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If the effective length of a column is twice the actual length, then the column is ________

a. fixed at both the ends


b. hinged at both the ends
c. fixed at one end and free at the other end
d. fixed at one end and hinged at the other end
Answer Explanation

ANSWER: fixed at one end and free at the other end

What is the safe load acting on a long column of 2 m having diameter of 40 mm. The column
is fixed at both the ends and modulus of elasticity is 2 x 105 N/mm2? (F.O.S = 2)

a. 120 kN
b. 124 kN
c. 130 kN
d. 150 kN
Answer Explanation

ANSWER: 124 kN

Rankine-Gordon's empirical formula is applicable for _____

a. long column
b. short column
c. both a. and b.
d. none of the above
Answer Explanation

ANSWER: both a. and b.

A column whose slenderness ratio is greater than 120 is known as

(a) Short column

(b) Long column

(c) Medium column

(d) Composite column

The slenderness ratio is the ratio of

(a) Length of column to least radius of gyration


(b) Moment of inertia to area of cross-section

(c) Area of cross-section to moment of inertia

(d) Least radius of gyration to length of the column

Euler's formula is applicable only _________

1. for short columns


2. for long columns
3. if slenderness ratio is greater than √(π2 E / σc)
4. if crushing stress < buckling stress
5. if crushing stress ≥ buckling stress

a. 1, 2 and 3
b. 2, 3 and 5
c. 3 and 4
d. all of the above
Answer Explanation

ANSWER: 2, 3 and 5

A steel column is a long column when the slenderness ratio is


(a) >120
(b) <30
(c) >30
(d) None
(Ans: a)

A steel column is a short column when the slenderness ratio is


(a) >120
(b) <30
(c) >30
(d) None
(Ans: b)

The ratio of Euler's buckling loads of columns with the same parameters

having (i) both ends fixed, and (ii) both ends hinged is:

(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8


A structural member subjected to an axial compressive force is called

(a) Beam (b) Column (c) Frame (d) Strut

Ans. (d) A machine part subjected to an axial compressive force is called a strut. A strut may

be horizontal, inclined or even vertical. But a vertical strut is known as a column,

pillar or stanchion

Match List-I (End conditions of columns) with List-II (Equivalent length in

terms of length of hinged-hinged column) and select the correct answer using

the codes given below the Lists:

List-I List-II

A. Both ends hinged 1. L

B. One end fixed and other end free 2. L/ 2

C. One end fixed and the other pin-pointed 3. 2L

D. Both ends fixed 4. L/2

Code: A B C D A B C D

(a) 1 3 4 2 (b) 1 3 2 4

(c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 3 1 4 2

IES-8. Ans. (b

For which one of the following columns, Euler buckling load =

(a) Column with both hinged ends

(b) Column with one end fixed and other end free

(c) Column with both ends fixed


(d) Column with one end fixed and other hinged

IAS-6. Ans. (c)