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Experiment 3: Channel Effects

Elazegui, Diann Claire L.


tr = 1/𝜋𝑏𝑤 equation 1
The communication channel is the medium by
which the electronic signal is sent from one place The channel bandwidth limits the rise time and
to another. In its simplest form, a medium can be also determines the minimum pulse width. The
a pair of wires that carry voice signal from a leftover energy from the previous pulse is called
microphone to a headset, a coaxial cable which intersymbol interference. The input signal of the
is used to carry cable TV signals, or a twisted-pair channel is changing its state before the output
cable which is used in a local-area network (LAN). can catch up. The energy that is left over from
It can also be a fiber-optic cable that carry the the previous pulse provides the next pulse
message on a light wave or a free space. When another starting point that changes its final
the medium is a free space, the resulting system voltage level. The process of filtering the
is known as radio, also called as wireless. There frequency components will reduce ringing but it
are different characteristics of the channel that will make the pulse rise time increase.
can cause distortion, these are the noise
susceptibility, channel bandwidth, channel This experiment mainly focused on channel
timing variations, and channel resonance. bandwidth and channel noise. The objective of
exercise 1 is to measure the channel simulator
One characteristic that measures the bandwidth, to demonstrate how a pulsed signal
performance of the network is bandwidth. is affected by the passband of the channel, and
Transmission channels has limited bandwidth. to describe the effect of channel resonance and
The limitation arise from the transmission’s ringing.
medium limited bandwidth in order to prevent
interference from other sources. The pulse signal For any data transmission event, the received
is consists of a large number of frequency signal will consist of the transmitted signal,
components called harmonics which are located modified by the various distortions imposed by
at the multiples of the fundamental pulse the transmission system, plus additional
frequency. However, practical channels have unwanted signals that are inserted somewhere
limited bandwidth. The higher frequency between transmission and reception. This
components are eliminated that cause the shape undesired signals are referred to as noise. If the
of the pulse delivered to the receiver to vary. For noise power is much greater than the
a pulse to reach its full amplitude, the width of transmitter signal power, the receiver will not be
the pulse must be greater than the rise time, able to reconstruct the receive message. The
equation 1 shows the formula to compute the ratio of the signal power to noise power is shown
rise time. in equation 2, this is an indication of how easily
a pulse can be detected. The signal-to-noise ratio different delays and the application using the
[SNR(db)] is the standard comparison between data at the receiver site is time-sensitive.
the signal power and the noise average power, it
is an indication of how easily the pulses can be II. METHODOLOGY
In exercise 1, the M1 message signal was
SNR(db) = 10 x log (Ps/Pn) equation 2 connected to the SAMPLE 1 input and M2 was
connected to the SAMPLE 2 input in the PAM-
Exercise 2 aims to measure the signal to noise TDM block. Channel 1 was connected to the
ratio, to demonstrate the effect of noise on PAM ADDER output. The patch lead was used to
signals and on PCM signals, and to compare the connect the PAM-TDM ADDER output to
noise sensitivity of PAM and PCM signals. The CHANNEL SIMULATOR IN and the noise control
PAM sampler has four equally spaced samples of the CHANNEL SIMULATOR was turned fully
during each cycle of the sine wave. The middle of counter clockwise in order to determine
the first PAM sample occurs at about 10o and the whether the output of the CHANNEL SIMULATOR
middle of its second sample occurs at 100o. was approximately the same as the PAM-TDM
Equation 3 is used to calculate the rms voltage of transmitter output. The scope time base was set
a series of pulses with equal magnitude. to 2 us/DIV and the trigger level was adjusted
until each channel is displaying one positive-
Vrms = A(Tpw/T)1/2 equation 3 going pulse. The CM switch 8 was turned on and
off to determine the effect of the CM on the
The square of the voltage ratio to find the power CHANNEL SIMULATOR’s bandwidth. The time
ratio is the alternate form of the SNR(db) required for the output of the CHANNEL to reach
formula. The power formula shown in equation 63% of the input of the CHANNEL was measured.
4 can be expressed as rms voltage squared Also, the rise time required for the channel
divided by the resistance. Substituting it to output to change from 10% to 90% of the input
equation 2 would result to equation 5. pulse height was measured to determine if the
pulse width is longer than the rise time using
P = V2/R equation 4 equation 1. The SAMPLE HOLD 1 was connected
SNR(db) = 10 x log(Vs2/Vn2) equation 5 to FILTER 1 using a two-post connect and CH1 to
FILTER 1 output. The output of the CHANNEL
The PAM signals contains several pulses, each SIMULATOR was connected to the PAM-TDM
having their own pulse amplitude and can be receiver input using a patch lead. CM 6 was
analyzed separately and summed using the turned on and off to determine if the receiver
square root of the sum of the squares. The can recover the M1 message signal when the
formula is shown in equation 6. channel bandwidth is 6 kHz. The rise time was
also calculated using equation 1. M1 was then
PAMrms = (Vrms12 + Vrms22 + … )1/2 equation 6 connected to CODEC 1 AX, CODEC 1 DX to
Another issue to the performance which is SIMULATOR OUT to CODEC 2 DR. The pulse
related to delay is known as jitter. Jitter is a width of one PCM bit was measured. Channel 2
problem if different packets of data encounter probe was connected to the AR output of CODEC
2 with scope time base set to 1 ms/DIV to slowly turned counter clockwise to remove the
determine if the scope displaying a 1 kHz distortion. The average rms voltage of the PCM
message signal. Channel 2 probe was moved to bytes was calculated using equation 3.
CHANNEL SIMULATOR OUT with scope time base
set to 5 us/DIV. The CM 8 was turned on and off III. RESULTS
to analyze why the output of CODEC 2 distorted
when CM is enable. It was assumed that the
reason behind this is due to intersymbol
interference, CODEC 2 cannot detect pulses, and
too low.

