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# If the effective length of a column is twice the actual length, then the column is ________

## a. fixed at both the ends

b. hinged at both the ends
c. fixed at one end and free at the other end
d. fixed at one end and hinged at the other end

## ANSWER: fixed at one end and free at the other end

What is the safe load acting on a long column of 2 m having diameter of 40 mm. The column
is fixed at both the ends and modulus of elasticity is 2 x 105 N/mm2? (F.O.S = 2)

a. 120 kN
b. 124 kN
c. 130 kN
d. 150 kN

## Rankine-Gordon's empirical formula is applicable for _____

a. long column
b. short column
c. both a. and b.
d. none of the above

## (a) Length of column to least radius of gyration

(b) Moment of inertia to area of cross-section

## 1. for short columns

2. for long columns
3. if slenderness ratio is greater than √(π2 E / σc)
4. if crushing stress < buckling stress
5. if crushing stress ≥ buckling stress

a. 1, 2 and 3
b. 2, 3 and 5
c. 3 and 4
d. all of the above

(a) >120
(b) <30
(c) >30
(d) None
(Ans: a)

## A steel column is a short column when the slenderness ratio is

(a) >120
(b) <30
(c) >30
(d) None
(Ans: b)

The ratio of Euler's buckling loads of columns with the same parameters

having (i) both ends fixed, and (ii) both ends hinged is:

## (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8

A structural member subjected to an axial compressive force is called

## (a) Beam (b) Column (c) Frame (d) Strut

Ans. (d) A machine part subjected to an axial compressive force is called a strut. A strut may

## be horizontal, inclined or even vertical. But a vertical strut is known as a column,

pillar or stanchion

## Match List-I (End conditions of columns) with List-II (Equivalent length in

terms of length of hinged-hinged column) and select the correct answer using

List-I List-II

## D. Both ends fixed 4. L/2

Code: A B C D A B C D

(a) 1 3 4 2 (b) 1 3 2 4

(c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 3 1 4 2

IES-8. Ans. (b

## (a) Column with both hinged ends

(b) Column with one end fixed and other end free

## (c) Column with both ends fixed

(d) Column with one end fixed and other hinged