) he was writing Tony told me: “I am writing my Tony told me (that) he was writing
lesson.” his lesson. lesson.” his lesson.
Present Perfect: Past Perfect Present Perfect: Past Perfect
Eva stated: “I have bought a new Eva stated (that) she had bought a Eva stated: “I have bought a new Eva stated (that) she had bought a
bag.” new bag. bag.” new bag.

Past Simple : Past Perfect: Past Simple : Past Perfect:


Mom announced: “I Prepared Mom announced (that) she had Mom announced: “I Prepared Mom announced (that) she had
dinner.” prepared dinner. dinner.” prepared dinner.
Past continuous: Past Perfect Continuous: Past continuous: Past Perfect Continuous:
Billy said: “I was watching Billy said (that) he had been Billy said: “I was watching Billy said (that) he had been
cartoon.” watching cartoons.” cartoon.” watching cartoons.”

Past Perfect: Past Perfect: Past Perfect: Past Perfect:


The president declared: “we had The president declared (that) they The president declared: “we had The president declared (that) they
fought terrorism.” had fought terrorism. fought terrorism.” had fought terrorism.

Note: When the reporting verb is in the present/ future, the verb tenses inside Note: When the reporting verb is in the present/ future, the verb tenses inside
the quotation marks “ ” remain the same. (there is no change in the tenses) the quotation marks “ ” remain the same. (there is no change in the tenses)
Example: Edward says: “I speak three languages.” Example: Edward says: “I speak three languages.”
 Edward says (that) he speaks three languages.  Edward says (that) he speaks three languages.
spoke spoke
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3. Reporting Modals 3. Reporting Modals
Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech

Can: Could: Can: Could:


Mike stated: “I can swim.” Mike stated that he could swim. Mike stated: “I can swim.” Mike stated that he could swim.

Will/ (Future): Would: Will/ (Future): Would:


Tim said: “The airplane will leave Tim said that the airplane would Tim said: “The airplane will leave Tim said that the airplane would
soon.” leave soon. soon.” leave soon.

May: Might May: Might


The journalist said: “it may rain.” The journalist said that it might The journalist said: “it may rain.” The journalist said that it might
rain. rain.
Have to/ Must : Had to: Have to/ Must : Had to:
The teacher said: “You must write The teacher said that we/ I had to The teacher said: “You must write The teacher said that we/ I had to
with the blue pens.” write with the blue pens. with the blue pens.” write with the blue pens.

Shall: Should: Shall: Should:


He asked me: “what time shall I He asked me what time he should He asked me: “what time shall I He asked me what time he should
come?” come. come?” come.

 Modals which remain the same (No change):  Modals which remain the same (No change):
Could – Should – Ought to – would – might Could – Should – Ought to – would – might
4. Change in Adverbs of Time/ Place/ 4. Change in Adverbs of Time/ Place/
Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech

Now: Then/ at the moment: Now: Then/ at the moment:


The nurse told the patient: “The The nurse told the patient that the The nurse told the patient: “The The nurse told the patient that the
service is not available now.” service was not available then. service is not available now.” service was not available then.

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4. Change in Adverbs of Time/ Place/ 4. Change in Adverbs of Time/ Place/
Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech

Yesterday: The day before: Yesterday: The day before:


Mike said: “Yesterday, I visited my Mike said that the day before he had Mike said: “Yesterday, I visited my Mike said that the day before he had
uncle.” visited his uncle. uncle.” visited his uncle.

…days ago: …days before: …days ago: …days before:


Julia told Sara: “20 days ago, I Julia told Sara that 20 days ago, she Julia told Sara: “20 days ago, I Julia told Sara that 20 days ago, she
celebrated my birthday.” had celebrated her birthday. celebrated my birthday.” had celebrated her birthday.

Last week : The week before: Last week : The week before:
Andrew said: “Sam bought a new Andrew said that Sam had bought a Andrew said: “Sam bought a new Andrew said that Sam had bought a
smartphone last week.” new smartphone the week before. smartphone last week.” new smartphone the week before.

