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University of zakho

Faculty of science
Department of biology

Mango

Prepared by: Supervisor: Dr. Fared Khalid

Amal Ahmad Batal Dr. Falah Salih


Bawar Sabir Osman

Diler Salih Ibrahim

Esraa Karavan Salih

Sara Sdiq Muhamad

2018 Dec
List of Content:

Introduction………………………………….……... 3

History………………………………….…………… 4

Description of Mango……………………….…...... 5

The Tree……………………………….…………… 5

Flowers……………………………….………......... 6

The Fruit……………………………………….…… 7

Flavor……………………………….………………. 7

Nutrition………………………………….…………. 8

Types of Mango………………………………........ 9

References……………….................................... 10

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Introduction
The Mango is one of the oldest cultivated fruit crops, having been grown in India
for at least 4000 years. Mango is the most important fruit crop of Asia and its
annual production is exceeded worldwide only by Musa, citrus, grapes and
apples. The last decade has seen a rapid growth of mango production, mainly
due to expansion into new growing regions but also to the adoption of modern
field practices and cultivars. A wide range of fresh, mango cultivars are now
consumed worldwide and are available year round. The Mango: Botany,
Production and Uses, published in 1997, represented the first comprehensive
examination of all aspects of modern mango production and research.
Developing upon the successful first edition, this book incorporates a discussion
of significant advances in mango research that have contributed to improved
production and will be highly relevant for researchers and growers alike.

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Mango history
Mangos orginated in Southeast Asia and India, where references to the fruit are
documented in Hindu writings dating back to 4000 B.C. Buddhist monks
cultivated the fruit and in fact, the mango is considered to be a sacred fruit in the
region because is is said that Buddha himself meditated under a mango tree. The
mango belongs to the same family as the cashew and pistachio nut.

Mango seeds traveled with humans from Asia to the Middle East, East Africa and
South America beginning around 300 or 400 A.D. Mangos sold in the U.S. are
grown near the equator in countries like. Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil,
Guatemala and Haiti.

Mangos have been grown in the U.S. for a little more than a century, but
commercial, large-scale production here is limited.

Because mangos need a tropical climate to flourish only Florida, California,


Hawaii, and Puerto Rico grow mangos. The United States Territory of Puerto
Rico has been producing mangos commercially for the last 30 years. Currently
about 4,000 acres of mangos are being cultivated for export, but the majority of
this crop goes to Europe rather than the mainland United States.

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Description of Mango

The tree
• The mango tree is believed to have evolved as a canopy layer or emergent species of
the tropical rainforest of South and South-east Asia (Kaur )

• 1980; Bompard, Chapter 2, this volume). Mature trees can attain a height of 40 m or
more, and can survive for several hundred years. Mango trees that have been
domesticated by selection from openly pollinated seedling popu-lations show
variation in tree architecture (i.e. shape and size). The tree is an arborescent
evergreen. Leaves are simple and alternate, with petioles that range in length from 1
to 12.5 cm. Leaf morphology is highly variable, de-pending on the cultivar: leaves can
be lanceolate, oblong, ovate and interme-diate types involving these
forms. Leaf length ranges from 12 to 38 cm and width can be
between 2–13 cm. Young leaves are copper-coloured, changing
gradually to light and then dark green with age. The leaves are
spirally arranged in whorls and are produced in flushes. The
canopy is normally oval, elongated or dome shaped. The juvenile
period of seedling trees can range from 3 to 7 years. The root
system consists of a long, vigorous taproot and abundant surface
feeder roots.

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Flowers
Mango flowers are borne on terminal pyramidal panicles, and are glabrous or
pubescent; the inflorescence is rigid and erect, up to 30 cm long, and is widely
branched, usually tertiary, although the final branch is always cymose. The
inflorescence is usually densely flowered with hundreds of small flow-ers, which
are 5–10 mm in diameter. The flowers are either monoecious or polygamous, and
both monoecious and polygamous flowers are borne within a single inflorescence
(Plate 1). The pistil aborts in male flowers. The ratio of monoecious to
polygamous flowers is strongly influenced by environmental and cultural factors.
The flowers have four or five sepals and petals that are ovate to ovoid to
lanceolate and also thinly pubescent. The floral disc also is four- or five-lobed,
fleshy and large and located above the base of the petals. There are five large,
fleshy stamens, only one or two of them being fertile; the remaining stamens are
sterile staminodes that are sur-mounted by a small gland. In addition, two or
three smaller filaments arise from the lobes of the nectaries. The stamens are
central. The ovule is anatro-pous and pendulous. It is believed that the flowers
are cross-pollinated by flies.

