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TCVN VIETNAM STANDARD

TCVN 4244: 2005


(Second edition)

Lifting appliances - Design, construction


and technical survey

HANOI - 2005

Forewords
TCVN 4244:2005 replaces:
- TCVN 4244:86 – Code for the safe technique of crane equipment;
- TCVN 5863: 1995 – Lifting appliances, safety requirements for installations and
using.
- TCVN 5862:1995 – Lifting appliances; Classification.
- TCVN 5864: 1995 – Lifting appliances - Wire ropes, drums, pulleys, chains and chain
wheels
TCVN 4244:2005 was prepared by Engineering Committee of TCVN/TC8 “Ships and Marine
constructions”, proposed by Directorate of Standard and Quality and approved by Ministry of
Science and Technology.

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VIETNAM STANDARD TCVN 4244 : 2005

Lifting appliances – Design, construction and technical survey

Chapter 1 – General requirement

1.1. General requirement


1.1.1. Scope
This standard is applicable for following lifting appliances:
1. Lever crane: track-mounted crane, aerial crane, crawler crane, tower crane, railroad crane
and seating crane.
2. Bridge crane and gantry crane of all types.
3. Lifting machine:
- Overhead winding machine.
- Electrical hoist, electrical winding machine.
- Manual hoist, manual winding machine
- Construction lifting machine
4. Load bearing equipments.
1.1.2.This standard is not applicable to lifting appliances installed on offshore vessels, inland
navigation vessel and other marine structures.
1.1.3.Substantial application of requirements in this standard is considered to be condition for
licensing and remaining effectiveness of granted certificates.

1.2. Normative documents


TCVN 5179:90 – Lifting machine – Requirements for safety test of hydraulic equipments.
ISO 4309:2004- Cranes – Wire rope: care, maintenance, installation, examination and discard.
ISO 2408:2004 – Steel wire rope for general purposes – Minimum requirements
ISO 148: 1983 – Charpy impact test (V-notch)
IEC 144 – A liquid bath under ambient air pressure is used to determine the effectiveness of
the seal component parts.
IEC 34-5 – Rotating electrical machines parts degree of protection (IP-codes) classification.
IEC 341 – Electrical specification – AC motors
IEC TC81 – Lightning protection.

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1.3. Definitions
1. Testing
Testing, experimenting and analyzing activity of relevant authority to evaluate safety
condition of machines, equipments, materials and agents which are strictly required to have
labor safety and hygiene as stated in Governmental regulation and standard for labor safety
and hygiene.

2. Lifting appliance
Equipments for lifting, moving and lowering load.

3. Safe working load (SWL)


Acceptable maximum load for lifting, including equipments of lifting machine such as grab,
hook, cable, beam, crane frame… for lifted goods code.

4. Static load
Self-weight of component assembly which influences considering part, excluding working
load.

5. Acceptable load for removable components, cable and chain


Allowable pulling force determined basing on testing load for removable components and
tensile load for chain and cable. It has value similar to value of maximum pulling force which
is determined when calculating lifting appliance.

6. Metal structure
Structure of crane body, machine support, crane, bridge crane and gantry crane and other
structure bearing load on lifting appliance.

7. Mechanisms
Load lifting mechanism, crane lifting mechanism, rotating mechanism and moving
mechanism of crane, including their pulley.

8. Parts
Components of lifting appliance for transferring force and actively linking with other parts to
form the whole assembly.

9. Irremovable part
Cable lug, guy wire and rod lifting cable; rod cord, terminal belt, rod belt and other irregular
parts fixedly connected to structures of lifting appliance.

10. Removable part


Pulley, crane hook, rotating knot, rigging screw, cable, chain and other parts which can be
removed from structures of lifting appliance.

11. Alarming equipment and safety protection


1. Automatic alarming equipment for indicating maximum working condition which can
cause accidents.

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2. Automatic safety protection for stopping operation of machine to avoid emergency
condition.

12. Safety brake coefficient


Ratio between static moment generated by brake and static moment on brake shaft under
calculation load.

13. Normally open brake


Type of brake only be closed when being supplied with energy.

14. Normally close brake


Type of brake only be open when being supplied with energy.

15. Control brake


Type of brake open or closed by action of crane’s controller on the brake’s control
mechanism, not depending on machine’s actuator.

16. Automatic brake


Type of brake automatically close when interrupting energy source of engine of that brake’s
mechanism.

17. Dangerous load


Type of goods of which lifting or loading can cause explosion, fire or threaten people’s
health, environment or national safety and security.

1.4. Technical file


1.4.1. Technical file for lifting appliance which is manufactured or reequipped under
technical supervision of relevant authority include:
1. General explanation; calculation table for selecting electrical equipment, hydraulic
equipment or compressing air; calculation table for strength and stability of lifting appliances
or their history.
2. General drawing of lifting appliance presented with main dimensions and parameters.
3. Operating principle diagram and main technical characteristics of electrical transmission
system, hydraulic system or compressed air system, control equipment and arrangement of
safety equipments.
4. Drawing of metal structures.
5. Drawing for installation of lifting appliance’s assembly, diagram for cabling.
6. Manufacturing procedure for special components.
7. Checking and testing procedure for load.
8. Guidelines for safe assembly and operation.
1.4.2. When using metal structures, parts, mechanisms and equipments which are
manufactured in accordance with standard and applied standard thermal treatment procedure
or other technical conditions which are approved by relevant authority, it is not required to
have individual approval.

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1.4.3. When lifting appliance is amended in replacing or repairing process, technical file for
submission should be in accordance with that change as regulated in this standard.
1.4.4. For first examination of lifting appliances manufactured by design not approved by
relevant authority and in other individual cases, content of technical file stated in 1.41 can be
lessened under agreement of relevant authority.

1.5. General requirements for engineering safety


1.5.1. Marking and labeling of manufacturer.
Lifting appliances should be sealed and labeled as follows:
1.5.1.1. Marking
Mark of acceptable lifting capacity (and boom) should be fixedly located at an observable
position and can be seen from ground.
If crane has lifting capacity changing with the room, it should be equipped with a suitable
scale indicating crane’s lifting capacity and boom.
In this case, for crane with up to and above two lifting hooks, lifting capacity of each hook
should be indicated clearly on connected pulley hook assembly. In addition, it is required to
clearly indicate acceptable lifting capacity on each hook when all lifting hooks can be used at
the same time.
1.5.1.2. Labeling
Each lifting appliance should be labeled with tag of manufacturer at suitable position with
following contents:
- Manufacturer’s name
- Year of manufacturing
- Manufacturing series of manufacturer
- Lifting capacity in kilograms (kg) and/or tons (t)
- Type of lifting machine.
1.5.1.3. Warning sign
Warning sign “No standing under lifting load” should be arranged at suitable location for easy
recognition.
Steps toward lifting appliance should be warned with: “Restricted area, only staff allowed”.
Special dangerous area should be warned with “Danger – Lifting appliance”
1.5.2. Requirements for safety of structure
1.5.2.1. Distance
1.5.2.1.1. All moving parts of lifting appliances (except for operating equipment and grabbing
equipment as well as load shoveling equipment) at the most inconvenient position and at the
most inconvenient loading condition should be far from fixed stuffs a minimum distance of
0.05m, far from barrier railings or handrail at least 0.1m and at least 0.5m from walkway.
1.5.2.1.2. Vertical minimum distance from lifting appliance to lower shared walkway (to
platform or to fixed or moving equipments of factory, excluding working or maintenance
platform or similar platform) should not be less than 1.8m, to parts of fixed or moving

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equipments with restricted walkway (furnace arch, machine’s part or lower moving lifting
appliance…) as well as to protection handrail should not be less than 0.5m.
1.5.2.1.3. Vertical minimum distance from lifting appliance to upper fixed or moving
equipment (i.e. distance between structure of pulley or handrail and factory’s beam, piping
system or lifting appliance on upper rails…) should not be less than 0.5m at maintenance
platform and surrounding area. This distance can be reduced to 0.1m for special structure part
if it does not threaten people or if there is suitable warning sign for avoiding risks.
15.2.2. Metal structure
15.2.2.1. Minimum thickness of load-bearing metal structures which have aisle so that they
can be accessed for checking or maintaining from all directions and minimum thickness of
structures in closed chambers should not be less than 4mm. Thickness of structure of box type
without aisle for checking or maintaining should not be less than 6mm.
1.5.2.2.2. Bolts and rivet in joints of load-bearing structures should have diameter not less
than 14mm. Limited thickness of built-up structure should not be less than 5 times of diameter
of bolt or rivet.
1.5.2.3. Control cabin
1.5.2.3.1. Cabin should have such a design that operator can have clear vision for all working
areas or operator will have suitable support to observe all activities.
1.5.2.3.2. Cabin should have enough space for easy performance of operator (i.e. operator can
control both when seating and standing)
There should have a protection panel on cabin’s roof to prevent objects falling into cabin.
Arrangement of cabin and control equipment should be designed for the most convenient
application.
1.5.2.3.3. Cabin’s material should be made of inflammable material while walls and roof
panel can be made of slow-burning material and cabin’s platform is covered with thermal
isolation and non-metal material.
1.5.2.3.4. For cabin with windows installed at a height less than 1m from platform and for
glazing area on cabin’s platform, it is required to have structure to protect people inside cabin
against falling out of cabin. It should also require not to cause any danger for people to wash
and clean cabin’s windows. Windows on cabin’s platform which can be broken in emergency
condition or under thermal radiation when lifting appliance works should be glazed with
suitable safety glass. Cabin’s entry and exit should be protected against random opening.
1.5.2.3.5. Cabin should be equipped with anti-glare lighting and if required, should be
equipped with ventilation system.
1.5.2.3.6. Cabin which can be influenced by thermal radiation should have thermal resistance
design and thermal radiation protection. It should also be air conditioned to ensure an
acceptable working environment condition.
1.5.2.3.7. Cabin working in environment with agents such as dust or hazardous gas or odor
threatening operator’s health should be protected against this agent’s penetration and should
be equipped with system supplying fresh air for cabin.
1.5.2.3.8. It is required to ensure that cabin have parameters meeting all requirements in terms
of hygiene and labor safety for operator, i.e. vibration (frequency, amplitude) or noise is
within acceptable limitation.

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Cabin at high location should have equipment for communicating with station on ground to
receive and report to operator information from commander for lifting up goods from ground.
1.5.2.4. Additional requirements for hanging/lifting control cabin
1.5.2.4.1. Number of people having allowance to be in cabin and maximum load of cabin
should be fixed and clearly indicated. Besides, it is required to stick clearly operation and
maintenance guidelines inside the cabin.
1.5.2.4.2 Cabin should be firmly located to prevent from dangerously rotating or shaking.
1.5.2.4.3. It is required to equip the cabin with anti-falling system or with two mechanisms for
hanging cabin provided that cabin will still be hanged if one of two hanging mechanisms is
broken or if transmission mechanism or braking system is broken down. Each hanging
mechanism should be designed with safety factor not less than 5 times of maximum working
load.
If cabin is equipped with only on anti-falling equipment and one hanging mechanism,
minimum safety factor when designing should be 8 times of maximum working load.
Transmission cable should be designed with minimum strength as for mechanism group M8.
Diameter of cable should not be less than 6mm. Outdoor transmission cable should be
galvanized steel cable.
1.5.2.4.4. When lowering speed is 1.4 times of nominal speed, cabin will be temporarily
stopped.
Cabin should have independent movement with load.
1.5.2.4.5. All control movements will be automatically stop when operator gets out of cabin.
1.5.2.4.6. Normal and emergency limit switches should be installed at highest location and
lowest location of cabin, with independent closing and operating system. Emergency limit
switches will directly interrupt main circuit and transmit alarming signal.
When cabin crushes into obstacle or when hanging mechanism is loose, movement of lifting
appliance will automatically stop. Equipments to bring lifting appliance back to work should
not be auto-restart type.
1.5.2.4.7. If moving speed of cabin is greater than 40m per minute, it is required to equip
cabin with immediate deceleration device so that dashpot will not be crushed at speed greater
than 40m/m. For speed greater than 20m/m, it is required to install energy-absorbing dashpot.
1.5.2.4.8. Cabin should be equipped with independent alarming system from power supply of
lifting appliance. It is also required to equip cabin with equipment for rescuing operator in
emergency condition, e.g. such as rope ladder or escaping equipment which should be always
available in cabin.
1.5.2.4.9. Operator should ensure that even at maximum loading height, there still be a safe
space at highest working position, equal to 0.5m from cabin’s bottom.
1.5.2.4.10. Only cabin working at its highest working position can remotely control lifting
appliance from ground.
1.5.2.5. Handrail, passage-away and platform
1.5.2.5.1. Cabin should be easily and safely accessed from any position of lifting appliance at
normal working condition. If distance from cabin’s platform to ground is less than 5m and
access to cabin is limited for some certain positions of lifting appliance, then cabin should be
equipped with suitable escape equipment (such as rope ladder)

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Access to cabin which is normally used is platform of same level with platform of cabin and
that platform should have protecting handrail. Access via cabin’s platform or roof should only
be used for limited practical space.
For direct access to cabin via staircase, platform or aisle, horizontal gap toward cabin should
not be wider than 0.15m and difference between platform height and cabin’s platform should
not be greater than 0.25m.
1.5.2.5.2. When it is not able to directly access cabin from ground surface at a certain location
of lifting appliance and when cabin’s platform is over 5m from ground surface, it is required
to equip lifting appliance with suitable passage ways. For some certain lifting appliances such
as cranes, access to cabin can be restricted at some certain locations. In that case, it is required
to have suitable equipments so that operator can leave cabin easily.
1.5.2.5.3. Aisle, staircase and platform should have safety accesses at any location of lifting
appliance. Staircase and ladder frequently used should lead to platform or aisles. For such
access, staircase is more frequently used than ladder.
1.5.2.5.4. All working locations and equipments which require frequent check and
maintenance should be equipped with safety access or any way for easy approach by mobile
working platform.
1.5.2.5.5. When mentioned above locations 2m are higher than platform and rod of crane,
they should be approached by ladder and platform. Staircase should be protected with both
handrails.
1.5.2.5.6. When installing, removing, testing, repairing and maintaining lifting appliances at
location higher 2m than platform, it is required to have suitable equipments on lifting
appliance and rod to ensure safety for people (such as handrail, balcony or safety device…)
and to allow approach to them. Pulley and moving parts at rod end should have such design
that they will not require lubrication during the time from installation to removing of lifting
appliance. Otherwise, rod should be equipped with access passage way.
1.5.2.5.7. It is able to ignore above accesses arranged on crane’s rod which can be lowed for
comprehensive check by sight or other structural parts which allow sight control.
1.5.2.5.8. Staircase, passage way and platform should have upper space not less than 1.8m.
Passage ways with width not less than 0.5m should be equipped near guided parts with
relative motion toward passage way and platform; dimension of this passage way can be
reduced to 0.4m provided that it is equipped with balcony with a height of 0.6m. Width of
aisle between fixed parts should not be less than 0.4m.
Space above passage ways which are rarely used and arranged inside structure of lifting
appliance can be minimized to 1.3m while its width can be increased to 0.7m, linearly
changing with reduction of height.
Space above platforms only used for maintenance of lifting equipments can be reduced to
1.3m.
1.5.2.5.9. Passage ways for accessing parts of lifting appliance should be equipped with
continuous balcony to prevent risk of falling from a height over 1m. Height of vacuum shield
should not be less than 0.1m. It is able to arrange entry and exit at balcony location if having
suitable method for protection against falling. As required, height of balcony should not be
less than 1m and should have foot protection and intermediate pales. Height of balcony can be
reduced to 0.8 for passage ways with upper space of 1.3m. There should be at least one
handrail along passage way.

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For passage way along wall of factory or dead partition structure, it is able to use handrail in
stead of balcony. Distance among handrail should not be greater than 1m.
1.5.2.5.10. Surface of platform should have suitable anti-slipping method. Bored holes or
cracks on platform should be limited in dimension so that they will not allow penetration of a
ball with diameter of 0.2m.
1.5.2.5.11. For passage ways near power transmission lines, these lines should be protected
against unintentional approach.
1.5.2.6. Staircase and ladder
1.5.2.6.1. Staircase and ladder should be installed at locations with height difference over than
0.5m. Step ladder should be installed on vertical surface not higher than 2m.
Ladder with height greater than 8m should have standoff at middle. For higher ladders, e.g.
for tower cranes in construction, it can arrange intermediate standoffs among which vertical
distance should not be greater than 8m. If it is limited in space, it can install continuous single
steps at standoffs along the ladder.
1.5.2.6.2. Staircase
Heeling of staircase should not over 65o and height of each step should not be over 0.25m
(0.2m for tower crane) and width of step should not be less than 0.15m.
It is able to apply following ratio:
2x height of step + 1 width of step = 0.63m
Distance among steps is even. For main staircase, distance among vertical pales of balcony
should not be less than 0.6m. For other staircase, distance among vertical pales of balcony
should be only 0.5m.
Surface of staircase step should be of anti-sliding type.
Staircase should be equipped with balcony at both sides. It is able to use only handrail when
there is a wall at one side of staircase.
1.5.2.6.3. Ladder
Length of rung between two cross rails should not be less than 0.3m; distance between rungs
should be equal to each other and not greater than 0.3m. Rungs should be at least 0.15m far
from fixed structure. Rungs should bear a force equal to 1200N at their middle without any
permanent deformation.
Hole to fit ladder in should not be less than 0.63m x 0.63m or less than hole with diameter of
0.8m.
Ladder higher than 5m should be equipped with safety jacket from the height of 2.5m.
Distance among safety jacket should not be greater than 0.9m. Safety jacket should be
connected to each other at least 3 longitudinal rods of even spaces.
In all cases, a longitudinal rod connecting safety jackets should be placed right at middle
position opposite to vertical central point of ladder.
Strength of safety jacket reinforced by vertical rod should be enough to bear a force of 1000N
distributed on the length 0.1m at any position of safety jacket without causing any
deformation.

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Ladder shoulder should be at least 1m long above the top rung, except when there is any other
suitable arrangement of handholds. For limited space, elongation of ladder shoulder of 0.8m is
acceptable.
It is not necessary to arrange safety jackets on rungs inside structure at which they can act as
safety equipments or where there is distance from 0.7m to 0.8m between ladder and opposite
side. Structural parts can be considered as safety jackets provided that they are arranged in
such a way that perpendicular distance to dangerous area is always 0.75m and inscribed circle
between ladder and vertical rung is less than 0.75m.
It is required to arrange platform floor for ladder at a first length not higher than 10m. This
value is 8m for proceeding length.
1.5.3. Mechanical equipment
1.5.3.1.Driving cable and chain
1.5.3.1.1. Cable drum should be slotted. It is regulated that each drum is only for winding one
cable layer, otherwise, it is required to have a cable-casting equipment. It is not necessary to
install cable-casting equipment for the case of 2 layer winding drum and for cable self-
guiding when winding.
If cable can be slacked or loose on winding drum during operation or due to inaccurate
winding method, it is required to install a suitable equipment for protect against this risk.
Cable winding drum should have walls at two sides except when having uncoiling protection
system.
Drum’s wall should be higher than top cable layer a space not less than 1.5 times of cable
diameter when cable is fully winded on drum (equal to 2 times for cranes in construction
industry).
1.5.3.1.2. At acceptable lowest hook position, there should be at least two cable circles on
drum in front of cable terminal lock on the drum. If cable terminal is clamped by bolts, there
should be at least 2 different clamps equipped with reliable locking equipment.
1.5.3.1.3. Cable should be protected against direct influence of reaction heat, vapor, melt
material and other harmful agents. It is required to use special cable type when operation
under harsh influence of heat and corrosive material…
1.5.3.1.4. Driving chain mechanism should be installed with equipment to ensure smooth
performance of chain on sprocket and to prevent chain from slipping out of sprocket. It should
be suitable equipment.
1.5.3.2. Group of crane hooks, pulleys and other load bearing equipments
1.5.3.2.1. It is required to install suitable equipment for preventing cable or chain from
slipping out of pulley.
1.5.3.2.2. There should be suitable protection equipment against hand clamped between cable
and pulley of hook group.
1.5.3.2.3. Pulley driving cable should be designed to be easy for accessing for maintenance.
1.5.3.2.4. There should be safety hook or special hook installed at location where there is a
risk that the hook can be slipped or burdened.
1.5.3.2.5. Load bearing equipments which can be used interchangeably among lifting
appliances such as grab, electrical magnetic, container, bucket grab and lifting beam should
be permanently marked with safety working load and their self-weight. If grab and container

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are used for transporting bulk cargo, they should be added with capacity and name of
manufacturer.
1.5.3.3. Brake
Regulation in this item is not applicable for cylindrical structures such as hydraulic jack.
1.5.3.3.1. It should install mechanical brake for driving system. For exceptional case, if
driving motion is done via self-locking mechanism, it will not need installation of brake
provided that the self-locking mechanism is ensured not to have over stress or to be displaced.
Brake system should be easy for checking and spring should be compressed type. It is
required that brake is able for adjustment and brake jaws can be replaced.
1.5.3.3.2. Rod lifting mechanism should be equipped with automatic braking system which
can maintain testing load in power cut-off condition or when driving mechanism is damaged.
Braking system should be designed in such a way that it can hold a load equal to 1.6 times of
lifting load and can remain dynamic testing load without losing brake effectiveness and
without exceeding acceptable temperature.
Brake system should be installed to form firmly mechanical connections among parts of hoist
so that it can generate braking moment and also maintain load.
Mechanical and electrical mechanism of brake system should be able to keep speed of load
lowering within acceptable speed range.
Mechanism for lifting melt material should be equipped with two independent mechanical
brakes each of which should meet stated requirements and the second brake will have
delaying time operation compared with the first brake.
In emergency condition when driving equipment is broken down, the second brake will
automatically act on cable drum with a speed not less than instant speed which is equal to 1.5
times of nominal speed of lowering load. In this case, control mechanisms of lifting appliance
will emergency stopped and activating the brake.
1.5.3.3.3. Driving system for electrical lifting appliance and hoist should be equipped with
automatic brake or brake which can operate from control position. Except when these lifting
appliances are not influenced by wind, it is required that they will work on horizontal railway
with a speed not exceeding 40m/m or on anti-friction wheels with a speed not exceeding
20m/m. For lifting appliances to transporting melt material, brake is required not depending
on speed.
Brake should be designed that lifting appliance or hoist can be stopped in a suitable time
period and be held fixedly in all operating status, under wind load or under power cut-off
condition.
Moving mechanism of lifting appliance and hoist (truck) in windy condition equipped with
manual brake should be equipped with rail clip equipment.
Automatic brake or storm protection equipment of moving mechanism should be designed
with safety coefficient not less than 1.1 times of maximum force at rest state of lifting
appliance.
1.5.3.3.4. Brake system of electrical rotating mechanism of lifting appliance should be
designed so that it can stop in a suitable period of time and keep rotating parts in all operation
state, under wind load or when power is cut off.

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1.5.3.3.5. Brake system of mechanism for changing boom of lifting appliance should be
designed that it can automatically act and hold crane rod or testing load at most
disadvantageous location when driving mechanism is broken down or when power is cut off.
Brake should have a moment of at least 1.6 times of moment caused by load and self-weight
of crane rod added with 1.0 times of moment caused by wind load in most disadvantageous
working condition (maximum wind load in working condition)
When lifting appliance does not work, design braking moment should be at least 1.1 times of
load under hook and self-weight of crane rod and moment caused by wind (greatest wind
condition when lifting appliance does not work) at most disadvantageous location of rod or at
location where appliance does not work.
1.5.4. Hydraulic equipment
1.5.4.1.Seamless steel pipe used as pressure pipe with external diameter up to 30mm: there
should be any welds on this pressure pipe except for weld at flange by bolt.
1.5.4.2.When lifting mechanism and lowering and lifting mechanism are driven by hydraulic
cylinder, automatic equipments (loading valves) should be installed right next to joints of
hydraulic pipe of cylinder to prevent load from falling down, except when the pipe is
damaged. When load is flew down due to oil leakage, it is required to install mechanical
equipment.
For other hydraulic driving mechanism, stated above motions should be stopped by automatic
braking system activated by auto-restarting mechanism.
1.5.4.3.Exceeding in maximum working pressure caused by external load on isolated
hydraulic circuit should be protected by safety valves. It is required to apply suitable
regulation or rules to prevent working pressure from exceeding to 1.6 times, even when
having pressure impulse.
1.5.4.4.Before working, hydraulic system should be cleaned. It is required to design the
system so that cleaning can be carried out easily when repairing the whole system.
1.5.4.5.Each hydraulic circuit should have at least one joint to install manometer to measure
pressure without reassembling the pipe.
1.5.4.6.Hydraulic system should be installed with exhaust valve at suitable location.
1.5.4.7.It is required to prevent over movement by suitable equipments
1.5.4.8.Solid and soft pressure pipe should be designed with safety coefficient of 4 to avoid
pressure breaking. This safety coefficient should also be applied for joints and flanges. For
immobile lifting appliance which does not have hydraulic shaking or vibration, safety
coefficient for pipe and joints is 2.5.
1.5.4.9. Hydraulic liquid used for hydraulic system should meet requirements for working
condition, technology and safety. It should be clearly stated to user and should be tested at
highest and lowest level in the tank.
1.5.4.10. It is required to prevent unintended activation of driving mechanism when power is
on again or when closing power supply of crane.
1.5.4.11. Requirements for hydraulic testing and safety should be in accordance with TCVN
5179-90.
1.5.5. Safety equipments
1.5.5.1.Equipments for limiting working motions

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1.5.5.1.1. Lifting mechanism
Working scope of electrical lifting mechanism should be restricted at acceptable highest and
lowest location of lifting load by automatic switch (emergency switch) related to distance
required for deceleration. Only control device can bring appliance back to work from
restricted location. If restricted location is reached in normal working condition, it is required
to install an auxiliary and independent restricted switch. In this case, when auxiliary switch is
interrupted, it is able to recover motion by control device but if emergency switch is already
interrupted, it is not able to recover operation of appliance.
Lifting mechanism driven by internal combustion engine and mechanical clutch without going
through electrical, hydraulic or intermediate compressed gas driving system should be
equipped with light indicator or voice alarming system instead of limit switch.
1.5.5.1.2. Moving mechanism
Electrical lifting appliance and hoist vehicle should be equipped with shoe brake, rubber
damper, spring damper or hydraulic damper or other special devices which can absorb half of
kinetic energy of moving blocks at nominal speed so that maximum deceleration in control
cabin does not exceed 5m/s2.
If it is frequently required to limit speed during normal working condition, maximum
deceleration in control cabin should not exceed 2.5m/s2.
Remote controlled lifting appliance and hoist vehicle should be equipped with limit switch
when moving speed exceeds 40m/m.
Lifting appliance of control cabin which is influenced by wind should be equipped with storm
protection equipment at rest stated of appliance.
For certain wind condition, it is required to install wind gauge and alarming device on lifting
appliance.
Moving mechanism of lifting appliance should be equipped with reaping machine to prevent
obstacles on railway.
When there are two or more lifting appliances working on the same railway, it is required to
install special equipment for crush protection.
Within operation area of lifting appliance or hoist, there should be suitable safety solution for
people such as warning sign, lamp, voice indicator… or emergency stop device.
1.5.5.1.3. Mechanism for changing boom and rotating mechanism
For mechanism for changing boom of crane, motion of rot at limited area should be restricted
by auto limit switch (emergency switch) related to distance requiring deceleration.
Only control device can reactivate the appliance at limit location.
Mechanism for changing boom of crane driven by internal combustion engine and mechanical
joints should be equipped with indicator or voice alarming system instead of limit movement
switch.
Similarly, mechanism for rotating rod with limited rotation angle should be limited by auto
emergency stop device.
1.5.5.2. Overload protection and upturning protection

14
1.5.5.2.1. Lifting appliance and vehicle hoist should be designed or added with such safety
equipment that if the wheel is derailed, damaged or the wheel axle or hub is damaged, the
maximum settlement will be limited to 3cm and upturning or collapse is avoided.
In addition, unusual force such as impact on buffering, impact and assembly will not upturn or
collapse lifting appliance and vehicle hoist.
Lifting appliances with cranes and vehicle hoist with cantilever which can be upturned when
being overloaded and lifting appliances with lifting capacity not depending on crane’s boom
should be equipped with overload protection switch. However, when lifting capacity changes
by boom, this switch should also act as an equipment for limiting load moment. Limitation
switch should be able to bring back appliance to acceptable value of load moment by
reversing direction or using control device to lower load in overloaded condition.
Lifting appliance with lifting mechanism and mechanism for changing boom driven by
internal combustion engine and mechanical joints without using electricity or hydraulic
energy or intermediate compressed gas should be equipped with alarming indicator or signal
instead of overload protection switch.
1.5.5.2.2. Lifting appliance with lifting capacity depending on radius of crane should be
equipped with chart of lifting capacity or boom which is fixedly located and can be easy for
view from control position. This chart should be presented in form of division of load
corresponding with boom.
1.5.5.3. Alarming equipment
Lifting appliance should be equipped with light and voice alarming system to inform
dangerous working status of lifting appliance: when crane starts lifting up cargo, when crane
is moving…
1.5.6. Aging of lifting appliance
Similarly to other equipments, lifting appliance is designed to used in a certain period of time.
Regulations in this standard are developed from scientific knowledge and experiences of user
as well as manufacturer to apply for different appliances.
It is required to note that regulation on aging is mainly applied for structure and mechanism,
not applied for worn-out components (cable, brake jaws, commutation brush, thermal
engine…)
Main factors causing aging of appliance are:
- Fatigue
- Corrosion
- Accidents in operation, installation and removing
- Overload
- Inadequate maintenance
It is required that user of lifting appliance should always remember importance of aging.
1.5.7. Safety requirements in installation and using
1.5.7.1. Safety requirements in installation of lifting appliance

15
1.5.7.1.1. Installation or removing of lifting appliance should be carried out as stated in
technological procedure of installation and removing of lifting appliance issued by
manufacturer or installer.
Installer should publicly inform joiners about procedure of installation, removing and safety
methods which need to be applied when installing and removing lifting appliance.
1.5.7.1.2. During installation of lifting appliance on railway, it is required to test the railway
condition. If detecting any defects exceeding allowable value, it is required to immediately
stop installation. It is only when all defects are treated then installation process is continued.
1.5.7.1.3. When installing lifting appliance, it is required to determine dangerous area and
there should be warning sign against presence of unauthorized person.
1.5.7.1.4. Overhead and outdoor installation and remove of lifting appliance should be
temporarily stopped in heavy rain, storm, and thunderstorm or wind intensity over 5.
1.5.7.1.5. People for installing and removing lifting appliance at a height over 2m should be
certified to be strong enough for steeple working condition and they should be equipped with
safety belt.
1.5.7.1.6. During installing or removing lifting appliance, it is not allowed:
- Using crane to lifting up people
- People standing under lifting load
- Load hanged at the hook when appliance stops.
- Temporarily reinforcing individual structural parts with inadequate bolts.
- Loosing cable holding structure before totally fixing structure into its location.
- Lifting up load when cable is stuck or slipped out of pulley’s groove.
- Throwing anything from height.
- Using balcony or protection equipment for supporting jack or hanging pulley.
1.5.7.1.7. When installing lifting appliance, it is required to investigate and test load bearing
capacity of location, terrain and surrounding area to safely installing equipment.
1.5.7.1.8. For special situation with limited construction space when load is moved above
transportation roads, it is required to plan safety construction solution and should be agreed by
relevant authority.
1.5.7.1.9. Installation of lifting appliance within protected area of overhead power
transmission line should be allowed by authority of that transmission station. Permission of
this installation should be enclosed with document of the application.
When lifting appliance works near power transmission line, it is required to ensure that
minimum distance from the appliance or the load to nearest power line should not be less than
following value:
1.5m for power line with voltage up to 1kV.
2m for power line with voltage up to 1-20kV;
4m for power line with voltage up to 35-110kV
5m for power line with voltage up to 150-220 kV

16
6m for power line with voltage up to 330kV.
9m for power line with voltage up to 500kV.
1.5.7.1.10. When installing lifting appliance at side of channel, hole…, it is required to ensure
a minimum distance from nearest location of lifting appliance to side of channel or hole not to
be less than values in following table:

Depth of Allowable minimum space for each type of soil, m


channel,
hole, m Gravel sand Clayed Clay loam Clay Loess soil
sand

1 1.5 1.25 1 1 1

2 3 2.4 2 1.5 2

3 4 3.6 3.25 1.75 2.5

4 5 4.4 4 3 3

5 6 5.3 4.75 3.5 3.5

If site condition does not ensure distance stated above, there should be method to protect
against settlement or landslide of channel, hole before installing lifting appliance.
1.5.7.1.11. Self-propelling cranes are not allowed to install on surface with heeling greater
than acceptable heeling of that crane and it is not allowed to install those equipments on loose
soil.
1.5.7.2. Safety requirements for using of lifting appliance
1.5.7.2.1. All lifting appliances belonging to list of equipments, appliances which apply safety
requirement issued by the Government should be checked and tested as required in this
Standard.
1.5.7.2.2. User authority is only allowed to use lifting appliance which has good condition, is
checked and tested and has valid certification. It is not allowed to use lifting appliance and
load bearing equipment which are not tested or issued certification.
1.5.7.2.3. Only people who are trained and licensed for controlling lifting appliance are
allowed to work with lifting appliance. People for tightening crane hook or generating signals
should be professional workers or skilled in other field but have been trained.
1.5.7.2.4. Worker controlling lifting appliance should know well about characteristics,
application and technical functions of each structural part of lifting appliance as well as safety
requirements during application of equipment.
1.5.7.2.5. It is only allowed to use lifting appliance with right functions and characteristics as
stated by manufacturer. Lifting appliance should not be used to lift up a load exceeding safety
working load.
1.5.7.2.6. Lifting appliance with lifting mechanism of friction switch or jaw clutch to lift up or
lower or transport people, melt metal, explosive material, hazardous agent, compressed gas
vessel or compressed liquid.