Next year: The following year: Next year: The following year:
Bill Gates declared: “Microsoft will Bill Gates declared that Microsoft Bill Gates declared: “Microsoft will Bill Gates declared that Microsoft
release a new Windows next year.” would release a new Windows the release a new Windows next year.” would release a new Windows the
following year. following year.
Tomorrow: The next day/ The following day Tomorrow: The next day/ The following day
The teacher told his pupils: The teacher told his pupils that the The teacher told his pupils: The teacher told his pupils that the
“tomorrow, I will be absent.” following day, he would be absent. “tomorrow, I will be absent.” following day, he would be absent.

Here: There: Here: There:


Smith said: “I like to stay here.” Smith said that he liked to stay Smith said: “I like to stay here.” Smith said that he liked to stay
there. there.

This: That: This: That:


Joana stated: “I choose this bag.” Joana stated that she chose that bag. Joana stated: “I choose this bag.” Joana stated that she chose that bag.

These: Those: These: Those:


He said: “These pens are He said that those pens were He said: “These pens are He said that those pens were
expensive.” expensive. expensive.” expensive.

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5. Reporting Questions/ Orders/ Requests 5. Reporting Questions/ Orders/ Requests
Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech

1. Wh Questions: 1. Wh Questions: 2. Wh Questions: 2. Wh Questions:

Wh (1) + Aux( 2) + Subject (3) + Verb(4) Wh (1).. + Subject (3) + Verb (4) Wh (1) + Aux( 2) + Subject (3) + Verb(4) Wh (1).. + Subject (3) + Verb (4)

 What:  What:  What:  What:


The seller asked me: “What (1) do (2) The Seller asked me what (1) I (3) The seller asked me: “What (1) do (2) The Seller asked me what (1) I (3)

you (3) want (4) to buy?” wanted (4) to buy . you (3) want (4) to buy?” wanted (4) to buy .

 Where:  Where:  Where:  Where:


The teacher questioned: “where are The teacher asked us where our The teacher questioned: “where are The teacher asked us where our
your copybooks?” copybooks were. your copybooks?” copybooks were.

 When  When:  When  When:


The passenger asked the driver: The passenger asked the driver The passenger asked the driver: The passenger asked the driver
“When will the bus take off? when the bus would take off. “When will the bus take off? when the bus would take off.

 How:  How:  How:  How:

John asked Chris: “How did you find John asked Chris how he had found John asked Chris: “How did you find John asked Chris how he had found
my number? his number. my number? his number.

 Which:  Which:  Which:  Which:

The mother asked her child: “Which The mother asked her child which The mother asked her child: “Which The mother asked her child which
colour do you prefer?” colour he/she preferred. colour do you prefer?” colour he/she preferred.

 Why:  Why:  Why:  Why:

The doctor asked him: “Why didn’t The doctor asked him why he had The doctor asked him: “Why didn’t The doctor asked him why he had
you call the police?” not called the police. you call the police?” not called the police.

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5. 2 Reporting Yes/ No Questions: 5. 2 Reporting Yes/ No Questions:

Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech

1. He asked me: “do you speak 1. He asked me if/ whether I spoke 1. He asked me: “do you speak 1. He asked me if/ whether I spoke
English?” English. English?” English.

2. The receptionist asked her: “Are 2. The receptionist asked her if/ 2. The receptionist asked her: “Are 2. The receptionist asked her if/
you British or American?” whether she was British or you British or American?” whether she was British or
American. American.

3. Jeff asked: “Is it raining?” 3. Jeff asked if/ whether it was 3. Jeff asked: “Is it raining?” 3. Jeff asked if/ whether it was
raining. raining.

4. He asked me: “Can you play on 4. He asked me if/ whether I could 4. He asked me: “Can you play on 4. He asked me if/ whether I could
the piano?” play on the piano. the piano?” play on the piano.

5. 3 Reporting Orders/ Requests: 5. 3 Reporting Orders/ Requests:


Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech Direct Speech Indirect (Reported) Speech

1. The doctor told me: “Stop 1. The doctor advised me to stop 1. The doctor told me: “Stop 1. The doctor advised me to stop
smoking!” smoking. smoking!” smoking.

2. The policeman said to the driver: 2. The policeman ordered the 2. The policeman said to the driver: 2. The policeman ordered the
“Get out of the car!” driver to get out of the car. “Get out of the car!” driver to get out of the car.

3. The teacher shouted at the pupils: 3. The teacher ordered the pupils 3. The teacher shouted at the pupils: 3. The teacher ordered the pupils
“Stop talking!” to stop talking. “Stop talking!” to stop talking.

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