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The fruit
The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying
thickness. The mesocarp is resinous and highly variable with respect to shape,
size, colour, presence of fibre and flavour. The flavour ranges from turpentine to
sweet. The exocarp is thick and glandular. There is a character-istic beak that
develops laterally on the proximal end of the fruit. A sinus is always present
above the beak. Fruit shape varies, including elongate, oblong and ovate or
intermediate forms involving two of these shapes. Fruit length can range from 2.5
to > 30 cm, depending on the cultivar. The endo-carp is woody, thick and fibrous;
the fibres in the mesocarp arise from the endocarp.

Flavor
Flavour of the mango mesocarp is a function of carbohydrates, organic acids,
lactones, monoterpene hydrocarbons and fatty acids (Mitra and Baldwin, 1997).
During fruit maturation, starch that accumulates in the chloroplasts is hydrolysed
to sucrose, glucose and fructose (Medlicott et al 1986; Selvaraj et al)

1989; (S. Kumar et al)

1994); sucrose is present in slightly higher concen-trations than


either fructose or glucose. Organic acid content decreases dur-
ing ripening (Krishnamurthy and Subramanyam, 1970). The
dominant organic acid is citric acid, but glycolic acid, malic acid,
tartaric acid and oxalic acids are also present (Sarker and Muhsi,
1981; Medlicott and Thompson, 1985). The peach-like flavour of
mangoes is attributed to the presence of lac-tones
(Lakshminarayana, 1980) Wilson et al).

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Nutrition
Mango fruit contain amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, minerals, organic
acids, proteins and vitamins. During the ripening process, the fruit are ini-tially
acidic, astringent and rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Ripe mangoes contain
moderate levels of vitamin C, but are fairly rich in provitamin A and vitamins
B1 and B2

. Perry and Zilva (1932) determined the vitamin A, C and D content of the fruit of
three Indian mango cultivars, and found that the pulp of mangoes is a
concentrated source of vitamin C. The pulp of mango fruit contains as much
vitamin A as butter, although vitamin D is not present in a significant quantity.
Fruit acidity is primarily due to the presence of malic and citric acids. In addition,
oxalic, malonic, succinic, pyruvic, adipic, galac-turonic, glucuronic, tartaric,
glycolic and mucic acids are also present (Jain et al

1959; Fang, 1965). Acidity is cultivar related; for example, immature Florida
cultivars have low acidity (0.5–1.0%) in comparison with ‘Alphonso’ (3%). During
ripening, acidity decreases to 0.1–0.2%. Following fruit set, starch accumulates in
the mesocarp. Free sugars, including glucose, fructose and sucrose, generally
increase during ripening; however, the sucrose content increases three- to
fourfold due to the hydrolysis of starch. Sucrose is the principal sugar of ripe
mangoes. The sucrose content of ripe fruit of three Indian cultivars, ‘Alphonso’,
‘Pairie’ and ‘Totapuri’, ranges from 11 to 20% representing 15 to 20% of the total
soluble solids (Popenoe, 1932)

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Different Types of Mangoes
• Some types of mangoes that can be found at specialty markets seasonally
include the Ataulfo, Francis, Haden, Keitt and Kent. The Tommy Atkins
mango is the most commonly grown mango in the United States. It is a large
mango that is notable for its dark red skin, sometimes covered in green and
yellow accents.

• The Tommy Atkins mango is available from March to July and then again from
October to January.

• The Ataulfo mango is a small variety notable for its yellow skin. Primarily
grown in Mexico, it is found March through July in stores.

• The Francis mango grows primarily in Haiti and has bright yellow skin with a
green tone. It is available May through July.

• The Haden mango is grown in Mexico and is another large variety. It is most
often a bright red color with green and yellow tones and small white spots.
This mango reaches its peak ripeness in April and May.

• Keitt mangoes are used widely in Asian cuisine. They are eaten both ripe and
pickled. A green mango, the Keitt is available in August and September.

• The Kent mango is great for juicing and drying. A large variety, the Kent is a
dark green mango with a red blush throughout. It is most commonly available
from January to March and then June through August.

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The References
http://www.ebooksdownloads.xyz/search/pdf-mango-botany/
https://www.reference.com/food/different-types-mangoes-
42fc7827ad1a74f8
http://www.ebooksdownloads.xyz/search/pdf-mango-botany/
https://www.themangofactory.com/history/mango-history-2 /

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