17
1.5.7.2.7. It is only allowed to use lifting appliance to transport load through factory,
residential are or people’s site when having safety method to eliminate ability of accident.
1.5.7.2.8. It is only allowed to use two or more lifting appliances to lift up one load in special
situation and should have approved safety methods. Load distributed on each lifting appliance
should not be greater than lifting capacity of that equipment. There should be chart for
arranging load, moving load and clear description of activities, requirements for dimensions,
material and technology to manufacture auxiliary equipments for hooking load. Only
experienced worker can be appointed to be responsible for controlling operation of lifting
appliance.
1.5.7.2.9. During operation of lifting appliance, it is not allowed:
- People going up and down of lifting appliance during its operation.
- People within rotating radius of crane.
- People within operation area of lifting appliance loaded by magnetic, vacuum or grab
bucket.
- Lowering, lifting up and moving load when there are people standing on load.
- Lifting up the load when it is not stable or it is only hanged at one side of grip hook.
- Lifting up the load which is buried under ground, burdened by other material or
connected by bolts or concrete with other obstacles.
- Using lifting appliance to remove burdened cable or chain.
- Moving load through window opening or balcony when not having loading platform;
- Changing direction of mechanism when it does not totally stop.
- Lifting up a load greater than allowable lifting capacity corresponding with boom and
position of auxiliary supporting strut of crane.
- Reaching out of allowable radius, dragging load.
- Both manually pulling or pushing load and using lifting appliance.
1.5.7.2.10. It is required to ensure free passage way for operator when controlling by pressing
button from ground or floor.
1.5.7.2.11. It is required to fence opening and railway during operation of lifting appliance.
1.5.7.2.12. It is prohibited that people wandering around balcony of lifting appliance during
its operation. Cleaning, lubricating and repairing of lifting appliance are only allowed when
there are methods for ensuring safety (falling protection, electrical shock protection…)
1.5.7.2.13. User authority should state and form a system for signaling communication
between person in charge of tightening load to hook and person controlling lifting appliance.
Signal used should be specifically stated and not mixed with others.
1.5.7.2.14. When load can not be seen during lifting up and lowering process, it is required to
arrange a person for signaling load’s status.
1.5.7.2.15. When lifting or moving load near construction site, equipment or obstacles, it is
required to ensure safety for construction, equipment and people in that area.
1.5.7.2.16. Outdoor lifting appliance should be stopped when wind’s speed is greater than
allowable design value.

18
1.5.7.2.17. It is not allowed to hang panel, poster, banner or slogan on lifting appliance to
increase windproof area for the appliance.
1.5.7.2.18. It is required to fasten clip or equipment against displacement of tower crane,
gantry crane or crane seating when lifting appliance stops or when wind’s speed exceeds
allowable value. It is required to have reinforcement method for above crane equipments in
storming condition.
1.5.7.2.19. It is only allowed to lower the load to stated location where there is no ability of
falling, slipping or spilling. Removing rope hanging structure or component from hook is only
allowed when that component is firmly and stably kept.
1.5.7.2.20. Before lowering load into channel, well, hole or berth…, it is required to lower
unloaded hook to lowest position for checking remained cable circles on drum. If number of
remained cable circle is up to and over 2 circles then lifting up or lowering load is allowed.
1.5.7.2.21. Lifting appliance should be stopped when:
- Detecting cracks at important positions of metal structure.
- Detecting residual deformation of metal structure.
- Detecting that brake of any mechanism is broken down.
- Detecting that hook, cable, block or drum is eroded, cracked or has other defects.
- Detecting that railway of lifting appliance is damaged or not meeting requirement.
1.5.7.2.22. When loading cargo on transportation vehicles, it is required to ensure stability of
transportation vehicle.
1.5.7.2.23. Person in charge of tightening loading hook is only allowed to approach the load
when load is lowered to a height not over 1m from platform surface where he stands.
1.5.7.2.24. Lifting appliance should be periodically maintained. Parts or components which
are damaged or eroded should be repaired or replaced.
1.5.7.2.25. It is required to have safety method when repairing or replacing parts or
components of lifting appliance.
After repairing or replacing important parts or components, it is required to survey and test
lifting appliance before bring into operation.

19
CHAPTER 2 – DESIGN

2.1. Grouping and load on structure, mechanism of lifting appliance


2.1.1. Grouping of lifting appliance and structural parts
2.1.1.1. General grouping method
When designing lifting appliance and its structural parts, it is required to consider working
condition at which lifting appliance and its structural work. To do this, grouping is carried out
as follows:
- General grouping
- Grouping individual parts of lifting appliance according to general method.
- Grouping parts of structure and mechanism of lifting appliance.
Grouping is implemented basing on:
- Total application time of considered item.
- Load under crane’s hook, spectrum load or spectrum pressure of considered item.
2.1.1.2. General grouping
2.1.1.2.1. Grouping system
Lifting appliance is grouped in general into 8 groups symbolized as A1, A2,….A8 (see
2.1.1.2.4) basing on 10 levels of application and 4 levels of spectrum load.
2.1.1.2.2. Level of application
Time of application of one lifting appliance – is number of lifting periods performed by
lifting appliance. A lifting period is the total time of proceeding movements starting from the
moment when load is lifted up and ending at the moment when lifting appliance is at ready
state for the next lifting performance.
Total time application of a lifting appliance – is the total time when lifting appliance is
expected to work, starting at the moment when lifting appliance is brought into operation and
ending at the moment when lifting appliance is dismissed.
Basing on total time application of lifting appliance, lifting appliance will be divided into ten
levels of application symbolized as U0, U1,…U9 which are determined as in Table 2.1.1.2.2

20
Table 2.1.1.2.2
Level application of lifting appliance

Symbol Total time using lifting appliance


(maximum lifting period)

U0 nmax ≤ 16000

U1 16000 < nmax ≤ 32000

U2 32000 < nmax ≤ 63000

U3 63000 < nmax ≤ 125000

U4 125000 < nmax ≤ 250000

U5 250000 < nmax ≤ 500000

U6 500000 < nmax ≤ 1000000

U7 1000000 < nmax ≤ 2000000

U8 2000000 < nmax ≤ 4000000

U9 4000000 < nmax ≤

2.1.1.2.3. Spectrum load


Spectrum load characterizes the total load which is lifted up in total time of application of a
lifting appliance (see item 2.1.1.2.2). Spectrum load is a distribution function y = f(x) where
x (0≤ x ≤ 1) reflects total application time when ratio of lifted load and minimum safety
working load generate a given y value ( 0 ≤ y ≤ 1).
For example: a spectrum load is given in Figure 2.1.1.2.3.1. – a and b

21
Figure 2.1.1.2.3.1 -a Figure 2.1.1.2.3.1 -b

Where:
ml: Loads
ml max : Safety working load
n: Number of lifting periods of which lifting load is greater than ml
nmax: Number of lifting periods determined by total time of application of lifting appliance.
Each spectrum load is characterized by a spectrum load coefficient of equipment Kp,
determined by:

For grouping, exponent d is supposed to be equal to 3.


In many application cases, function f(x) can be approximately equal to a function consisting
of specific r steps (see Figure 2.1.2.3.2) corresponding to n1, n2,…. nr lifting period, in
practice, lifting load can be considered to be constant and equal to mli in period ni of step i. If
nmax represents total application time and mlmax is maximum load among lifting loads mli, there
will be relationship as follows:

Or:

22
Figure 2.1.1.2.3.2

In term of spectrum load, a lifting appliance can be classified into four levels of spectrum load
Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 determined as in Table 2.1.1.2.3.

23
Table 2.1.1.2.3

Symbol Spectrum load coefficient of


equipment KP

Q1 KP ≤ 0,125
Q2 0,125 ≤ KP ≤ 0,250
Q3 0,250 ≤ KP ≤ 0,500
Q4 0,500 ≤ KP ≤ 1,000

2.1.1.2.4. Grouping of lifting appliance


Lifting appliance is generally grouped as in Table 2.1.1.2.4.
Table 2.1.1.2.4
Grouping of lifting appliance
Spectrum Application level
load
level U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9

A8
Q1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7
A8
Q2 A1 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8
A8
Q3 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A8
A8
Q4 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A8 A8

2.1.1.2.5. Guidelines for grouping lifting appliance


Ways to group lifting appliance are stated in Table 2.1.1.2.5.
Because lifting appliances of same type can be used in different purposes, grouping method
stated in this table is only considered to be one way of classification. Especially, it clearly
states that lifting appliance of one type can be classified into various group, then it should
base on total application time and spectrum load of one lifting appliance to determine which
group it belongs to.

24
Table 2.1.1.2.5
Guidelines for grouping lifting appliance

Group of lifting
Type and application of lifting Application condition
No. appliance (see
appliance (1)
2.1.2.4)

1 Manual operating lifting appliance A1-A2


2 Cranes for construction industry A1-A2
Cranes for installing, removing and
repairing in electrical factory,
3 mechanics factory… A2-A4
Lifting appliances for transporting
4 materials at the yard Using hooks A5
Lifting appliances for transporting Using grab or electrical
5 materials at the yard magnetic A6-A8
6 Cranes in workshops A3-A5
Moving cranes, cranes used in Using grab or electrical
7 factory's demolishment, dump magnetic A6-A8
Cranes for transporting ladles in
8 metallurgy factory A6-A8
9 Cranes in mines A8
Cranes for loading billets, opening
furnace bottom and feeding fuel for
10 metallurgical furnace A8
11 Cranes for steel mills A6-A8
Cranes for lifting, loading goods, using hooks or container lifting
12a transporting containers in harbors frame A5-A6
12b Other lifting appliances in harbors using hooks A4
Using grab or electrical
13 Cranes in harbors magnetic A6-A8
Cranes in shipyard, cranes for loading
14 machines using hooks A3-A5
15 Tower cranes for construction industry A3-A4
16 Railroad cranes A4

(1) Only some typical application examples are shown in this item for guiding purpose.
2.1.1.3. Grouping individual parts of lifting appliance in general
2.1.1.3.1. Grouping system
Individual mechanisms of lifting appliance in general are divided into 8 groups symbolized as
M1, M2….M8 (see 2.1.1.3.4) basing on 10 levels of application and 4 spectrum load levels.
2.1.1.3.2. Application level
Application time of a lifting appliance is the practical time period that equipment works.
Total application time of a lifting appliance is the total expected time from first use of
appliance to the time it is replaced by another appliance, measured in hours.
Basing on total application time, mechanisms of lifting appliance are divided into 10
application levels T0, T1…., T9 as in Table 2.1.1.3.2.

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Table 2.1.1.3.2
Application levels of lifting appliance

Symbol Total application time T


(h)

T0 T ≤ 200

T1 200 < T ≤ 400

T2 400 < T ≤ 800

T3 800 < T ≤ 1600

T4 1600 < T ≤ 3200

T5 3200 < T ≤ 6300

T6 6300 < T ≤ 12500

T7 12500 < T ≤ 25000

T8 25000 < T ≤ 50000

T9 50000 < T

2.1.1.3.3. Spectrum load


Spectrum load characterizes intensity of load on lifting appliance’s mechanism in total
application time. Spectrum load is a distribution function y = f(x) where x (0≤ x ≤ 1) reflects
total application time in which lifting appliance’s mechanism bears a minimum load equal to
y (0≤ y ≤ 1) of maximum load (see Figure 2.1.1.2.3.1)
Each spectrum load is characterized by a coefficient of mechanism Km, determined by
formula:

For grouping, exponent d is equal to 3.


In many application cases, function f(x) can be approximately equal to a function consisting
of specific r steps (see Figure 2.1.1.2.3.2) corresponding to t1, t2,…. tr time period, in practice,
lifting load S can be considered to be constant and equal to Si in time ti. If T represents total
application time and Slmax is maximum load among lifting loads S1, S2…, Sr, there will be
relationship as follows:

26
Or:

In term of spectrum load, a lifting appliance can be classified into 4 levels L1, L2, L3, L4
determined in Table 2.1.1.3.3.
Table 2.1.1.3.3
Levels of spectrum load of lifting appliance’s mechanism

Symbol Spectrum load coefficient of equipment km

L1 Km ≤ 0.125
L2 0.125 ≤ Km ≤ 0.250
L3 0.250 ≤ Km ≤ 0.500
L4 0.500 ≤ Km ≤ 1.000

2.1.1.3.4. Grouping individual parts of lifting appliance


Basing on application level and spectrum load level, individual parts of lifting appliance can
be divided into 8 groups M1, M2….M8 which are stated in Table 2.1.1.3.4.

27
Table 2.1.1.3.4
Grouping of mechanisms of lifting appliance

Application level

Load
spectrum
level T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9

L1 M1 M1 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7

L2 M1 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M8

L3 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M8 M8

L4 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M8 M8 M8

2.1.1.3.5. Guidelines for grouping individual parts of lifting appliance


Grouping of individual parts of lifting appliance is shown in Table 2.1.1.3.5.
Because lifting appliances of same type can be used in different purposes, grouping method
stated in this table is only considered to be one way of classification. Especially, it clearly
states that lifting appliance of one type can be classified into various group, then to determine
which group it belongs to (see 2.1.1.3.4), it is required to determine that mechanism belongs
to which application level (see 2.1.1.3.2) and which spectrum load (see 2.1.1.3.3)

28
TABLE 2.1.1.3.5
Guidelines for grouping mechanisms of lifting appliance

Application Grouping assemblies


Type and application of
No. condition
lifting appliance
(1) Moving
Changing Moving lifting
Lifting Rotating boom truck appliance
Manual operating lifting
1 appliance M1 - - M1 M1
Cranes for construction
2 industry M2-M3 M2-M3 M1-M2 M1-M2 M2-M3
Cranes for installing,
removing and repairing
in electrical factory,
3 mechanics factory… M2-M3 - - M2 M2
Lifting appliances for
transporting materials at
4 the yard Using hooks M5-M6 M4 - M4-M5 M5-M6
Lifting appliances for
transporting materials at Using grab or
5 the yard electrical magnetic M7-M8 M6 - M6-M7 M7-M8
6 Cranes in workshops M6 M4 - M4 M5-M6
Moving cranes, cranes
used in factory's Using grab or
7 demolishment, dump electrical magnetic M8 M6 - M6-M7 M7-M8
Cranes for transporting
ladles in metallurgy
8 factory M7-M8 - - M4-M5 M6-M7
9 Cranes in mines M8 M6 - M7 M8
Cranes for loading
billets, opening furnace
bottom and feeding fuel
10 for metallurgical furnace M8 M6 - M7 M8
11 Cranes for steel mills M8 - - M5 M6
Cranes for lifting,
loading goods, using hooks or
transporting containers container lifting
12a in harbors frame M6-M7 M5-M6 M3-M4 M6-M7 M4-M5
Other lifting appliances
12b in harbors using hooks M4-M5 M4-M5 - M4-M5 M4-M5
Using grab or
13 Cranes in harbors electrical magnetic M8 M5-M6 M3-M4 M7-M8 M4-M5
Cranes in shipyard,
cranes for loading
14 machines using hooks M5-M6 M4-M5 M4-M5 M4-M5 M5-M6
Tower cranes for
15 construction industry M4 M5 M4 M3 M3
16 Railroad cranes M3-M4 M2-M3 M2-M3 - -

(1) Only some typical application examples are shown in this item for guiding purpose.
2.1.1.4. Grouping parts
2.1.1.4.1. Grouping system

29
Parts of structure and mechanism of lifting appliance are divided into 8 groups symbolized as
E1, E2…., E8 basing on 11 application levels and 4 pressure load levels.
2.1.1.4.2. Application level
Application time of one part: is stress period bearing by that part.
Stress period: is a combination of sequential pressures starting when surveying pressure
exceeds pressure σm determined in Figure 2.1.1.4.3 and ending when this pressure going to
exceed σm once again at the same direction. Therefore, Figure 2.1.1.4.3 reflects directions of
stress σ in an application time equal to 5 periods of pressure.
Total application time of a part is total estimated time in which that part can work to the time
it is replaced by another.
For structural parts, number of stress periods proportions with lifting periods of equipment
with a constant factor. Some parts can bear various stress periods in a time of a lifting period
depending on location of that part in structure. Therefore, ratio coefficient of this part can be
different with ratio coefficient of other part. Once knowing this coefficient, total application
time of this part will be taken basing on total application time used for determining
application level of all lifting appliance.
For structures of lifting appliance, total application time is based on total time using the whole
structure to which the considered appliance belongs, taking into account rotating speed of that
part and/or influence on its operation.
On the basic of total application time, parts are classified into 11 application levels
symbolized as B0, B1,…, B10 and determined in Table 2.1.1.4.2.
Table 2.1.1.4.2
Application levels of parts
Symbol Total application time T
(Period of stress, n)
B0 n ≤ 16.000
B1 16.000 < n ≤ 32.000
B2 32.000 < n ≤ 63.000
B3 63.000 < n ≤ 125.000
B4 125.000 < n ≤ 250.000
B5 250.000 < n ≤ 500.000
B6 500.000 < n ≤ 1.000.000
B7 1.000.000 < n ≤ 2.000.000
B8 2.000.000 < n ≤ 4.000.000
B9 4.000.000 < n ≤ 8.000.000
B10 8000.000 < n
2.1.1.4.3. Stress spectrum
Stress spectrum characterizes intensity of load on lifting appliance’s mechanism in total
application time. Stress spectrum is a distribution function y = f(x) where x (0≤ x ≤ 1) reflects
total application time (see 2.1.1.4.2) in which lifting appliance’s mechanism bears a minimum
load equal to y (0≤ y ≤ 1) of maximum load.

30
Each stress spectrum is characterized by a coefficient of mechanism Ksp, determined by
formula:

Where exponent c depends on characteristics of material, shapes and dimensions of


considered part, surface roughness and depreciation of the part (see 2.3.1)
In many application cases, function f(x) can be approximately equal to a function consisting
of specific r steps corresponding to n1, n2,….nr stress period; stress σ can be considered to be
constant and equal to σi in ni period. If n represents total application time and σmax is
maximum stress among stress σ1, σ2,…, σr, there will be relationship as follows:

Or:

In term of stress spectrum, each part will be classified into 4 levels of stress spectrum P1, P2,
P3 and P4 determined as in Table 2.1.1.4.3
Note: Parts of structure and mechanism of lifting appliance such as parts bearing elasticity
load are almost or totally independent with working load. It is required special attention to
classification of those parts. In most cases, Ksp =1 and of P4 level.
Table 2.1.1.4.3.
Stress spectrum levels

Symbol Spectrum stress coefficient KSP

P1 KSP ≤ 0.125
P2 0.125< KSP≤ 0.250
P3 0.250 < KSP≤0.500
P4 0.500< KSP≤ 1.000

For structural parts, stresses needed to considered when determining coefficient of stress
spectrum are bias σSUP – σm between stresses on σSUP and average stress σm. This concept is
determined on Figure 2.1.1.4.3 reflecting changing in stresses in a time of 5 stress periods.

31
Figure 2.1.1.4.3 – Changes in stress as a function by time of 5 stress periods

σSUP : Upper stress


σSUPmax : Maximum upper stress
σSUP min: Minimum upper stress
σlnf: Lower stress
σm : Arithmetic average value of all upper stresses and lower stresses in total
application time of part of structure.
For structural part of lifting appliance, σm = 0, stresses used for calculating stress spectrum
coefficient will be total of stresses on related section of that part.
2.1.1.4.4. Grouping of parts
Basing on application levels and stress spectrum levels, structural parts of lifting appliance
can be grouped into 8 groups symbolized as E1, E2,…, E8 determined in Table 2.1.1.4.4.
Table 2.1.1.4.4
Groups of parts of structure or mechanism

Stress Application level


spectrum
level B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10

P1 E1 E1 E1 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8

P2 E1 E1 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E8

P3 E1 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E8 E8

P4 E1 E2 E2 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E8 E8 E8

2.1.1.5. Consonance of application levels of lifting appliance and structures


This item presents a method which can used in many cases for determining application levels
of structures of lifting appliance from application level of lifting appliance itself in general
and from certain parameters of working status of lifting appliance.

32
Starting point is average time tmc (in seconds) of a lifting period as defined in item 2.1.1.2.2.
Then, this is required time for performing the whole operations in such a period.
Total application time T (hour) of lifting appliance can be determined by following formula:

Where N is number of lifting periods determined basing on application level of lifting


appliance.
Table 2.1.1.5.1 states values of T for a period time from 30-480 seconds in compliance with
application level of lifting appliance. Number of lifting periods is maximum value for this
application level. However, these values will be adjusted to 15,625, 31,250 and 62,500
corresponding to level U0, U1 and U2 to reduce number of different values of T.
The next step is specific for each mechanism of lifting appliance, ratio αi between application
time of that mechanism in a lifting period and average time tmc of a lifting period.
Table 2.1.1.5.2 states the total application time Ti of mechanism basing on total application
time of equipment and basing on different conventional values of ratio αi. This table also state
application level of mechanism. Other levels can be represented by ladder area.
Therefore, it is able to determine application level of lifting appliance by seeing Table
2.1.1.5.2, average time of a lifting period and values of αi.
From curves in monograph 2.1.1.5.3, it is easy to directly determine application levels for
mechanism of lifting appliance by these 3 parameters.

33
Table 2.1.1.5.1
Total application time T of lifting appliance (hours)

Average
time of a
lifting Application level of lifting appliance
period
tmc
(second) U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9

30 130 260 520 1,040 2,085 4,165 8,335 16,665 33,335 > 33,335

45 195 390 780 1,565 3,125 6,250 12,500 25,000 50,000 > 50,000

60 260 520 1,040 2,085 4,165 8,335 16,665 33,335 66,665 >66,665

75 325 650 1,300 2,605 5,210 10,415 20,835 41,665 83,335 >83,335

90 390 780 1,565 3,125 6,250 12,500 25,000 50,000 100,000 >100,000

120 520 1,040 2,085 4,165 8,335 16,665 33,335 66,665 133,335 >133,335

150 650 1300 2605 5210 10415 20835 41665 83,335 166,665 >166665

180 780 1,565 3,125 6,250 12,500 25,000 50,000 100,000 200,000 >200,000

240 1,040 2,085 4,165 8,335 16,665 33,335 66,665 133,335 >200,000

300 1,300 2,605 5,210 10,415 20,835 41,665 83,335 166,665 >200,000

360 1,565 3,125 6,250 12,500 25,000 50,000 100,000 200,000 >200,000

420 1,825 3,645 7,290 14,585 29,165 58,335 116,665 >200,000

480 2,085 4,165 8,335 16,665 33,335 66,665 133,335 >200,000

34
Table 2.1.1.5.2
Total application time Ti (hours) of mechanism of lifting according to T and αi
Application
Values of αi level for
T (hours) 1,00 0,63 0,40 0,25 0,16 0,10 structure
130 130 82 52 33 21 13
195 195 123 78 49 31 20
260 260 164 104 65 42 26
325 325 205 130 81 52 33
390 390 246 156 98 62 39
520 520 328 208 130 83 52
T0
650 650 410 260 163 104 65
780 780 491 312 195 125 78
1,040 1,040 655 416 260 166 104
1,300 1,300 819 520 325 208 130
1,565 1,565 986 626 391 250 157
1,825 1,825 1,150 730 456 292 183
2,085 2,085 1,314 834 521 334 209
2,605 2,605 1,641 1,042 651 417 261
T1
3,125 3,125 1,969 1,250 781 500 313
3,645 3,645 2,296 1,458 911 583 365
4,165 4,165 2,624 1,666 1,041 666 417
5,210 5,210 3,282 2,084 1,303 834 521
T2
6,250 6,250 3,938 2,500 1,563 1,000 625
7,290 7,290 4,593 2,916 1,823 1,166 729
8,335 8,335 5,251 3,334 2,084 1,334 834
10,415 10,415 6,561 4,166 2,604 1,666 1,042
T3
12,500 12,500 7,875 5,000 3,125 2,000 1,250
14,585 14,585 9,189 5,834 3,646 2,334 1,459
16,665 16,665 10,499 6,666 4,166 2,666 1,667
20,835 20,835 13,126 8,334 5,209 3,334 2,084
T4
25,000 25,000 15,750 10,000 6,250 4,000 2,500
29,165 29,165 18,374 11,666 7,291 4,666 2,917
33,335 33,335 21,001 13,334 8,334 5,334 3,334
41,665 41,665 26,249 16,666 10,416 6,666 4,167
T5
50,000 50,000 31,500 20,000 12,500 8,000 5,000
58,335 58,335 36,751 23,334 14,584 9,334 5,834
66,665 66,665 41,999 26,666 16,666 10,666 6,667
83,335 83,335 52,501 33,334 20,834 13,334 8,334
T6
100,000 100,000 63,000 40,000 25,000 16,000 10,000
116,665 116,665 73,499 46,666 29,166 18,666 11,667
133,335 133,335 84,001 53,334 33,334 21,334 13,334
166,665 166,665 104,999 66,666 41,666 26,666 16,667
T7
200,000 200,000 126,000 80,000 50,000 32,000 20,000
>200,000 >200,000 >126,000 >80,000 >50,000 >32,000 >20,000
T8
T9

35
Monographic 2.1.1.5.3

Application level for lifting appliance

Application
level for
mechanism

2.1.2. Loads for considering when designing structure of lifting appliance


Structural calculations will be implemented by determining stresses arising in structure of
lifting appliance during its operation. These stresses will be calculated basing on loads
determined as follows:
a) Main loads on structure of lifting appliance, assumed to be static at most inconvenient
loading status.
b) Loads caused by vertical movements
c) Loads caused by horizontal movements
d) Loads caused by influence of weather
Changing loads, applied coefficients and methods for calculating which are tested as follows.
2.1.2.1. Main loads
Main loads include:
- Loads caused by self-weight of parts: SG

36
- Loads caused by working loads: SL
All moving parts are assumed to be at most inconvenient states.
Each structural part will be designed for each location of lifting appliance and working load
(between 0 and safety working load) which can generate maximum stress for that structural
part.
Note: In some certain cases, maximum stress can be generated when lifting appliance does
not lift up the working load.
2.1.2.2. Loads caused by vertical motions
These loads generate when suddenly lifting up working load, increasing or reducing speed of
lifting movement and vertical shaking load when moving along railway.
2.1.2.2.1. Loads caused by working loads
It is required to consider vibration arising when lifting load by multiplying load caused by
working load by a coefficient named “dynamic coefficient ψ”
1. Values of dynamic coefficient ψ
Values of dynamic coefficients ψ applied for load caused by working load are determined by
following formula:
Ψ = 1 + ξVL
Where:
VL: Speed of lifting load m/s
ξ : Coefficient determined by experiment.
Note: Values for ξ are results of many experiments on different lifting appliances.
It is able to accept following values:
ξ = 0.6 for cranes and gantry crane
ξ = 0.3 for cranes with rod.
Maximum value for speed of lifting load is 1 m/s when applying this formula. For greater
lifting speed, dynamic coefficient ξ will not have greater value.
Value for ξ in calculation should not be less than 1.15 and not be greater than 1.6 in all cases.
Values of ξ are reflected by curves of Figure 2.1.2.2.1 by lifting speed VL.