In exercise 2, the PAM SAMPLER output was

reconstruction FILTER, and PAM SAMPLER input
to M2 message signal. The trigger source was set
to external, and the time base to 0.2 ms/DIV. The
channel 2 probe was connected to M2 with both
channel set to 1 V/DIV, time base to us/DIV,
input coupling of both channels to ground and
superimpose the traces in the center of the
display. Both channel was set to ac coupling. The
peak voltage of the M2 message signal was
measured. The pulse width and the time period
of the small PAM pulses was measured and the
duty factor was determined. The signal-to-noise
ratio (SNRdb) at the receiver’s input was
calculated using equation 2. Channel 2 probe
was connected to the output of the PAM FILTER
with 200 mV/DIV to determine if the recovered
message signal contains significant noise
distortion. M1 was connected to CODEC 1 AX,
CHANNEL SIMULATOR noise control was
adjusted fully counter clockwise. The scope was
connected from external trigger (EXT) to M1,
channel 1 to CODEC 2 DX, CH 2 to CODEC 2 AR.
The CODEC 2 AR was connected to the input of
the SPEAKER AMP to hear the audio output. The
noise control of the CHANNEL SIMULATOR was

Frenzel, L. E., Jr. (2016). Principles of Electronics

Communication Systems (4th ed.). New York:
McGraw-Hill Education.

Forouzan, B. A. (2007). Data Communications

and Networking (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-
Hill Education.

Stallings, W. (2007). Data and Computer

Communications (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey 07458: Pearson Education.

IV. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND Tomasi, W. (2004). Electronic Communication

CONCLUSION System. Pearson Education, Inc. Singapore.

It was analyzed that if the RC time constant is

high, the charge on the capacitor does not
decrease much. When the time interval between
pulses is long, however, the capacitor loses some
of its charge into the load, so the average dc
output is low. When the pulses occur rapidly, the
capacitor has little time between pulses to
discharge; the average voltage across it
therefore remains higher. The actual bandwidth
of a digital signal is infinite but many of the
components have such a small amplitude that
they can be ignored, therefore, the effective
bandwidth is finite. The capacity of the channel
increases with its bandwidth. It was also
analyzed that ringing will be reduce removing
frequency components near the resonant
frequency of the channel. It was also analyzed
that digital communication has noise immunity
because the noise amplitude must be much
higher than the signal amplitude to make a
binary 1 look 0 or vice versa. Digital transmission
uses signal regeneration process to generate a
clean output pulse.