37
Figure 2.1.2.2.1
Values of dynamic coefficient ξ

Cranes and gantry crane

Cone crane

Note:
Coefficient ξ stated above do not remain the same for cranes, gantry cranes and cranes with
rod.
Difference is due to reality that ξ is less when lifting load is done by a structural part with
more elasticity, such as cranes with rods of which rods do not have great solidness.
Similarly, dynamic coefficient ξ applied for cranes with rod can also be applied for other
equipments such as roller when designing load on rod; Values of dynamic coefficients ξ
stated for cranes will be used when designing situation when load is placed among machine
seats because solidness of structure at that location will be in accordance with solidness of
main hoist of cranes.
2.1.2.2.2. Loads caused by increasing or reducing speed of lifting motion and vertical shaking
load when moving along railway
Because coefficient ξ takes into account pulling strength on working load as the maximum
pulling load, then it is assumed that loads caused by accelerating or decelerating of lifting
motion and vertical reaction force caused by movement along railway not to happen at the
same time and are omitted.
Note: This is assumed that rail connections are at good condition. Disadvantageous influence
of faulty condition of railway on structure and mechanism of lifting appliance is very strong.
Then it is required to ensure that rail connections are in the best state without any faults or
defects. For lifting appliance with high speed, butt welding at rail’s ends is the best solution
to totally eliminate pulling load when lifting appliance passes by rail connections.
2.1.2.2.3. Special case
For some lifting appliance, load cause by self-weight is opposite to load caused by working
load, then it is required to compare load value in condition of “load-bearing lifting appliance”

38
with dynamic coefficient ξ applied for that working load and load value in condition of
“unloading lifting appliance”, taking into account vibration when unloading as follows:
Stating:

SG Algebraic value of load caused by self-weight

SG Algebraic value of load caused by working load

Total magnifying load when lowering load is determined by formula:

Above load is compared with load in condition of “load-bearing lifting appliance” determined
by following formula:

Finally, parts will be designed basing on which more inconvenient value between these two
values.
Note: This formula is set on practical condition when dynamic coefficient determines
maximum amplitude of vibration on structures when load is lifted up. Vibration amplitude is
equal to:

It is assumed that value of vibration on structure when load is lowered is equal to half of
vibration when lifting up load, then final loading condition will be:

Above load should be compared with following load:

39
Curve of lifting and lowering load when SL and SG are opposite in sign

Lifting load Lowering the load

2.1.2.3. Loads caused by horizontal movements SH


Loads caused by horizontal movements as follows:
1. Inertia influence by accelerating or decelerating of horizontal, vertical, rotating or
changing boom motions. This inertia force can be measured by value of acceleration or
deceleration.
2. Centrifugal forces
3. Horizontal reaction force caused by rolling motion
4. Damper influence
2.1.2.3.1. Horizontal influence caused by acceleration or deceleration
Loads caused by acceleration or deceleration transmitted into moving components when
activating or braking are differently calculated for different structural parts.
1. Horizontal and vertical motion
For these motions, calculation is implemented by surveying horizontal force acting on
transmission wheel (driving wheel) in parallel with railway.
Loads will be calculated by time of acceleration or deceleration basing on working condition
and working speed.
Value of acceleration (m/s2) will be used for calculating horizontal force by volume joining
into movement.
Note: if value of speed and acceleration are not shown, time of acceleration corresponding to
obtained speed can be selected by 3 following working conditions:
a) Lifting appliance work at low and average speed with long movement.
b) Lifting appliance working at average speed and high speed for normally use.
c) Lifting appliance working at high speed and great acceleration
Table 2.1.2.3.1.1 presents acceleration time and acceleration value for 3 working conditions:

40
Table 2.1.2.3.1.1
Acceleration time and value

(a) (b) (c)


Average and slow speed Average and high speed High speed with great
Speed with long movement (normally used) acceleration
value
up to Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration
m/s time, s value m/s2 time, s value m/s2 time, s value m/s2

4.00 8.0 0.50 6.0 0.67

3.15 7.1 0.44 5.4 0.58

2.5 6.3 0.39 4.8 0.52

2 9.1 0.22 5.6 0.35 4.2 0.47

1.60 8.3 0.19 5.0 0.32 3.7 0.43

1.00 6.6 0.15 4.0 0.25 3.0 0.33

0.63 5.2 0.12 3.2 0.19

0.40 4.1 0.098 2.5 0.16

0.25 3.2 0.078

0.16 2.5 0.064

Calculation horizontal force should not be less than 1/30 and should not be greater than 1/4
load on wheels activated or wheels equipped with braking system.
2. Rotation and change of boom
For rotation and change of boom, calculations will base on acceleration moment or
deceleration at engine axle of lifting appliance structure.
Acceleration intensity will depend on equipment; for normal cranes, according to speed and
boom, acceleration value within 0.1 m/s2 and 0.6 m/s2 can be selected for calculating
acceleration at crane’s end provided that acceleration time is within 5 to 10 seconds.
2.1.2.3.2. Influence of centrifugal force
For crane having rod, it is required to calculate centrifugal force caused by rotating
movement. In practice, it is able to determine horizontal force acting on rod by basing on
heeling of loading cable and it is usually not to take into account influence of centrifugal force
on other parts of crane.
2.1.2.3.3. Transverse reaction caused by rolling motion
When two wheels or two blocks of wheels moving along a rail, it is required to take into
account a force couple generated by horizontal forces perpendicularly to rail. Component
forces of this force couple should be determined by multiplying vertical load on wheel (or
wheel block) by a coefficient λ which depends on ratio of aperture p and wheel foundation a.

41
Note: “Wheel foundation” is central distance between outmost wheel pairs or central
distance between rotating bolt on structure of two blocks of wheel or wheel system of crane.
For situation with horizontal guiding wheel, “wheel foundation” will be distance between
contacting point with rail of two horizontal guiding wheels.
As presented in the chart, this coefficient is within 0.05 and 0.2 for ratio of p/a within 2 and
8.

2.1.2.3.4. Influence of damper ST


It is required to consider the situation when there is influence of crush into damper on
structure and crush into hanging cable.
1. Influence of damper on structure
It is required to distinguish:
1) Hanging cable can be shook.
2) There is solid guiding mechanism preventing vibration of hanging cable.
In the first situation, it is required to apply following regulations:
For horizontal speed less than 0.7m/s, influence of damper is not considered.
For horizontal speed over 0.7m/s, it is required to consider influence of damper on structure.
If it is assumed that damper can absorb kinetic energy of lifting appliance (not bearing
working load) at speed equal to 0.7 Vt (Vt is nominal speed)
Loads on structure will be determined basing on buffer transmitted to lifting appliance by
using damper.
However, for high speed (greater than 1m/s), it is able to activate deceleration equipment right
when coming to end of rail provided that performance of this equipment is automatically and
it decelerate considerably lifting appliance to a predetermined low speed, before lifting
appliance crushes into damper.
In this case, speed obtained after decelerating will be considered to be value of Vt when
determining influence of damper.
Note: It is required to emphasize the need to install an effective and reliable equipment. Only
one limit switch for interrupting power supply for engine is not enough for assuming
deceleration value under influence of damper.
In second situation when cable is not shook, influence of damper will be calculated in the
same way but taking into account value of working load.

42
2. Influence of damper on hanging cable
Influence due to crush between lifting load and fixtures should be considered for only lifting
appliance of which lifting load is firmly guided. In this case, load arising by crush should be
taken into account.
Loads can be determined by considering a corresponding horizontal force with a load level
which can lift up two of wheels.
2.1.2.4. Loads caused by weather
Load caused by weather is load caused by influence of wind and change in temperature.
2.1.2.4.1. Wind’s influence
This regulation is applicable to wind’s influence on structure of lifting appliance.
This part will present a simple calculation method with assumption that wind can blow
horizontally from any direction, with stable speed and having a static reaction to load on
structure of lifting appliance.
1. Wind pressure
Wind’s dynamic pressure is calculated by following formula:
q = 0.613 V2s
where: q – wind’s dynamic pressure (N/m2)
Vs – Wind’s design speed (m/s)
2. Wind’s design state
Wind’s two design states for considering when calculating wind load on lifting appliance:
1) Wind state allowing lifting appliance’s performance
Maximum wind’s state at which lifting appliance is designed to be able to perform. Wind
loads are assumed to impact in disadvantageous direction in corporation with other loads in
working condition. Wind’s design pressures allowing performance of lifting appliance are
specified in Table 2.1.2.4.1.2.1. They are assumed not to change at the same height of lifting
appliance.
Note: In general, equipment for measuring wind speed should be installed at highest location
on lifting appliance. If there is considerable difference of wind speed at different heights
influencing safety of lifting appliance, manufacturer should clearly state height for installing
equipment measuring wind speed.
It should assume that it is not necessary to archive active speed and nominal acceleration at
high wind.

43
Table 2.1.2.4.1.2.1
Design wind pressure allowing performance of lifting appliance

Design wind pressure Wind speed allowing


allowing performance performance of lifting
Type of lifting appliance of lifting appliance appliance
N/s2 m/s2

Lifting appliance which can be easily


protected against wind influence or
which is specially designed for using
in breeze condition 125 14

Lifting appliance in construction


industry

All types of lifting appliance


250 20
normally used outdoor

Lifting appliances used frequently in


strong wind condition 500 28
(e.g. type 12a, see Table 2.1.1.2.5)

Wind’s influence on load:


Wind’s influence on load under hook of complex lifting appliance will be determined by
following formula:
F = 2.5 A x q
Where
F – wind’s influence on load, N
q- Wind’s pressure allowing performance of lifting appliance, stated in Table
2.1.2.4.1.2.1, N/m2.
A – Maximum wind area of tightened section of load under the hook, m2. It it is not able
to calculate wind area of lifting load, this value can be minimum 0.5m2 per ton of safety
working load.
If lifting appliance is designed only for lifting goods with special dimension and shape, wind
load will be measured with corresponding dimension and shape.
2) Wind state not allowing performance of lifting appliance
Maximum wind velocity (storm) at which lifting appliance is design to be able to remain
stability in static state as presented by the Designer. Wind speed changes by height of lifting
appliance from ground surface, by locations and windproof levels.
For outdoor lifting appliances, theoretical wind pressure and corresponding wind speed for
lifting appliance not allowed to operate are stated in Table 2.1.2.4.1.2.2.

44
Table 2.1.2.4.1.2.2
Design wind pressure not allowing performance of lifting appliance

Corresponding wind speed


Height from Design wind pressure not allowing
not allowing performance
ground surface performance of lifting appliance
of lifting appliance
2
m N/s
m/s2

0 to 12 800 36
20 to 100 1,100 42
>100 1,300 46

In calculating wind load when lifting appliance is not allowed to work, it is able to consider
wind pressure to have constant value at each vertical height as in Table 2.1.2.4.1.2.2. In other
words, wind pressure at highest location of lifting appliance can be assumed to be constant at
all height of lifting appliance.
If lifting appliance is fixedly installed or used in a long time in area having specially high
wind’s velocity, above valued can be changed under agreement between relevant authority
and designer basing on meteorological data at that area.
For lifting appliance having rod which can be quickly lowered (i.e. tower crane which can be
lowered easily by an attached mechanism), wind state not allowing performance of lifting
appliance is not needed to be considered provided that lifting appliance is designed to lower
the rod at the end of working day.
3. Calculation of wind load
For most structural assembly, structural component and individual component which is used
in structure of lifting appliance, wind load is measured by following formula:
F = A.q.Cf
Where
F: Wind load, N
A: Windproof area of considering structural component, m2
q: Wind pressure at design condition, N/m2
Cf: Shape coefficient of considering structural component by wind direction.
Total wind load on structure is sum of wind loads on structural components of that structure.
Total wind load should be considered when calculating strength and stability of lifting
appliance.

45
Allowable wind load used in designing lifting appliance to determine requirements for
structure’s engine and brake and ensuring safety for equipment during operation is stated in
designing procedure of structure.
4. Shape coefficient
1) Individual components, frame…
Shape coefficients for individual components and single frame and engine room are stated in
Table 2.1.2.4.1.4.1. Values of Cf for individual components change by aerodynamic
slenderness, greatness of box section and cross section ratio. Aerodynamic slenderness and
cross section ratio are stated in Figure 2.1.2.4.1.4.1
Wind load on single platform frame can be measured basing on shape coefficients for
individual components stated in Table 2.1.2.4.1.4.1. In this case, aerodynamic slenderness of
each component should be considered. It is able to apply shape coefficients of total platform
frame obtained from flat section and round section which are stated at middle part of the table.
If platform frame is made of structure with flat and round sections or round section for both
wind’s states, suitable shape coefficients will be applied for corresponding windproof sides.
If platform frame uses welding structure with standard dimension, it is not required to
consider this area, provided that length of individual components is taken between central
points of joints.

46
Table 2.1.2.4.1.4.1
Shape coefficient Ct

Characteristics Aerodynamic slenderness l/b or l/D (1)


Type ≤5 10 20 30 40 50 >50
Profile cross section 1.15 1.15 1.3 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.6
Square hollow section up to
356mm 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.55 1.55 1.6
Rectangular section up to 254 x
457 mm 1.05 1.05 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
Other sections 1.30 1.35 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.80 1.80
Individual Round section, in which:
structure D.Vs < 6m/s 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.90 0.90
parts
D.Vs ≥ 6m/s 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.80
b/d
2 1.55 1.75 1.95 2.10 2.20
Square hollow section over
1 1.40 1.55 1.75 1.85 1.90
356mm and rectangular
hollow section greater than 0.5 1.0 1.20 1.30 1.35 1.40
254 x 457 mm 0.2
0.80 0.90 0.90 1.0 1.0
5

Wind Æ

Plane section 1.70


Single Round section, in which:
truss
frame D.Vs < 6m/s 1.10
D.Vs ≥ 6m/s 1.80
Machine Rectangular structures on hard
room… ground or soil ground 1.10
Note:
(1) See Figure 2.1.2.4.1.4.1.
D: External diameter of section
Vs: Design wind speed

47
Figure 2.1.2.4.1.4.1 – Determination of aerodynamic slenderness, tightness ratio, spacing
ratio and section ratio
(I)

Thickness of structural component l l


Aerodynamic
= = or
slenderness
Width of windproof section b D

In platform structure, length of individual components is taken between central points of


adjacent joints. See following figure:
(II)

Area of tightness component A


Tightness ratio = = =
Covering area Ae

(III)

Distance between opposite side a a


Spacing ratio = = or
Width of windproof component b B

For “a” will be minimum geometric value of windproof side

48
(IV)

Width of windproof section b


Section ratio = =
Depth of section in parallel with wind direction a

2) Complex platform frame, windproof coefficient


There should be shield for frame or structural component which is arranged in parallel, wind
load on frame or component at wind’s blowing direction or on components not be windproof
from their back should be determined by suitable shape coefficients. Wind load on shielded
components is determined by multiplied to windproof coefficient η stated in Table
2.1.2.4.1.4.2, value of η changes by tightness coefficient and spacing coefficient stated in
Figure 2.1.2.4.1.4.1.

Table 2.1.2.4.1.4.2
Windproof coefficients

Spacing coefficient Tightness coefficient A/Ae

a/b 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 ≥ 0.6

0.5 0.75 0.40 0.32 0.21 0.15 0.10


1.0 0.92 0.75 0.59 0.43 0.25 0.10
2.0 0.95 0.80 0.63 0.50 0.33 0.20
4.0 1.0 0.88 0.76 0.66 0.55 0.45
5.0 1.0 0.95 0.88 0.81 0.75 0.68
6.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

When some similar frames or structural components are located at even spaces, windproof
coefficient will be assumed to increase to 9th frame and to remain for proceeding frames.
Wind load is measured as follows:
On the first frame: F1 = A.q.Cf (N)
On the second frame: F2= η.A.q.Cf (N)

On the n frame (with value of n from 3 to 8):

49
On the 9th frame and proceeding frame:
Total wind load is:
For having up to 9 frames:

For over 9 frames:

Note: Term ηx used in above formulas is assumed to have lower bound of 0.10. It will be
equal to 0.10 any time when ηx < 0.10.
3) Platform tower
When calculating wind load on square platform tower, if it is not able to thoroughly measure,
tightness area of windproof side of tower will be multiplied by total force coefficient which is
determined as follows:
For platform with flat section: 1.7. (1 + η)
For platform tower with round section:
When D.VS < 6 m2/s 1.1.( 1 + η)
When D.Vs ≥ 6 m2/s 1.4
η values are stated in Table 2.1.2.4.1.4.2 for a/b =1 in accordance with tightness of windproof
side.
Maximum wind load on square platform tower happens when wind blows to corner of tower.
If it is not able to specifically calculate, this load can be equal to 1.2 time of load on one side
of tower.
4) Parts with oblige structure to wind’s direction
Individual parts, frames…
When wind blows and oblige angle with vertical axle of structural part or surface of frame,
wind load by wind’s direction will be calculated by:

(N)
Where: F, A, q and Cf as stated in 2.1.2.4.1.3 and θ is the angle formed by wind’s direction (θ
< 90o) and vertical axle or surface.
Platform and platform tower
When wind blows and oblige angle with vertical axle of platform or platform tower, wind
load by wind’s direction will be calculated by:

50
(N)
Where: F, A, q and Cf as stated in 2.1.2.4.1.3 and

not be less than 0.35 and not greater than 1.

θ is the angle formed by wind’s direction and vertical axle of platform or platform tower
(θ < 90o).
Sp is area of beam in platform or platform tower projected on windproof surface, m2
S is area of all bars (girder, main rod) of platform or platform tower projected on windproof
surface, m2.
Value of K2 is assumed to have lower bound and upper bound respectively as 0.35 and 1.0. K2
is equal to 0.35 when calculated value < 0.35 and equal to 1.0 when calculated value > 1.0.
2.1.2.4.2. Temperature alteration
Stresses causing alteration in temperature will only be considered in special cases such as
when structural parts do not freely dilate.
2.1.2.5. Other loads
Passage ways, control cabins and platform should be designed to bear concentration loads as
follows:
3000N for passage ways and platform plate for maintaining equipment on which there can be
materials.
1500 N for passages way and platform plates intended only for people
300N as horizontal force on balcony and foot cover.
These loads are not used when calculating main rods.
2.1.3. Load conditions in calculating structure of lifting appliance
When calculating for design of lifting appliance, it is required to consider 3 following load
conditions:
- Lifting appliance works in dead calm condition
- Lifting appliance works in windy environment in acceptable level
- Irregular loading condition
Loads on lifting appliance are already stated in 2.1.2. To forecast ability that calculation stress
can be exceeded due to incorrect calculation method or due to emergency condition in
operation, it is required to apply an amplifying coefficient γc when designing lifting appliance,
this coefficient will change by each group of lifting appliance.
Values of coefficient γc are stated in item 2.1.3.4.
2.1.3.1. Load I situation: lifting appliance works in dead calm environment

51
It is required to consider following loads: static load caused by self-weight of appliance SG;
loads caused by working load SL multiplying by dynamic coefficient ψ and two
disadvantageous horizontal influences among SH. Damper is not considered in this case.
All these loads should be multiplied by an amplifying coefficient γc stated in 2.1.3.4 under
following set:

When lifting appliance only moves to a certain position and not moves the load, this motion
will not be combined with other horizontal movement. An example for this situation is lifting
appliance in harbor which only works at a certain location.
2.1.3.2. Load II situation: lifting appliance works in windy environment at acceptable level.
This type includes loads in situation I and loads caused by wind in acceptable level SW which
are determined in item 2.1.2.4.1.2.1 (Table 2.1.2.4.1.2.1) when applying loads caused by
temperature alteration and will be written in following set:

Note: Dynamic influences of acceleration and deceleration and acceleration will have
different values in load situation II and load situation I, for windy condition, time for
accelerating or braking will not be the same as in dead calm condition.
2.1.3.3. Load situation III: Lifting appliance bearing irregular loads
Irregular loads usually happen in following situations:
- Idle lifting appliance bearing maximum wind load
- Working lifting appliance under damper force
- Lifting appliance under testing load as in Chapter 4.
Maximum combined load should be considered:
a) Loads SG caused by self-weight and loads SWmax caused by maximum wind load is in
2.1.2.4.1.2.2 (Including reaction force of storm equipment)
b) Loads SG caused by self-weight and SL caused by working load and maximum
damper force ST as in 2.1.2.3.4.
c) Loads SG caused by self-weight and maximum load in the two loads ψρl.SL and
ρ2SL; ρl and ρ2 are coefficients multiplied by safety working load in dynamic load
testing condition (ρl) and static load testing condition (ρ2) as in Chapter 4.
These three situations are reflected by:
a) SG + SWmax
b) SG + SL + ST (1)
c) SG + ψρlSL or SG + ρ2SL
Note: When using deceleration equipment in front of damper, crushing force determined in
condition stated in 2.1.2.3.4.1 ST will be taken as greater value in the two load values or load
caused by deceleration or crush with damper.
2.1.3.4. Selection of amplifying coefficient γc

52
Values of amplifying coefficient γc is determined basing on grouping of lifting appliance

Table 2.1.3.4
Values of amplifying coefficient γc

Groups of lifting appliance A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8

γc 1.00 1.02 1.05 1.08 1.11 1.14 1.17 1.20

2.1.4. Seismic influences


In general, it is not required tests for seismic influences on structure of lifting appliance in
Vietnam. However, it is able to apply special regulation or recommendation in seismic areas
under agreement of relevant authority or when tests are compulsory.
Note: Loads caused by working loads should be considered when calculating but influences
of pulled or shaken loads can be omitted because they only act on structure when other
influences are nearly totally absorbed. This recommendation is not applied for load
transmitted by solid transmission method at which load can not be shaken.
2.1.5. Loads for considering when designing structures of lifting appliances
Structures of lifting appliance bear following loads:
a) Loads symbolized as SM: are loads depending directly on rotating moment of engine
or brakes on structure.
b) Loads symbolized as SR are loads not depending on influence of engine or braking
system but determined by reaction force on structural parts and not balanced with
rotating moment on transmission axle (1).
Note: (1) For example in moving motion, loads caused by vertical reaction forces on wheels
and horizontal loads will generate stress on wheel’s axle but not on structures of driving
mechanism.
2.1.5.1. Loads type SM
Loads of this type are as follows:
a) Loads SMG, corresponding with vertical motion of moving parts of lifting appliance,
not taking into account working load.
b) Loads SML, corresponding with vertical motion of working load as stated in item
2.1.2 for structure.
c) Loads SMF, corresponding with friction forces which not being considered in
calculating efficiency of structure.
d) Loads SMA, generated by acceleration (or braking) force of motion.
e) Loads SMW, corresponding with influence of wind load allowing performance of
lifting appliance.
2.1.5.2. Loads type SR
Loads of this type are as follows:

53
a) Loads SRG caused by self-weight of structural parts on considering part.
b) Loads SRL caused by working load determined in item 2.1.2 for structure.
c) Loads SRA, caused by acceleration or deceleration of different motion of lifting
appliance or its structural parts as determined in item 2.1.2.3.1 for structure.
d) Loads SRW, caused by wind load in working condition SW or maximum wind load
SWmax (See item 2.1.2.4.1)
2.1.1.6. Load situations in calculating structures of lifting appliance
3 load situations should be considered when calculating structures:
Situation I: Normal working in dead calm condition.
Situation II: Normal working in windy condition.
Situation III: Irregular loading condition
It is required to determine maximum load for each load situation and to use that load in
calculations.
Loads for considered have been determined in item 2.1.5. To forecast ability that calculation
stress can be exceeded due to inaccurate calculation method or emergency condition, it is
required to use an amplifying coefficient γm and this coefficient will change by groups of
structures.
Values of γm are stated in Table 2.1.6
Table 2.1.6
Values of amplifying coefficient γm

Group of structure M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8

γm 1.00 1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.20 1.25 1.30

2.1.6.1. Load situation I: Normal working in dead calm condition


2.1.6.1.1. Loads type SM
Maximum load SM max I of SM (see 2.1.5) is determined by combination of load SMG, SML, SMF
and SMA which are stated in item 2.1.5.1 and reflected by following formula:

Note: In this formula, it is the value caused by disadvantageous combination which needs to
be pointed out but not combination of maximum value of each considered load.
2.1.6.1.2. Loads type SR
Maximum load SR max I of SR (see 2.1.5) is determined by combination of load SRG, SRL, and
SRA which are stated in item 2.1.5.2 and reflected by following formula:

54
The note in item 2.1.1.6.1 will also be applied for this item.
2.1.6.2. Load situation II: Normal working in windy condition
2.1.6.2.1. Loads type SM
Maximum load SM max II of SM (see 2.1.5) is determined by combination of load SMG, SML and
SMF which are stated in item 2.1.5.1 with one in two following combinations:
a) Load SMA and load SMW8 corresponding with wind pressure 80N/m2.
b) Load SMW25 corresponding with wind pressure 250N/m2.
Maximum value in the two values will be reflected by following formula:

or:

The note in item 2.1.6.1.1 will also be applied for this item.
2.1.6.2.2. Loads type SR
Maximum load SR max II of SR (see 2.1.5) is determined by combination of load SRG, SRL, and
SRA which are stated in item 2.1.5.2 with SRW25 corresponding with wind pressure 250N/m2
and reflected by following formula:

The note in item 2.1.6.1.1 will also be applied for this item.
2.1.6.3. Load III situation: irregular load condition
2.1.6.3.1. Load type SM
Maximum load SM max III of SM stated in item 2.1.5 is determined by consideration of
maximum load which engine can transmits to structure. It is allowed to limit this value by
practical working condition.
Values of SM max III are determined in item 2.1.6.4
2.1.6.3.2. Load type SR
Because overload caused by crush into damper or obstacle for structure causes less serious on
mechanism than on structure, irregular load for calculating is obtained as in part a) of item
2.1.3.3:

55
For cases when storm protection equipment is used to ensure that lifting appliance is not
displaced or to ensure stability in storming condition, it is required to consider influence of
this equipment on the whole mechanism.
2.1.6.4. Application of above calculation for measuring load SM
Mechanisms of lifting appliance have one of following functions:
- Plain vertical motion of central part of moving volume (lifting movement)
- Plain horizontal motion where central point of moving volume is considered to be a
horizontal moving volume (horizontal movement, vertical movement, rotating or changing
boom with counterbalance)
- Combined motions between lifting up motion of moving volume with horizontal
motion (changing boom without counterbalance)
2.1.6.4.1. Lifting motion
For load type SM, the formula is simplified as:

Load situation I and II:


In this case, load caused by lifting acceleration is omitted because this load is small compared
with load SML

Load situation III:


See general regulation in item 2.1.6.3.1 with assumption that maximum load can act on lifting
mechanism limited to 1.6 time of load SM max I.
Note:
For lifting motion in normal working condition, there will not be any load greater than
working load because inconsiderable influence of acceleration.
Greater load can only happen when inaccurately evaluating lifting load.
From experiences in practical years of using different lifting appliances, a factor value of 1.6
times is enough for safety. It should emphasize that engine with too high output should not be
used.
2.1.6.4.2. Horizontal movement
Load situation I: formula is simplified as follows:

Load situation II: Whichever value greater than these two values:

Or:

56
Load situation III: For SM max III, load is value of load corresponding with maximum moment
of engine (or brake) except for working condition is limited by practical moment via slipper
of wheel on rail way or via suitable limited devices (such as hydraulic clutch, moment limited
mechanism…)
In this case, it is practical moment value to be taken.
Note: For normal lifting load movement, load on mechanisms is limited by lifting load. In
horizontal movement, maximum moment of engine can always act on mechanism if there is no
mechanical limitation. This explains why there is difference among values of SM max III which
are determined by lifting movement or other considering motion.
2.1.6.4.3. Coordinate movement
For load situation I and II:
For load situation I and II, load SM max II (1) is determined by apply general formula stated in
item 2.1.6.1.1 and 2.1.6.2.1.
Note: (1) is SM max I when lifting appliance is not influenced by wind.
For load situation III:
Load caused by maximum moment of engine SMC max can be taken for maximum value SM max
III. This is normally not suitable, great value is usually accepted because it increases safety.

Value SMC max should be used when engine output required to lift up central location of
moving block is not considerable compared with required output for defeating influence of
acceleration or wind.
In contrast, when influence of acceleration or wind is not considerable compared with
influence of moving block by vertical direction, this value is too great and SM max III can be
archived from following formula:

Among these two limit values, each specific case should be tested in accordance with selected
engine and activating method as well as corresponding intensity of load caused by influence
of inertia and wind as well as caused by central lifting.
Unexceptionally, when working condition is transmitted by limit moment to mechanism (see
item 2.1.6.4.2), this limit moment will be taken as value of SMC max if it is less than valued
obtained from above method.
2.2. Calculation of stress in structure
Arising stresses in different structural parts are determined for three load situations stated in
item 2.1.3 and survey should be carried out to ensure enough strength for safety coefficient v
for ultimate stress. At the same time, it is required to consider three following destructive
conditions:
- Exceeding elasticity limit
- Exceeding buckling load or destructive load
- Exceeding fatigue limit
Quality of steel used should be stated meanwhile physical characteristics, chemical content
and welding quality should be ensured by manufacturer of material.

57
Allowable stress for each type of material should be determined as in item 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.3
and 2.2.4 as follows with consideration of ultimate stress of used material.
These ultimate stresses are stresses corresponding to which are elasticity limit or buckling
load or destructive stress or stress at which structure has ability of surviving of 90% basing on
result of experiment.
Stresses in structural parts will be calculated basing on different load situation stated in item
2.1.3 by applying normal material strength calculation method.
Sections for considering are total section (not deducting area of bored hole on section) for the
whole structural parts bearing compressed load and real section (after deducting area of bored
hole on section) for all structural parts bearing tensile stress.
Note: Area of hole on section will be added into horizontal section only when hole is filled by
bolt or rivet.
For bended structural part, value to be taken will be real section at pulled points and the
whole section of compressed points.
2.2.1. Survey for elasticity limit
For this survey, it is required to distinguish real structural part and joins such as rivet, bolts or
welds.
2.2.1.1. Structural parts excluding connection joins
2.2.1.1.1. Plain compressed or pulled structural parts
1. For steel with ratio between elasticity limit σE and tensile strength σR less than 0.7
Calculation stress σ should not exceed acceptable stress σa. Acceptable stress σa is obtained by
dividing elasticity limit σE by a coefficient vE which depends on load situations stated in item
2.1.3.
Values of vE and acceptable stress are determined by following table:

Situation I Situation II Situation III


Values of vE
1.5 1.33 1.1

Acceptable σE σE σE
stresses σa 1.5 1.33 1.1

For normal carbon steel (A.37, A.42, A.52) then ultimate stress σE will be stated to be
corresponding with elongation 0.2%
2. For steel with high elasticity limit σE (σE /σR >0.7)
For steel with high elasticity limit σE, application of coefficient vE will not ensure for safety.
In this case, it is required to ensure that calculation stress will not exceed acceptable stress σa
determined by following formula:

58
Where:
E and σR – Elasticity limit and tensile strength of steel
and σR.52 – stresses corresponding with steel A52, i.e. elasticity limit equal to 360N/mm2
E.52
and tensile strength equal to 510N/mm2.
σ.a.52: Acceptable stress for steel A52 for considering load situation.
2.2.1.1.2. Shearing structural parts
Acceptable shearing stress τa is determined by following formula:

σa: acceptable tensile strength.


2.2.1.1.3. Structural parts under combined load – corresponding stress
σX, σY. τxy: Direct stress and tangential stress at considering location, need for testing.
1 – Calculation direct stress σX and σY should be less than acceptable stress σa and
calculation shearing stress τxy should be less than acceptable shearing stress τa.
2 – Relative stress σCP should be less than acceptable stress σa:

When applying this formula, taking maximum values of σX, σY. τxy is a simple way for
measuring. However, in practice, such calculation can lead to a too great value of
corresponding stress because it is hardly that 3 stresses all reach maximum value at the same
time but it is still acceptable due to safety reason.
For more precise calculation, it is required to determine most disadvantageous practical state
which can happen then implementing surveys by calculating corresponding stress from 3
combined stress status as follows:
X MAX and corresponding stress σY and τxy:
Y MAX and corresponding stress σX and τxy:
τxy MAX and corresponding stress σX and σY
NOTE: It is required to note that when two of three stress values are relatively equal to each
other and greater than half of acceptable stress value, then combination state of the 3 most
disadvantageous stresses can be happen for different load due to that fact that stress is
relative with maximum value of each type of stress.
For special condition: Pulling or compressing in combination with shearing

59
It is required to implement survey process by following formula:

2.2.1.2. For joins condition


2.2.1.2.1. Riveting joins
1. Rivet under shearing load
Considering influence of clamping force, calculation shearing stress τ should not exceed:
τ = 0.6.σa for single shearing.
And τ = 0.8.σa for multiple shearing.
Where: σa is acceptable tensile strength of material of rivet.

Single step shearing Multiple shearing


2. Rivet under tensile load
Calculation tensile stress σ should not be less than following value:
σ = 0.2 σa
3. Rivet under shearing and tensile load
It is required to test following conditions:
σ ≤ 0.2 σa
and τ ≤ 0.6 σa for single step shearing
τ ≤ 0.8 σa for multiple shearing
4. Pressure limit on rivet
Pressure limit on rivet σn should not exceed:
σn ≤ 1.5 σa for single step shearing
σa ≤ 2 σa for multiple shearing
5. Notes for rivet joins
a) It is required to prevent rivet from being pulled, especially for main structural parts.
b) All joins should have at least 2 aligned rivets by direction of force.

2.2.1.2.2 Bolt junctures


2.2.1.2.2.1 General
Bolt junctures could have to stand the stress caused by forces which effects to juncture
perpendicularly, by forces parallel to joining surfaces, and by forces which effect
simultaneously perpendicular and parallel with surface of joining.

60
2.2.1.2.2.2 Junctures by drawing bearing bolts with controlled drawing force
1. General
Juncture by drawing bearing bolt with controlled drawing force which is a juncture where
main drawing force according to axial direction of bolt, screw nut or bolt section with thread
and the bolt must be born the effect of drawing force even when have not outside loading
capacity. These junctures should apply for junctures of fatigue effect.
It is necessay to ensure precision for drawn bolts and ensure drawing level unchanged
(tolerance ±10%). Coefficient Ω = 1.1 with calculation to tolerance of drawing level.
While setting initial drawing level on the bolt, under the combination effect of drawing and
torsion loading capacity, arising stress cannot be bigger than 80% elastic limit of bolt making
material with calculation force dissipation when setting initial drawing level.
2. Calculation for permissive loading capacity on the junctures by bolts
A. Calculation for initial drawing force
a) Drawing with torsion

σb = σ p2 + 3τ b2 ≤ 0.8σ E

2d 2σ p ⎛ pa ⎞
τb = ⎜⎜ + 1.155.μ ⎟⎟
d1 ⎝ π .d 2 ⎠
Where:
σp : theoretical drawing stress under the effect of tightening force
τb : torsional stress under the effect of tightening force
d2 : measured diameter at bolt thread
d1 : rated diametr of bolt
Pa : pitch of bolt
μ : friction coefficient on thread line
σE : elastic limit of material of bolt
b) Drawing without torsion
σb ≤ 0.8 σE
B. Permissive loading capacity F1 effect on the junctures by bolt
Must carry out two points of inspection:
a) Under the effect of maximum loading capacity with calculation to safety coefficient k and
k’, cannot exceed elastic limit of bolt.

Confirm: σ 1' = σ E2 − 3τ b2

F1 σ 1 − σ p
'

Inspect: ≤
sb k .k ' .δ b

61
Where:
Sb : cross section area of thread footing < section of bolt body
Δλ1
δb =
Δλ1 + Δλ2

Δl1 : shrinkage of structural part which is pressed under the effect of drawing force
Δl2 : expansion of bolt under the effect of drawing force
For essembled steel parts, the area must be considered for Δλ1 :

π ⎡⎛ ⎤
2
λk ⎞
seq = ⎢⎜ s1 + ⎟ − D12 ⎥
4 ⎢⎣⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎥⎦

Where:
Seq : equivalent section area of tightening bolt;
s1 : diameter is pressed under the head of bolt.
lk : length of pressed part.
D1 : diameter of bolt hole
For the bolts of which body diameter is much differential from diameter of thread footing and
part with thread is on stress bearing part, Δλ2 need have to be calculated fully.

Under the effect of maximum loading capacity with calculating to coefficients Ω, K’ and K’’
are safety coefficient of anti-separating structural parts.
F1 σp
σ1 = ≤
Sb K ' K " (1 − δ b )Ω
K’ : safety coefficient relative to elastic limit according to Table 2.2.1.2.2.
K” : safety coefficient of anti-separating structural part.
Table 2.2.1.2.2

Coefficient Loading capacity Loading capacity Loading capacity


case I case II case III

K’ 1.50 1.33 1.10

K” 1.30 1 1

Note: coefficients K’ and K” must be applied in the most disadvatage condition arised by force
dissipation when imposing initial tensional level.
c) Checking fatigue durability
Checking fatigue durability of bolts carried particularly for case of loading capacity I.
Under the effect of working loading capacity F1, true drawing stress varies between the two
following values:

62
F1δ b
σp and σp +
Sb
Must be checked on the following expression:
F1 2σ A
σ1 = ≤
sb δb
σA : the permissive big level of fatigue stress given in following graph.
For any kind of bolt or any other design method, value of stress σA must ensure minimum
safety level equivalent to fatigue level.

The big level of maximum permissive fatigue stress


Notes: E1 ÷ E8 are the group of structural parts.
The graph is applied for the bolts according to standard ISO
- Standard thread
- Grades 8.8, 10.9, 12.9
- Cold gear hobbing with heat treatment after gear hobbing.

63
2.2.1.2.2.3 Junctures by bolts which bear the effect of the forces parallel with joining plane
1. The bolts which bear the pure shearing effect
Checking is carried out with supposition that the bolts are in suitable condition, it means the
bolts are assemblied with assemble tolerance according to ISO standard and body part of bolt
is pressed into the hole for bolt going through along the whole length of assemblied structural
parts.
The holes for bolts going through should be the holes which are drilled with tolerance
according to ISO standard.
Calculating stress τ on the body of bolt cannot exceed the given values for rivets stated in
2.2.1.2.1.1.
Pressing pressure does not exceed the value stated in 2.2.1.2.1.4.
2. Drawing – shearing bearing combination bolts
It must be checked according following formula:
σ ≤ 0.65σa
and τ ≤ 0.6 σa for case of one grade shearing
or τ ≤ 0.6 σa for case of multi-grade shearing

And it should satify: σ 2 + 3τ 2 ≤ σ a


Permissive stress in one bolt is limited till:
σa = 0.7σE(0,2) for normal structure
σa = 0.8σE(0,2) for structure preventing from thread wearing
Where: σE(0,2) is testing material stress for making bolt equivalent to stretching level 0.2%.
3. Junctures by bolts have high durability with controlled torsion
This type of junctures should be used in the assemblies for bearing fatigue and main loading
capacity which are parallel to joining surface. Structural parts are joined by the bolts with
high durability which bears following loading capacities:
A. Loading capacities effect in joining plane (marked by T)
In these cases, loading capacities effect, make joining parts sliding and the force is transmitted
by friction. In order to determine the permissive loading capacity for each bolt Ta that the
loading capacity can be transmitted by friction, tension force F in bolts after tightening need
be considered. This drawing force is multiplied with friction coefficient μ of touching surface
in the juncture, and safety coefficient υT has similar value to the value stated in 2.2.1.1.1 is
applied for this limitting force.
υT = 1.5 for case of loading capacity I
υT = 1.33 for case of loading capacity II
υT = 1.1 for case of loading capacity III
Ta can be determined according to formula:

64
μ .F
Ta = .m
νT
Where m is number of friction surfaces
Drawing force F in one bolt depends on closely tightening moment, value of friction
coefficient μ depends on making material of joining structural parts, statement of touching
surface, and method of preparation for combination junctures (see Annex 1).
A. Forces perpendicular to joining plane (marked by N)
Checking by calculating the forces perpendicular to surface of junctures shall be carried out
according to 2.2.1.2.2.2.
If the juncture by bolt bear the effect of external force moment M, drawing loading capacity
should be determined at the biggest loading bearing bolt plus current drawing loading
capacity N.
B. Combination loading capacity of T, N and M
It is necessary to carry out to check the two following items:
a) For the highest stress bearing bolt, total of drawing forces caused by loading capacity
N and M must be smaller than permissive drawing force stated in 2.2.1.2.2.3.3.
b) Average loading capacity is transmitted by friction must be smaller than following
value:

μ.(F − N )
T= .m
νT

C. Determining stresses in parts of juncture


For compression bearing parts, their stresses are calculated on the whole section (horizontal
section area of bolt holes are not deducted).
For drawing bearing parts, there are two cases:
The first case: the bolts are arranged on one line perpendicular to the effecting direction of
loading capacity; it is necessary to check according to following conditions:
a) Total loading capacity effects on the whole section.
b) 60% of total loading capacity effect on true section (cross section area of deducted
bolt holes).

65
The second case: bolts are arranged into a lot of lines perpendicular to the effecting direction
of loading capacity.
The biggest loading bearing part (equivalent to line 1 for part A – see above figure) need be
analysed and checked according to the two following conditions:
a) Total loading capacity effects to the whole shearing surface;
b) On the true section with total loading capacity from bolt line 2 and 3 (that means in
case of above figure, 2/3 total loading capacity of juncture) plus 60% loading effect on line 1.
The checkingd is supposed that loading capacity is devided for all bolts and number of bolts is
small, because if there are too many lines, the bolts at the end of line shall be bear small
loading capacity. Therefore, it should not arrange more than two lines or exception three lines.
D. Junctures by bolts with high durability
It is necessary to pay attention, above calculation is used to check the junctures by bolts with
high durability is only effective when the junctures in fact must be suitable to conditions such
as requirements of tension and preparation of touching surface to obtain suitable friction
coefficient (see Annex 1).
2.2.1.2.3 Junctures by welding
In the junctures by welding, it is supposed that welding metal at least has such good properties
as basic metal.
It is necessary to check arising stresses, in case drawing and compressing are not over
permissive stress σa stated in 2.2.1.1.1.
In case that welding seam is cut, permissive stress τa is determined by:
σa
τa =
2
However, for fixed type of loading capacity, especially horizontal stresses in welding seams,
their maximum permissive equivalent stress must be reduced.
Table 2.2.1.2.3 summerizes the values cannot exceed for some kinds of common steel,
according to type of loading capacity.
Annex 2: show further information of welding seam.

66
Table 2.2.1.2.3
Maximum permissive equivalent stresses in welding seams (N/mm2)
Steel types A.37 – A.42 – A.52

Type of loading capacity A.37 A.42 A.52

I II III I II III I II III

Logitudinal equivalent stresses


for every type of welding 160 180 215 175 195 240 240 270 325
seams

Horizontal drawing stresses

1) Edge border welding seams


and K letter welding seams 160 180 215 175 195 240 240 270 325
with special quality.

2) K letter welding seams with


140 158 185 153 170 210 210 236 285
normal quality

3) Angle welding seams 113 127 152 124 138 170 170 191 230

Horizontal compression
stresses

1) Edge border welding seam


and K letter welding with 160 180 215 175 195 240 240 270 325
special quality.

2) Angle welding seams 130 146 175 142 158 195 195 220 265

Cutting the whole strip of


113 127 152 124 138 170 170 191 230
welding seam

2.2.2 Checking longitudinal flexural bearing structural parts


Checking rule shall be that longitudinal flexural bearing structural parts should be designed
according to the same safety coefficient as accepted for elastic limit; in other words,
calculated logitudinal flexural stresses must be smaller than equivalent maximum permissive
stresses as stated in 2.2.1.1.1
The designer must show clearly origin of chosen calculation method.
If chosen method is relative to multiplying calculation stress to longitudinal flexural
coefficient ϖ depends on slenderness coefficient of structural part and after that checking the
magnified stress be still smaller than defined permissive stress, the value is chosen for this
permissive stress shall be value stated in 2.2.1.1.1.

67
Notes: Annex 3 point out different classical calculation method to satify the above
requirements.
2.2.3 Checking horizontal flexural bearing structural parts
In determining horizontal flexural safety coefficients given belows, it is necessary to consider
that flat sheets are under the effect of compression stresses distributed regularly on the width
of sheet shall be more dangerous horizontal flexural state than the sheets bear varified stress
from compression stress into drawing stress on the width of sheet.
Horizontal flexural safety depends on the rate ψ of calculation stress at the two edges of sheet
(see Annex 4).
In addition, it is necessary to determine ultimate horizontal flexural stress for round posts,
setting distance and section inertia moment of reinforced vein to avoid too big difference of
real safety because of using different data in technical documents.
Must check calculation stresses that are not bigger than ultimate horizontal stress divide to
following coefficientsν ν :

Case of Horizontal flexural safty


Type of loading capacity
loading coefficientν ν
and structure
capacity

I 1.70+0.175(ψ-1)
Horizontal flexure for flat
II 1.50+0.125(ψ-1)
sheet structures
III 1.35+0.075(ψ-1)

I 1.70
Horizontal flexure for
curved sheet; round posts II 1.50
(for example pipes)
III 1.35

Rate of stress on two edges of sheet ψ varies in the interval between +1 and -1.
Notes: Annex 4 point out instruction to determine ultimate horizontal stresses.
2.2.4 Case of structure bears big deformation
In this case, the stresses in structural parts can be unequivalent to the forces cause to them due
to deformation of structure under the effect of the forces.

68
For example, the stresses arise in the column of crane (see the above diagram) where that is
clearly flexural moment in the column which is unequivalent to the force caused by
deformation to make their moment toggle arm increasing.
In this case calculation is carried out as follows:
1. Firstly, carrying out to check according to requirements of 2.2.1, 2.2.2 and 2.2.3.
Calculating the stresses arise in different loading capacity cases and checking to have enough
safe excess relative to ultimate stresses (elastic limit, longitudinal flexure, horizontal flexure).
In calculating stresses it should mention to the deformation caused by the loading capacities
that effect to the structure.
2. The next checking is also carried out by calculating the stresses caused by the effect
of loading capacities multiplied to coefficient ν of loading capacity case that is considered
and with considering the deformations caused by the effect of loading capacity increased and
test calculated stresses are still smaller than ultimate stresses for elastic limit, logitudinal
flexure and horizontal flexure.
However, considering to the fact, variation loading capacity Sv (loading capacities caused by
lifting loading multiplied with ψ, due to wind loading capacity and due to horizontal
movements) is more dangerous than unchanged loading capacity caused by itself weight SG,
in fact, the checking can be carried out by considering the two following cases:
1. When effect of SG itself’s weight and alterative loading capacity SV lead to reverse
direction deformation:
Determining the stress σG caused by the effect of SG itself’s weight (no magnifying) and the
stress σV caused by the effect of alteratibe loading capacity SV multiplied with coefficien
ν correlative to considering case (item 2.2.1-elastic limit, item 2.2.2-longitudinal flexure, item
2.2.3 – horizontal flexure) and checking this stress to be smaller than ultimate stress, that
means:
σ caused by (SG + νSν ) ≤ σ cr

2. When itself’s weight and alterative loading capacity lead to same direction deformation:
determining the stress caused by the effect of alterative loading capacity multiplied to
coefficient v and of itself weight multiplied to following coefficientν ' :
ν ' = 1 + (ν − 1)r

69
σG
Where r = calculated at first stage of deformation.
σ G +σ V
At that time must satified: σ caused by (ν ' SG + νSν ) ≤σ cr
2.2.5 Checking fatigue bearing structure parts
The danger caused by fatigue appears when one part of structure bears the effect of alterative
and repeated loading capacity.
Fatigue durability is calculated by considering following parameters:
1 - Number of convention loading capacity cycles and stresses spectrum which structural part
must bear;
2 – Using material and stress concerntrate at the considering point;
3 – Extremum maximum stress σmax can happen in the considering structural part.
4 – The rate K between the values of extremum stress.
2.2.5.1 Number of convention loading capacity cycles and stresses spectrum
Number of alterative cycles of loading capacity and stresses spectrum must be considered
were stated in 2.1.1.4.2 and 2.1.1.4.3.
The two parameters are considered when considering to the group which structural part
distributed to be suitable to 2.1.1.4.
2.2.5.2 Using material, stress concerntration
Fatigue durability of one structural part depends on quality of using material and depends on
shape and method of connection. Shape of connected parts and machining methods are
effective to the arising of stresses concerntration shall reduce fatigue durability of structural
part considerably.
2.2.5.3 Determining maximum stress σmax
Maximum stress σmax is the highest stress according to absolute value (that means it can be
drawing or compressing one) which happens in structural part in case of loading capacity I
(see 2.1.3.1) but no applying magnifying coefficient γC.
When checking fatigue durability of compression bearing parts, longitudinal flexure
coefficient ϖ given in 2.2.2 is not applied.
2.2.5.4 Rate K between extremum stresses
This rate is determined by calculating ultimate values of stress which structural part must bear
in case of loading capacity I.
This rate can change depending on active cycles, but on safety aspect this coefficient is
determined by taking two ultimate values can happen in active process of part in case of
loading capacity I.
If σmax and σmin are algebraic values of extremum stresses, σmax is extremum stress with
higher absolute value, the rate K can be detemined:
σ min τ
k= or min in case of shearing
σ max τ max

70
This rate changes in interval from +1 to -1, is positive if both two extremum stresses are at
same direction (stresses oscillate up and down with the same sign) and is negative when both
two extremum stresses are at opposite direction (stresses are changed into opposite sign).
2.2.5.5 Checking fatigue structural parts
Using parameters determined in items from 2.2.5.1 to 2.2.5.4. Satisfaction of structural parts
and fatigue bearing junctures are ensured by checking the stress σmax same as determined in
2.2.5.3 must be not bigger than permissive fatigue stress of considering structural part.
Permissive fatigue stress is determined from ultimate stress correlative to 90% capacity that
has not been destroyed yet (base on testing by samples), therefore:
σa for fatigue = 0.75σ at 90% capacity that has not been destroyed yet.
Determining these permissive stresses is complex problem and in general should more refer to
the books for more deeply studying of this subject.
2.3 Checking durability and choosing mechanism parts of lifting equipment
2.3.1 Process of calculation
Mechanism parts of lifting equipments are designed by checking for them to meet safety fully
to resist against the destruction due to brittle fracture, loosing stability, being fatigue, or being
worn.
Other factors are also considered and they are especially important to avoid being overheated
or incorrect, effect to precision activities of mechanism of lifting equipment.
2.3.1.1 Checking on durability limit
Parts of mechanism of lifting equipment are checked according to durability limit by counting
root of calculating stress cannot exceed permissive stress depending on drawing durability
limit of using material.
2.3.1.1.1 Permissive stress value σa determined according to following formula:
σR
σa =
νR
Where:
σR: is drawing durabilitty limit of material;
ν R : is safety coefficient correlative to each case of loading capacity (see 3.1.3).
2.3.1.1.2 Value of coefficient ν R

Accepted values for ν R given in Table 2.3.1.1.2


Table 2.3.1.1.2
Values ν R

Cases of loading capacity I and II III

Values ν R 2.2 1.8

In case of gray casting iron, values of ν R are increased more 25%.

71
2.3.1.1.3 Relation between calculating stress and permissive stress
According to kind of considering loading capacity, following relations need to be checked,
where:
σl : calculating drawing stress;
σC : calculating compressing stress;
σf : calculating flexural stress;
τ : calculating shearing stress.
1) Pure drawing : 1.25σl ≤ σa
2) Pure compression : σc ≤ σa
3) Pure flexure : σf ≤ σa
4) Combination flexure and drawing : 1.25σl + σf ≤ σa
5) Combination flexure and compressing: σc + σf ≤ σa
6) Pure shearing : 3τ ≤ σ a

7) Combination of drawing, flexure and shearing: (1.25σ l + σ f ) + 3τ 2 ≤ σ a


2

8) Combination of compression, flexure and shearing: (σ c + σ l )2 + 3τ 2 ≤σa

2.3.1.2 Checking longitudinal flexure stability


Mechanism parts of longitudinal flexure bearing are designed for being suitable to regulations
stated in 2.2.2, checking calculating stress does not exceed limited stress determined same as
a function of one ultimate stress, which is higher this ultimate stress can happen stability
loosing due to longitudinal flexure.
For this checking must count to coefficient γm, value of this coefficient depends on the group
of which mechanism is classified (see Table 2.1.6).
Checking mechanism parts of longitudinal flexure bearing given in Annex 3.
2.3.1.3 Checking fatigue durability
Fatigue durability of one mechanism part of lifting equipment is mainly determined according
to:
- Making material of part;
- Shape, surface statement, rusty state, size (effect of rate) and other factors which arise
stresses concerntration;
- Rate k between maximum and minimum stress happen in alterative stress cycles.
- Stresses spectrum;
- Number of stress cycles.
Fatigue durability of mechanism part is determined only in exceptional cases. In general,
fatigue durability can obtain is that starts from properties of material and of part and rules
relative to activities of mechanism part.

72
That starting point is fatigue durable limit under the effect of alterative drawing loading
capacity (k=-1) of smooth sample made from considering material. Reducing of this fatigue
durability is due to its shape, surface statement, rusty state and size of part calculated by
putting out suitable coefficients.
From fatigue durable limit under the effect of alterative loading capacity, can determine one
limit correlative to suppositions which are applied to create into shape of durability curves.
Therefore, fatigue durability limit is determined for mechanism part of true lifting equipment,
and the rate k between extremum stresses are taken as a basis to draw WOHLER curve
depending on fixed suppositions. From WOHLER curve (fatigue is only under the effect of
stress cycles with same rate k between extremum stresses), can use supposition PALMGREN-
MINER of destruction due to fatigue to determine fatigue durability of mechanism part
correletive to group which the part is classified.
Checking fatigue durability only need carry out for loading capacity case I.
At the part with number of stress cycles is smaller than 8000, it is unnecessary to check
fatigue.
2.3.1.4 Checking wear level
In case the parts are worn, physical factors effect to the wear such as surface pressure or
rotary speed need to determine. The data need base on true experience for them not to be
worn excessively.
2.3.2 Design calculation for important parts
2.3.2.1 Choosing anti-friction rest
To choose anti-friction post, firstly need check rest can bear:
- Static loading capacity can bear in case of the most disadvantage loading capacity, in cases
of loading capacity I, II or III, and
- Maximum active loading capacity in loading capacity case I or II.
2.3.2.1.2 Average loading capacity of loading bearing rest type SM
Counting to alteractive of loading capacities type SM in active cycles, average loading
capacity correlative to SM mean is determined with supposition that the effect is unchanged
during theoretical longevity was determined in 2.3.2.1.1.
SM mean is determined by multiplying with SM max II (1) determined in 2.1.6.4.1 and 2.1.6.4.2,
with third root of loading spectrum coefficient determined in 2.1.1.3.3.
SM mean = 3 K m S M max II (1)

2.3.2.1.2.1 Determing average loading capacity SM mean on anti-friction rest in combination


movement
In case combination movements raise centre of gravity of moving quantities with horizontal
transposition (for example changing unbalanced arm’s reach), average loading capacity SM
mean is determined by combination:

- Average loading capacity is caused by movement with acceleration and the effect of wind
same as determined on 2.3.2.1.2, with
- Average loading capacity is caused by vertical transposition of gravity centre of moving
quantities, dertermined by formula:

73
2S M max + S M min
SM mean =
3
Where: SM max and SM min are maximum and minimum values of correlative loading capacities.
2.3.2.1.3 Average loading capacity of the rests bears the effect of loading capacity type SR.
Extremum loading capacity
SR max and SR min in case of loading capacity I for lifting equipment which is not effected by
wind or in case of loading capacity II effected by wind (see 2.1.6) is considered and the rest is
designed for average loading capacity determined according to following formula:
2S R max + S R min
SR mean =
3
and it is effected during the theoretical longevity on 2.3.2.1.1.
2.3.2.1.4 Average loading capacity of the rests is effected by loading capacity type SM and SR
simultaneously.
Depending on the basis of the things stated at the above, equivalent average loading capacities
are determined for each type of loading capacity SM and SR supposed that effects
independently and the rest is chosen for equivalent average loading capacity from
combination of the two average loading capacities SM and SR.
2.3.2.2 Choosing cable
Following rules’ purpose is determining minimum requirements for choosing cable used on
lifting equipments belong to scope of this norm.
The rules applied for suitable kind of cable with recommendation 2408 of ISO standard:
“Steel cable in common using -properties”.
These below methods are supposed that cable is lubricated fully, diameter of pulley and drum
for winding cable is chosen to be suitable to 2.3.2.3 and while using, the cable must be
maintenanced, checked and replaced periodically to suit to recommendation 4309 of ISO
standard “cable checking”.
Choosing cable diameter (and diameter of cable winding on 2.3.2.3) bases on group of lifting
mechanism. However, requirement for lifting equipments is that must be assemle and
disassemble (for example tower crane in construction), cable is usually changed, allows
choosing cable of loading lifting at the group right under the lifting mechanism but not lower
than group M3.
For lifting equipments used to load dangerous commodity (such as melting steel, high
radioactive goods or highly causing goods, etc), choosing cable and pulleys should taken at
mechanism group right on the group which lifting equipment is classified normally.
Group M5 is the lowest group to choose cable and pulley used for loading dangerous goods.
For transportation mechinism for person, group M8 is the lowest group to choose cable and
pulley used.
2.3.2.2.1 Choosing cable diameter
Two methods can be used to choose:
- Method of using minimum true safety coefficient Zp (see 2.3.2.2.1.2) is applied for active
cable and static cable (same as binding cable).

74
- Method of coefficient C (see 2.3.2.2.1.3) is only applied for active cable.
2.3.2.2.1.1 General basis for the two methods
2.3.2.2.1.1.1 Determing maximum drawing force S in lifting cables (except for cable of
morticed bucket)
Maximum drawing force is determined by calculating to following factors:
- Maximum safe working of lifting equipment;
- Weight of pulley group and of loading equipment, weight of themselves are added lifting
loading, make force for drawing cable increasing;
- Effection of passing through the cable;
- Loading capacities caused by acceleration if these loadings are bigger than 10% vertical
loading capacity.
- Oblique level of cable at the highest position if oblique angle of lifting cable is bigger than
lifting axis 22.5o.
2.3.2.2.1.1.2 Determining maximum drawing force S in the cable, is not loading lifting cable
Determining maximum drawing force S in different cables which it is not cable used to lift
vertical loading basing on loading capacities determined in cases of loading capacity I or II,
with consiering to the most disadvantage can happen and repeat in normal using.
For the cable which causes horizontal movement of loading, it is necessary to consider to
loading from rolling and friction movement, and maximum oblique level of the rest which the
loading moves on it, can be supposed that partial is under the effect of normal loading.
2.3.2.2.1.1.3 Determining maximum drawing force S in cable of morticed bucket (lifting and
close-open)
In case that the morticed hanging equipment where weight of lifting loading is not always
distributed regularly between the cable used to make morticed bucket and the cable used to
lift morticed bucket in one lifting cycle, value of cable drawing force S is determined as
follows:
1) If the system is used automatically, ensure to distribute regularly the lifting loading
between closing cable and cable of lifting bucket, or any difference between closing cable
loading capacity or at the period of opening bucket, S shall be determined as follows:
a) Closing bucket cable: S = 66% weight of bucket with loading devided by number of cable
for closing morticed bucket.
b) Cable used for lifting bucket: similar percentage.
2) If the system does not ensure to distribute regularly loading between closing cable and
bucket lifting cable automatically in lifting movement, and in fact almost loadings both effect
to bucket closing cable, drawing force S shall be determined as follows:
a) Bucket closing cable: S = total weight of mortised bucket with loading devided by number
of bucket closing cable lines.
b) Bucket lifting cable: S = 66% total weight of mortised bucket with loading devided by
number of lifting cable lines.
2.3.2.2.1.2 Using minimum true safety coefficient Zp method
Minimum true safety coefficient Zp is the rate between:

75
- Minimum loading capacity of breaking-down drawing Fo of cable (minimun break-down
drawing loading must be determined when carrying out testing for breaking-down drawing),
- and maximum force of cable drawing S in the cable.
F0
Zp =
S
2.3.2.2.1.2.1 Choosing cable
Chosen cable should have minimum true safety coefficient equal to minimum value Zp for
mechanism group (see Table 2.3.2.2.1.2.1).
Table 2.3.2.2.1.2.1
Safety coefficient Zp

Minimum value Zp
Mechanism
group
Active cable Static cable

M1 3.15 2.5

M2 3.35 2.5

M3 3.55 3

M4 4 3.5

M5 4.5 4

M6 5.6 4.5

M7 7.1 5

M8 9 5

2.3.2.2.1.3 Method of coefficient C


Definitions:
C = coefficient of choosing cable;
S = maximum drawing force which effects to cable when using;
d = rated diameter of cable;
f = fully filling coefficient of cable;
R0 = minimum drawing durable limit of cable wire;
k’ = experiment coefficient for minimum break-down drawing loading for known
cable structure.

76
π
k’ = . f .k
4
2.3.2.2.1.3.1 Choosing cable
When structure is known, minimum break-down drawing force of cable and mechanism
group, coefficient C can be determined according to following formula:
Zp Zp
C= =
π k ' Ro
k. f . Ro
4
Where: Zp is minimum value for active cable is determined in Table 2.3.2.2.1.2.1, correlative
to mechanism group chosen for cable.
Rated diameter of cable must be so that:
d≥C S
2.3.2.2.1.3.2 Calculationg for guarantee coefficient C
Value of C is calculated on the basis:
- Coefficient Zp correlative to lifting equipment mechanism group;
- Durable limit of breaking-down drawing of steel which makes into cable wire;
- Coefficient k’ (or coefficient k and f) is guaranteed by manufacturer if cable has special
structure. In this case, certificate supplied by manufacturer should note clearly guarantee
values k’.
2.3.2.3 Choosing pulley, drum for winding cable and equipment for clamping cable
2.3.2.3.1 Minimum diameter for winding cable
Minimum diameter for winding cable is determined as following formula:
D ≥ H.d
Where:
D: Winding diameter on pulley, drum or balanced pulley measured until axis of cable.
H: Coefficient of depending on mechanism group.
d: Rated diameter of cable.
Notes: Refer to 2.3.2.2 for lifting equipment mechanism group.
2.3.2.3.1.1 Value of H
Minimum values of coefficient H depend on lifting equipment mechanism group, given in
Table 2.3.2.3.1.1 for drum, pulley and balanced pulley.
Coefficients in Table are suitable for nowadays common kinds of steel cable and base on the
experiment relative to their working condition.

77
Table 2.3.2.3.1.1
Values of H

Mechanism
Drum Pulley Balanced pulley
group

M1 11.2 12.5 11.2

M2 12.5 14 12.5

M3 14 16 12.5

M4 16 18 14

M5 18 20 14

M6 20 22.4 16

M7 22.4 25 16

M8 25 28 18

2.3.2.3.1.2 Pay attention


When using given formula in 2.3.2.2.1 to determining minimum cable diameter from which
determing minimum diameter of drum and pulley, cable with diameter bigger than minimum
calculated cable diameter can be used as long as using cable diameter cannot be bigger than
minimum cable diameter 25% and as long as cable drawing force cannot exceed value of
drawing force S which is used to calculate the minimum cable diameter.
2.3.2.3.2 Radius of slot bottom of cable winding
Effective longevity of cable does not only depend on diameter of pulley and drum but also
depends on effecting pressure between cable and slot of supporting cable.
Radius of slot of supporting cable r can be determined according to following formula:
r = 0.53d
Where: d is rated diameter of cable.
2.3.1.3.3 Equipment for clamping and holding cable
Cable clampers should be designed so that can bear one drawing force equal to 2.5 times of
maximum cable drawing force S but are not deformed permanently.
Cable clamping devices on drum of winding cable should be designed so that can bear on
drawing force equal to 2.5 times of maximgum drawing force S, with considering to friction
force of remaining winding round on the drum, total friction force and cable holding force.
Friction coefficient between cable and winding drum used for calculation is taken as:
μ = 0.1

78
When cable is disengaged out of the winding drum, at least there are two fully winding rounds
to have to be left on drum at the front of the end for fixing cable.
2.3.2.4 Choosing wheels run on rail-track:
To choose wheels run on rail-track, their diameters are determined by considering:
- Loading capacity effects to the wheels;
- Material quality for making the wheels;
- Kind of rail-track where the wheels run on;
- Rotary speed of wheel;
- Classification of mechanim group.
2.3.2.4.1 Size of rail wheel
To determin size of rail wheel should carry out following checkings:
- Wheel can bear maximum loading capacity which effects to according to calculation;
- Wheel permit lifting equipment operates normally but is not worn unusual.
The two requirements should be checked by counting root according to two following
formulas:
pmeanIII
≤ PL .c1max .c2 max < 1.38PL ≈ 1.4 PL
b.D
Take c1 max = 1.2 and c2 max = 1.15
pmeanI ,II
and ≤ PL .c1.c2
b.D
Where:
D: is diameter of rail wheel (mm);
b: effective width of rail (mm);
PL: limited pressure depends on material of making wheel (N/mm2);
c1: coefficient depends on mechanism group;
P mean III: average loading capacity wheel must bear in loading capacity case III calculated
according to 2.3.2.4.1.1, (N);
P mean I,II : average loading capacity on loading capacity case I or II.
2.3.2.4.1.1 Determing average loading capacity
To determine average loading capacities, process is that considers maximum and minimum
laoding capacities which wheel must bear in cases of considering loading capacity, it means
for lifting equipment with normal operation but ignore power coefficient ψ when determining
P mean I,II and for lifting equipment without operation for P mean III. Value of Pmean in three cases
of loading capacity I, II and III is determined by following formulas:
pmin I ,II ,III + 2 Pmax I ,II ,III
P mean I,II,III =
3
2.3.2.4.1.2 Determining effective width b of rail

79
For the rails with flat surface of loading bearing and the whole width l with angle of turning
round of radius r at each side, their effective width b are determined as following formula:
b = l – 2.r
For the rails with convex arched surface of loading bearing, b is determined as follows:
4
b=l- r (l)
3

Notes: (1) With same width of rail head, but this formula for effective width of loading
bearing of rail has convex arched surface of loading bearing bigger than rail with flat surface
of loading bearing. This shows that rail has small convex arched surface is more suitable for
rolling movement of the wheel.
2.3.2.4.1.3 Determining limited pressure PL
Value of PL given in Table 2.3.2.4.1.3 is as a function of durable limit of material for making
the wheel.
Table 2.3.2.4.1.3
Values of PL

Durable limit of material for making wheel PL (M/mm2)

σR > 500 N/mm2 5.0

σR > 600 N/mm2 5.6

σR > 700 N/mm2 6.5

σR > 800 N/mm2 7.2

Quality of material is relative to cast iron, forging steel or rolling steel and spherulitic cast
iron.
In case rail wheel is covered, it is necessary to pay attention quality of cover and cover should
have enough thickness for it not to roll to the outside itself.
In case rail wheels made by steel with high durability and treated to ensure surface hardness
high, numeric value PL is limited to value of steel for making wheel before treating surface
according to Table 2.3.2.4.1.3 because higher value shall make rail-track wear quickly.
However, for loading capacity given in advanced, the type of wheels shall have bigger
longevity than the wheels have lower surface hardness and are used in case lifting equipment
operates with high strength.

80
If can, should use kind of rail wheel made by normal cast iron, especially cast iron which
tempered has very good surface hardness. It is necessary to pay attention cast wheels have
brittle property and when using should avoid to letting wheel move with high speed or avoid
bounce and shake loadings. When using kinds of cast iron wheel, their diameters are
determined by taking PL = 5N/mm2.
2.3.2.4.1.4 Determining coefficient C1
Values c1 depend on rolling speed of wheel and given in Table 2.3.2.4.1.4.a.
Similar values are also given in Table 2.3.2.4.1.4.b same as a function of wheel diameter and
moving speed of wheel metre/minute.
Table 2.3.2.4.1.4.a
Values of c1

Rotary speed of wheel Rotary speed of wheel Rotary speed of wheel


C1 C1 C1
(round/minute) (round/minute) (round/minute)

200 0.66 50 0.94 16 1.09

160 0.72 45 0.96 14 1.1

125 0.77 40 0.97 12.5 1.11

112 0.79 35.5 0.99 11.2 1.12

100 0.82 31.5 1 10 1.13

90 0.84 28 1.02 8 1.14

80 0.87 25 1.03 6.3 1.15

71 0.89 22.4 1.04 5.6 1.16

63 0.91 20 1.06 5 1.17

56 0.92 18 1.07 - -

Wheel Values of coefficient c1 for moving speed (m/mimute)


diameter
(mm) 10 12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250

200 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.77 0.72 0.66 - - -

250 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.77 0.72 0.66 - -

315 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.77 0.72 0.66 -

400 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.77 0.72 0.66

500 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.77 0.72

81
630 1.17 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.77

710 - 1.16 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.1 1.07 1.04 1.02 0.99 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.84 0.79

800 - 1.17 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.82

900 - - 1.16 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.1 1.07 1.04 1.02 0.99 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.84

1 000 - - 1.17 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.87

1 120 - - - 1.16 1.14 1.13 1.12 1.1 1.07 1.04 1.02 0.99 0.96 0.92 0.89

1 250 - - - 1.17 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.03 1 0.97 0.94 0.91

2.3.2.4.1.5 Determining coefficient c2


Coefficient c2 depends on sub-group of mechanism and given in Table 2.3.2.4.1.5
Table 2.3.2.4.1.5
Values of c2

Sub-group of mechanism C2

M1 to M4 1.12

M5 1

M6 0.9

M7 to M8 0.8

2.3.2.4.2 Attentions
Attention 1:
These above formulas are only applied for wheels which their diameters are not bigger than
1.25m. For bigger diameter, experiment showed that the permissive pressure between rail and
wheel is necessary to be reduced.
Attention 2:
It necessary to pay attention limited pressure PL is relation pressure determined by supposition
that the touching between wheel and rail happens on the surface which its width is effective
width of rail determined above (item 2.3.2.4.1.2) and its length is diameter of wheel.
Calculation method established above starts from application of formula HERTZ set up as
follows:
σ cg2 p
=
0.35E b.D
Where:

82
σcg: compression stress in the wheel and rail (N/mm2);
E: elastic modullus of making material (N/mm2);
P: loading capacity effects to the wheel (N);
b: effective width of rail (mm);
D: diameter of wheel (mm).
σ cg2
Placing KL show for value with dimensional is pressure N/mm2, with following
0.35E
relation:
p
KL =
b.D
and KL is specific for pressure of wheel effects to rail. The formula in 2.3.2.4.1 determined by
setting:
KL = PL.c1.c2
2.3.2.5 Gear design
Choosing design calculating method of gears is carried out by manufacturers who are
responsible to point out origin of chosen method, loading capacities which should consider
are determined according to instructions in 2.1.6.
In case of calculation with considering to operating time, it should use number of convention
hours determined in 2.1.1.3.2.
2.4 Electric equipment
2.4.1 Electric source supplying
2.4.1.1 Properties of electric source supplying system
2.4.1.1.1 Voltage
These regulations are applied for AC electric source supplying systems standardized with low
voltage (smaller than 1000V).
2.4.1.1.2 Drop of voltage
Alteration of voltage at the point for connecting source electric grid to electric source
supplying system of lifting equipment cannot exceed ±5% rated voltage value of the system in
normal working conditions.
2.4.1.2 Equipment of ON-OFF electric source and safety equipments between electric
source supplying system and electric grid.
- Electric source supplying system should be switched-off by circuit breaker connecting to
electric grid; these circuit breakers should be determined to be suitable to electric grid.
- Area circuit breakers should be arranged at the positions which easy to touch in operation
range of lifting equipment or should be remoted. In necessary case, it should be arranged fast
paths lead to them.
- For cranes with hermetic electric conducting system or laying electric cable (using electric
cables winding and laying drum system), it is unnecessary to arrange main circuit breaker on

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the crane. In this case, fast paths to circuit breaker positions can be remissed if can switch off
from the ground.
- In case there are many branches connecting to the same electric grid for electric source
supplying system, each branch of source electric supply should be put one circuit breaker and
all of these branches should be connected to one general circuit breaker to be able to switch
off sub-circuit simultaneously.
- Switching-off again circuit of multi-branch electric source supplying system only can carry
out at one unique position, circuit breakers of each branch with control equipment should be
marked. For example: source electric supplying circuit breaker for lifting equipment No.3.
- Circuit breakers and control equipments for circuit of switching-off again should be
designed to protect safety for every wrong case.
2.4.1.3 Source electric system
2.4.1.3.1 Electric conduction bar – electric cable winding drum
2.4.1.3.1.1 Electric conduction bar and safety electric collecting rim (grounding)
When supplying electric by connecting bar or electric collecting rim, electric conduction bars
and electric collecting rim, it should be identified clearly to ensure safety; should not use the
protecting conduction bar same as an electric conduction bar.
Lifting equipment should be connected to safety conduction bar through sliding clog.
Do not use wheels and rollers same as connection thing replacing for safety conduction bar.
Current sensor for safety conduction bar should be designed so that they cannot replace
together for current sensor of electric conduction bar.
2.4.1.3.1.2 Arrangement
Electric conduction bars must be arranged or protected by guarding so that cannot touch
because of no attention. For example: when touching paths, corridors, banisters or floors of
lifting equipments.
Electric conduction bars must be arranged so that lifting purchase cannot touch to them even
when loading capacity is shaken.
2.4.1.3.1.3 Minimum opening gap
Minimum opening gap between parts which have electric current going through togetther, and
between parts which have electric current going through and grounding parts must be ensured
is 10mm. For equipments manufactured and inspected at factory and for equipments have
working voltage smaller than or equal to 500V, the abobe opening gap is 6mm.
2.4.1.3.2 Soft electric cable
Soft electric cable should be arranged and moved so that can protect from being worn and
pulling strongly. Drum for winding soft cable should be designed so that inner diameter of
drum at least is 10 times of outside diameter of cable for cables with outside diameter smaller
than or equal to 21.5mm and at least is equal to 12.5 times of outside diameter of cable for
cables with outside diameter bigger than 21.5mm.
In case soft cable of trolley is suspended according to type of wire sliding along to the beam,
for cable with outside diameter smaller than or equal to 8mm, bending diameter of inside wire
should be equal to 6.3 times of outside diameter of cable. For cable with outside diameter
bigger than 8mm, bending diameter of inside wire at least should be equal to 8 times of

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outside diameter of cable. For cable with outside diameter bigger than 12.5 times, bending
diameter of inside wire at least should be equal to outside diameter of cable.
In case it is flatten cable, length of cable is correlative to diameter of round cable.
Unchanged drawing force effects to cable should be the smaller the better. For cable is not
reinforced to increase durability and symetrically, maximum drawing pressure effect to total
section of copper cores of the whole cable is 20N/mm2.
When cable must move quickly or has considerable weight, it should have necessary method
to prevent cable from drawing with excessive tension.
Cable should be winded into drum automatically.
2.4.1.3.3 Calculation for electric conduction bars
Horizontal section of electric conduction bars is determined:
- Same as a function of permissive maximum heating strength;
- Same as a function of permissive maximum dropping of voltage.
One of the two conditions shall give one minimum section of conduction bar, which section is
bigger shall be chosen.
2.4.1.3.3.1 Calculation for minimum horizontal section relative to electric current and thermal
capacity of conduction bar.
Minimum horizontal section relative to current and heat strength is stipulated in technical
documents of manufacturer.
When calculating horizontal section relative to permissive rated heat strength IN for
conduction bar of source supplying for many lifting equipments, simultaneous operation of
driving electric motor should be considered. In case there are not precise data, see Table
2.4.1.3.3.1.
Table 2.4.1.3.3.1

For all lifting equipments on


Number of lifting equipments
general (Ix)
supplied source on the same
conduction bar and source
First Second Third Fourth
electric grid
motor motor motor motor

1 x x

2 x x x

3 x x x

4 x x x

5 x x x x

Two lifting equipments work


x x x x
simultaneously

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Notes: (1)For driving by n of parallel putting motors: IN = n x IN
IN = rated current for I motor.
2.4.1.3.3.2 Calculating horizontal section relative to permissive drop level of voltage
When calculating to drop level of voltage, the most disadvantage position of lifting equipment
relative to source supply point should be considered.
When calculating to permissive drop of voltage on source supplying electric grid, starting
current strength and rated current of simultaneous operating motors should be considered. In
case without precise data, see Table 2.4.1.3.3.2.
Table 2.4.1.3.3.2

For all lifting equipments on general (Ix)


Number of lifting equipments
supplied source on the same First Second Third Fourth
conduction bar and source motor motor motor motor
electric grid
ID IN ID IN ID IN ID IN

1 x x

2 x x x

3 x x

4 x x x

5 x x x x

Two lifting equipments work


x x x x
simultaneously

For motors of cargo rotor ID (starting current strength), refer to technical document of
manufacturer.
For motors of collecting rim, consider ID is approximated to 2 x IN.
For driving by n parallel putting motors, consider n x ID or n x IN.
Motors should be arranged same as the table suitable to their starting current strength (ID).
Calculating section of 3-phase electric conduction bar:

3.λ.I tol . cos ϕ


S= (mm2) (1)
Δu.k
S : horizontal section (mm2);
λ : effective length of conduction bar (m);
I tol : total of current strengths ID and IN (A);
Δu : permissive drop level of voltage (V);

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⎛ m ⎞
k : conductive level ⎜ 2 ⎟
⎝ Ω.mm ⎠
cosϕ : capacity coefficient.
Notes: (1) For long conductive bar, resistant sensivity need to be considered.
2.4.2 Installation for electric cables and electric conduction wires
2.4.2.1 Choosing electric cables and electric conduction wires
Electric cables and electric conduction wires are chosen to be suitable to true using properties.
Bared electric cables and wires only can be used in electric cabinets in the house and in spaces
covered with special insulation.
2.4.2.2 Calculating horizontal section of electric conductive wires
Horizontal section of conductive wires should be determined to meet required mechanical
durability and electric transmition.
For usually using conductive wires, drop level of voltage should be considered.
Horizontal section of conductive wires should be determined when considering to:
- Heat capacity of conductive wire is suitable to Table 2.4.2.2.
Table 2.4.2.2

Permissive current for electric conductive


Horizontal
wires covered insulation at environment
section area
temperature 400C for one using coefficient as:

100% 60% 40%


mm2
A A A

1.5 18 18 20

2.5 26 26 30

4 34 34 40

6 44 44 50

10 61 61 75

16 82 87 105

25 108 120 145

35 135 145 175

50 168 180 210

70 207 240 270

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95 250 270 330

120 292 310 380

150 335 350 430

- Calculating drop level of voltage:


Δu = 3λI (r cos ϕ + χ sin ϕ )
Δu : drop level of voltage;
λ : length;
I : starting current of motor;
r : resistance per one unit of length;
x : resistant sensitivity per one unit of length;
Permissive minimum horizontal section area of copper conductive wires:
- 1.5 mm2 for multi-strap electric conductive wire;
- 0.75 mm2 for soft conductive wires covered to protect;
- 0.25 mm2 for soft conductive wires connecting among electronic parts.
No accept electric conductive wires with solid core.
2.4.2.3 Installation condition
Protecting type for equipments of connection and distribution should be suitable to surround
environment, protection grade at least is IP 43 according to IEC 144 standard.
Connecting panels should be put in electric cabinet or electric box.
Connecting panels can lead to danger when happen problem must be put separatedly with
other connecting panel except for connecting design has already prevented this danger in
advance.
In order to protect from mechanical crashes, electric cables and wires go through protection
pipes set hermetically at the head or such similar equipments.
Electric cables and wires are installed in electric circuit with different rated voltage can be
arranged in a participle hermetic box or can be separated out as long as these electric cables or
wires must be insulated, prevent rated voltage at the highest level.
Conductive wires covered with insulation independently can only be installed in spouts or in
the pipe that their ends are protected suitably.
Conductive wires and electric cables not covered are installed into structural parts, it should
be protected to prevent against any damages because of mechanical wear and tension
drawing.
2.4.3 Electric protection and safety equipment
2.4.3.1 Protecting electric motors
2.4.3.1.1 Electric motors are used according to rule of continuous operation or short-term
time (S1-S2 on regulation of IEC 341).

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In this case, can be protected by:
- Or by temperature sensors putting inside the motor;
- Or by reverse alternative time relays or by fixed time thermal relays on each phase of
source.
2.4.3.1.2 Electric motor is used according to broken acting rule (S3 - S8 on regulation of
IEC 341)
When operating cycle is known, time of operation and addition charge and motor are rated
correlative, protection for overload is uneccessary.
2.4.3.2 Protection for electric wire
Electric section should be determined according to electric current which electric wire must
be born in process that motor run normally and process of starting motor or braking.
Any additional charge can be protected or not, all of electric wires must be protect from over-
current can be caused by consequence of short circuit of insulation covering is damage.
2.4.3.3 Protecting from phase loosing and reversal
When starting, the right order of phase should be ensured. If phase loosing can cause danger,
it must be applied suitable safety methods.
2.4.3.4 Operation of protecting equipments
When there are many motors drive the same movement, operation of safety equipment must
have possibility to stop all of motors used for this movement.
After safety equipment already operated, it only can be started by manual for motor operating
again.
2.4.3.5 Protection and prevention of thunder and thunderbolt actions.
Should consider thunder and thunderbolt actions on:
- The structural parts at the top of the lifting equipments installed outdoor
easily affected by thunderbolt (e.g. crane support cables);
- The anti-friction type support bearings or moving parts formed the
connection between the major parts of the lifting equipments (e.g. rotary wheels, moving
wheels).
While necessary, should carry out the protection and prevention of thunder and thunderbolt
actions under the definitions of the IEC TC 81 standard.
To protect the safety of people, the rails of the lifting equipments must be connected to earth.
2.4.4 The travel limit switches (end break)
2.4.4.1 Limit switches
The movement was driven by electric motor of lifting equipment referred to items from
2.4.4.1.1 to 2.4.4.1.4 shall be equipped with at least one limit switch auto switch-off to
prevent over safety limit movement. Limit switches impact as a safety limitation, and should
not be as a driven element. When the limit switches operate on circuit principles, then each
structure should satisfy the following conditions:
2.4.4.1.1 Load lifting structure
- Load lifting movement over lifting position;

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- Lower load movement over lower load position of cable, when the crane hook is
located on the ground, not enough 02 safety cable winding circles on reel.
2.4.4.1.2 Crane lifting and lowering structures (main crane, auxiliary crane, console of
crane port)
- Crane lifting movement to raise the highest position allowed;
- Lower crane movement to move down to the lowest position allowed; in certain
circumstances; this function can be performed by limit moment structure.
2.4.4.1.3 Structures of horizontal movement, vertical movement and distribution
If the vertical movement or horizontal movement is driven from the fixed control position by
remote control or by radio waves, then these movements should be automatically limited.
In the case of crane equipped cars to run on crane, the movement of cars must be limited to
just before the car ran to the ends of crane. These limit switches are not necessary for driven
by friction, if the moving speed of the cars less than or equal 0.4m/s and if the work load less
than 1000kgs.
2.4.4.1.4 Rotary structure
If using lifting equipment out of safety areas, the equipment must be equipped with rotary
limit switches.
2.4.4.2 The load moment and load limit structures
If lifting equipment is fitted with a load limit structure or load moment and if it is designed on
electrical operation principle, they must meet the technical conditions specified in item
2.4.4.3.
2.4.4.3 The technical operating conditions of the limit structures
Position limit switch or operation limit switch does not stop the moving mass and does not
cause stress for a part or whole lifting equipment.
Limit switch will interrupt the movement by stop electrical circuit and keep the position of
power interruption until the safety conditions to be restored.
Limit switch must be fitted with safety devices.
These safety devices should be:
- Or the structure works actively and to be driven by minimum intermediate
structural parts.
- Or by quick disconnect switches. In this case, the electric circuit with quick
disconnect switch which to be protected to prevent short circuits to ensure that the circuit
breaks not sticky.
- Or by a static system (electronic) for example: the early circuit breaks
moving close to the end.
If not avoid parallel setting of a safety equipment, this activity can only impact with the
support of a device that when the device does not work the safety devices will be reset.
After operates automatically, limit structure must be able to move on reverse direction.
The limit structural boxes to be installed at the dry places should have at least protection level
IP43. The limit structural boxes to be installed at the wet places or outdoor should have
protection level at least IP55.

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Temperature of the environment does not affect to the operation of the limit structure.
The range of changing temperature is 0oC to 40oC.
2.4.5 Control
2.4.5.1 Parts
2.4.5.1.1 Relays and switches
Relays and switches should be suitable with practical use conditions, particularly use grade.
In case the cranes are used at over 1000m in height, this height must be considered when
selecting the relays and switches.
The electric circuit transfer switches should be the interlock type of electrical drive or
mechanical drive.
Lifting equipments can only be activated when all control devices in “off” position. This “off”
position can be defined either by checking control circuits or by feedback spring.
2.4.5.1.2 The resistor
The resistor installed outside electric box of lifting equipment must be placed in the suitable
protection box should have protection level at least IP10 when arranged indoor, and level
IP13 when arranged outdoor as defined in the IEC 144 standard.
Do not use the resistance by liquid.
The temperature limit of the resistor is defined by the resistance material. When designing the
resistors should consider equivalent moment, factor of cycles, circuit transfer speed.
2.4.5.2 The electrical cabinets and boxes
Equipments, circuit transfer structure and electric panel can be protected as follows:
- In the electric cabinets or electric boxes;
- In the spaces with special protection;
- In the structures (longitudinal beams of gantry crane) of the lifting equipment.
If using the separate electric cabinets or boxes, then the electric cabinets and boxes must be
rigid and should have protection level at least IP43 when operating indoor and the protection
level IP55 when operating outdoor.
Electrical cabinet and electric boxes must be arranged with cabinet doors or box covers .
If on the cabinet doors installed with electrical equipments, then the electric cabinet doors
must be connected to earth by separate conductive wires.
The electric cabinet doors or electric box covers must be locked in “ON” state.
Should have a spare space in front of electrical boxes or electrical cabinets at least 400mm;
the floors of electrical cabinets and electrical boxes are without obstacles and must be rigid
enough.
2.4.5.3 Control type
2.4.5.3.1 Power cut
Lifting equipments must be arranged power cut devices that can lock in “ON” position. When
many lifting equipments are supplied power from the same power source, each lifting
equipment must be installed a power cut device that can be locked.

91
2.4.5.3.2 Features of control systems
Control system must be designed so that the load to 120% of the rated load, lifting equipment
can move safely.
Lifting 100% work load at 95% rated voltage would not result in any load moving at any
control position.
Lowering 100% work load should not be exceeding 120% of rated speed at any control
position, unless control circuits allow.
For the travel control system and crane rotary control, the start control and brake control shall
gradually increase in both directions.
2.4.5.3.3 Control circuits
If the control circuit to be supplied power through a transformer (or transformer with
redresser), the voltage of the secondary coil should not be exceeding 250V. Should ensure the
safety prevention of control moving incorrect due to short-circuit or in the connection joint of
common pole with the equipotential connection joint of the block, or by equivalent way, for
example insulation testing equipment.
The common poles shall not be disconnected by circuit transfer structure, by switch or fuse.
Should apply the suitable measures to protect the other pole to prevent short circuit or
overload.
If the control circuits are not supplied from transformers, should apply the equivalent safety
measures.
2.4.5.4 Control type
2.4.5.4.1 Activation
Lifting equipments can only be activated when all control equipments are in “OFF” position.
This “OFF” position can be defined either by blocking circuit or feedback spring.
2.4.5.4.2 Control from cabin
The controls must be arranged so that the operator has full visibility of all working area of
lifting equipment.
- The controls for lifting equipments are often arranged at the right hand side of the operator.
- A button switch in red color to stop all movements shall be located in easily accessible
locations on the control panel. The stop button switch should not be mechanical lock type.
2.4.5.4.3 Control from floor
Button switches or another circuit transfer devices must be automatically feedback to the
“OFF” position right after they are released must be arranged to control all movement by
control structures of suspensor type. Apart from movement control structures, should arrange
an additional device to open and close the main switch (as described in definition 2.4.5.4.2).
Unless control motors directly, the voltage at hanging type control structure should not be
exceeding 250V.
Casing of hanging type controls must be perfect insulating materials or the insulated sheathing
materials. The metal part outer insulating materials must be connected to earth.
Surface of casing must be colorful. Control structure operating indoor should have protection
level at least IP43, and outdoor should have protection level at least IP55 in accordance with
definition IEC144.

92
Control must be hanged by tension reduction structure.
2.4.5.4.4 Remote control by radio waves
For the control of crane by radio waves, the safety must be guaranteed:
- Control system should be "safe - reliable” type, and the wave receiving unit is only
compatible with a code of correlative broadcasting unit of each lifting equipment.
- Apart from control of movements, a device must be arranged to transfer circuit of the
main switch in “ON” state and “OFF” state.
- The movements to be controlled by buttons or working level should be assembled with
feedback spring to original "OFF" position. The control working levels are arranged either by
mechanical device to lock at the "OFF" position or by control circuits, not by manual
operated.
The broadcasting unit should have a protection level at least IP43 if used indoor and IP55 if
used outdoor.
2.4.5.4.5 Dual Control
When dual controls to be arranged for lifting equipments, only one control system always in
operating status (e.g. control from cabin or control from crane floor).
2.4.5.5 Brake control
2.4.5.5.1 Brake is connected directly with motor
Control circuit of brake structure must be protected by a disconnect device for motor and
brake in case of trouble.
If the distance between the operator and brake is ≤ 5m, the brake protective device is not
necessary.
2.4.5.5.2 Brake is isolable connected with motor
Should apply the precautionary measures so that there is not any movement which could not
be controlled happening before braking effects during starting and stopping.
When using electric brakes, the mechanical brakes only effect after the electric brakes
working.
Unless the transition states, the brake structure is not effect when the motor is activated.
2.4.5.5.3 Auxiliary brake structure:
The lifting equipments having special requirements, such as lifting the dangerous load or
lifting the melting materials, should arrange an auxiliary brake.
In normal operation status, the auxiliary brake effects only after the movement has been
reduced a half by main brake. Auxiliary brake structure can adjust this delay.
In case of emergency stop, the auxiliary brake structures have to work immediately.
2.4.6 Environment
2.4.6.1 Oil leakage
No parts of lubrication systems and hydraulic oil system or other equipments containing oil is
allowed to operate or to be installed in the positions that can cause oil leakage into the electric
equipment unless the electric equipment is protected from being damaged by this cause.

93
2.4.6.2 Environmental temperature
All the electrical equipments must be suitable for the continuous operation in the environment
with design temperature allowed. When electric equipments are installed in closed spaces (or
in the box beams of lifting equipment), should apply the measures to ensure that the
temperature is suitable the allowed temperature for operating functions of the equipments.
However, if low or high temperatures is estimated in advance, then the user will indicate the
temperature that the user require lifting equipment works and in these conditions the electric
equipments can either be designed according to indicated temperature or by other method,
that is arranging heating device or cooling device.
2.4.6.1 Humidity
All electric equipments must be suitable for use in the atmosphere with average humidity up
to 80% . If the estimated humidity is exceeding this humidity level, should apply the special
precautions including the arrangement of dryer and varnish coated equipment for moisture-
proof for electric parts easily damaged due to moisture sensibilities.
2.4.6.4 Protection level
The minimum protection level has identified in different items of this part with specific
installation categories. In case of installing environment requires protection lever higher or
additional protection to prevent dust, the protection level must be agreed between the
authorities concerned and designers.
2.4.7 Motor selection
2.4.7.1 General
Criteria for selecting the electric motor (the definition of standard IEC341):
- Required capacity
- Max. moment
- Coefficient of cycle operating time (coefficient of motor use)
- Starting level
- Control type
- Speed conditioner
- Power source type
- Protection level
- Environmental temperature
- Installation height (height on geography).
2.4.7.2 The definition of required capacity, max. moment and average equivalent moment
of motors.
2.4.7.2.1 Loading motor
2.4.7.2.1.1 Parameters
For the loading motor, max. required capacity PN max (kW) is defined by the following
formula:

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Where:
L: max. allowance lifting capacity (N);
VL: lifting speed (m/s);
η: Coefficient of performance for the structure.
From this formula, the maximum rated moment required for load lifting can be defined by:

Where:
MN max = max. moment (Nm);
PN max = required max. capacity (kW);
n = rotation speed of motor (rpm.)
To be able to increase the moment in case of accelerating, in the load testing or for the
compensation for the variation of voltage and main frequency, the moment of motor must be
satisfying at least the following conditions:
For cage rotor motor:

Where: Mmin = min. moment of motor during starting process.


For slip ring rotor motor:

Where: Mmax = max. moment of motor


For direct current motor (DC motor) and controlled by thyristor:

Safety is assured if braking moment of motor MF:

2.4.7.2.1.2 Calculation of exothermal of motor


Average equivalent moment:
To carry out the calculation of exothermal, should calculate average equivalent moment as
function of loading spectra of lifting equipment by the following formula:

95
Where:
t1, t2, t3 are the cycles creating different moment values: not consider inoperative motor
cycles.
Using the average equivalent moment, average equivalent capacity is defined by the following
formula:

Therefore, the defined motor can be selected for the following types of operation:
- S3 operating mode, provided that the average equivalent capacity must be
considered inertial moment of driven mass.
- S4 or S5 operating mode, with consideration numbers of actual starting
times or numbers of starting and braking (electromagnetic brake).
The average capacity must be adjusted as a function of height on geography (Figure
2.4.7.2.1.2.a) and environmental temperature for motor cooling (Figure 2.4.7.2.1.2.b). For the
specific using positions (such as: steel plant, casting factory), the protection level must be
selected accordingly.

Figure 2.4.7.2.1.2.a Figure 2.4.7.2.1.2.b


KH: coefficient of adjustment KT: coefficient of adjustment for
for height on geography cooling environmental temperature.

In case of using electromagnetic brake, should consider the additional arising heat (depending
on the type of brakes).

96
In case of capacity control of electromagnetic type, should consider speed range control type
and motor cooling system.

Coefficient of motor use:


For S4 or S5 operation type, the coefficient of motor use is calculated by the following
formula:

operation time
ED = x 100%
operation time + break time

This formula is only applied when the cycle time not exceeding 10 minutes.
Starting level of motor
Starting level is defined by the following general formula:
c = dc + q.di + r.f
Where:
dc = numbers of starts in 1 hour
di = numbers of pulses or numbers of unsuccessful starts;
f = numbers of operations of electromagnetic brake;
q and r = coefficients set up by the motor manufacturer and depend on type of motor, type of
electromagnetic brake, etc.
The numeric values are usually applied for starting levels are 150, 300 and 600.
Motor capacity for operating modes S4 and S5 should be higher than or equal to the defined
average capacity for coefficient of use and starting level.
In general, coefficient of use and starting level can be selected according to the table below:
Table 2.4.7.2.1.2.a
Structural Lifting movement
group Starting level Coefficient of use
M1 90 15%
M2 120 20%
M3 150 25%
M4 180 30%
M5 240 40%
M6 300 50%
M7 360 60%
M8 ≥360 60%
For the driving motors with multi-speed, the values in the table applied to total coefficients of
use and starting level with different speeds.
For example, the following rates are applied to the system 2 - speed:

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Table 2.4.7.2.1.2.b

Low speed High speed

Starting level 2/3 1/3

Coefficient of use 1/3 2/3

2.4.7.2.2 Driving motor for transverse movements


2.4.7.2.2.1 Driving motors for transverse movement shall not have vertical transposition of
centre of gravity.
To choose the right movement driving motors, the value of all necessary moments (or
capacity) should be considered, with calculation of starting time, the numbers of start-up
cycles in 1 hour and the coefficient of motor use. The moment of movement driving motors
is limited by adhesion force of the passive wheels on rails.
Mechanical Parameters:
The definition of necessary max. moment.
The necessary max. moment is defined from the loads:
- Circumstance I - for lifting equipments not influenced by wind;
- Circumstance II - for lifting equipments influenced by wind.
Total forces (W) necessary to maintain the movement speed must be considered:
- Movement damping strength caused by static load (self weight) and the operating
conditions such as:
+ Deformation of moving surface;
+ Coefficient of friction between the wheels and rail flat surface and curved surface;
+ Actual wind strength;
+ Slope of rail;
+ Tension of winding cable;
- Acceleration moment MA
Besides necessary moment to maintain speed, the movement driving motor should transmit
acceleration moment (MA) required to achieve speed.
For the acceleration value, see Table 2.1.2.3.1.1
Average acceleration moment of the motor is defined by the following formula:

Where:

98
a: acceleration (m/s2)
mL: mass of useful lifting load (kg)
W: total damping force (N)
V: moving speed (m/s)
n: motor speed (rpm.)
η: whole structure performance
Σmn: total mass (kg), except work load.
Inertia of the motors related to linear movement is evaluated by the following formula:

Where:
JM: inertial moment of motor and brake (kgm2);
n: motor speed (rpm.)
V: travel speed (m/s);
η: whole structure performance
Calculation of exothermal
Definition of average equivalent moment.
To calculate the heat of motor, the average equivalent moment should be defined as a function
of loading spectra of lifting equipment:
If the work cycles of driven structure is known, or if the user and the manufacturer of lifting
equipment agreed to use the given working cycle approximate to the most disadvantageous
circumstances, Mn med is calculated by the formula:

Where: t1, t2, t3 is the working time for values of different moment including the values of
starting moment and average braking moment (electromagnetic brake).
The motor must be selected so that the rated moment of the motor in S3 operating mode for
operating coefficient is considered ≥ average equivalent moment.
In general, the coefficients of use and starting levels are selected under Table 2.4.7.2.2.1
below:

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Table 2.4.7.2.2.1

Transverse movements
Group
starting level Coefficient of use

M1 60 10%

M2 90 25%

M3 120 10%

M4 150 35%

M5 180 30%

M6 240 40%

M7 360 50%

M8 ≥360 60%

2.4.7.2.2.2 Transverse driving motor with vertical transposition of center of gravity.


The above research related to transverse movement without vertically transposition of center
of gravity can be applied by providing numeric values corresponding to the vertical
transposition of center of gravity of moving mass into the formula for calculation of max.
moment and average equivalent capacity.
2.4.7.2.2.3 Rotary movements
The calculation is carried out the same way as item 2.4.7.2.2.1, just only change the angle
speed instead of long speed.
2.4.7.2.2 Other method for calculation of motor with any movement.
If working cycle of driven structure is known, or if the user and the manufacturers of lifting
equipment agreed to use the given cycle approximate to the most disadvantageous
circumstances, the equivalent moment of the motor Mn med can be calculated under items
2.4.7.2.1 and 2.4.7.2.2.
In most cases, the users are unable to provide the exact details of the working cycles. In this
case, the following calculation method is used:
Suppose that the values of instant moment of motor under the time are given in the following
graph:

100
Graph 2.4.7.2.3
Moment of motor as a function of time

T = length of the cycle


fi = coefficient of use
fi.T = motor working time

When this real curve is drawn by taken fi.T as a unit of time, the following formula is defined:

Where:

Mmed = = average moment in fi.T time.


Mmax = max. moment value;
Mn med = Km. Mmax

Mmax shall be calculated as follows:


This is the value of max. instant moment, generally:
- For the driving structure of lifting movement when max. lifting load is
accelerating rapidly lifting to the possible grade, plus all other losses.
- For the movement driving structure, when the driven max. load with effect
of the wind. Or when the max. movement damping strength max. inertial moment appear with
all other losses.
Then Mmed shall be calculated.
This is the arithmetic average of the absolute values of the moment of motor in the operating
cycle.

101
In principle, Mmed is
- For lifting structure:

Where:
M∫ : necessary moment for lifting the rated load;
Km: coefficient of average lifting load, depending on the driving level of lifting equipment
(item 21.1.1.3.3);
fs: time coefficient of relative acceleration and deceleration.

Table 2.4.7.2.3

Type of use fs

lifting structure moving structure rotary structure

structural motor structural motor structural motor


brake brake brake brake brake brake

M1-M5 0.03 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3


General line M6 0.05 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.5
M7, M8 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6

M6 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6


Separate line
M7, M8 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 06 0.7

Mx = average arithmetic value of moment value of the motor during accelerating and
deceleration
- For the moving structure:

Where: Mf med is movement damping force caused by load Km.Mf.


When calculating of Mmed should not necessary to consider the effects of wind, slope of rail
and the tension of cable on reel, because when driving forwards and backwards they no longer
affect the formation of average moment.
Selection of motor:
The following process with consideration of losses when starting and the losses formed in
driven process that those losses depend on the moment of motor, but less dependent on rotary
speed.
In general, for slip ring rotor motor and DC motor

102
Require:

Where:
PN = rated power of motor under required coefficient of use ED.

(Mn med , see 2.4.7.2.3)

For the cage rotor motors when starting, or for some drives with electronic controls, the losses
of motor depend on loading moment and rotary speed.
For the cage rotor motors, should be calculated as follows:

and requires: Pa ≥ Pn med


W: required starting moment.
Wmax: Max. value of starting moment from fixed position.
For the drives with electronic controls, should be discussed with the manufacturer of motor.
2.4.7.3 Type of motors
2.4.7.3.1 DC Motors
The motors must be selected by the agreement with the manufacturer of motors, with
consideration of moments and power calculated in the previous items and the actual operating
conditions of motors.
2.4.7.3.2 AC Motors
2.4.7.3.2.1 Slip ring rotor motor:
Coefficients q and r to be defined in the formula for calculation of starting level in item
2.4.7.2.1.2 should be taken by 0.1 and 0.8 corresponding.
For the movements, the values of starting damping force should be defined so that the motor
with moment never been less than 1.2 times of moment in correlative with total required
forces to keep moving speed.
2.4.7.3.2.2 Cage rotor motor
Coefficients q and r defined in the formula for calculation of starting level in item 2.4.7.2.1.2
should be taken by 0.5 and 5 corresponding.
2.4.7.4 Motor protection level (according to standard IEC 34-5)
2.4.7.4.1 Motor protection level applied indoor
At least the motors must satisfy the requirements for protection level IP23.
In environmental with a lot of dust, at least the motors must satisfy the requirements for
protection level IP44.

103
2.4.7.4.2 Motor protection level applied outdoors.
At least the motors must satisfy the requirements for protection level IP55.
2.4.7.4.3 Motor protection level applied particularly.
The motors can satisfy the lower protection level if they are protected appropriately for their
own specific applications.
2.4.7.4.4 Environment with high risk of explosion
In the working environment with risk of explosion, the motor must be type of anti-explosion
motor (such as EN 50014 - EN50020).
2.4.8 Load carrying equipment
2.4.8.1 Power supply current
Because harsh working regulations that the current supply system must be carried, the
electrical equipment should be selected and installed with special care.
- Power supply cable can wind on the cable winding reel and mechanical durability
withstand exterior impacts and heat-resistant, should be suitable for the conditions of
exploitation and use.
- The measures to locate the power cables must be selected to avoid the tension in the
cable connection joints and to avoid damaging the cables.
- Power cable must be installed and conducted so as to avoid the possibility of cable
damage in exploitation and use.
2.4.8.2 Load carrying Electromagnet
2.4.8.2.1 Coil of wire
Insulation level of the coils must be selected by loss of productivity, environmental
temperature and if necessary by the temperature of lifting load.
2.4.8.2.2 Mode of use
The electromagnets for lifting general load to be designed with the coefficient of use by 50%.
Other coefficients must be agreed by and between the manufacturers and users.
2.4.8.2.3 Features
Lifting capacity of load lifting electromagnets must be specified for exactly lifting load at the
rated voltage and working temperature of the magnetic coil.
2.4.8.2.4 Coefficient of safety
Suction power of the electromagnet must be at least double lifting capacity.
2.4.8.2.5 Permanent power source supply
If a permanent power source supplied from battery, the load keeping time at least 20 minutes.
In this case, must arrange one charging device for the battery and one charging level indicator.
The use of permanent power source supply from the battery must be indicated by sound and
signal. If the battery voltage is not enough, there must be a device that prevents the use of
permanent power.
2.4.8.3 Grab bucket
2.4.8.3.1 Drive

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The driving motors (hydraulic-electric drive or electric-mechanical drive) must be designed
for operating mode S3, S4 or S6, depending on the type of application.
2.4.8.3.2 Protection level
In the general conditions of exploitation and use, motors and electrical equipments at least
should meet the protection level IP 55. For grab bucket underwater, the protection level
should be at least IP 57. Due to special working conditions of this equipment, the shock
pulses and the vibration should need special attention.
2.4.8.4 Load rotary equipment
2.4.8.4.1 Design
Load rotary equipment must be designed so that the load to be rotated accelerating and
braking that the cable shall not be twisted. Arrangement of lifting cables, load, loading height,
center of gravity and inertial moment of lifting load must be considered in the design of the
rotary equipment.
The installation of the guilds such as the rotary node system or rotary joints system can be
used to prevent cable twisting.
2.4.8.4.2 Power source for rotary parts
To supply power source for the rotary parts, the current supply system must be designed in
accordance with scope of rotation
2.4.8.4.3 Protection level
If the load rotary motor is mounted on the structure of lifting equipment, the minimum it
should satisfy the protection level as for other motors on structure.
If the load rotary motor is mounted on lifting equipment, the minimum it should satisfy
protection level IP44 for indoor operation and level IP55 for outdoor operation.
2.4.9 Auxiliary electric equipments
2.4.9.1 Lighting
2.4.9.1.1 Control cabin
- One fixed type undazzled light is arranged so that only lighting control equipment.
- When the general lighting is not bright enough to get into and out of control cabin safety,
the auxiliary light of hand type; this lighting equipment must work even when the main
electrical circuit of the equipment was cut off.
2.4.9.1.2 Working area
- When lighting a working area by the light of lifting equipment, then the headlights will be
arranged appropriately on the lifting equipment, to ensure minimum brightness on the ground
is 30 lux.
- The electrical circuit of the light shall be independent with the main circuit of the lifting
equipment.
- Should apply the precautionary measures to avoid the pressure sudden change arising by
the starting motors to cause the discharging lights turn-off.
2.4.9.1.3 Lighting machine chamber of lifting equipment and the entrance to the chamber

105
If the general lighting does not allow for full bright lighting, the auxiliary light must be
arranged independently with the main circuit of lifting equipment. The min. brightness shall
be 30 lux.
2.4.9.1.4 Lighting when problem occurred
If the general lighting is not bright enough to get out of lifting equipment safety, a battery
light of hand type must be arranged. A battery charger should be arranged in the driving
cabin.
2.4.9.2 Heating and air conditioning
2.4.9.2.1 Machine chamber
- Natural ventilation or forced ventilation shall be arranged for thermal energy dissipation
radiating from the machine and its equipments.
- In the places using electronic equipments and the working conditions does not guarantee
the environmental temperature for proper operation of electronic equipments, the air-
conditioner must be arranged.
2.4.9.2.2 Control cabin
If necessary, shall arrange a heating equipment in the cabin.
Heating equipment is the type of heat emitted from the resistor not yet burned/ no radiation
will be installed permanently. The heating equipment should be attached with a thermometer
with capacity so as to ensure the minimum temperature is 15oC, with consideration of the
environmental temperature in which the equipment to be installed. This heater should have
power supply independently with the main electric circuit of the lifting equipment.
If the environmental temperature required, an air-conditioner should be installed in control
cabin to maintain the max. acceptable temperature. This air conditioner should have power
supply independently with the main electric circuits of the lifting equipment.
2.4.9.2.3 Auxiliary electric circuit
If it’s impossible to supply from main circuit, the auxiliary circuits should be arranged for the
maintenance works as follows:
- One circuit used for hand lights with a capacity of at least 200W, if the sun light is not
bright enough to carry out the maintenances.
- One circuit used for hand tools with a capacity of at least 2KW, voltage 100V or 220V.
This circuit should be protected by the circuit breaker with high sensitivity.
These circuits shall be independent with the main circuits of lifting equipment and the voltage
should be mentioned at the power sockets. Must apply all measures to avoid confusion
between low voltage sockets and very low voltage sockets.
2.5 Stability against upturning and safety against the move caused by the wind
2.5.1 Stability against upturning
Stability against upturning must be checked by the calculation, on the supposition that the
upturned point has been reached by increasing the work load and the impacts of dynamics and
the weather with the coefficients mentioned in Table 2.5.1. The rails or support platform of
the lifting equipment is supposed horizontally and strongly.

106
Table 5.2.1
Requirements of stability

Coefficient of
Checking content Considered loads
amplification

- Safe work load. 1.6


- The horizontal impacts
Static checking 0
- Wind Load
0

- Safe work load -0.1


loaded
lifting - The two horizontal impacts (2) 1
equipment
- Wind load within the work limit (1) 1
Dynamic
checking
- Safe work load 00.1
idle lifting
- The two horizontal impacts (2) 1
equipment
- Wind load within the work limit (1) 1

- Safe work load 0


Checking when the
wind is at strongest - The horizontal impacts 0
level (storm)
- Max load of wind 1.1

- Safe work load -0.3 (3)


Checking in case of - The two horizontal impacts with 1
lifting wire break. idle running (2)
1
- Wind load within the work limit (1)

(1) The wind in the work limit with the most disadvantageous direction
(2) The movements are only for definition of the location, must be considered independently.
The calculations of stability for these movements should be done separately. In case of
collision, the calculations of stability must consider the dynamic compositions.
(3) Unless the calculations can prove the lower value.
Special measure: The auxiliary devices such as bracing wire or anchor can be equipped to
ensure the stability when lifting equipment is not operating.
2.5.2 Safety against the move caused by the wind
Not depending on the stability against upturning, should inspect the lifting equipment not
being moved due to the impact of wind at max. speed to be increased 10%. This inspection
must be carried out on the supposition that the friction coefficient is 0.14 for the wheels with
brakes and roll damping force is 10 N / kN for the wheels without brake installed on friction
resistant bearings or 15 N / kN for the wheels without brake installed on the slide bearings.
When the movement could cause dangers, should equip the anchored devices, such as chains,
rail clamps, key locks manually or automatically, etc.

107
For the design of rail clamps, coefficient of friction between clamp and rail must be 0.25.
6.3 Notes:
When calculation of stability against upturning, the effect load should not be reduced by the
coefficient λ, ψ and YC mentioned in items 2.1.2.2.1.1, 2.1.2.3.3 and 2.1.3.4.
If the lifting equipment is equipped with anchors, bracing wires, locking devices and other
special arrangement, their effects in the calculations should be anchored moments.

108
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND WELDING

3.1 Materials
3.1.1 Selection of the material quality.
The calculations of inspection required in this standard for the safety of structures against
destruction due to loss of elasticity, instability and fatigue is not ensure the safety of structures
against the destruction due to brittle fracture.
To achieve sufficient security against the destruction due to brittle fracture, the quality of steel
must be selected depending on the impact conditions causing brittle fracture.
The most important impacts to the sensitivity that caused brittle fracture in steel structure are:
A. Combination effects of residual longitudinal tension stresses with the stresses caused
by static load (the weight itself).
B. Thickness of structural parts
C. Effects of cold temperature (to be considered for lifting equipments located in the
places where the temperature is under 0oC, such as cold storage facilities).
The impacts A, B and C are evaluated by the marks. The required quality of steel should be
selected following the total marks.
3.1.1.1 Evaluation of the impact factors causing brittle fracture.
The impacts A, B and C above are described and defined as follows:
3.1.1.1.1 Impact A: Coordinate effects of residual longitudinal tension stresses with the
stresses caused by static load.
ZA is the coefficient of evaluation of impact A, defined as follows:
Graph of lines I, II and III are given in Figure 3.1.1.1.1.
Line I: weldless or only with horizontal welds.

(applied only when σG ≥ 0.5 σa)

Line II: Vertical welds

Line III: The concentration of welds

Where:
σa: allowed tension stress for elastic limit, in case of load I.

109
σG: tension stress due to static load.

Figure 3.1.1.1.1: ZA under the conditions of stresses and welds

The dangers of brittle fracture are increased due to the stress concentration, especially
dangerous in case the tension stress on 3 directions, as the case of the concentration of welds .
3.1.1.2 Impact B: Thickness of structural part t
t: thickness of the structural part
ZB: coefficient of evaluation for B impact.
Consider thickness: t = 5mm up to 20mm, ZB is defined as follows:

110
t t t
ZB ZB ZB
mm mm mm
Consider thickness: t = 20mm up to 100mm, ZB is defined
as follows: 16 0.9 60 4.3
5 0.1 20 1.45 65 4.55
6 0.15 25 2.0 70 4.8
7 0.2 30 2.5 75 5.0
8 0.25 35 2.9 80 5.2
9 0.3 40 3.2 85 5.4
10 0.4 45 3.5 90 5.6
12 0.5 50 3.8 95 5.8
15 0.8 55 4.0 100 6.0

Thickness of structural parts

Figure 3.2.1.1.2
Coefficient of evaluation ZB = f(t)

For the sections of profile, the ideal thickness t * is often used as follows:

For round sections:

For square sections:

For rectangular section:

111
Where: b is bigger side of rectangular section and the
rate of

For should take t* = t

3.1.1.1.3 Impact C: Effect of cold temperatures


When the lifting equipments are installed in the places with temperature under 0oC, the effect
of cold temperatures must be considered when selecting the quality group of fabricated steels.

T: Temperature at the installation location of


lifting equipment (oC)
ZC: coefficient of evaluation for C impact
From T = 0oC to T = -30oC to 0oC, take:

From T = -30oC to T = -55oC to 0oC, take:

T T
o
ZC o
ZC
o
C C
Temperature T ( C)

0 0.0 -30 3.4


Figure 3.1.11.3 - 5 0.1 -35 4.5
Coefficient of evaluation -10 0.4 -40 5.6
ZC = f (T) -15 0.8 -45 6.7
-20 1.5 -50 7.9
-25 2.3 -55 9.0

3.1.1.2 Definition of steel quality group required


It is the sum of the coefficients of evaluation in item 3.1.1.1. This sum defines the minimum
quality required for steel structures.
Table 3.1.1.2 mentioned clearly the classification of group of steel quality related to the sum
of coefficients of evaluation.
If the sum of evaluation coefficients higher than 16 or if it could not achieve steel quality as
required, should apply the special measures to ensure the safety against destruction by brittle
fracture.

112
Table 3.1.1.2
Classification of group of steel quality related to total marks of the evaluation coefficient.

Total marks of the evaluation


coefficients under item 3.1.1.1 Steel quality group
corresponding to Table 3.1.13
ΣZ = ZA + ZB + ZC

≤2 1
≤4 2
≤ 18 3

≤ 16 4

3.1.1.3 The quality of steels


Quality of steels in this standard is flexible property of steel at the specified temperature.
The steels are divided into four groups of quality. The classification of steel quality is defined
by the toughness of impact achieved by testing and at the specified temperature.
Table 3.1.1.3 includes the values of toughness of impact and the test temperatures for four
groups of steel quality.
The toughness of impacts mentioned in the table are the minimum and the average values of
three testing times, there is no value under 20Nm/cm2.
The toughness of impact is defined by impact testing on the sample with engraved - V in
accordance with ISO 148 standard.
Steels in the different quality groups can be welded together.
TC is the temperature for the impact test sample with engraved - V
T is the temperature at installation place of lifting equipment.
TC and T should not be compared directly with each others, as impact testing sample with
engraved - V with more disadvantageous conditions in comparison with the load effected on
lifting equipment in operative status or inoperative status.

113
Table 3.1.1.3
Groups of steel quality
Crash toughness Testing Type of steel
Group of
measured on V-letter temperature correlative to Standard
quality
sample under ISO 148 TCoC group of quality
Fe 360 – A
Euronorm 25
Fe 430 - A
St 37 – 2
1 - - DIN 17100
St 44 - 2
E 24 - 1 NF A 35-501
43 A 50 B • 8S 4360 1972
Fe 360 – 8
Fe 430 – 8 Euronorm 25
Fe 510 - b
R St 37 – 2
DIN 17100
2 35 +20 St 44 - 2
E 24 (A37) – 2
E 26 (A42) – 2 NF A 35-501
E 36 (A52) – 2
40 B 43 B • BS 4360 1972
Fe 360 – C
Fe 430 – C Euronorm 25
Fe 510 – C
St 37 – 3U
St 44 – 3U DIN 17100
3 35 ±0 St 52 – 3U
E 24 (A37) – 3
E 26 (A42) – 3 NF A 35-501
E 36 (A52) - 3
40 C 43 C
8S 4360 1979
50 C 33 C
Fe 360 – O
Fe 410 – O Euronorm 25
Fe 510 – O
St 37 – 3N
St 44 – 3N DIN 17100
4 35 - 20 St 52 – 3N
E 24 (A37) – 4
E 26 (A42) – 4 NF A 35-501
E 36 (A52) – 4
40 O 43 D
BS 4360 1972
50 O 55 E
3.1.1.4 Special regulations
Supplement into above regulations for choosing steel quality, following regulations should be
observed:
1 – Kinds of non-deposited steel of group I used for loading bearing structures only in case of
formed rolling steel and pipe with thickness not bigger than 6mm.

114
2 – Structural parts with thickness bigger than 50mm shall be used for welding structures of
loading bearing except for manufacturer has experiments recognized in welding thick sheets.
3 – If structural parts are cold bending with rate of curved radius / thickness of sheet < 10,
quality of steel must be suitable type to bend or folding edge at cold state.
3.1.2 Checking material in manufacturing
3.1.2.1 Using material to manufacture:
- Force bearing parts of lifting equipment;
- Codes and detachable parts no need test separatedly;
- Rim of rotary tray or rotary axis’ rod;
- Loading bearing hydraulic cylinders;
- Pressure pipes grade I;
- Winch axis;
- Parts have important function or similar to the above parts.
should have suitable certificates according to the regulations of authorited organs.
3.1.2.2 In any case, manufacturer must show clearly quality grade of steel to manufacture
detachable parts.
3.1.2.3 When there is suspicion relative to quality of material, authorised organ can require
to inspect and to license when the result specifies the requirements.
3.2 Thermal treatment
3.2.1 All of casting steel and forging steel for parts of lifting equipment, welding parts,
parts of cast-welding and forge-welding with welding seam which bears stresses alternately,
this seam is apart from another 5 times and below the width of welding material or welding
lines cut each other (rest body, speed reducer shell and detachable partts, etc) after finish
manufacturing must be thermal treated to get rid of surplus stress.
3.2.2 Thermal treatment for the parts should be carried out in hermetic oven and checked
their temperature fully. Rule of thermal treatment established depends on mark of steel, uses
and dimension of parts and must be agreed by authorised organs. Welding parts may be
unnecessary to do thermal treatment if the authorised organs accepted.
3.3 Welding
3.3.1 General regulations
3.3.1.1 Force bearing structures, codes and detachable parts of lifting equipment should
have welding properties to be ensured to suit to regulations of welding.
3.3.1.2 Welding must be carried out on the approved welding process, welding material
and welders must have suitable certificate according to regulation of authorised organ.
3.3.1.3 When there have not been an agreement of authorised organ, it is not allowed to do
any repairment for the welding lines which are broken-down, fissued, worn. In any cases,
such repairment must be carried out under the supervision of authorised organ.
3.3.1.4 Normally, type of welding seam, size and treatment for edges of welding lines must
show clearly on the drawings of welding structure to submit to authorised organ.

115
3.3.2 Edge border welding seam
3.3.2.1 Edge border welding lines should be counted according to thickness of thinner sheet,
no accept welding seams ripe a half.
3.3.2.2 Edge border welding seams can be X, K or V letter type.
When welding V letter (only welding on one side) is normally allowed to poke and weld
behind side. When observing hole or through hole cannot carry out behind side, it allows to
weld with lining sheet at the behind side.
3.3.2.3 For edge border welding seam between two sheets with different, chamfering and
welding process must be carried out so that height of welding line in comparision with the
plane of sheet is minimum.
Thicker sheet must be chamfered as showed on Figure 3.1(a) and 3.1(b) in following cases:
- Symetric connection (see Figure 3.1(a))
When t1 ≤ 10mm if t2 > t1 + 6
When 10mm < t1< 40mm if t2 > t1 + 8
When t1 ≥ 40mm if t2 > 1.20t1

Figure 3.1(a) Chamfered level of two sheets with different thickness in edge border welding seam
(Symetric connection)

- Non-symetric connection (see Figure 3.1(b))


When t1 < 10mm if t2 ≥ t1 + 3
When 10mm ≤ t1< 40mm if t2 ≥ t1 + 4
When t1 ≥ 40mm if t2 > 1.1t1

116
Figure 3.1(b) Chamfered level of two sheets with different thickness in edge border welding
(Non-symetric connection)

It is recommended that should apply types of symetric connection.


3.3.3 Angle welding seam
3.3.3.1 Angle welding seams of force bearing structure, codes and detachable parts of
lifting equipments must be continuous. Angle welding seam can be two side angle welding
seam without ripe or ripe a half, or welding seams with ripe fully.
3.3.3.2 Calculating height (a) of angle welding seam is determined same as Figure 3.2(a)
and (b) for angle welding seam without chamfer and weld ripe a half of chamfer.

Figure 3.2 Calculating height of welding seam


3.3.3.3 Normally, angle welding seams of being ripe fully, type K or V letter are required
for big stress bearing component, especially thickness of wall sheet must be bigger than
15mm [see Figure 3.3(a)] or when the way to one side of sheet is difficult or unable [see
Figure 3.3(b) and (c)].
3.3.3.4 Angle welding seam of being ripe a half in some cases can be accepted on behalf of
angle welding seam of being ripe fully. In such case, calculating height of welding seam is
determined as Figure 3.2(b) cannot be smaller than 0.5 times the thickness of wall sheet.
3.3.3.5 In general, the calculation height of the doubled-sided angle welds must be not
smaller than 3.5mm and not more than 0.7 times the thickness of the thinner sheets in
connection joints. It’s unnecessary to stipulate the calculation height of the welds bigger than
0.5 times the thickness of the wall sheet, except for special cases or when the calculation
height is increasing for corrosion resistance, or when the two welding lines are asymmetric.
When allowing for welding of slotting welds or stacking welds, usually the calculation height
of the welds must be by 0.7 times the thickness of the sheets with welded edge.

117
K type angle welds
(a)

V type angle welds V type angle welds with liner


(b) (c)

Figure 3.3 Complete penetration angle welds

3.3.3.6 Refer the definitions mentioned in item 3.3.3.5, usually the calculation height a of
the doubled-sided symmetrical angle weld must be equal to the following value, to be
changed according to the thickness t of the thinner sheet in connection joint.
- a = 0.45t for the welds of high stress resistance structures when not
required complete penetration welding (e.g. for the tension resistant structures that the
continuity of their durability must be guaranteed or for the high shear force bearing structures
such as wall sheets of beam or with small thickness or in the connection joints of codes).
- A = 0.40t for the welding of the support carriers or the flanges of single
beams (I - beam).
- A = 0.35t for the welding of the wall sheets of box beams or welding of
strengthening ribs.
- The authorities concerned shall reduce the requirements of this section
depending on the property or level of stresses in related structures.
3.3.3.7 When two angle welding lines are asymmetric, in general the calculation
height of the welding lines a1 and a2 must be such that a1 + a2 = 2a (where: a was mentioned
in item 3.3.3.6) with condition a1 and a2 in accordance with the definition stated in item
3.3.3.5.
3.3.4 Welding Inspection
3.3.4.1 General definition
(1) The manufacturer of lifting equipment must inspect themselves the quality of
welds and the welding job. The in results must be made in the report to submit to the
authorities concerned for consideration.
(2) During testing in manufacturing, the verifier must supervise the welding jobs
in the working factory that carried out by the certified welders and under the approved
welding process and with suitable welding materials.

118
(3) Final inspection for welding lines must be carried out when the welding jobs
on the connection joints, assembly clusters, or their detailed parts have been finished, after the
heat treatments were done and before painting.
(4) Final inspection for welding lines include:
- Inspection of sizes and exterior appearance;
- Inspection of indestructibility of internal organisms and the penetration
of welds by X-ray or Y-ray and /or by ultrasonic method;
- Inspection of indestructibility of the surface defects, especially
detecting the external cracks by liquid osmosis test and / or by magnetic beads, the magnetic
beads testing methods can also detect the un-seeable cracks on the surface (but very close to
the outer surface of the weld).
3.3.4.2 Inspection of sizes and exterior appearance
(1) The calculation height of the angle welds must be inspected by the measurement gauge.
The verifier inspects the height of weld in comparison with the sizes mentioned on the
approved drawings. This inspection is carried out by probability.
(2) Inspection of exterior appearance all welding lines in the structure of lifting equipment or
support platform and their detailed parts.
The welding lines must be the same and without depression at the end of welding line. The
angle welds must be not convex and the edges adjacent welds must be not empty or hollow or
other surface defects.
3.3.4.3 Checking without destruction
(1) Scope and method of checking without destruction must be determined unifiedly between
manufacturer and authorised organ. Checking points and checking method must be set up on
drawings or profile submitting for authorised organ to approve.
In approved drawings, authorised organ can require to check without destruction for especial
parts except for requirements of manufacturer to carry out normal inspection on other
structural parts.
(2) Methods and standard can accept for testing of X ray and ultrasound or other method must
be suitable to applied relative standard.
(3) For edge border welding seam of horizontal section in fixed static structures (non-
superstatic connection) or parts which bears stress of drawing, flexure or huge torsion,
following minimum rate % is on length of welding line must be checked is not damaged:
- 10% Check X ray;
- 40% Check ultrasound;
- 20% Check by magnetic speck or liquid endosmosis
For column with SWL ≤ 25t scope of this checking can be reduced after having agreement
with authorised organ. For cranes and for columns with SWL ≥ 25t, check X ray can be
replaced by checking ultrasound after having agreement with authorised organ; however, in
this case, ultrasound checking should be carried out 100% on length of each horizontal
welding line.

119
(4) Must check all of intersection points between logitudinal and horizontal welding lines and
zones which bear heat effects by suitable method of undestruction. Morever, detection of
fissues according to system must be carried out by checking liquid endosmosis and/or
magnetic specks.
(5) Welding seams with big horizontal plane, especially welding on casting steel, forging
steel, welding seams with bearing big stress, welding seams of code connection as well as
welding seams are carried out in difficult condition (for example: bare welding seam) must be
checked after obtaining agreement with authorised organ.
(6) In some special cases, authorised organ can require to check after loading test.
3.3.4.4 Repair defects and final conclusion
(1) Inspector must inform all of defects found out during inspection.
Unacceptable defects must be removed and if numbers of defects is too abundant, welding
lines must be welded entirely. After repairment of welding, checking is carried out according
to regulation.
(2) Important repairments must be carried out according to the agreement with authorised
organ.
(3) When number of defects is abundant or repeated defects are detected, checking must be
carried out until meeting requirements of authorised organ to put out reliable conclusion for
welding lines.
(4) Final decision as increasing checking, defects are removed, repaired and final acceptance
of welding lines must having agreement with authorised organ.

120
Chapter 4. Inspection and testing

4. General instruction
4.1.1 Inspection and testing are intended to determine the conformity of the lifting appliances
as well as their spare parts to the standard and their safe working condition.
4.1.2 Bodies that control and utilize lifting appliances shall necessarily implement the
inspection and test of lifting appliances according to current regulations and carry out the
necessary preparation for the test. The verifiers have the right to refuse supervising,
examining and testing lifting appliances if they know that there were some mistakes in
preparation before the test as well as in case breakdowns effecting safety when testing are
discovered.
4.1.3 Before inspection, the appliance owner needs to inform the verifier about the
breakdowns, changes, repaires or replacements of spare parts and wire from the last
inspection.
4.1.4 When the appliances get into an accident, it shall be reported to the authorities by the
owner for timely examination.
4.1.5 After being manufactured, re-equipped and repaired, appliances and their structures and
parts shall be examined and tested by Authorities after they received records of accpetance
documents from manufacturer or organization that have re-equipped and repaired these
appliances.
4.1.6 When testing, if it shows that steel structural parts, appliance’s parts and structures don’t
meet the requirements of the standard or are in the condition that don’t assure safely working,
not only the Authorites shall not grant certificates for these appliances and parts but also the
certificates granted before shall be no longer valid until they are repaired for acceptance.
4.1.7 The certificate granted by the Authorities shall be out of effect in the following cases.
- The appliance do not comply with the standard;
- If it does not meet any one of examination and test requirements of the standard or;
- Beyond frequent examination term or;
- The real appliances does not coresspond to issued certificate any longer or
- After an accident
4.2 Examination and test of removable parts.
Test of newly-manufactured or without-certification parts and wires shall be carried out
according to Annexes specified for each of examining items given in this standard.
Time for static test load bearing shall not less than 10 minutes. After testing, the parts shall be
examined.
Test for tensile strength of uncertified chain and cable shall be implemented according to
related current state or branch standards.
For the parts that are removable and designed capable of very heavy load bearing (normally
having SWL ≥ 160t) and in case they can not be tested individually, the authority can accept
to leave off this test, but additional test or non-destructive test can be required.

121
4.3 Inspection and test of lifting appliances.
The appliances under the supervision of the authority shall be inspected according to the
following types:
- Initial examination,
- Annual examination,
- Periodical examination,
- Extraordinary examination.
Examination quantity and order shall be implemented according to Table 4.3.1

Table 4.3.1
Examination and test of lifting appliances

Type of
Execution time Examination
examination

- Initial Before bring in use - Examining in assembling


proccess
- Static and dynamic tests

- Annual Each 12 months - Examining and


considering
- Static and dynamic tests
with load taken equal to
working load (SWL)

- Periodical Each 3 years - Examining and


considering
- Static and dynamic tests

- Extraordinary - After repaired, re-equipped or replaced - Examining and


with parts considering (assembling
accuracy)
- Static and dynamic tests

- After reform the cranes (remove the - Examining and


canes to new working positions) considering
- Static and dynamic tests

- After repaired - Examining and


considering
- Static and dynamic tests

122
4.3.2 When examining lifting appliances, it must carry out examinations, consideration, static
and dynamic tests for the appliances.
- Examination and consideration:
When testing an appliance, it is needed to examine work capacity of electrical mechanism and
equipments, safety devices, brakes, and control, lighting, signal and acoustic devices all.
Additional, examinations shall be implemented for:
1. Steel structure and welded joints (without fractures, deformations, critical wearability),
cab, hand-rail and safeguard screen.
2. Lifting hook and its hanger parts (wearability and without any fracture at the hook),
wearability at the hook mouth shall not exceed 10% initial height of the cross section.
3. Cable and other devices linked to it.
4. Pulleys, axle-axis, fastening pins and other connecting members.
5. Conformity of counterpoise, earth connection of electric drived equipments.
6. Conformity of crane rail (see Annex 5).
- Static test:
+ Stactic test shall be carried out with surcharge test load of 125% SWL with the purpose of
examining common durability of crane and strengths of individual parts. For the jib cranes,
the stability when lifting goods at the position the crane having minimum stable strength and
test load lifted at the height of 100-200mm shall be examined.
+ When implementing stactic test, the gantry crane with bracket or bridge crane shall be put
on rails bearing pad, and the trolley shall be put at the position having maximum convave
(between bearing pads and bracket ends). Test load shall be lifted at the height of 200 – 300
mm.
+ The tested crane shall be considered meeting the requirements if within 10 minutes the test
load is not fallen and the metal structure does not arise any slits or permanent deformation.
- Dynamic test
+ Dynamic test shall be implemented with surcharge test load of 110% SWL for the crane that
meet the requirements of stactic test, in order to examine overall mechanism of the crane and
its brake. When carying out the dynamic test, use of goods shall be permissible.
+ When implementing dynamic test, the test load shall be lifted and lowered at least 3 times
and the operation of mechanisms when they are taking load shall be examined
+ For the hydraulic crane, when it is not capable to lift with surcharge test load of 125%
SWL, it is permitted to lift with maximum surcharge test load of its capacity, but should not
less than 110% SWL.
4.3.3 With the crane equipped with two or more lifting mechamisms, each of them shall be
tested. The values of stactic and dynamic test loads shall be determined according to their
working conditions. For the cranes having some properties of goods lifting, the initial test
shall be determined in conformity with goods lifting properties at jib’s maximun and
minimum shaft reach. When carrying out periodical and extraodinary examinations, tests shall
be implemented at the position that the crane has maximum lifting capacity.
4.3.4 After replacing steel cable, examination of cable reserve and confident association of
cable ends as well as fracture and elongation of cable when it is loaded shall be carried out. If

123
the cable is certified meeting all the requirements, it needn’t to carry out load test after
installation and replacement. However, these information shall be witten down on the safety
technique examination notebook by manager or user.

124
Annex 1
Design of bolt connections having high durability with controlled traction force.

Determine general requirements must be complied when calculating high-strength bolt


connections given in Item 2.2.1.2.2.3.3.3.
This annex specifies some joint surface preparation methods, obtained friction coefficient and
tracting methods.
1.1 Friction coefficient µ
Friction coefficient used to calculate force of friction depends on joint material and
preparation of surfaces.
Basic preparation for surfaces before they are coupled includes cleaning surfaces from dust,
rust, grease and paint by an iron scratchbrushing machine. The grease traces shall be cleaned
by flame or by proper chemicals.
Good surface preparation of joint surfaces shall increase their friction coefficcient. Cleaning
can be implemented by sand spraying or using oxygen-acetylene welding flame within not
less than 5 hours after surfaces coupling; Immediately before coupling, it is needed to use a
brush to clean joints’ surfaces.
Friction coefficients are given in the following table.

Table 1.1
Values of µ

Commonly prepared Well prepared surfaces


Coupled material surfaces (wiped out from (cleaned by flame, sand
grease, and well brushed) spraying)

E-24 (A.37) Fe 360 0.30 0.50

E-26 (A.42) 0.30 0.50

E-24 (A.52) Fe 510 0.30 0.55

Two damping rings should be installed, one is under the bolt head and the other is under the
screw nut. These rings shall be elastic rings of at least 45o and having spiral is directed toward
bolt head or screw nut. Rings should be thermal treated so that their hardness must at least
equal to the hardness of the materials used for manufacture bolts.
1.2 Bolt tightening
Towing force arised inside the bolt shall reach the value determined by calculation.
This towing force due to bolt tightening can be determined by the calculation of rotative
moment affecting the bolt and shall be calculated as the following formula:
Ma = 1.10 C.d.F

125
Where:
Ma : the affecting rotative moment (Nm);
d : the nominal diameter of the bolt (mm);
F : the determined towing force arising inside the bolt (kN);
C : the coefficient depends on type of thread, friction coefficient of thread lines and
between screw nut and damping ring.
For the metric-threaded bolt and the damping rings having a thin grease layer without any rust
or dust:
C = 0.18
Tensile stress in the bolt shall not excced permissible stress determined according to
2.2.1.2.2.3.3.
1.3 Value of bolts’ tensile-stress bearing area
When determining stresses in the bolts, tensile stress bearing areas shall be calculated by
taking arithmetical average of thread foot diameter and useful thread diameter. These values
are given in the following table:

Nominal diameter
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30
(mm)

Tensile stress
bearing area 36.6 58 84.3 115 157 192 245 303 353 459 561
(mm2)

1.4 Bolt quality


The bolts used for this type of connection shall have high elastic limit.
Tensile strength limit σR shall be greater than the values given below:

σE 0.2 σR2
2
N/mm N/mm2

< 700 >1.15 σE

700 to 850 >1.12 σE

> 850 >1.10 σE

Diameter of bolt hole shall not greater than bolt diameter 2 mm.
The following table 1.4 shows the values on a bolt and on 1 friction surface of the tranferable
forces in a plane parallel with the plane conneted to the bolts of 1000 – 1200 N/mm2 with
tensile strength limit σR = 900 N/mm2. for the different friction coefficients of steel typed A
37, A 42 and A52

126
When applying the following figures, the number of useful friction surface specified in each
figure need to be determined.

Useful friction surfaces

1 friction surface; m = 1

2 friction surfaces; m = 2

3 friction surfaces; m = 3

127
Table 1.4
Transferable forces in joint’s plane on a bolts and on a friction surface

Bolts of 1000-1200 N/mm2; σR = 900 N/mm2


With thread burning protection methods; σa = 0.8 σE

Common prepared
Well prepared surfaces
surface
Tensile stress bearing area

Steel Steel Steel


Tightening momment

A.37, A.42. A.52 A.37, A.42. A.52


Tightening force

µ = 0.30 µ = 0.50 µ = 0.55


Bolt diameter

I II III I II III I II III


Mm2

kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN
mm

Nm
kN

10 58.0 41.7 82.7 8.3 9.4 11.4 13.9 15.7 18.9 15.2 17.2 20.8

12 84.3 60.0 144.0 12.1 13.6 16.5 20.2 22.8 27.5 22.2 25.0 30.0

14 115.0 82.7 229.0 16.5 18.6 22.5 27.5 31.0 37.6 30.2 34.2 41.4

16 157.0 113.0 358.0 22.6 25.5 30.8 37.7 42.5 51.4 41.5 46.8 56.5

18 192.0 138.0 492.0 27.6 31.0 37.6 46.0 51.8 62.7 50.6 57.0 69.0

20 245.0 176.0 697.0 35.2 39.7 48.0 58.5 66.1 80.0 64.5 77.7 88.0

22 303.0 218.0 950.0 43.6 49.3 59.7 72.5 82.0 99.0 80.0 90.2 109.0

24 353.0 254.0 1200.0 50.8 57.1 69.4 84.5 95.5 115.5 93.1 105.0 127.0

27 459.0 330.0 1760.0 66.0 74.2 90.0 127.0 124.0 150.0 127.0 136.0 165.0

Note: I, II, III correspond to the cases of load I, II, III


With the bolt having elastic limit σE’, the values of force and momment given in the above
table shall be multiplied with the coefficient σE’/900.
If having no any prevention methods for thread burning (σa = 0.7 σE), the above values shall
be divided by 1.14.

128
Annex 2
Stress in welding joints

Determination of stresses in welding joints is very complicated, the matters concerning


difficult welding are given in general scope of this standard. So the standard shall include the
following general instructions only:
1- All of calculation methods supposed as welding joints shall be implemented properly,
i.e the welding joints shall be ripe and perfect so that joints between structural parts shall be
assembled and welding lines is uninterrupted or the cross section of welding lines shall not be
changed unexpectedlly as well as there is no convave or notch caused by welding line foot
fire.
Design the welding joints so that they should be able to stand forces trasfered through
themselves, it is needed to refer to comprehensive document on welding.
It should be noted that welding joint durability would be considerably improved if welding
surfaces are completed by good grind.
2- It is not necessary to consider to stress concentration due to joint design or residual
stress.
3- Permissible stress in weling joints shall be determined according to 2.2.1.2.3 and
equivalent stress σCP in the case of combined stress (tensile or compressive) σ and cutting
stress τ shall be determined as the following formula:

σCP = σ 2 + 2τ 2
In case of stress couples σX and σY and cutting stress τXY, apply the following formula:

σCP = σ x2 + σ y2 − σ xσ y + 2τ xy2

4- In angle joints, the breadth of welding joint cross-section is considered as joint height
and its length shall be useful length of the joint with the exception of concave positions.
It would not need to decrease the length of welding joint if the joints are put closely or special
methods shall be applied to limit the effects of concave positions.
Be noted that, in fact almost destructions caused by fatigue at welding joints seldom occur in
the welding line but at the positions next to the weling line of basic metal.
The stresses σmin and σmax used for calculation of fagtigue strength of basic metal at the
position next to welding line can be calculated by classical methods for material strength
calculation.
In order to examine welding joint’s fatigue strength, the examination to find out if the welding
are able to transfer loads like the adjacent basic metal or not should be taken.
However, this requirement is not normative if welded parts having dimension large enough
correspond to actually transferred forces.
In any cases, it need to emphasize that the welding joint dimention shall not be changed
coressponding to the thickness of welded parts.

129
Special cases: In some cases of welding connection, especially when having horizontal load
(i.e the load is perpendicular with welding line), the pemissible stress shall be decreased ( see
2.2.1.2.3).

130
Annex 3
Examination of vertical bending-resistant parts
There are a lot of methods for calculating and examining vertical bending-resistant parts, in
this Annex, it uses simpler actual method by amplifying design stresses in cases of different
loads specified in 2.1.3.1. 2.1.3.2 and 2.1.3.3 with vertical bending coefficient ω depending
on slenderness coefficient of structural part, and examine if in each case these amplified stress
load are still smaller than permissible stress.
ω values given in the tables below shall be considered as a function of slenderness coefficient
λ for the following cases:
Table 3.1 : figured rolled steel St 37 (Fe 360);
Table 3.2 : figured rolled steel St 52 (Fe 510);
Table 3.3 : tube steel St 37 (Fe 360);
Table 3.4 : tube steel St 52 (Fe 510).
3.1 Determination of usefull length used for calculation of slenderness coefficient λ.
1- In common case that the slabs are connected by articulations at two end and put multi-axis
load, useful length shall be taken equal to the length between 2 articulations.
2- For the multi-axis loaded slat with a fixed end and a flexible end, useful length shall be
taken as twice as the length of the slat.
3.2 In cases of compression and bending resistant slabs.
In case of the slabs under non-central load and centric load together with bending moment in
slab. The slabs shall be examined according to 2 following formulas:

Where:
F : is compressive load on the slab;
S : is cross section area of the slab;
Mr : is bending moment at considering section;
V : is the distance from outer metal fibre of the section to neutral axis;
I : is section inertia moment.

131
Table 3.1
Values of vertical bending coefficient ω according to slenderness coefficient λ for figured
rolled steel St 37 (Fe 360)

λ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08
30 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.13
40 1.14 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.19 1.20
50 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29
60 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.39 1.40
70 1.41 1.42 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.52 1.53
80 1.55 1.56 1.58 1.59 1.61 1.62 1.64 1.66 1.68 1.69
90 1.71 1.73 1.74 1.76 1.78 1.80 1.82 1.84 1.86 1.88
100 1.90 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 2.00 2.02 2.05 2.07 2.09
110 2.11 2.14 2.16 2.18 2.21 2.23 2.27 2.31 2.35 2.39
120 2.43 2.47 2.51 2.55 2.60 2.64 2.68 2.72 2.77 2.81
130 2.85 2.90 2.94 2.99 3.03 3.08 3.12 3.17 3.22 3.26
140 3.31 3.36 3.41 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75
150 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00 4.06 4.11 4.16 4.22 4.27
160 4.32 4.38 4.43 4.49 4.54 4.60 4.65 4.71 4.77 4.82
170 4.88 4.94 5.00 5.05 5.11 5.17 5.23 5.29 5.35 5.41
180 5.47 5.53 5.59 5.66 5.72 5.78 5.84 5.91 5.97 6.03
190 6.10 6.16 6.23 6.29 6.36 6.42 6.49 6.55 6.62 6.69
200 6.75 6.82 6.89 6.96 7.03 7.10 7.17 7.24 7.31 7.38
210 7.45 7.52 7.59 7.66 7.73 7.81 7.88 7.95 8.03 8.10
220 8.17 8.25 8.32 8.40 8.47 8.55 8.63 8.70 8.78 8.36
230 8.93 9.01 9.09 9.17 9.25 9.33 9.41 9.49 9.57 9.65
240 9.73 9.81 9.89 9.97 10.05 10.14 10.22 10.30 10.39 10.47
250 10.55

132
Table 3.2
Values of vertical bending coefficient ω according to slenderness coefficient λ for figured
rolled steel St 52 (Fe 510)

λ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.10 1.11
30 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18
40 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27
50 1.28 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.39 1.40
60 1.41 1.43 1.44 1.46 1.48 1.49 1.51 1.53 1.54 1.56
70 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64 1.66 1.68 1.70 1.72 1.74 1.77
80 1.79 1.81 1.83 1.86 1.88 1.91 1.93 1.95 1.98 2.01
90 2.05 2.10 2.14 2.19 2.24 2.29 2.33 2.38 2.43 2.48
100 2.53 2.58 2.64 2.69 2.74 2.79 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.01
110 3.06 3.12 3.18 3.23 3.29 3.35 3.41 3.47 3.53 3.59
120 3.65 3.71 3.77 3.83 3.89 3.96 4.02 4.09 4.13 4.22
130 4.28 4.35 4.41 4.48 4.55 4.62 4.69 4.75 4.82 4.89
140 4.96 5.04 5.11 5.18 5.25 5.33 5.40 5.47 5.55 5.62
150 5.70 5.78 5.85 5.93 6.01 6.09 6.16 6.24 6.32 6.40
160 6.48 6.57 6.65 6.73 6.81 6.90 6.98 7.06 7.15 7.23
170 7.32 7.41 7.49 7.58 7.67 7.76 7.85 7.94 8.03 8.12
180 8.21 8.30 8.39 8.48 8.58 8.67 8.76 8.86 8.95 9.05
190 9.14 9.24 9.34 9.44 9.53 9.63 9.73 9.83 9.93 10.03
200 10.13 10.23 10.34 10.44 10.54 10.65 10.75 10.85 10.96 11.06
210 11.17 11.28 11.38 11.49 11.60 11.71 11.82 11.93 12.04 12.15
220 12.26 12.37 12.48 12.60 12.71 12.82 12.94 13.05 13.17 13.28
230 13.40 13.52 13.63 13.75 13.87 13.99 14.11 14.23 14.35 14.47
240 14.59 14.71 14.83 14.96 15.08 15.20 15.33 15.45 15.58 15.71
250 15.83

133
Table 3.3
Values of vertical bending coefficient ω according to slenderness coefficient λ
for tube steel St 37 (Fe 360)

λ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.02
30 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06
40 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.11
50 1.12 1.13 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.17 1.18
60 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27
70 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37
80 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.44 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.50 1.51
90 1.53 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.59 1.61 1.63 1.64 1.66 1.68
100 1.70 1.73 1.76 1.79 1.83 1.87 1.90 1.94 1.97 2.01
110 2.05 2.08 2.12 2.16 2.20 2.23
For λ > 115, the ω values given in Table 3.1 shall be taken.

Table 3.4
Values of vertical bending coefficient ω according to slenderness coefficient λ
for tube steel St 52 (Fe 510)

λ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05
30 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.10
40 1.11 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.16 1.17
50 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27
60 1.28 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.35 1.36 1.38 1.39 1.41
70 1.42 1.44 1.46 1.47 1.49 1.51 1.53 1.55 1.57 1.59
80 1.62 1.66 1.71 1.75 1.83 1.88 1.92 1.97 2.01
90 2.05
For λ > 115, the ω values given in Table 3.1 shall be taken.
Note: the ω values given in Tables 3.3 and 3.4 are only applied for calculation in the case,
the slab is a single tube loaded along the axis with tubes having minimum diameter of 6 times
of the thickness of tube wall .

134
Annex 4
Examination of parts having horizontal bending resistant structure

From the theoretic view, critial horizontal bending stress is considered as multiple of Urle
stress according to the following formula:

Display of critial horizontal bending stress for a plate having thickness e and breadth b, this is
the dimension of the plate measured in the direction perpendicular to compressive forces (see
the following figure)

In this formula: E is elastic modulus and η is Poatxong coefficient.


For usual steel: with E = 210 000 N/mm2 and η = 0.3, Urle stress shall be:

Critial horizontal bending stress shall be the multiple of this value, when:

In the case of compression, the critical stress shall be:

In the case of cutting, the critical stress shall be:


Coefficients Kτ and Kσ are horizontal bending coefficients, they depend on:
- the ratio α = a/b of two plate sides
- supporting structure along the plate edges;
- type of load affecting in the plate.
- Any plate consolidation with sinews
4.1 Values of coefficients Kσ and Kτ
Table 4.1 in this annex only shows values of coefficients Kσ and Kτ for some simple cases.
In more complicated cases, it is needed to refer specilized documents
4.2 Combination of compression and cutting
Take σ and τ as design stresses due to compression and cutting, the critical comparison stress
shal be determined fron the following formula:

135
Ψ has been determined in Table 4.1
4.3 Take note

Be noted that the equations used for calculating stresses and mentioned above
shall only be applied when determined values are lower than proportionality limit (i.e 190
N/mm2 for steel A 37, 290 N/mm2 for stell A 52).

Like that, the equations used for calculating shall only be applied when is lower
than proportionality limit.
In the cases, when the above-mentioned equations give the higher values than this
proportionality limitIt is needed to accept a critical value determined by multiplying design
critical value with coefficient p given in Table 4.2. This table also shows decreased values
corresponding to the different design stresses of and .

136
Table 4.1
Values of horizontal bending coefficients Kσ and Kτ for the plates
supported at 4 edges

Order Case Kσ or Kτ

1 Even compression
α≥1
α≤1

2 Uneven compression
α≥1
α≤1

3 Simple bending
Ψ=-1 or bending with superior pulling
ψ<-1

4 Bending with superior compression


-1<ψ<0
Where:
K’: is the value of Kσ when ψ = 0 in the
case ordered 2.
K’’: is the value of K for simple bending,
case ordered 3.

5 Simple cutting

137
Table 4.2
Values of p and critical stress decreased

or or or or

Design Designd Decended Decended Design Design Decended Decended

Steel St 37 Steel St 52

Determine permissible horizontal bending stresses.


After the critical horizontal bending stresses have been determined as the figures given above,
the permissible horizontal bending stresses shall be determined by dividing the critical
stresses to the coefficient vv determined in 2.2.3.
After that, calculations for examination shall be carried out as the following:
Determine stresses in each case of load according to 2.2.3, then carry out examination to
assure that the design stresses shall not exceed the permissible stresses determined above.
Note: In the case that compression and cutting are combined, critical comparison stress
should be compared with the stress calculated from the formular given in 2.2.1.1.3.

Examine horizontal bending for round cylinder:


Thin wall cylinders (ex. round tube with large diameter) shall be examined for partial bending
if:

Where:
t: tube wall thickness;
r: the radius measured to a point at the middle of tube wall;
σE: elastic limit of the steel used for manufacturing tube;

Supposed bending stress may be determined as the following formula:

138
When is higer than the ratio of structural steel, supposed horizontal bending stress shall
be decreased to σv by coefficient p.
At each maximum distance of 10r, it must be arranged with horizontal reinforcement sinew
with minimum inertia moment of:

Inertia moment for reinforcement sinew cross section shall be calculated as the following
formula:
1- Centrically arranged reinforcement sinew F (cross section gravity center of the
reinforcement sinew is put at the plane placing in the middle of wall thickness).

2- Eccentrically arranged reinforcement sinew F (cross section gravity center of the


reinforcement sinew F2 is out of the plane placing in the middle of wall 1’s thickness).

Calculation of corresponding σvi and σv is acceptable, taking into account for geometrical
differences between supposed cylindrical surface and real cylindrical surface caused by the
partial structural dimenstion shortage up to t/2.

139
Annex 5
Tolerances of lifting equipment and rail line

Tolerances specified below are applicable to crane, port crane and over head travelling cranes,
but does not apply to rail crane. For cranes that are erected to use temporarily (such as cranes
used in construction), these provisions are applied only to the extent enforcement and each
specific case must be reviewed by the competent authority.
5.1 Methods of measurement:
When tapeline is used to measure, it must be steel one with scales. The regulations for the use
of this type of measure must considered. Data must be revised because of the sag of the
tapeline as well as the difference of environment temperature compared with the standard one.
All sizes on a lifting devices must be measured on the same gauge and the same tension force.

5.2 Built tolerance for lifting equipment


5.2.1 The biggest difference ∆s of aperture crane s compared with the size in the rough sketch
must not exceed the following values:
For s ≤ 15 m : ∆s = ± 2 mm
For s > 15 m : ∆s = ± [ 2 + 0,15.( s - 15)] mm, (the biggest ± 25 mm)
( see Figure 5.2.1)

Figure 5.2.1

5.2.2 The stringer of the lifting equipment is freely pressed by two beams without bending
deflection, even the rough sketch without the provisions of camber of beam, this condition
means that the line of rail line of the trolley for the non-load lifting equipment (when the
trolley is not fitted) must not be sagged down compared to the horizontal plane. This
requirement applies only to lifting devices with the aperture over 20m.

5.2.3 In the case of using the flat rail head, the deviation of the wheel axis compared with the
horizontal lines non-load lifting equipment must be in the range + 0.2% and 0.05% (see
Figure 5.2.3 )

140
Figure 5.2.3
The lifting equipments without load-bearing mean that the stringer is not fitted the trolleys
and freely pressed by the two heads of beams.
5.2.4 The distance between two travelling rail centroids of the trolleys compared with nominal
size s will not exceed 3 mm (see Figure 5.2.4).

Figure 5.2.4.
In the plane perpendicular to the movement of the trolleys, the elevation difference of 2
opposite points of the rail line of the trolley should not exceed 0.15% centre distance of two
rail lines, the admissible biggest difference is 10mm (see Figure 5.2.5)

Horizontal

Horizontal

Figure5.2.5

141
The trolley'srail line must be fitted so that the rail surface must be in horizontal plane and the
permissible largest bumpy of the rail surface is not over ± 3mfor the distance between 2 rail
lines centroids about 3m (see Figure 5.2.6)

for
for

Figure5.2.6

5.2.7 Vertical axis of the trolley’s rail lines should not be offset against the vertical one of the
rail supporting stringer about a greater thickness than half of that beam (see Figure 5.2.7)

Figure5.2.7

5.2.8 Longgitudinal axis of thetroylley’s rail line is not offset against a theoretical vertical
axis over ± 1,0 mm on a rail section of the length 2 m. There must not be deviations in the rail
junctions (see Figure 5.2.8)

142
Vertical axle of the trolley

Figure5.2.8

Axis of the ange hole in the wheel axis is not offset against a theoretical axis over ± 0.04% in
the horizontal plane (see Figure 5.2.9)

Theoretical
position
of all
wheels

Figure 5.2.9

5.2.10 The axis of the hole in the wheel axis opposite the two tracks, and if the wheel are

143
installed in clusters, the axis of two opposite cluster axis holes have axis deviation in the
vertical plane under 0.15% distance between two wheel centres s, the largestaxis deviation
can be 2mm (see Figure 5.2.10)

Horizontal

Horizontal

Figure 5.2.10

2.11 Central plane of the rolling wheels on the same rail line must not be greater than ± 1 mm
difference compared with the rail centre plane (see Figure 5.2.11)

Central plane of rail head

Central plane of rail head Central plane of rail head

2:12 If the horirontal guide rollers are used, the centre of distance between the rollers in the
direction of a cluster is not greater than ± 1 mm difference compared with the rail axis of the
ray (see Figure 5.2.12)

Centre of the distance


between guiding rollers

Centre of the distance


between guiding rollers

Central plane of rail head

Figure5.2.12

144
2:13 The diameter tolerance of the wheel must correspond to tolerance level h9 according to
ISO standard. If the speed of the driving wheels is synchronized, the closer tolerances may be
required. wheel diameter tolerances may be required. The wheel diameter tolerance must be
determined depending on each specific case. These tolerances are also applied to the passive
wheels because the wheels must be replaced each other.
3. Tolerance for rail road of lifting equipment.
Tolerances listed below apply to the new rail line. If during the use process, these tolerances
exceed 20%, the rail line must be centred again. If the movement is much affected, the rail
line must be centered even the tolerances under 20%.
1 - The largest deviation Δs compared with the aperture s Δs is:
When s ≤ 15 m: Δs = ± 3 mm
When s> 15 m: Δs = ± [3 + 0.25. (S - 15)] mm, the largest allowed ± 25 mm
(See Figure 5.2.1)
If the horizontal directive wheels installed on a rail line, the tolerance for the rail line in
another side can only be increased to three times compared with the values listed above, but
not exceed 25mm.
2 - Assumed that when the trolley is in the middle of the aperture, deflection of both rail lines
is approximately equal.
3 - The biggest admissiple tolerance of rail surface compared with theoretical elevation is ±
10 mm. It is the horizontal position, or the theoretical curvature (if applicable). The elevation
of the two rail lines can differ each other to 10 mm. The longitudinal rail difference at each
point 2m without exeeding ± 2mm.
4 - Inclination of the rail surface does not exceed the following values compared with
theoretical positions: vertical 0.3%, horizontal 0.3%,see Figure 5.3a

Figure 5.3a

145
5 – The biggest admissible horizontal deviation of each rail side in the horizontal surface is ±
10 mm. Rail vertical curvature at every point differ each other 2 m without exeeding ± 1mm
(see Figure 5.3b)
Random vertical
bending

Figure 5.3b

For lifting equipment is leading the direction of the rail sides with two horizontal rollers, the
values above are applied to the rail surface.
For lifting equipment guiding one rail side, the requirements of the straight-line without
guiding rollers can be reduced, as agreed with the manufacturer.
6- Do not consider the axis devistion at rail joints. It is recommended to use welded rail joints.

146
Annex 6
Items of metal construction

Item Type of defect Standard for removal Testing instruction


1. Metal - Deformation, Any deformation and crack Entire length must be
construction crack checked visually for
detecting deformation
and cracks. If the cracks
are founded, it must be
re-check by magnetic
powder procedure
+ - Plate thickness
+ to be reduced 10% at all
positions
+ to be reduced 20% in
locally corrosive areas,
these areas are only a small
part of cross section of the
structure.
- Section
+ Reduce 10% cross section
for important parts in case
the corrosions are evently
distributed on the
considered cross section.
- Locally reduce 20% cross
section when they are only
auxiliary structural parts
- Parts with circular cross
section
+ Reduce 3% of diameter at
all points on the same
profile
+ Locally reduce 5%.
4. Codes on Deformation, crack - Any deformation and Must check carefully to
crane, cracks detect any deformation
column, post and cracks. If the cracks
crane are founded, it must be
re-check by magnetic
powder procedure
Corrosion - 10% by thickness or 5% by Must check the
any diameter corrosion after cleaning
exterior rust.

147
Annex 7
Items for chain and pennat chain examination

Item Type of defect Standard for removal Testing instruction


1. Chain/last link Corrosion Corrosion of more than Chain and its last link shall be
5% diameter checked according to
corrosion limit, especially in
load bearing surfaces
2. Chain/joint Elongation Elongation of more than The length of chain link shall
3% on the length of 10- be measured and compared to
20 links initial length.
3. Chain/last link Deformation Any twisting or bending Chain and its last link shall be
deformation of the last checked according to standard
link for deformation.
4. Chain/last link Slash, slot Any slash, kerf or slot Slashs, kerfs or slots of chain
having sharpen edge or the last link that decease
the durable of other links shall
be checked.
5. Chain/last link Crack Any crack Chain and last link shall be
checked for detecting cracks.
Pay attention to welded area.
The hanging area shall be
checked by magnetic powder
procedure.
6. Chain/last link Rust Any rusty part making a After cleaning exterior rust,
deep hole or rust of the chain and last link shall be
more than 5% of the checked .
diameter
7. Chain/joint Twisting Removal of chain that is Chain twisting shall be
twisted more than a half measured especially when it is
of circle onthe lenth of being hanged with load.
4m

148
Annex 8
Items for examination of synthetic fibre suspension cable

Item Defects Standard for removal Examination instruction

1. Cable Mechanism Any visible defects Defects examination shall


be implemented visually
on cable trunk or at cable-
holding thimbles

2. Cable Fired Any sign of failure When contacted with


caused by fire flame or other high
temperature materials,
cable shall be examined
for failure discovery.

3. Cable Chemical Any sign of failure Cable shall be examined


caused by chemical for chemical-caused
failures.

4. Cable Mould or rod Any mould and rod Cable inner shall be
examined for mould or rod
discovery.

5. Cable Brittleness Any brittleness of cable Brittleness caused by wet


strand or dry conditions shall be
examined

6. Cable end Looseness Any looseness of cable It must examine to ensure


joints joint that cable joints are in
tighten condition

Proof Load (PL) Note: must pay special


attention to handmade
- When SWL ≤ 25 t; PL = 2 x SWL (tons).
joints, only “marine” joints
- When SWL > 25 t; PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons) apply

149
Annex 9
Items for examination of synthetic fibre suspension cable

Standard for
Item Defects Examination instruction
removal

1. Cable Mechanical Any visible Failure examination shall be


failure mechanical failure implemented visually on cable trunk or
at joints

2. Cable Fibre break Any break on cable Examination for discovering cable
trunk or joints breaks shall be performed

3. Cable Fired Any sign of failure When contacted with flame or other
caused by fire high temperature materials, cable shall
be examined for failure discovery.

4. Cable Chemical Any sign of failure Must examine if the cable contact
caused by chemical chemical or not. That expressed in
colour fade, loosening of cable
material (can used fingers to stretch out
cabble fibre).

5. Cable Failure caused Any sign of failure Must examine if cables are failed by
by friction caused by friction external friction at shinning area or not

6. Cable Be polluted Any pollution caused Must examine cable to discover any
with grease by grease grease pollution that can not be cleaned
by cloth.

Proof Load (PL) Note:


- When SWL ≤ 25 t; PL = 2 x SWL (tons).1. Synthetic fiber suspension
cable easy to be failed shall be checked
- When SWL > 25 t; PL = (1.22 x SWL) +
carefully when it is used.
20 (tons)
2. Use of synthetic fiber
suspension cable shall be limited, like
when require to lift light object.

150
Annex 10
Items for examination of steel suspension cable
Examination
Item Type of defect Removal Standard
Instruction
1. Cable Fracture 1. If the number of cable fiber are Overall length of the
known: cable shall be
a/ 10% of fiber number per length = examined for facture
8 times of diameter discovering
b/ Greater than 3 adjacent fibres
2. If the number of cable fiber are
unknown:
a/ 5 fibres in length = 5 times of any
diameter
b/ Greater than 3 adjacent fibres
2. Cable Twisted Any permanent twisting Examination shall be
implemented to find
out types of twisting.
3. Cable Worn Any wear on the external fibres’ Cable exterior shall
surface at the place of formless be checked to find
cable it is greater than ¾ of cable out if external fibres
initial diameter are worn or not.
4. Cable Diameter - 1.2 mm for cable with Ф<19 mm; Measuring cable
reduced - 1.6 mm for cable with diameter and
19 mm ≤ Ф < 32 mm ; comparing obtained
- 2.4 mm for cable with result with initial
32 mm ≤ Ф < 38 mm; diameter shall be
- 3.2 mm for cable with 38 ≤ Ф < carried out.
51 mm;
4.0 for cable with Ф > 51 mm.
5. Cable Failure due to Any failure caused by heat It is needed to check
heat if there are failures
caused by blast
burner, sparks, ect or
not.
6. Cable Rust Rusted interior cable shall be Check cable interior
removed. Rusted exterior cable by revealing rope
shall be assessed in accordance with strand inside.
Item 3. Visually check cable
exterior after remove
rust from it.
7. Chapiter, Deformation/fail All of deformations or deep failures Cable joints shall be
twist joint or ure under the surface. checked to discover if
other cable there is any
joints deformation or failure
like being completely
crushed or cracked.
8. Chapiter, Lossen All of cable parts or joints are loosen. Areas close to joints
twist joint or shall be checked to
other cable find out firmness of
joints joints to cable

151
Annex 11
Items for examination of suspension swivel and other joints

Item Type of defect Standard for removal Examining instruction

1. Assembly Deformed or Any deformation in Assemly deformation or


twisted comparison with initial twisting examination in
shape. comparison with initial shape
shall be done. This is
especially important to
circular suspension swivel.

2. Assembly Worn Any wear excced 5% Assembly wear examination


of initial dimension. shall be done on all of
surfaces.

3. Assembly Be cut, chipped Any cut, crack or slot Assemly shall be visually
or having slots affecting strength of checked to find out cuts,
the assembly cracks and slots, expecially
those with sharp edges.

4. Assembly Having fractures Any fracture Assemly shall be visually


checked to find out fractures.
If any fractures are founded, it
must be re-examined by
magnetic powder.

5. Assembly Worn Any wear in Must check wear of assembly


comparison with surface after cleaning exterior
permissible wear (i.e it rust.
is greater than 5% of
initial dimension).

Proof Load (PL)


- When SWL ≤ 25 t; PL = 2 x SWL (tons).
- When SWL > 25 t; PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons)

152
Annex 12
Items for examination of shackles

Item Type of defect Standard for removal Examining instruction


1. Shackle, Incorrect Remove any wrong Dimension of pins and
pin dimension types of shackle. shackles shall be checked in
comparision with standard
dimension given in Table of
safe working load (SWL)
2. Shackle, Worn Any wears of diameter Dimension of pins and
pin exceed 5% innitial shackles shall be checked in
dimension. comparision with standard
dimension given in Table of
safe working load. Assembly
shall be checked.
3. Shackle, Deformation Any signs of Shackles and pins shall be
pin deformation. checked to find out
deformations or changes in
shape if any.
4. Shackle, Cut, crack, slot Any cuts, cracks or Shackles and pins shall be
pin slots having sharp checked to find out cuts,
edges. cracks or slots affecting their.
5. Pin Incorrect type Any incorrect types Must examine to enssure pins
are correct types with
shackles.
6. Axis Worn Any wears flattening Thread wear of pins and pin
thread, hole thread peak. holes shall be checked.
thread
7. Pin hole, Straight in line Any unstraight in line. It must be checked to ensure
screw hole that two holes are straight in
line
8. Shackle, Fracture Any fractures Fractures at loaded areas of
pin pins and shackles shall be
checked in accordance with
magnetic powder examination
procedure.
Proof Load (PL)
- When SWL ≤ 25 t; PL = 2 x SWL (tons).
- When SWL > 25 t; PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons)

153
Annex 13A
Items for examination of suspension hooks

Item Type of defect Standard for removal Examining instruction


1. Hook body Worn greater than 10% of initial Examination and measurement
thickness at zone A; 5% at of wear of suspension hooks
zone B (see illustration shall be done.
figure in the following)
2. Hook body Twisted Any twistings for hooks Hook body shall be checked to
axis shall be rejected find out any twisting of hook in
comparison with hook axis.
3. Hook Deformed Any deformations of hook It must measure hook mouth slit
mouth mouth between 2 specified center
points and compare it with
initial dimension.
4. Hook body cracked Any fractures Hook body shall be visually
checked to find out fractures. If
any fractures are founded, it
must be re-examined by
magnetic powder.
5. Hook body Mechanical/Failure Any cuts, cracks or slot Hook body shall be checked to
affecting safety in use. find out any mechanical failure.
6. Screwed Worn Maximum allowable wear Examination and measurement
parts on hook of screwed part diameter of of wear of screwed parts on
body 2.5% initial diameter. hook body shall be done.
7. Hook Changed in shape Any deformations of hook If the hook having swivel, the
swivel swivel swivel shall be checked for
deformation.
Proof Load (PL)
- When SWL ≤ 25 t; PL = 2 x SWL (tons).
- When SWL > 25 t; PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons)
Note:
Examination of each suspension hook shall include the
following:
1. Examination of dimension. All dimension shall greater than
Zone A
95% initial dimension.
2. Slipping prevention bar shall perfectly work (if any).
3. Screwed part on the hook body shall be cleaned and out of
rust (if any).
4. Signs are easy to read.
5. Material wear at ball-bearing fit surface shall not excced
8% norminal dimension.
6. Testing procedures for double suspension hook are given in
Annex 13B.
Zone B
7. For types of suspension hooks specified in Annex 13C,
dimension shall be measured in each examinations.
8. Suspension hooks shall be examined by magnetic powder
not less than 1 time per 2 years.

154
Annex 13B
Testing procedures for double suspension hooks

Suspension hooks shall be load tested in operating state (synchronous for the condition that
proof load (PL) is hanged as showed the figure (a)).
Depend on selected method, load testing for suspension hook shall be implemend in
accordance with the following:
1) Proof load (PL) is hanged vertically, figure (b).
2) Proof load (PL) is synchronously put in horizontal direction for each hook, figure (c).

Synchronous load test

Two part load test

155
Annex 13C
Types of suspension hooks – main dimention must be measured

Single hook with a turning eye


Single hook with a swivel

Single hook with a suspension axle Double suspension hook

156
Annex 14
Items for examination of turning eyes

Standard for
Item Type of defect Instruction for examination
rejection

1. Turning eye Deformation Any deformations Must check the deformation of


body the turning eye in comparison
with initial shape

2. Turning eye Wear Any attritions exceed Must check the attrition in
body 5% of initial comparison with initial
dimension dimension.

3. Turning eye Fracture Any fractures Turning eye body shall be


body visually checked to find out
fractures. If any fractures are
founded, it must be re-
examined by magnetic powder.

4. Turning eye Cut, crack, slot Any cuts, cracks or Turning eye surface shall be
body slot affecting safety checked to find out cuts, cracks
of turning eye and slot.

Proof load (PL): Note:


- When SWL ≤ 25 t: PL = 2 x SWL (tons). Turning eye’s parts shall be
examined by non-destructive
- When SWL > 25 t: PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons).
test method once per a cycle of
not more than 2 years.

157
Annex 15
Items for examination of coupling and pulling screws

Standard for
Item Type of defect Instruction for examination
rejection
1. Coupling Deformation Any deformations Coupling screw body shall be
screw body making coupling screw checked to find out any
body unstraight or mechanical deformation or
obstructing threaded unstraight
part’s movement.
2. Coupling Cleft Any clefts Coupling screw body must be
screw body visually checked to find out any
clefts especially in threaded area.
If any clefts are founded, it must
be re-examined by magnetic
powder examining procedure.
3. Coupling Attrition or Any attritions or Threaded parts on coupling screw
screw body failure failures of threaded axle must be visually checked to
parts find out thread attrions or failures.
4. Coupling Deformation Any deformations Each coupling screw head must be
screw head making coupling screw checked to find out deformation or
head unstraight unstraight
5. Coupling Cleft Any clefts Each coupling screw head must be
screw head visually checked to find out clefts.
If any clefts are founded, coupling
screw head must be re-examined
by magnetic powder examining
procedure.
6. Coupling Thread attrition Any thread attritions or Thread of coupling screw head
screw head or failure failures must be checked to find out any
attrions or failures.
7. Coupling Repair or change Any repairs or changes Coupling screw body and head
screw body and were not approved by must be checked to find out any
head Authorities repairs or changes were not
approved by Authorities
8. Coupling Dimension out of Any development of Dimensions of coupling screw
screw body and standards the items in body and head must be checked to
head comparison with compare with the standard
standard dimension dimension according to closed
according to closed safe working load.
SWL.
Proof load (PL):
+ Pulling screw:
- When SWL ≤ 25 t: PL = 2 x SWL (tons).
- When SWL > 25 t: PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons).
+ Coupling screw:
PL = 2 x SWL (tons)

158
Annex 16
Items for examination of plank and girder clamps

Standard for
Item Type of defect Instruction for examination
rejection

1. Loaded points Attrition, Any defects affecting Deformation can be orcurred by


(suspension Deformation, rust smooth working of the over load. Equipment utilization is
points) equipments prohibited and examine overall
equipment.

2. Locking Be loose or too Any clefts


equipments tight

3. Clamping cam Attrition Any attritions or All of clamp surfaces must be kept
surfaces failures of threaded as standard surface.
parts

4. Welding lines Cleft Any deformations Welding lines and main structure
and main making coupling screw must be visually checked to find
structure head unstraight out clefts. If any clefts are
founded, it must be re-examined
by magnetic powder examining
procedure.

5. Pin holes Attrition, Any clefts


elongation

6. Clamp cheeks Be over tight or Any thread attritions or Smooth working of clamp cheeks
and turning eyes not smooth failures and turning eyes must be checked.

Proof load (PL):


- When SWL ≤ 25 t: PL = 2 x SWL (tons).
- When SWL > 25 t: PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons).

159
Annex 17
Items for examination of lifting girders and frames

Standard for
Item Type of defect Instruction for examination
rejection

1. Girders Deformation Any deformation, Overall length of the girder must


bending or twisting of be checked to find out any
the girder deformations, bendings or
twistings.

2. Girders Cleft Any cleft Girder material condition must be


visually checked. Suspension
positions must be checked in
accordance with magnetic powder
examining procedure to find out
any cleft.

3. End breakers Absence or If end break is absent Lifting girder must be checked to
deformation of or deformed, stop find out if it is enough and meet
end break using the lifting girders the specifications for end breaks.
or frames untill end
breaks are repaired or
sufficiently installed

4. Suspension Absence of If in short of any bolt, All loaded weld joints must be
points suspension points the lifting girders or checked according to magnetic
or bolt frames shall be powder examining procedure to
connection rejected find out clefts.

5. Suspension Cleft in welding Any clefts If items are welded, clefts on weld
points line line shall be checked according to
magnetic powder examining
procedure

Proof load (PL):


- When SWL ≤ 25 t: PL = 2 x SWL (tons).
- When SWL > 25 t: PL = (1.22 x SWL) + 20 (tons).

160
Annex 18A
Items for examination of suspension hooks with turning eye,
suspesion swivel and axle

Parts of
Type of defect Standard for rejection
suspension hook

1. Hook body Attrition/rust For Zone A (see Annex 13A) if the hook body
is worn over 10% of initial thickness it shall be
rejected.
For Zone A if the hook body is worn over 5%
of initial thickness it shall be rejected.

2. Hook body Twisted Any twistings

3. Suspesion swivel Deformed Any “expansion” of hook or any deformation


or turning eye of suspension swivel or shackle, hook shall be
rejected

4. Hook axle Attrition/rust Any attrition greater than 5% initial diameter.

5. Hook Mechanical failure It applies in accordance with figures given in


body/turning eye Clause (1) for hook body.
For shackle, if it is worn over 10% initial
thickness, is must be rejected.

6. Hook body, thread Cleft It must be rejected if having any cleft.


and shackle

7. Screw nut of hook Attrition/rust If diameter of thread peak is fllaten by 5% in


hanging axle comparision with innitial diameter, the Screw
nut shall be rejected

8. Pin Attrition/rust If pin is worn 5% in comparision with innitial


diameter, it shall be rejected

9. Coc Bap Cap Common failure In case no sign of failure of Cop Bap Cap is
founded, it can be used

10. Cable sliding Must to determine that cable sliding prevention


prevention bar bar performs no sign of failure. In case of
cable sliding prevention bar absence it must be
written in the record. If sliding prevention bar
absence is not in keeping with approved
design, the hook shall be rejected or repaired.

161
Annex 18B
Instruction for examination of turning eye,
suspesion swivel and shaft

1. Hook body must be visually checked for attrition or rust. Any discovery of attrition
and rust must be written down together with assessment of depth anf breadth.
2. Hook body inspection for twisting deformation shall be implemented visually. Any
twisting deformation discovered shall be measured and written in the report.
3. The open mouth distance of hook “t” beyond its minimum distance shall be measured.
Like that, the distances betweem reference points marked with “f” shall be measured and
compared with initial distance. The extension of hook mouth due to attrition, deformation or
rust shall be recorded. When pulley used for hanging hook have not been checked, it would
not have marked reference points. In this case, the reference points shall be marked for
position, measured the distances between them and made record.
4. Report on maximum and minimun diameters of hook hangins shaft shall be made.
5. Any cuts, slots and notchs shall be grinded out, it must avoid decreasing too high
temperature and change cross sections of the details. All of repairs shall be written on
examination report.
6. The depts of clefts shall be checked. If they are less than permissible depth caused
corrosion, it is permissible to grind the clefts with the acceptance of authorities. If the clefts’
depths greater than permissible depth, the products shall be rejected.
7. Use of magnetic powder and non-destructive method for examination shall be carried
out in accordance with the decision of authorites.
8. Maximum and minimum diameters of of hook hanging shaft at threaded and
unthreaded positions shall be measured and recorded. Corrosion and rust shall be recorded (if
any).
9. “Failures” includes mechanical failures, rust, premissible limit exceeded corrosion,
deformation or worse operation.
Note:
1. Material grinds outside the requirements specified in Items 1 and 5 of Annex 18A are
not permitted
2. The hooks having screw nuts welded to hook hanging shaft shall be rejected after two
years of use.

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Annex 18C
Standard methods for cable seizing
Step 1:
Screw first point on the cable at cable ends
Curved U part turned towards cable ends
Tighten the screw nut

Step 2
Screw second point on the cable, this point as close to the swivel as possible
Curved U part turned towards cable ends
Slightly tighten the screw nut, should not tighten it tightly

Step 3
Screw the remaining points on the cable
The distance between screw nuts are equidistance from each other
in comparison with two first screw nuts.

Step 4
Pull cable and tighten all of screw nuts according to
specified twisting moment.

Step 5
Re-examine twisting moment of screw nuts after
hook hanging cable is put in use

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Annex 18D
Hooks having turning eye or suspention swivel or axle

Hook Hook Hook having Zones to be checked


having having suspension axle
of suspension hook
suspension
turning eye
swivel Checked for
attritions and
deformations
Checked for
clefts and
twistings Checked for
“open mouth“
of the hook

Checked for
attrition and
cleft

Rotative part of
the turning eye

Zone A
Zone B Suspension
axle

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Annex 19A
Items for examination of single pulley with rotative shaft bearing
used for hanging hook
(Use according to the guidance of Annexes 19B and 19C)

1. Rotative ball bearing: Check the ball bearing’s smooth operation


2. Cable sliding prevention bar: Check to find out any failures (if there is no cable sliding
prevention bar, it must be wriiten in the record).
3. Safety equipments: It requires a sufficiency of safety equipments in good operation
condition.
Note:
When re-assembling free ends of cable having cable wedging hole, it must:
1. Tighten screw nuts as figures showed in Annex 18C, or
2. Leave the cable free ends with length of 150 – 225 mm.

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Annex 19B
Instruction for examination of single pulley with rotative shaft bearing
used for hanging hook

1. Hook body must be checked for corrosion or rust. The corrosion or rust on the hook body
shall be wrriten on the report (if any).
2. Hook body shall be checked for twisting deformation. The twisting deformation on the
hook body shall be wrriten on the report (if any).
3. Hook open mouth dimension “t” at minimum distance shall be measured. Commonly, the
distance between two reference ponts “f” shall be measured and compared with initial
figures. All of open mouth due to corossion, deformation or rust shall be recorded. If the
suspension hook have not been checked for the first time, the reference points were not
defined. In this case, reference marks shall be made at specified positions and the distance
between them shall be recorded.
4. Maximum and minimum diameters of of hook hanging shaft at threaded and unthreaded
positions shall be measured and recorded.
5. Scratchs and and cuts shall be grinded smoothly. Pay attention to avoid over-heat
phenomennon and much change of cross section of the details. All of repairs shall be
recorded.
6. The depts of clefts shall be checked. If they are less than permissible corrosion, the clefts
shall be grinded to the bottoms with the acceptance of authorities. If the clefts’ depths
greater than permissible depth, the products shall be rejected.
7. Use of magnetic powder and non-destructive method for examination shall be carried out
in accordance with the decision of authorites.
8. Maximum and minimum diameters of threaded and unthreaded positions shall ne
measured and recorded. The phenomenens of corrosion or rust shall be recorded (if any).
Maximum permissible corrosion of threaded diameter is 2.5%.
9. Grease breast shall be checked and enssured that it is installed and its operation is perfect.
The thickness of pulley cheek shall be measured and recorded.
10. The maximum and minimum diameters of pulley axle shall be checked.
11. Pulley cheek and rotative pin shall be checked by magnetic powder.
12. Rotative ball bearing shall be checked visually for failures descovery.
13. “Failure” includes mechanical failures, deformation or non-smooth operation.
14. “Safety equipments” include pins, bolts, screw nuts, ect used to connec all hook hanging
pulley. All of shafts (axles) shall be in proper length and if needed, a linning for anti-
corrion shall be included.
Note:
In all cases, abrasion of material over permissible abrasive limit shall not be allowed.

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Annex 19C
Single pulley with rotative shaft bearing used for hanging hook

Rotative shaft bearing

Pulley axle and screw nut

Bearing plate

Suspension hook

Pulley shaft

Shaft having a central claw Shaft having a claw and pin

Shaft having a round head Shaft having hexagon head


and pin and screw nut

167
Annex 20 A
Items for checking hook hanging pulley

Item Type of defects Standard for removal

1. Hook body Corrosion/rust For zone A (see Annex 13A), if the


corrosion is over 13% the initial length,
the products ahll be rejected.

2. Horizontal axle Corrosion/rust Product shall be rejected if its corrosion is


over 5% initial diameter.

3. Hook body Twisting Twistings are not allowed.

4. Hook mouth Deformation Any “hook mouth openning” shall be


rejected.

5. Hook axle Corrosion/rust Any corrosion with the diameter greater


than initial diameter shall be rejected.

6. Hook body or Mechonical failure Hook body applies according to (1).


horizontal post

7. Hook body, Cleft If ocurring any cleft, the products shall be


horizontal axle rejected.

8. Axle thread/screw Corrosion/rust If threads are corroded more than 5%


initial thread heigh, they shall be rejected.

9. Pulley axle Corrosion/rust If pulley axles are corroded more than 5%


initial diameter, they shall be rejected.

10. Ball bearing and Corrosion/deformation The ball bearings and shackles shall be
shackle replaced if having any unusual signs of
corrosion or deformation

11. Pulley Corrosion/mechanical The pulley shall be replaced if having any


failure unusual signs such as weals of cable on it.

12. Pulley hook Corrosion/rust, Pulley cheek shall be rejected if it is


mechanical failure corroded more than5% of thickness at any
position.

13. Bolt General Bolt shall be rejected if it is corroded


more than5% of thickness at any position.

14. Cable sliding General It is not allowed to have any sign of


failures. If thereis no cable sliding

168
priventing bar priventing bar, the products shall be
rejected or repaired.

15. Safety equipment General All safety equipments must be sufficient


and in good condition.

Three cases of uncommon abrasion of pulley slot

Note:
(a) Symmetric corrosion on both 2 face of the slot: This case commonly
orccured because the diameter of pulley slot is small, sometimes it can
be the cable bevel is too big also.
(b) Symmetric corrosion concentrated much on the bottom of pulley slot:
this case commonly orccred because the diamter of pulley slot is too big.
(c) Unsymmetric corrosion on 1 face: Commonly occured when the pulley
hook is not free, the pulley is not put freely in the plane created by 2
dimensions of the rope (in case having no turning eye). In this case,
pulley hook shall be checked carefully.

169
170
Annex 20B
Guidelines for survey of pulley for hook

1. Checking by sight for the hook is required to detect erosion or rust. Any erosion or
rust detected should be recorded in documents with evaluation level of width and depth.
2. It is required to check by sight the hook to detect whether it is twisted and it is
required to record any twist into documents.
3. It is required to measure openness of the hook “t” between two minimum spaces. In
general, it is required to measure space between two standard points “t” and compare with
initial data. Any openness of the hook due to erosion, deformation or rust should be recorded.
If there is not original inspection for the muffle, it will not have any initial data. In this case, it
is required to note the standard point and then record dimensions into documents.
4. It should calculate maximum and minimum diameter of hook axle at both threaded
and unthreaded position and record into document.
5. It should calculated depth of any arising crack. It that depth is smaller than wear-and-
tear of relevant dimension, it is required to grind that crack under agreement of related
authority. If depth of that crack is greater than acceptable wear-and-tear, it should be
eliminated.
6. It is required to grind any cut or crack. Process of clearing up should be implemented
carefully to prevent overheat. Oblique grinding is used in this case to protect against any
change in section of ground portion. Repairing work should be recorded into document.
7. It is required to measure maximum and minimum diameter of threaded and unthreaded
end of hook axle and record into document. Wear-and-tear of thread is maximum of 5% of
initial height of the thread.
8. It is required to check the ball-bearing to detect any over wear-and-tear or
deformation. Lubricating system should also be checked to ensure smooth operation and
grease fitting should be ensured to be clear.
9. Pulley should be checked at smoothly rotating state before being removed. Edge and
trench bottom of pulley should be checked to detect any abnormal erosion.
10. Pulley jaw, isolation ring or boom plate should be checked to detect erosion due to
worn-out condition, rusty or mechanical damage. Maximum and minimum thickness of each
item should be measured and recorded.
11. “Failure” includes failure due to mechanical damage, deformation or abnormal
operation.
12. “Safety equipment” includes pin, bolts, castle nut… for connecting the whole muffle.
All axle should have suitable length and should be bushed for protecting against wear-and-
tear (if required).
Note:
In all cases, it is not allowed to grind material over limit stated in item 1 and item 5 of
Appendix 20A.

Annex 21

171
Technical Procedure for restrining cable into cone
(Cone clutch)

Using:
- Chlohydric acid (HCL)
- Caustic (erosive sodium)
- Zinc
- Lead or tin sold
- Petroleum

By following procedure:
A. Cutting cable
1. Using steel wire with diameter from 1-2mm to wind the cable before cutting. Diameter
of steel wire depends on diameter d of cable (mm) as follows:

Table 1

Cable diameter, d Winding length L Space between two Diameter of steel


winding circle, l, wire Ф (mm)
mm mm
mm

Up to 24 25-35 45-75

24 < d≤ 30 34-60 70-100 1

30 <d ≤ 44 45-85 90-140

44 < d ≤ 51 65-100 130-160


2
d > 51 (1.5 -2)d (3-4)d

2. Dimension A = Length of clutch+ 20mm


3. Cutting position should be clear up by grindstone
4. Cutting line should be perpendicular with cable axle.
B. Clearing and tinning cone hole
1. Surface of cone hole should be cleaned up from lubricant (by using cotton cloth
soaked with caustic solution of 10% water content and then washing with hot water).

172
2. Rusty surface should be cleaned up by immerging the cone join into solution of
chlohydric acid 20-50% until the rust is totally eliminated. Temperature of solution for
eliminating lubricant or rust by chemical agent should be from 15oC to 25oC.
3. Cone hole after being cleaned up from rust and lubricant should be washed again by a
piece of felt or wood using soldering flux before it is tinned. Soldering flux is created by
totally dissolving an amount of zinc into chlohydric acid solution with a density of
1.199g/Cm3.
4. If there is still dry area on the surface, it is required to repeat process of cleaning
lubricant or rust and spreading soldering flux on cone hole surface.
5. Drying cone clutch and spreading soldering flux on cone hold surface for the second
time.
6. Heating the cone clutch up to temperature of 150oC -200oC and then starting tinning
process. Minimum thickness of tin coating should be 0.2mm.
C. Cleaning cable terminal for tinning
1. Reeving cable through small end of cone clutch. Removing steel wire holding cable
terminal and then unwinding cable strand on a length of A from cable terminal (see Figure 1).
2. Using a knife to cut organic coil from the piece of unwound cable. The coil can be still
left in the unwound cable length but should not exceed the length B in Table 2:
Table 2

Cable diameter, d Cone coil B, mm


mm

Up to 30 15

30 < d≤ 50 25

d > 50 40

3. Separating cable wires of the unwound strand into fantail and primarily cleaning up by
petroleum then bending them by a pincers at a length of 15-20mm from cable terminal.
4. Cleaning up cable wire once again with petroleum then washing in solution HCL 20-
25%, washing in cold water, processed with soldering flux, drying and then tin coating by
immerging cable wires into tank of melt tin.
5. When cleaning up cable wire from lubricant, rust and tinning, it is required to protect
cable coil against moisture because it can generates rust. Care should be taken when
immerging cable wire into solution in vertical direction. Distance between cable coil and
solution surface should be 5-10mm. It is allowed to use petroleum or chlohydric acid to wash
steel wire at the cable terminal for tinning.\
D. Tinning for cable terminal in cone clutch
1. Cone clutch should be vertically stood then cable wire will be pulled into cone. Then
wound cable will not be contained in cone, bended steel wire should be far from surface of
clutch from 5-10mm.

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2. For pulling cable into cone and positioning it in cone hole, it is required to use a clamp
for cable with diameter up to 30mm and use hoist for cable with diameter greater than 30mm.
3. Axle of cable wire should be coincided with axle of cone clutch. Lower part of cone
will be sealed with asbestos. To prevent melt tin from flooding into the cone, it should use
asbestos ring with a height of 3-4mm to circling around area at lower part of the cone.
4. Melting the tin and keeping it at a temperature of 460oC -480oC. For checking
temperature of tin, immersion thermocouple can be used.
5. Heating the cone by gas welding head up to temperature of 200oC (using thermometer
for measuring temperature)
6. Pouring melted tin into cone in form of continuous streamlets and lightly hammering
into outside wall of the cone to ensure that the tin is osmosis continuously among cable wires.
7. Tie steel wire and asbestos band should only be removed when tin filled into the cone
is totally frozen but should not earlier than one hour after tinning.
8. It is able to use funnel for pouring the tin into the cone but the funnel’s outlet should
have a depth not over 5mm and a diameter not over 10mm.
9. Tin for pouring into the cone should not higher than 3mm from the cone surface.
10. Then, cable piece clamped into cone will be wound by steel wire Ф1mm on a length
of 50mm.
11. Fixing terminal of steel wire into cable wire at least 3 times of the length reeving
through cable strand.
E. Testing for tinned cable
1. Testing load for clamped cable is stated in Table 3

Cable diameter, d Testing load, tons


mm
d ≤ 21 14 ± 1
21<d≤ 25 20 ± 2
25<d≤ 43 51 ± 4
43<d≤ 53 68 ± 6
2. Time for preparation of testing and running cable out of the cone as in Table 4:

Cable diameter, d I II
mm Nominal testing time Increasing testing
time
15 minutes 30 minutes 3 hours
Maximum length of cable out of the cone, mm
10<d≤ 21 3 - 4
21<d≤ 56 - 4 6

3. Testing time at column II will be applied when the length of cable run out of the cone
exceeds value in column I.
4. If cable length out of the cone exceeds value in column I, it is required to re-tin the cable
terminal.

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5. Testing load on cable piece at a length should not be smaller than 100d from edge of cone
clutch to the fixed cable terminal.
6. Load testing should be recorded into document which should clearly state all parameters of
cable, testing load, testing time and cable length expanding out of cone clutch.
a)

b)

Figure 1 – cable end cutting for putting paw

a/ Cable cutting
b/ Preparation for putting paw

175